LONDON LETTER. AVhether a Trades Union is a warrantable Institution from the severely economical point of view I have never been clever enough to deter- mine. But from my youth upwards, I have been taught the doctrine that what is sauce for the goose is sauoe for the gander. Wherefore, if Xrades Unionism is good for men, it cannot bo evil for women. The Women's Protective and Provident League is virtually a society of that dasa, and it was formed years ago because the working-women came to the conclusion that the working-men were not very anxious to help them. They certainly had a good deal of reason to adopt that belief. I remember a Trades Union Congress somewhere in Newman-street, off Oxford-street, which was very lively indeed. That was the meeting from which certain Fair Trade gentlemen were literally taken by the coat- collar and turned into the street; and on the day after that exercise of persuasive force I heard two women representatives (they were properly elected delegates) shouted down, and saw them outvoted by about a hundred to oi)e. A special effort is now being made to increase the number of branches of the league above wiaii- tioned, for in these days, apparently, women must work as well as men. If, however, tiie action of these leagues should increase the Kn- tagonism between the workers of the sexes, the Tbenefit wil) be doubtful. JSTone nut envious brethren in the profession, and spiteful critics, can surely sneer at Fred -Cewen, the young musical composer, for having made a good financial bargain with the raasaagers of the Melbourne Exhibition. He is going out to Australia in May, a.nd will remain there tø the end of the year, and for this he is to receive £ -7 >00. No doubt that is splendid the musical arrangements of .a Colonial show.. The business, however, chiefly -concerns the Australians. If the colony is rich and plucky enough to shell out so i'.nndsomyly it is not for us to complain. Cowen so thoroughly modest and so amiable a man, «rd so sound and promising a musician, that he <■ ght to be congratulated with allaur hearts. I know him well, and have no doubt that if I j; e for another twenty years I shall see ] rn at the very top of the tree as a 'cf mpotier of oratorios. The composer of ijiiisic has to put up with quite an undue f:uiwunt of cold shoulder as a rule before he can 1: tke money, and Cowen has gone through this j."h«Ung mill like the rest. There are pieces v ,i"h he lui i to sell for a few guineas which are 1.: this Ii, hieut a steady income to the pub- it Probably not many of my readers harve seen a Tea) riding on a common seaside donkey •fi i^bcnubiics«ndsof a watering-place. I had that il.e: iraable privilege the other day at Bourne- r n'lt, where, in the afternoon, the Queen of Nt-(;e; i was pointed out tome holding OllitO the ciijgy p, ,m mei of the saddle of an ordinary Jerusa- ]<- in ponytbat vou might hire for a shilling-an hour. 'i'lIt-a we had the Royal wedding, of which f II accounts h:ive appeared in the daily papers. h, was a good f1.!a1 remarked that no moosenger or message of imp, dance had been sent by any member "of the English Royal family, and I noticed that the Duchess of Albany only kissed the bride on the left cheek, while other Royalties had an osculatory peck at both. But it must be remembered that our Queen is very strict, and the love-stricken Prince Oscar has had to pay .pretty clearly for marrying the lady of his choice for, according to all Royal notions, he has committed the unpardonable sin of marrying beneath him. The bride. }l('C Miss Munck. is not at all pretty, but she looks good. Nor is the Crown Princess of Denmark, who was present, pretty, while tho Duchess of Albany is passably £ o. d-locikiiig. The Queen of Sweden is remarkably plain. At the German Chapel Royal in London on Sunday I scanned the Royal ladies in the gallery, and could n, ,t forbear internally making the same tmgallaiit comment. Of our Princess of Wales this can al ways be said—no one 1: flatter