1897. • I ETARLY SPUING NOVELTIES FOR THE EASTER TRADE. Lare Delweriss of the Newest Productions of the Season, o IN Black and Coloured Capes, Jackets, Costumes, Cloaks, &c. N' e"V'U' Flowers, Feathers in the newest tints, & shaded effects. Latest Designs in DRESS MATERIALS, COMPRISING Coatings, Face-cloths, Serges, Alpacas, and a good variety of trancy Materials. Black Silks, Brocades, 'Peau de Soie.1 Duchesse Satin, Bengaline, Surahs, &c. Unique selection of Fancy Silks for Blouses, &o. Tailoring Department, Ready- ade ClotMng and Gents .D Outfitting, fully stocked with New Goods for Spring, Prints, Oxford Shirtings and Household Linens of the best value and standard makes. WALL-PAPERS FOR 1897.' Between 400 and 500 Patterns to select from, representing a stock of 15,000 pieces, from 2d. to 2s. 6d. per pieces. T J. WILLIAMS 20 «5fc 34, XXiglx Street, ]())enbigh.. ,M:It-. ,"l,O;:<I'i"1:'V::A-i"l:iSI''¡;tr:;r:r''IA\l.o\W'&rk,iIP:!8liwat.¡ø1<t;¡¡-,Q;a.¡¡:'£'¡;¡;¡¡,iI:i:.õ;C'.ccU"F'd.l'h HUGH WILLI-LMS) TAILOR AND DRAPER, CTIAPEI, P-LACE, DENBIGH. Begs to inform the public generally that he has on view an excellent ASSORTMENT OF FEW GOODS of the latest design, and of the best quality that money can procure. LIVERIES of every description exeeut on the shortest notice. H.iding Rreè,ch.es, a Speciality. H.W. being a practical Tailor and Cutter (holder of a Diploma) and having a staff of experienced work- men fit and style is guaranteed, consistent with MODERATE CHARGES. A TRIAL ORDER RESPECTFULLY SOLICITED. 8n'iiI ¡.r.n xr.i.1J Furnishing on the Hire System. FRED ROBERTS^AJSTD CO. (Lata DEANE and BOBESTS), 3. RUSSELL BUILDINGS, RHYL, Offer che best facilities to parties wishing to furnish upon the Hire System, having a large Stock of Drawing Room, Dining Room, and Kitchen Furniture, And every requisite to furnish a House—Bedsteads, Bed dmg, Bassinnettes, Bicycles, Mail Carts, Knife Ma- chines, Wringing Machines, always on hand, and ready for immediate delivery. For Ready Cash, or Easy Payments. Only Personal application required to get Furniture on our easy payments. The Amoiunt of Deposit or Payment can be reduced or increased to suit the convenience of Customers. Return Ra'way Fare for Orders over £ 10 allowed to those country Customers who can make a personal visit. FRED ROBERTS & CO., The House Furnishers, 3, Eussell Buildings. Rhyl. "ø:a¡<.ø; -=.i'im:¡¡m¡nL r" /"V J~"N f~ A Balm o Gilead £ u I bLUnU 1 GEORGE'S PILLS i mi." 1 "They are more than Gold to me—they saved my life." I 'One wonders that things so small should produce such mighty results." I PILE & GRAVEL! Many of my customers have been cured who have suffered for twenty years." I The three forms of this Remedy:- I 1 No, 1.—George's Pile and Gravel Pills, | | I Q 1 No. 2. George's Gravel Pills f™° 1 I 1 Q 1 No. 3.—George's Pills for the Piles. | In Boxes, Is. Ijd. and 2s. 9d. each; by post, Is. 3d. and 3s. 1 Proprietor :-J. E. GEORGE, M. R. P, S. Hirwain, Glam, I .;nll:c:n-.¿.; -:£:>oJ" ,+:'O>W!>r<II\I\Xi'3..r.?-w.AWt'?;o'o CI MB '■ 1AI CELEBRATED Iilli-EIL WATERS, Y f RUTHIM^ X MANUFACTURED BY. THE RUTHIN SODA WATER CO.. LD T UNSOLICITED TESTIMONIAL. By Dr. C, B. FRANCIS, late Principal of the Medical College in Calcutta—an entire stranger to the Company See The Indian Magazine, September, 1888, 'On the best mode of preserving health in India,' page 487: Among the BEST SODA WATER SOLD is that supplied by the Ruthin Soda Water Company—the Wate being obtained from an Artesian Spring in the Vale of Clwyd, North Wales. Ask for the "CAMBRIAN WATERS." ODA WATER. LITHIA WATER. LEMONADE. GINGER BEER ELTZER WATER, AERATED WATER, GINGER ALE. BREWED do OTASS WATER. QUININE TONIC. ZOLAKONE. LIME JUICE, &c. Cambriaa Hop Bitters, from best Kentish Hops, By New Process Goods forwarded free to all Railway Stations in Great Britain. ice List, Testimonials, and Report of Analysis, post free on application Address—Manager, Cambrian Works, Ruthin, North Wales. ""ANCIENT AND MODERF"~denbTgil™ Descriptive Histories of the Castle, Borough, and Liberties with sketches of the lives and exploits of the Feudal Lords and Military Governors of the fortress to its final siege, &c. By JOHN