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WELSH DISESTABLISHMENT.

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WELSH DISESTABLISHMENT. Sir, -Churc,,hman" has entirely misunder- stood my meaning with regard to' "establish- ment." I did not say that it was at the time of Henry VIIL that the Church was first es- tablished by law. What I did say was that the Church of England, as an established ohurch, distinct from the Church of Rome, cannot trace its pedigree further back than the time of Henry VIII. Is there any reasonable student of history who will dispute this? I maintain that politically, or legally, the Church was, as Mr. Justice thillimore said, a continuous body from its earliest establishment in Saxon times." Many laws passed in early times could be adduced to prove that the Church was the State Church. Dean Stanley, referring to the grant of Ethelbert to Augustine, says, "At any rate, this grant of house and land t« Au- gustine was a step of immense importance, not gustine was a step of immense importance, not only in English, but European history, be- cause it was the first instance in England, or I in any of the countries occupied by the ba.r- barian tribes, of an endowment by the State. As St. Martin's and St. Pancras witnessed the fhyfc beginning of Eafflmh eo .Can-1 terbury Cathedral is the earliest monument of an English Church establishment—of the En- glish constitution of the union of Church and State" ("Memorials of Canterbury, p. 32.") Dean Stanley perceived what is obvious on the face of it, that a. grant irom a King of that time was equivalent to a. grant from the State, as the King previous to the era of Parliaments, in his own person, represented the State, or form of Government prevalent at that time. For a. King to become a convert to Christianity at that time meant virtually that the tribe em- braced it also. Also, it will be observed, that the Church which was established was noi t.he old British Church—which was not extinct in the country and between which and the Roman Church there was a struggle for supremacy, which sur- vived in Wales up to the Norman Conquest— but a brahch of the Roman Catholic Church, founded by Augustine, the emissary of Pope Gregory the Great, by whose instructions and prescription, it was organised. The very organ- isation of the Church as a diocesan institution is aD importation from Rome. This was the Church which was established by law up to t.he time of Henry VIII. Although the con- test between the various kings and the Pope for supremacy, which resulted in th death of Becket, and which vaccillated now in favour of the Pope, as in the case of King John, and now in favour of the King, as in the case of Ed'vard the Second whose celebrated slatlHe established the supremacy and control of t.he Church by the State, continued up to the time of Henry VIII. the Popo remained in posses- sion of the field, as the appeal of Henry VIII j to Pope Clerrjent VII. for a divorce from Ca- therine, his wife, proves, and as no Archbishop oould be appointed without receiving the Pall from the Pope. It was Henry Vfll. who de- posed the Pope as the head of the Church in England, from the standpoint of the law, and established himself by Act of Parliament the supreme head of the Church of England, which, although retaining the old organisation and the Episcopal form of church government, departed theologically and doctrinally in many things essential from the Roman Church, and laid down, by giving to the people an open English Bible, which was denied them when connected with the Roman Church, the foundations of that liberty which we now enjoy, and which is the envy of the world, which Bible is our char- ter and our authority for disestablishing the Church of England in Wales. To say that the idontitv of tho Church of England was not changed theologically and doctrinally by the Reformation is to y ihat there is no difference fundamentally between Protestantism and Ro. man Catholicism, and that all the blood that has been shed and the sacrifices made shed and mAde in vain. 8uch &II assertion is nn Ill- sult to the sacred memory of the martyrs. If tho endowments were given to the Church before the Reformation from Dureiy theological, doctrinal and ecclesiastical motives, the Re- formation deprived the Church of England of all the moral right to the endowments, and the Act of Henry VIII. was pure robbery in tak- ing the Church property of one religious body and giving it to another, because, as Freeman admits, the Reformation brought with it "great theological changes." Or, in the words of Bishop Gore, "because it was totally impossi- ble to say what the wishes of the pious found- ers would be after the great changes that had taken place." On the other hand if the en- dowments were given from political and na- tional motives to the Church of Rome in Eng- land as a political institution and as an integ- ral part of the State, and as enforced by civil ordinances and laws, then the State had a per- fect right in retaining them at the Reforma- tion and after, because, as Freeman says, there was no break in the political or legal continuity of tfte Church. It is quite true to say. as Free- man says, "that there was no moment when the State, as many people fancy, rook the Church property from one religious body and gave it to another," because the property wa& never given in the first instance to a religious body as a religious body, but to the Church as an aspect of the State." The quotations from Bishop Creighton and the great work of Makower only prove that the Church, previous to the Reformation, was the State in its religi- ous aspect. "Churchman," in proving that the Church was established by law previous to the Reformation, gives his case completely away. The Church that was established previ- ous to che Reformation was not the same Church which was established after the Reform- ation, because it is not organisation, or build- ings, or corporations which make a Church, but convictions and beliefs, which, according to Freeman, underwent great changes. It is true also to say that it was at the Reformation that the Kftig was established supreme head of the Church, although the way was prepared cen- turies before. Reformations do not take place in a day. • I will close with a quotation from the emin- ent defender of Church establishment and en- dowments, the* late J S. Brewer, M.A. :— "Whatever may have been the inherent right of the Crown—whatever the energy or the ef- forts of various sovereigns from time to time— this control was never fully established until the reign of Henry vm Whatever form that control assumes, it takes its origin from the royal supremacy, which became supreme by necessary consequence when the Papal supre- mancy was abolished. So we date establish- ment, in the strict sense of the word, from the Reformation." ("The Endowments and Es- tablishment of the Church of England," p. 283.) The learned editor, Mr. Lewis T. Dibdin, M.A., in commenting upon the view of Mr. Brewer, says, "There can be little doubt that Mr. Brew- er's view of Establishment is historically unas- sailable."—I am, sir, yours truly, ANTHROPOS.

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ROME AND REVOLUTION.!

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