her.. She is getting ju-1 a triiie sharp of feature, but is the Inl,st toeantihll WI man in society-even now, and looks literally no older than her daughters. Touching the Geman Chapel Royal, where the official funeral service for Iviiiser iftiam wti held 011 Sunday, I must confess thatt was not nware of its existence until a ticket of sidnussion to the service was sent me. Then I got down my "Old and New Loudon." trnm which we all post ourselves up when we wans to appear very learned about London districts, loeal liistoRes, or public buildings, and found some little here and there to enlighten me. It seems that there used to be a Roman Catholic chapel on tk1 situ in the Stuart days, and that. witou Marlborough House was bought by the Crown as a residence for Princess Charlotte and Prince Leopold, a Lutheran place of worship was built. It as sel- dom attended by any mernliers .of our Ti<*y:-tl Loose. The Queen has her own private services at Windsor; she has not been in a London church ori an ordinary occasion for many years; and the Prince and Princess of Wales, when they do not attend the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, g7l to All Saints', or St. Margaret's, two of the most Ritualistic of West End churches. The German Chapel Royal has a service, however, every Sunday morning, the chaplain being a tine old octogenarian pastor of the simple Genevan school. It is always full, and the German Ambassador aud his large suite attend it resrulaiiv. If it is ftorrest to employ the term "ymmg Uizzard," that is the sort of atmospheric visitation we have been enjoying in London for a week past. Every day, and all day long, the air has oeen filled with minute particles of hard frozen snow, ai d we only want a noiwv gala, and tne slightest change in the wind to taste a real blizzard. In 1881 there was a perfectly awful snow storm in the metropolis, but we had not then learned to call it by its real name. We can iiow see from its descriptions in the American papers that it was a bond fide blizzard and ''an also see that we have been on the verge, of ona for several (lavs past. The ultimate fate of public celebrities who retire into private life is always an interesting subject of f-.peculation. Sometimes they are absolutely forgotten until their death was ,(- I -itall 1.1 minoiniced, or their name is accidentally brt before the public. One name occurs to me at this moment. What has become of Henry Russell, whose songs were familiar us household words thirty years ago ? He is st.i:} alivo, for a friend of mire heard from him less than a month since. Elir-ra Cook has been dead some tune; but she vanished so mysteriously that thero is no record, that I can find, of the time and ria;.iior of her death. But let me take a step fr Mr. the sublime to the ridiculous. I had of ten wondered what had become of Jem Mace, the prixc-fighter of an era when pugilists did fight, and were not impostors. Had he set up a public-house, as many of his confreres did ? An action just tried in a London county conrt brought tr light the fact that J. M. is alive and carrying on business as a teacher of the ij. ble art of self-defence—with fists and foils. He resif od the extortionate charges of a trades- man, aud won his case too. W. S.
AT Birmingham a meeting of the United Kingdom Alliance has been held, when S:r Walter Foster, MT., mov«d a resolution in favour of the direct veto. Sir TV It'rid awsi-n. in supporting the motion, said that It- rid •« 'rifnib would }".<• i-it.upon such provisions ton- ;i- r:e<l in tl«#» (■■••'euiir-'nt I'ill as would v -.vjsh. T-tu jffit- b:wv>r. '• v-ra putting the "01- ♦nverni" to indi-. c them not to • or tTiing }av/3. "i 1 /went would, th I" to dt;; id; v la tl. r r'n. • ■'M-.lil consider fli r the 1 c."Cy .• .i.-h pec. 1> ■■ a tr"l • "r t.'r-> <■ it the nation. J-II- COIII Mill' t;■ '>t»' No feV t'll I I-II th" "•>•<»• IH.P'1.¡ mi i; (HI t lie > i!|. V I' -St. ••■.= "I t !•.•<!• «<•*«. A lu.ti."1 1:0.t> ftotu'le"" >—• p-MT.