WILLIAMS. Price 5s. in boards. DENBIGH, AND DENBIGH CASTLE Price 6a. < -A-iN E-N'Gl-jlSH AND WELSH, I)ICITIOATARY, Adapted to the present state of Science and Literature; in which the English Words are deduced from their iginals, and explained by their ynonyms in the Welsh Language. By the Rev. D. SILVAN EVANS. In 2 vols, j in boards, price £ 2 half calf, £ 2 5s. 0d.; and full calf, 2 7s. Gel. El\ S -H THE E N G LTS HWE LSI I HAND BOOK, AND VOCABULARY. By Rev. T. LL, PHILLIPS, B.A, Price Is. 6d in boards. U -L- ]I, OF G-r- -"DI-LA-Ns. Their Constitution, Duties, &c. Compiled for the use of Guardians, in Wales and Monmouthshire, by T BIRCHADI, General Inspector Local Government Board, Price 3d. May be had in English or Welsh, T. GEE AND SON, PUBLISHERS, DENBIGH.
CAMBRIAN GOSSIP. Professor Anwyl is of opinion that for purity and beauty the Welsh pennillion de- serve to be placed side by side with, if not even higher than, the Greek anthology. They form, indeed, one of the most curious anthologies in any literature. » 9 • In the Beecher Memorial Chapel at Brooklyn, there is a Welsh window to the memory of Henry Ward Beecher, who claimed Welsh descent on his mother's side. The window illustrates the well-known hymn by Williams of Pant-y celyn, Argl w)Tdd ar- wain drwy'r anialwch.' • • It is estimated that two-thirds of the clerks employed as foreign correspondents in Liverpool mercantile offices are Welsh men. The Welsh lad who starts life as a bilinguist has an immense advantage over the monoglot English boy in the acquisition of foreign languages. « » Excuses of a very humorous kind are frequently offered to the magisterial Bench by habitual topers, At a South Wales town the other day an aged defendant pleaded hard for a lenient treatment, 'I am very sorry, your Worships,' he said, but I just took a drop of extra quality « # The Rev. W. Bingley, in his Customs of the Welsh,'states that formerly it wa.3 usual in some parts of North Wales, whenever the name of the devil occurred, for the congre- gation to spit on the floor, and when the name of Judas was mentioned to express their abhorrence of him by striking their breasts. »* Wales is frequently represented in one or other of the competing crews in the Univer sity boat race, and this year the Principality will be specially interested in the doings of the Cambridge eight from the fact that they are being coached for the great event by Mr. H. Trevor Jones, a young vvelshman from the neighbourhood of Wrexham. » » » In a little churchyard near Llanymynach is a tombstone with these lines upon it: In crossing o'er the fatal bridge, John Morgan he was slain, But it was not by mortal hand, But by a railway train. John Morgan was the huntsman to the Ta- natside Harriers, and paid the capital pen- alty for taking a short cut along the Cam- brian line. « The significance of the change which has recently come over Welsh Church affairs, particularly in the recognition of native Welshmen like Canon Owen, may be judged from the inscription upon the memorial win- dow in St. Asaph Cathedral to Jos. Hughes, for 18 years Bishop of that diocese. The in- scription says:—' He was the first Welsh- man for upwards of a century and a half raised to the Episcopate in Wales. it.. Among the living authors who are repre sented in the new hymn book of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists are the Venerable Archdeacon Howell (Llaiodden), Miss S. J. Rees (Cranogwen), the Rev. Evan Rees (By fed), Mr. John Davies (Gwyneddon), the Revs. Dr. Cynhafal Jones, 0. G. Owen (Ala- fon), R. R. Morris (Rhisiarb ap Gwilym), Thomas Levi (Aberystwyth), and William Williams (Gwilym ap Gwilym Lleyn). It is believed that only one pair ol that extremely rare British bird the kite now breed annually on the Welsh coast, and every year a grasping professional egg col- lee- r, robs their nest. Accordingly, the Messis- Keart-n, whose book on 'British Birds' Nest and Eggs' is so well-known, are trying to obtain subscriptions in order to hire a coupT1^ of watchers to protect the kites this vea £ ,;t; We hope they will suc- ceed. » The custom of Irish labourers to come over to England for harvest time is well- known, but it