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MOUNTAIN ASH.

:Mountain Ash District Council.

Mountain Ash Water Bill.

! Mountain Ash Annual Eisteddfod.…

PENRHIWCEIBER.

Penrikyber Navigation Colliery…

ABERCYNON.

Aberdare, Education Society.

CWMAMAN.

Dog Show at Cwmaman.1

CWMBACH.

.—— Fatal Accident at Cwmbach.-,

' ABER £ WMB0B.

GODREAMAN. 1

! "The Splendours of Welsh…

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"The Splendours of Welsh History." "OWEN RHOSCOMYL" AT ABERAMAN. The last of the series of popular lectures pro- moted by the committee at Aberaman was held at the Grand Theatre on Friday evening last- Tho lecturer was Captain A. O. Vaughan, better known by bis pen-name, "Owen Rhos- comyl," tho historian of last year's pageant. Tho R«v. John Lewis, Hebron, Godreaman, occupied the chair, and briefly introduced the lecturer. Capt. Vaughan proceeded to deal with his subject, which was entitled, "The Splendours of Welsh History." He commenced by refer- ring to the advent of the Anglo-Saxons to Britain in the year 49 A.D., when they drove the native Britons into Cornwall. The present Welsh and Cornish were descended from the old Britons. Julius Caesar, in the year 55 B.C., landed on this island, and our first knowledge of Welsh history had come to us through him. The rkhnoes'Of ihis- island in ■ ite mineral wealth pro»vgtt^a/'mai?ne^o:'¥ttraition ;THEREFOA&^THE'IFIFRST war m HISTORY o £ '-tb& that r^hic Jt/th&y wfeta ■ -eitg-a with the Romans. The latter were' kept- busy by tho Silures of South Wales for thirty years, and eventually the Romans were called away I to their own country owing to trouble at home. I He then proceeded to deal with the period when Ivlaximus the G.rea.t occupied Britain as emporor, and who subsequently b&camo ruler of the Roman Empire. The" Danes claimed that they conquered this country. They sup- posed that Rhodri the Great had divided Wales between his three sons, and that when these three sons were conquered, the whole of Wales was subdued. According to the chronicles of Asaph, however, who wrote his life, King Alfred complained that ho had been driven out of Wales by the s&ven sons of Rhodri. As each of these seven held territory, it was clear that Glamorgan and the southern parts of WaJes were not conquered. A later man who loomed large in the history of WaJes was Llywelyn ap Sekyllt, but a greater man still Wlk his son, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. When the latter was prince, theD was peace in Wales, and a woman could travel with her babe in her arms from one end of the country to another. lestyn ap Gwrgant was another notability of ancient Wales, and from him many of the farmers of Abarfceifi (Cardigan), and subsequently the miners of the South Wales valleys, were de- scended. Gruffydd established men from a neighbouring clan in various parts of South Wales, such as Manordeifi, Dynevor, and Dinas Powis. The latter name was derived from the fact that men from Powys-land were established in the place to keep it secure from other princes. Tho lecturer then dealt with the sup- position of English writers that WaJes was con- quered by Harold. It was said that stones were found all over Wales with the inscription, ¡ "Here Harold conquered" thereon, but no trace I of such stones had as yet been found. His next point was the supposed conquest of Wales in two weeks by Edward I. This was in 1282, when the Welsh soldiers intimated that "it was better to die in battle and go to God as free men than die as slaves." Llywelyn had driven back King Edward from North Wales to Ches- ter when he was young. The king, therefore, had a natural desire to avenge these defeats, and in the pay-sheets of Edward's army, which were still in existence, the "dread" Llywelyn was referred to. People said at times that if the Welsh had been as independent as the Scots, they wouid never have been conquered. But on the border of England and Scotland was a range of mountains, from the lower side of which no army could penetrate into Scotland without being outflanked. Any general would say that it was impossible to capture Scotland from the southern side. In Wrales the caoo was different. There was no natural frontier, and it could be penerated from Chester, Shrews- bury, Hereford, Gloucester, Cardiff, Carmar- then, Aberystwyth, and Anglesea. In fact, Edward 1. had eight, armies attacking at the same time, though the annihilation of one of these was conveniently left unmentioned by English historians. A truce was