PRINCE OSCAR OF SWEDEN'S WEDDING. The weddirg of Prince Oscar Charles Augustus* second son of Oscar II., King of Sweden and Norway, second son of Oscar II., King of Sweden and Norway, and Froken Ebba Munck, only daughter of the late Colonel Munck, has taken place in St. Stephen's Church, Bournemouth. In deference to the wish of the Queen of Sweden and Norway, the marriage was conducted in the most private and quiet manner possible, but the wedding, notwithstanding, excited great interest among the inhabitants of Bournemouth, and the streets leading to the church were crowded. The marriage was performed early in the morning before C-,e registrar at Christchurch, this civil ceremony being rendered necessary by the fact that no registration of the event could legally be made at St. Stephen's, which has not been :formally consecrated or licensed t'oi the celebration of marriages. The church wac thrown open at twelve o'clock, no one being ad mitted without a card of admission, and was filled by half-past twelve, when the Royal party began to assemble. The Crown Princess of Denmark and the Duchess of Albany, cousins of Prince Oscar, were the first: to arrive, being attended by Countess Scheel and the Hon. Mrs. K. Moreton, Ladies in Waiting, and Sir Robert H. Collins, Comptroller of the Duchess of Albany's Household. The Queen of Sweden and Nor- way came from Crag Head, accompanied by her sons, Prince Charles and Prince Eugen, and attended by her two Ladies in Waiting, Madlle. Eketraand Miss Mack- I worth, and her Majesty and the Royal party occupied seats in front of the chancel. Prince Oscar and his Excellency Count Piper, the Swedish and Nor- i,wegian Minister, awaited the arrival of the bride in the vestry. The bride, who was escorted by her cousin, Colonel Munck, entered the church shortly after half- past twelve, and on reaching the chancel steps was joined hy Prince Oscar, who wore the uniform as captain in the Swedish and Norwegian navy. Thebride was attired in ivory white satin, draped in front and trimmed on the train with fine point lace, the front of the skirt being edged with a border of white marabout. Her veil, which was of tulle, did not cover her face, but depended from a crown composed of myrtle inter- mixed with puffings of tulle. The service was per- formed by the Kev. (fustave Beskow, Court Chaplain, according to the rites of the Swedish National Church (Lutheran), which is of simple form. During the service the 33rd Psalm, Jag lifter mina hander (MI will lift up mine eyes "), another psalm, Jesus ar min van den baste (" Jesus is my best friend "), and" How welcome was the call" were sung by the choir. At the termination of the service Prince Oscar kissed his bride, and then led her to his mother, who kissed her warmly on both cheeks. The Crown Princess of Denmark and the Duchess of Albany also saluted the bride. As the Queen and Royal party left the church the organist played Mendelssohn's Wedding March." r
BOULANGER CASHIERED. General Boulanger has been dismissed from his command of the Thirteenth French Army Corps and placed on half-pay. The Official J -umal states that this has been done because the General has three times visited Paris after permission had been refused, twice in disguise. This action leaves the General subject to the rules of military discipline, and he will be debarred from leaving the residence assigned him by the Minister of War without permission, unless he resigns his commission, and thus renders himself eligible to be elected a Deputy to the Chamber. General Boulanger ascribes the action of the Govern ment to the votes given to him at theTecent elections
THE HON. R. A. PERCY NORTH. At the Guildford Bankruptcy (iourt the other day, before the Registrar, the Hon Roger Archibald Percy North, second son of Lord North, came up for public examination. The statement of affairs disclosed liabilities amounting to JE4448 9s. Id., whilst the only assets consisted of a legacy of jElOO. In answer to Mr. H. Britten, the Deputy Official Receiver, the bankrupt stated that he was at present a sergeant in the 1st Hoyal Dragoons, Aldershot, and his pay was about 2s. per day. He was formerly lieutenant ti the 6th Battalion Rifle Brigade. He had no other 11xed income, as his father made him no definite allowance. With regard transactions with money lenders. to whom he had given promissory notes for large amounts, he said that the interest i-n most cases was at the rate of 60 per cent. It was pointed out that one of the creditors, a Jw, proved for of which no less than £ 3318 15. 3d. was for interest. The bankrupt said he lirst lie was in- solvent in September, 1681, and he had incurred since then about £ 2000 liabilities. He was confident that, but for the transactions with the money-lenders, his father would have paid the whole of the other bills. The examination was adjourned to April HI. in order that the bankrupt might file an amended deficiency account.