is not generally known that Welsh labourers formerly went into England for the harvest season just in the same way. That they did so, however, is proved by the fact that in 1350 a statute was passed for regulating labour, and for granting permis- sion to Welshmen, in the month of August only, to proceed into England to work. m » • Mr. Lewis Jones's volume of Caniadau Cymru,' a notice of which rocently appeared in this column, will reach the subscribers the first week in March. It is a beautifully printed book bound in limp vellum, and is beyond doubt the handsomest collection of Welsh poems yet issued, the volume con- taining over 320 pages, with a long intro- duction and biographical notes by Mr. Jones A cheaper edition, it is said, will shortly be issued to the public. ♦ # • The 'Davies Lecture' on 'Hebrew Theo- logy,' delivered last year at Liverpool by the Rev. Dr. J. Cynddylan Jones, witI short- ly be published in two volumes. The vol- umes will contain considerably -more than was delivered by Dr. Jones. The lec- ture in its published form will be divided into three parts—(1) Pre-Mosaic Theology (2), Mosaic Theology, and (3) Prophetic Theo- logy. Some advanced theologists say that the lecture is antiquated and conservative, f* « <» Some astonishment has been expressed in certain quarters at the non-appearance in the new hymnal of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists of the celebrated hymns of lliraethog, and lest captious critics may at- tribute this to sectarian narrowness it is well that it should be known that every effort was made to include some of Hiraeth- og's best hymns in the collection, but per- mission to do so was steadfastly refused by the firm that owns the copyright Mr. Owen Owen, M.A., of Oswestry, the new chief inspector of the Welsh Intermedi- ate schools, is a keen musician. He was one of the early pioneers of the tonic sol-fa movement in Wales, and obtained the ad- vanced certificate of the Tonic Sol-fa Col- lege in 1869, being the second in Wales to I' pass that examination. In 1870, he obtained a certificate in elementary musieal composi- tion, being second in the merits list of stu- I dents for that year. Mr. Owen was prece- ded in these higher examination only by Mr. David Jenkins, of Aberystwyth, who passed for the advanced certificate in 1867, and has since risen to the distinction of Mus. Bac., Cantab. One of Mr. Owen's hymn tunes, Llaniestyn (so called after his native parish), is one of the most fre- quently sung tunes in Wales at the present day. • • • Mr. Lloyd-George's instruction to the Committee of the House of Commons on the Education Bill on Thursday afternoon (says a correspondent), proposing that some mea- sure of local control should Ibe introduced into the measure, was the only one which was held by thf* Speaker to be in good order. Mr. George has already shown that his hand has lost none of its cunning in drafting such resolutions. His speech in moving the in- struction was studiously moderate in tone and conciliatory in manner, and was listened to with deference by a crowded House. This restraint gained for the instruction a good deal of support from the Tory benches, and the Liberal leaders who sat on the front Opposition bench backed it up by their unanimous support. Mr. Brynmor Jones broke silence for the first time this session by making an effective speech after dinner.
PRINCIPAL RHYS ON THE ANCIENT KYMRY. On Friday night Principal Rhys, of Jesus College, Oxford, delivered an interesting lecture on .'The history of ancient the Kymry' at the New J«win Welsh Chapel, London, Mr. J. H. Dav. being in the chair. There was a large and appreciative an- diemce. The learned lecturer began by tracing the History and meaning of the Nvord 'Kyniry,' and went on to say that misfortune caused the Celts to become one people under the common name of Kymry.' If the Kymry of the sixth century were of different race and tongue, what languages and races were in Wales in those times 1 In Roman times Wales was occupied by the tribes of the Silures and the Demets, who divided South Wales between them the Ordoviees, inhabited Mid Wales to Cardigan Bay and some tribe, of uncertain