made in North Wales between King Edward and Llyw- elyn. The latter was proceeding on his way to Bangor Cathedral to meet the Archbishop of Canterbury, when he received a. letter purport- ing to come from a lady friend residing at Aberedw, near Builth. Llywelyn had a huntr ing-box at Aberedw, and, not suspecting the trickery of his kinsmen, Roger Mortimer and John Giffard, innocently went. When he ar- rived at Cefn-y-bedd, he found that it was a trick by tho accomplices of King Edward. He had with him but eighteen men and a faithful squire, :.0 he could not have been defeated, as was generally supposed. Neither was there any treachery on the part of the townsmen of Builth; the treachery was on the part of the inmates of the garrison at Builth Castle, who refused to open the castle gates. Llywelyn sought to escape, and consequently posted eighteen men on a narrow bridge on trestles across the river Wye. He went with his squire to Cefn-y-bedd; but ere he returned, the eighteen men who fought the army of Roger Mortimer lay dead upon the bridge, with their faces looking up to the God who made them fight and die like men. The squire himself then tried to keep off the whole army, while Llywelyn eougbt to hide in the bush; but Llywelyn stumbled, and was speared on the ground by Stephen Francton, Lord of Elles- mere. The defeat and deatp of Llywelyn at Builth was an event which ought to make every Welshman feel proud of his race. The feats of Owen Glyndwr could not be touched upon in detail owing to lack of time, but the lecturer concluded his address with a minute account of the Battle of Bosworth Field (1485). This battle ended the Wars of the Roses, and the Earl of Richmond was credited with being the statesman' wfho founded the British Empire. By tracing his genealogy, it was found that Catherine, a daughter of France, and an Eng- lish widow, married a Welsh soldier, who was one of her bodyguard, viz., Owen Tudor. Their youngest son, Edmund, who died at eighteen, was born at Pembroke Castle—Harry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. He was a Welsh-speaking boy, who was taken to Harlech Castle for safety. Later, he was taken prisoner to Rag- lan, and afterwards sent as an exile to Brittany until he was twenty-six years old. When King Richard IH. wanted him as prisoner, he escaped from Brittany and landed in Wales. After some escapades at Mostyn and Barmouth, he landed at Milford Haven, and thenoe made his way to the historic field of Bosworth. He had 7,000 Welshmen with him, who deigned to wear armour because they thought it cowardice. Rhys Fawr, another Welshman, remained loyal to Richard, but the above 7,000 were led by Rhys ap Tomos, and gave King Richard his death blow. After the battle, Henry Tudor was crowned King of England, and the place was to this day known as "the field of shout," the "stone of crowning'' being still visible. Thus a Welsh-speaking chief led Henry's army to the fight at Bosworth, and this was tho last battle between the English and the Welsh, and the Welsh won. That was the only time of importance when a king was crowned upon the field of ba.ttle. In the next reign, when the King's son (Henry VIII.) went to the throne, he signed an Act of Union between England and Wales. In the beginning of that Act, the Welsh were referred to as the only race that could write upon their banner "Invictus"—un- ccnquered (cheers). Thus was a dream, nay, a prophecy, 1,000 years old, became realised. Since 485 A.D., a prophecy existed that the crown of Britain would again come back to a son of Maximus, and this was literally ful- filled in 1485 A.D. Moreover, King Edward VIL held hie title not after William the Con- querer or Harold, but from the title won at Bosworth Field. Finally, the professors in Eng- I lish and German universities were now working at Welsh history, recognising that there was in it a vast field of knowledge unexplored. It was a history that showed that the Welsh were heroes, artists, and poets, comparable only to the ancient Greeks. They were men whom nothing could tame. Despite the absence of a natural frontier and a military defensible posi- tion, they had not been conquered, bat lived to speak their language to this day. Though Captain Vaughan suffered from a chill, he continued speaking without a single note for 2k hours. It was an interesting lecture throughout, and proved a fitting climax to this most successful series promoted by the Aber- aman Committee.

ABERAMAN.

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