GERMANY'S FOHEIGN RELATIONS. There has been much ejaculation as to the changes to which the Kaiser's death may lead in the foreign relations of Germany. 'ïp may doubt, however (re- marks the Graphic), whether it will lead to any change whatever. Under Prince P.ismarck'snwieterly control the foreign poiicy of Germany lias nevex been influenced by whim ;)r caprice. It has been avgu- lated strictly in accordance with the Chancellor's-esti- mate of the facts of European politics. It ie con- ceivable, of course, that the Emperor Frederick, unlike his father, misht reject Prince Bismarck's conception of the tendencies of events; but tlh^re is not a shred of evidence that lie actually does so. He has taken pains to show that the grefct Minister has his full confidence, and we may be sure that in doing this he has been thinking chiefly of Germany's relations to her neighbours and rivals. That the Triple Alliance is secure there can be little Aoubt; for it has sprung, not from sentiment, but from a determination on the part of the Allies to defend vital and far-reaching common interests. This 4oes not mean that Germany has the faintest wish to irritate France. As long as the French are pacific the Germans will be only too glad to cultivate good relations with them. Still less does the TripK* Alliance mfan that Gem any has any ho"til,. feeling to Russia. We often hear that there is an innate antagonism Jytween Slav and Teuton; but Prince Bismarck has never given the slightest countenance to wild nonsense of thw kind. He sees, and has always seen, that it io of the highest import- ance for his country to bv on friendh-terms with Russia &fld during the lasc few weeks lie has pr. v -J. by his frftion with regard to Bulgaria, that he is will- ing to do much to oblige the Czar. Nothing in the career ( f the Emperor Frederick, while he was Crown Prince, indicated that he differed from these views and for all Europe it would tie a misfortune if lie did differ from tik-m. Russia would be much more likely to pursue a sound and peaceful policy if she always had a good understanding with Germany then if aha stood aloof in bitter isolation.
THE Geifral Court of the Governors of Gl1\"g lio.S pitat in London has sanctioned the erection of a resi- dential medical college upon a site immediately ad- joining the hospital It is proposed that the sum required for this purpose, estimated at should be raised by private subscription an-.ong tht) governors, the medical staff, the lecti.Y'vs ar,\ teachers in the medical school of Guy's Ho-,pi their friends. The Special Appeal Fund lately raised, and which is only available for purely hospital pur- poses, now amounts to £ 85.000. TITHB audits have been held on behalf of the Ecc lc- siastical Commissioners and the Vicar of Whitford, Flintshire, where the military were recently employ wi assisting in the collection of arrears of tithe. Tho appeal of the farmers for an abatement of 15 per cent. had been refused, and the league recommende.-j the farmers to abstain from payment. Consequently, only a few shillings were paid during tho day out I a total of several hundred pounds. Members of tL" league watched the office where the receivers ?a- WOMEN are invading a new field of knowledge in Russia. One lady, for example, Ivladame Golout/ov, has selected the mountains of Tounka as her special field of study, and has investigated the topography and geological formation of the region, with the result that lUiss an geographers have now more detailed and elaborate information as to the physical features of this part of Asiatic Russia than they have ever before had. WE had been brutes without woman. So tn« poet Otway tells us. But he, of course, didn't know the modern edition of the sex. At Cardiff Assizes a case of immorality was being tried which was full ol l!.o tno-r. repulsive and nauseating details. The judg« pvouu ovdered every lady to leave the court. > :,i[i,be; s were discovered in the corridor•— :1' I- .e< it.Hi —li»*v„msr iiiM-nt'y. inst 1, ::<<. ;H. j. ouiuw. to all th. U.->gustiag wcuk-^u Ixj'm relui-i L-y the witnesses.