denomination, which lived under their shadow, inhabiting whole of Gwynedd from the Mawddach to the Anglesea. These main divisions could still be traced in the different Welsh dia- lects. The Welsh of Dyied still existed in the counties of Pembroke and Carmarthen, and the greater part of Cardigan and Brecon, the Wenhwyseg in Glamorgan and Mon- mouth, and the Wyndodeg in that part of North Wales called It was sometimes said that the Powyseg existed in the part of North Wales called Powys, but neither Powys nor the Powys dialect cor responded by any means with the mid- county which was once occupied by the Ar dovices. This difficulty required some fur- ther explanation. What, then, was the territory of the OrdoTices ? It comprised probably the northern part of Cardiganshire, the whole of Radnorshire, and Montgomery- shire, a part of Denbighshire, and that part of Merionethshire which lies between theDyfi and the Mawddach, the Cantref of Penllyn on each side of Bala Lake, the valley of the Dee, hyd gerliaw i Gaerileon,' and a good portion of England on the borders of Mid Wales. Ancient Gwynedd did not extend further south than the river Mawddach where Barmouth stands now. But what proof was there that those tribes which called themselves 'Kymry' where not of the same race or language? The proof lay in the fact that there still exist old tomb- stones of the fifth and sixth century, and the words on some of them are neither Welsh nor Latm. This strange language was commonly written in characters which are called Ogam,' and they look. at first sight, like the scores on the back of the door of an old-fashioned public house (laugh- ter). But the Ogam was old, and was found carved on the sides of hard stones, oftenest in Pembroke and Carmarthen. But it was to be found also in Glamorgan and Brecon, and as high up in Cardigan as Llanarth and Llanfechan, near Llan y-bryddair. It had not been found in North Wales except on one stone which stood on Bryn-y-beddau, in the parish of Clocaenog, in the Vale of Clwyd. But some slight trace of the same language was to be found on tombstones in Anglesea and Carnarvon, though it was Latin that was attempted to be written. Outside Wales Ogam stones were to be found in Cornwall and Devon, and about 250 in Ireland, the major parrtfcn the southern por- tion of the island. The language of the Ogam stones was not Welsh, but a kind of ancient Erse, traces of which were to be found also in the Book of Llandaff, viz. in the place-names, mainly, of Glamorgan, Monmouth, and Hereford. One was com- pelled to believe that the Erse did not en- tirely disappear from Wales before the seventh century. On the other band, no trace had yet been found of the Erse in Mid Wales, though it was only fair to say that but few burial stones had been found at all in that part. The inference that must be drawn from this was that soon after the Romans bad departed from Britain, the Erse had disappeared from Mid-Wales, while it was yet spoken in South and North Wales. The Ordoviees \»ere Brythons, and probably came to Wales as conquerors of the older inhabitants, before the Roman occupation. The Romans, however, compelled both con- querors and conquered to lay aside their arms, and by the time the Romans departed it would be strange if the Goidel was not equal to the Brython in skill and courage. The next hinge was the coming of a new power into Wales to drive out the Goidel, probably because the Brythonic Ordoviees were not in a secure posItIOn after the Romans had departed, in order to under- stand the nature and extent of the new oc- cupation, the dialect of Mid-Wales must be studied, and in order to be quite sure of proceeding from the known to the unknown, the learned lecturer said he must begin with his native Ponterwyd. The sound of the Rheidiol lingered so sweetly in his ears since the days of his youth that he found little to admire in all the other waterfalls of the Principality tcbeers). In that district, as well as in the whole of North Cardiganshire, from Llanrhystyd and Tregaron up, a dis- tinct dialect was spoken, different on the one hand from that of South Cardiganshire, and on the other hand from that of the dis- trict between the Dyfi and the Mawddach, but resembling closely the dialect in use at Bala, a.d the valley of the Dee. Why should this be ? The only answer which suggested itself was that at one time the dialect of the Ordoviees was spoken all over Mid Wales, but that another people had come and taken possession of the country between Plinlimon and Bala, that is, of those parts where the mincing dialect of Powys was spoken now. The next question that arose was, Who in- troduced the Powys dialect into Wales ? The answer, only a, conjecture, that it was Cun- edda Wledlg and his sorlS. The learned Principal gave extracts from the poems of the ancient bards to prove that Cunedda was a Brython of the Gododin tribe. Nen- nius said that Cun edda came to_ Wales to drive away the Go id e is, and that the Goidels were defeated with such slaughter that they never again returned. It seems improbable that Cunedda should have come from north of the Tweed to Wales, were it not that he had received an invitation from the Bry- thons. If the coming of Cunedda was the explanation of the divergence in the dialect of Mid Wales, some of his men must have settled down in great numbers in certain parts. There was no trace of _such occupa- tion in the dialect of Ceredigion, for in- stance. The same thing w&s true of Pen llyn and the Valley of the Dee. But the district between the Mawddath and the Dyfi was the home of Cunedda's eldest son, and from thence his men spread their dialect over the Ardudwy to Maen Twrog and Dol- gelley. Ardudwy was a part of old Gwyn- edd, and it was the only pad where the Powys,dialect was to be found. It might, therefore, be presumed that Cunedda's sons remained in the other parts only as rulers, and with too little force to change the people's dialect. In conclusion, Principal Rhys said the emblem of the Red Dragon, and Cadwaladr was called the 'Draco insu- laris.' Many attempts bad been made to kill the dragon from the time of Hengist, but the old motto was still true: Y ddraig goch a ddyry gychwyn.' In education es- pecially was the Dragon leading the van, and we might be sure that the Kymry had not yet finished their part in the develop- ment of the great Anglo-Celtic empire to which they belonged (cheers). A hearty vote of thanks proposed by the Rev. J. E. Davies, and seconded by Mr. Llewelyn Williams brought the proceedings to a close.
CARNARVONSHIRE AND THE ¡ QUEEN'S REIGN. At the invitation of the Lord Lieutenant of Carnarvonshire (Mr. J. E. Greaves) and the Mayors of Carnarvon, Bangor, Conway, and Pwllheli, a county meeting took place on Friday, at Carnarvon, to decide what should be done in the county to commemo- rate the completion of the sixtieth year of the Queen's reign. The chair was occupied by the Lord Lieutenant (Mr. J. A. Greaves), and there was an influential attendance. The Chairman observed that it was in- cumbent upon all Her Majesty's subjects to celebrate in a fitting manner a reign which was at once remarkable and entirely unique. In the year of her jubilee the Queen had herself, by subscribing X-70,000 towards the establishment of the Jubilee Institute for Nurses, pointed out what form the monu- ment should take, and surely to establish such an institution upon a permanent foun- dation would be a far more noble monument than anything that could be hewn in stone (cheers). Letters of apology for non attendance were read from Lord and Lady Penrhyn, who expressed their great sympathy with the movement and enclosed a cheque for X-200 towards the fund from Sir Owen Ro berts, enclosing S25 Colonel Wynne Finch, enclosing £ 20 the Mayor of Conway, who stated that a meeting held at Conway had subscribed Xio to the fund and Air, Ellis Nanney, Mr. Bryn Roberts, M P., Mr. Fin- chett Maddocks, Mr. J. R. Pritchard (Port- madoc), and Mrs. Humphrey. Sir Llewelyn Turner moved the following resolution :—' That the county and boroughs ot Carnarvonshire desire to commemorate the sixtieth year of Her Majesty's reign.' This was seconded by the Mayor of Car- narvon (Mr. E. Hughes), supported by Mr. R, Thomas (chairman of the County Council), and heartily passed. The Bishop of Bangor moved the follow- ing resolution :—' That the commemoration of the sixtieth year of the Queen's reign shall in this county take the form of .'streng- thening the commemoration fund on behalf of the Queen's Jubilee Institute of Nurses.' He hoped that they in that part of the country would do all in their power to carry out the resolution in a practical manner. In this coyntry the inhabitants differed upon many subjects, but there was one topic upon which, he felt sure, they were all of one mind and heart—namely, in their loyalty to the Queen, and in their admiration for her life and character. She had set a noble example to the lowest as well as the highest of her subjects. Her reign bad been a won- derful one. They would search in vain in the annals of their country for a reign of sixty unbroken years, and he thought it would be difficult to find an exact parallel in European history. They would search in vain for a reign so fruitful in the growth, well-being, happiness, and prosperity of the inhabitants. The reign of Queen Victoria would be famous on account of the brilliant discoveries in science and art, discoveries which had facilitated progress, not only in this country, but throughout the world. But among these brilliant discoveries which had marked Her Majesty's reign he knew of no more distinctive characteristic than the prominence given to humane elements in the life of the nation (cheers). It was no won- der it had grown rapidly. It had been nur- tured directly by the Queen herself, and by her example ahcl by the profound sympathy she bad felt and shown for the masses of the people in their hour of pain, distress, and sorrow. It was, therefore, no wonder that she herself had selected the strengthening, the furtherance, and the development of the Jubilee Institute for Nurses as a proper and fitting means of commemorating her long and prosperous reign (cheers). The resolution was seconded by the Mayor of Bangor (Dr. Grey Edwards), supported by the Rev. A. B. Peele (master of St. Kathe- rine's and president of the Institute for Nurses), and carried. On the motion of Mr. W. A. Darbishire, seconded by Mr. D. P. Williams, it was de- cided to form a central committee for the purpose of carrying out the foregoing objects. The following ladies and gentlemen were elected on the committee, with power to add to their number, viz., Lady Penrhyn, Lady Turner, Mrs. Greaves, Mrs. Kneeshaw, Mrs. Breese, Lord Penrhyn, the Bishop of Ban- gor, Sir Llewelyn Turner, the Lord Lieute- nant, the Mayors of Carnarvon, Bangor, Conway, and Pwllheli: the Rev. Evan Jones, Messrs." W. A. Darbishire, D. P. Williams, R. Thomas, H. Kneeshaw, J. R. Pritchard (Carnarvon), P. MTntyre, and Jonathan Davies, The Rev. Evan Jones moved that local committees be formed for the purpose of co' operating and collecting subscriptions. This was seconded by the Mayor of Pwll- heli (Captain Williams), supported by Mr. J. H. Pritchard (Carnarvon), and carried. The Chairman, replying to a question from Dr. Mills Roberts, stated that he bad received a letter from headquarters explain- ing that 70 per cent of the subscriptions raised locally might be retained in the county. Mr. Lloyd Carter was announced to have accepted the honorary secretaryship of the movement.
THE SCOTTISH TEMPERANCE LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY. WE have recieved the report of the Directors of the above company, to be submitted at the annual meeting which will be held on the ocli of March at the offices of the Company in Glasgow. The Directors report that during the year, in the Life Department, 1,367 propos- als, for £ 388,125 were considered by the Board, 1,225, for 6324,075 being accepted. Compared with the preceeding year there appears an increase of 988,366 in the new policies issued of £1,627 in new premiums, of £7,381 in the total premium income, and of £ 54,950 in the Life Assurance Fund, together with a decrease in the ratio of expenses to premium income. In the accident department, 574 new policies were issued, yielding in. new premiums £ 1,238 4s. 4d. The credit balance at the close of the year amounted to £ 5,323 19s. 4d. of which £ 1,000 has been transferred to the credit of the Fatal Accident and General Reserve Fund, increasing that fund to £ 5,000. f The directors recommend that a dividend at the rate of five per cent and a bonus at the ] rate of two and a half per cent, free of income tax, be paid to the shareholders on the 15th of March.