THE NEW BURIALS BILL. The Bill to Amend the Laws Relating to Burials," which has been brought in by Mr. Osborne Morgan, is to a large extent a reproduction of the Burial Groffiads Bill," which has been brought in in the last two sessions, and was read a second time without a division in 1886. It is, however, more comprehensive than that measure, inasmuch as it deals with the several points which were discussed at the recent conference on the Burial Laws. It transfers to the Local Government Board all the authority in burial matters now exercised by the Home Secretary, which already administers Marten's Act. Power to purchase land for burial purposes compulsorily, when land can- not be otherwise obtained, is given. A public burial ground, or part thereof, may be consecrated, but such consecration is not to confer any right or privilege, or impose any disability. A burial authority may, if it thinks necessary, provide a mortuary chapel, but not otherwise and whether provided before or after the commencement of the Act, it is to be available for all persons officiating. The existing rights of incumbents, clerks, and sextons in regard to duties and fees of all kinds in respect to the consecrated parts of cemeteries open before the passing of the Act are to continue only so long as the present officials hold their office but alterations or compensation are provided for. The Burial Act of 1880 is amended in several particulars. The time of the notice is reduced from 48 hours to 24, with a corresponding alteration where the hour is changed. When notice of a change of time is given, a burial may take place on a Sunday, Good Friday, or Christmas Day. With the consent of the incumbent a burial may take place without the required notice; and when it is certified that immediate burial is neces- l sary, it is to take place without notice. When per- mission has been given for the interment of a non- parishioner, the provisions of the Act are to apply as in the case 'Of a parishioner. An incumbent, in assigning grave spaces, is not to set apart particular portions for burials under the Act, or to distinguish in any way the graves of persons buried in accord- ance with its provisions. Also the use of the entrances and paths commonly used is not to be pre- vented, nor the tolling of the bell, or the use of bier, planks. &c. One clause makes it unlawful for any public corporate body to sell, or grant, glebe or other public land for a burial place to be vested in trustees for burial in accordance with the rites of the Church of England, or of any other religious body exclu- sively, and all such land conveyed for burial purposes is to be deemed to be a public burial ground.
TERRIBLE DISASTER. 25 PERSONS KILLED. A frightful railway disaster occurred near Black- shear, Georgia, the other day, where a southern fast mail train broke through a trestle-bridge over a creek. The train consisted of the locomotive, two mail wag- gons, two passenger carriages, and two sleeping carriages. The locomotive crossed safely, but the first mail waggon suddenly whirled over, breakingthe connecting rod with the locomotive, and dragging the second waggon with it. The following carriage also left the rails, and then the bridge fell, all the carriages falling together in a confused mass. The carriages at the bottom were completely crushed. Every carriage was filled with passengers. Scarcely one escaped unhurt. The shrieks and groans of the wounded, mingled with the wild cries of hysterical women, were heartrending. The continued blowing of whistles soon brought help, and then the work «f get- ting the wounded out began. The sight was horrible, and stout men turned palo as they listened to the groans of those imprisoned under the wreck. Car- riages and ox and mule carts were all pressed into the service and the wounded carefully conveyed to Black- shear. The people there threw open their houses and were indefatigable in their efforts to render every as- sistance possible. Nineteen persons were killed out- right. Six others died during their removal to the houses. Thirty-five others were injured, about ten of whom are not expected to live. Among the slightly injured was a son of Mr. Jay Gould, who was going South with his wife. Accounts differ as to the cause of the accident. The company say the axle on the forward waggon broke. Others say the trestle was weak.