fethening. [If any reader who isin a difficulty with reference to his garden, will write directly to the ad- dress given beneath, his queries will be an- swered, free of charge, and by return of post. — h>!TORj. THE VEGETABLE GARDEN. This is a very busy month indeed for the gardener, as almost all kinds of vegetable seeds can be sown out of doors, provided the weather and soil be dry. It is better, however, to wait until April if the ground is at all pasty. Sow wide breadths of hardy winter greens soon, and make sowings of several different kinds of cabbages also. Surplus plants will come in for patching, and for less fortunate neighbours. It is almost impossible tie use too much manure in the preparation of seed beds for plants of the cabbage tribe. An early sow- ing of gem or scarlet horn carrot should be made soon on a warm border, and the seedlings may require the shelter of old lights and mats for a time. It is not safe to sow the main crop until the weather has settled down warmly in April. Plant out autumn-sown cauliflowers from the frames whenever weather permits, placing them in the very richest plots in the garden. Chives may be divided now, and the roots must be planted in ground which has not been used for any variety of the onion family for a long time. Herbs also may be divided, and of many kinds the seeds may be sown in rather poor, dry borders. The principal point in their culture is to thin out the seedlings early and boldly. The main crop of onions must be got in soon on rich mellow ground, the bed being dug carefully over before sowing. Break all lumps with a spade, and tread over light soil to firm or consolidate it, afterwards lighly scratching over the surface with a rake. Sow the seed in drills from six to twelve inches apart, according to the size of the variety selec- ted, and the shallower the drills are made for keeping onions the better they will do. Cover very lightly with fine earth, again touch over with a rake, and gently pat over the bed with the back of a spade if the soil lie nice and dry. On heavy ground this last operation should be omitted entirely. Few vegetables are so pala- table and wholesome as parsnips, and few are so easily grown. The only preparation re- quired is deep digging. Get the seed in as soon as possible now in shallow drills eighteen inches apart, placing two or three seeds in a group every six inches along the drills. Sow main- crop and tall peas, choosing the finest marrow- fat kinds, and place the rows so wide apart3 that they will not shade one another when grown to their full height. It is an excellent plan to grow cabbages, broccoli, potatoes, &c.. between the rows. Towards bbe middle and end of the month, the main crop of potatoes may be got in, but we prefer early April for the work. Plant out lettuces from the frames, and make extensive sowings in deep, good soil, which has been well manured. Sea kale plan- tations can be made at once, the roots being planted two feet apart, so that the crowns are 2 inches under the surface. Finish up by tread- ing the ground firmly down. Seeds are best sown in April, though they may be put in now in drills 13 inches asunder and some two inches deep. The seedlings must be thinned out early to 10 inches asunder in the lines, and weeds should be scrupulously kept down. Sow abun- dance of spinach in deep, giood soil, not; forget- ting the perpetual variety. For tomato plants to fruit in the open, make a sowing in pots filled with a lightish compost of leaf-mould, loam and sand. Cover the seeds lightly with fine earth, and start in a temperature of about 60 or 65 degrees. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, move them singly to small p(,t.g, and shade them for a few days if neces- sary. Keep them stocky. by placing them on shelves near the glass, and take care they suffer no check. The main crop of leeks should be sown in rich, good soil, and garlic may still be planted. Sow celery seeds on a mild" hot-bed, pricking out the plants in to a mellow half-spent bed when they are large enough to be moved without injury. Give free ventilation whenever the weather permits, and supply plenty of water. Plant out broad beans from under glass, and sow for main and late supplies in double rows three feet apart, with nine inches between the double rows; cover three or four inches deep. Brussels sprouts and broccoli may be sown at once on warno borders, and Jerusalem artichoke sets can be planted in deep soil in a sunny position. Prepare the hot-bed for cu- cumbers, using plenty of manme and if possi- ble some decaying leaves in the centre of the heap, which ought to be sufficiently large to project a foot round the edges of the frame. Put the frame on, and when the bed has set- tled down to a steady temperature, add nine inches of good, mellow loam over the top of it. SPECIAL NOTICE. In response to many hundreds of requests, Messrs. Toogood and Sons have just prepared a book, entitled The Culture of Vegetables for Prizes, Pleasure, and Profit,' to be sold at actual cost price, 6d. only, to readers of our gardening notes. It embodies the results of a century's practical work on a very large scale at our experimental farm, and is divided into three parts, the first of which treats of the soil, its composition, amelioration, methods of work- ing, treatment, &c.; the composition of various fertilizers, with hints on their application, &c. garden pests, the methods of prevention and remedy, &c., &c. The second portion contains full cultural directions for every kind of vege- table, each being discussed under the following headings :-Soil, manuring, varieties, sowing, culture, storing, cooking, forcing, exhibiting, special culture for exhibition, pests, &c., &c., very full instructions being given on all these points. The last portion of the work, in addi tion to a monthly calendar of gardening opera- tions, contains in tabulated form, to admit of instant reference, a complete list of all the sow ings and plantings which can be made in the kitchen garden during each month, together with the average date at which each crop will be fit for consumption. Instructions as to how and where each sowing or planting should be made, are added. This is, of course, a very special feature, and its preparation has involved an amount;of labour which can only be described as enormous. Our object in printing the book was to provide at the lowest possible price a work which should contain everything that gar- deners could require to know about the culture of various vegetables, and we would add that no personal trouble has been spared to attain this end. We have the less hesitation in re commending it to the notice of our readers in thae we do not benefit in any way by its pub- lication or sale. The first edition was practi cally sold on the day of publication, but our printing department hope to be able to supply copies again in a few days. The work coil tains about 130 pages. E. KEMP TOOGOOI), F.R.H.S., pro Toogood and Sons, The Royal Seed Establishment, Southampton.
H AWARD EN WATERWORKS COMPANY. The 27th half yearly general meeting of the Hawarden and District Waterworks Company was held at Chester on Saturday last. The Directors, in their report for the half year, said the revenue from water rates showed a satisfactory increase, while that from meters had somewhat fallen off, chiefly through the drought which prevailed in the earlier part of the half year, and until the new reservoir could be filled. To the same.cause must be attribu- ted the exceptional increase in the cost of main- tainance, which necessitated special arrange- ments to augment the supply of water. The amount available for distribution, 1:629. 19. 4d.. would admit of a dividend at the rate of 34 per cent per annum, and the carrying forward of a balance of 9100. 8s. 4-d. The Chairman, in moving the adoption of the report, said the accounts were very satisfactory. Mr. C. Davison seconded, and the motion was carried,1 The Chairman next moved, Mr. J. Watkin- Bon seconded, and it was resolved that a dividend at the rate of 34 per cent per annum be declared.