ST. PATRICK'S DAY. SERTOUS DISTURBANCES IN COUNTY rONOWWID. St. Patrick's Day was celebrated in Dublin and throughout Ireland in the customary manner. The day was observed as a holiday in some of the public offices. No serious disturbances are reported, except at Limerick, where a conflict occurred between the police and the people, and in county Longford. The constabulary arrested a countryman in William-street for drunkenness, the man resisted, and a crowd of people hooted and groaned at the police, and then pelted them with stones. In an ineffectual attempt to take the prisoner to the lock-up his face was badly cut and bruised, and it is alleged 'that another man had several ribs broken by the police. The man who was first arrested took refuge in a shop, whence he was removed -the hospital. On Saturday night at Drumlish, co. Long- ford, two factions, numbering altogether about 200 men, engaged in a fight, all being more or less under the influences of drink. After fighting for some time they attacked a public-house, breaking the windows. Five constables tried to disperse the crowd, but were attacked by both factions and driven towards their barracks. By order of Sergeant Scully, who was m charge, the police fired six rounds of buckshot into the crowd. Two men, named Cain and McKeon, were seriously wounded, as was also one Armstrong, who now lies in the infirmary. The local doctor had several orders to visit injured people in the country. When the firing was over the police retired to their barracks^ in the vicinity of which stone throwing was kept up until an early hour in the morning. Mr. Hill, R.M., and County Inspector Lawless visited the scene of the riot. It ia expected that numerous arrests will take place.
HOMES OF THE POOR. .Copies of the bill to facilitate the better housing of the working classes in London, known as the M Housing of Working Classes (London) Bill," and backed by Mr. Robert Reid, Mr. Broadhurst, Sir Walter Foster, and Mr. Lawson, have just been issued tc members of Parliament. The bill provides that until a representative authority shall be chosen, the duties of such representative authority are to be performed by seven commissioners, of whom three sliall be paid commissioners appointed by the President of the Local 'overnment Board, and four shall be unpaid and appointed by the said president, and such authority will be empowered to buy, sell, or hire land, t" build, and to lay out land to provide suitable dwellings inside or outside of the metropolitan area for use by the population engaged in the industry of such a rea. to provide baths, lodgings, wash-houses, halls, or other structures required in their judgment for the use of such population, to provide open spaces in their r "Vmenfc required, and to acqi-;t-e any land that oughn to be acquired within the 81t;¡ area, or five Hilt's thereof, with a view to the expansion of the said population. All these con- ditions are, however, subject to the consent of tho Local (-overnment Board. Failing an agreement with I the ow-er or owners, the amount of purchase money or compensation is to be ascertained by a judge of county court if the total claims to be adjudicated ou are unfer £ 1000, and by a judge of the High Court of Justice if they are over tIO00, and the judge may in any case call in an assessor. The clauses of the bill set out at length the 'form of procedure to be adopted in all cases where land or houses are required, and r-iy?.on U allowed for romjiensation in cases of business being affected by any changes that may be adopted, and all costs incidental to the compulsory acquisition are to be at the discretion of the ju ige. It is abo sought to obtain certain borrowing powers fort-TMS not exceeding 49 years, at a rate of interest of not less than three jK-r cent.iper annum, all loans reooir'ng the sanction of the Commissioners of the Treasury _——————.
AT Birmingham Assises, John Russell, 60, alio,* Cooper and Australian Jemmy, was sentenced to 15 vears' penal servitude for burglariously entering the h"u:-e of Dr. Robins, surgeon, Grantsam-road, Bir- mingham. The prisoner was captured in the house, aitev a struggle, hy the prosecutor's two sons. Mr. Justice Smith, in passing sentence, said the prisoner had been twice sentenced to transportation for life, and a -■«to 10 years' penal servitude for burglary with violence. AN unusual incident, causing considerable commo- tion. occurred at St. George's Church, Bolton, the other morning, when a parishioner stood up and for- bade the banns of a couple intending to be married. The objector was quietly requested by a warden to go to the vestry at the close of the service, when, it is stated, he grounded his opposition on the alleged fact that tiie man was in debt, and consequently not in a position to be married.
MR. GLADSTONE'S IRISH PROPOSALS. At a meeting of the Rochdale Liberal Unionist As so- ciatkm a few days ago, a motion was proposed that Mr. Gladstone should be called upon to make known his proposals on the Irish question, which he expected 1 the Liberal party to support. This motion was re- jected, and a copy of it having been sent to Mr. Glad- stone, the right hon. gentleman has replied as fonows; Dear Sir,-I feel sure that the people of Rochdale will retain, at all the stages of the Irish question, that discernment for which their politics have been long and eminently distinguished. The demand made upon me as the leader of a minority not amounting to one- third part of the House of Commons, to declare the particulars of a measure which can only be proposed so far as experience teaches us, by a Government, ia the name, or with the hope of, a majority, is a demand wholly without example. It requires me to part witt my own liberty of judgment, wnile all other persons would justly maintain theirs, and to announce con- clusions upon points still immature as if they were mature. The principles of a Home Rule policy are thoroughly well known. The further determination of details belongs to. the period when some authorita- tive proposal is contemplated. The demand made by the minority at Rochdale probably was not under- stood by those who made it. It would surprise your great Rochdale patriarch, Mr. Bright, much as he has disapproved my conduct as to Irish affairs. In itself and apart from the intention of the proposers, such a demand is, according to my judgment, a trap, inta which only the blindest of the blind could fall.—1 remain, dear sir, your very faithful and obedient servant, W. E. GLADSTONE. To Thomas Watson, Esq., Rochdale."
FATAL RIOTS AT ARLES. At Aries the other day, according to a Marseilles correspondent, a crowd of about 10,000 people assem- toCed before the Mairie, and demanded that the Italians who, during a conflict between Italians and Zouaves at that place, had murdered two of the latter, should be handed over to them to be summarily dealt with. A guard of 25 soldiers proved powerless to pro- tect the prisoners, one of whom was almost strangled by the infuriated populace. A gendarme and a non-commissioned officer were wounded in the w&Ue. The prisoners, however, were not given ^p. Next morning the French workmen of the town made an attack upon the Italians who are employed in the dykes of the Rhone. One man was almost beaten to death, but the others succeeded in making their I escape. The funeral of the murdered Zouaves took place the same morning, 20,000 persons being present. The Mayor, who delivered a speech, urged the people to remain calm, and the contractors promised that they would expel all Italians from their worka,
THE ANTI-VACCINATORS. A batch of anti-vaccinators appeared before the Ashford (Kent) magistrates the other morning to answer summonses for non-compliance with orders to have their children vaccinated. Among the defen- dants was Charles Hayward, who has been convicted and fined upwards of 30 times, and whose case was brought before the House of Commons last session. The defendants were again convicted, the full penal- ties being imposed. The guardians of West Ashford Union have just arranged, with the sanction of the Local Government Board, for a suppiy of fresh animal lymph weekly front London. Tho medical officers are prepared to perform the operations with animal lymph in all cases in which parents object to lymph from the human subject. When other medical gentlemen perform vaccination they can obtain animal lymph from the medical officer if they wise. It is thought that this step will remove the objection felt by many parents to vaccination on the ground that it may sow the seeds of disease in their children.
EDUCATE THE FARMER. ý At the last ordinary meeting of tSie Society of Arts, Dr. Anderson in the chair, a paper on the above sub- ject was read by Professor John Wrightson. Having spoken in favour of farm schools, the professor sum- marised the results of experience gained in various countries, and said it was evident that any attempt on the part of the State to create a demand for tech- nical instruction for farmers had met with very par- tial success. The farmer did not and would not ap- preciate the value of scientific training, and the ex- perience of agricultural colleges in all countries ought to be entirely convincing of the truthfulness of this general statement. It must not be forgotten that all State-aided agricultural schools formed part of a system of protection and artificial fostering of industries, and he protested against the founding of such institutions. He thought, however, that praise was due to the independent wfiforts made at Ciren- cester, Downton, Aspatria, Ilollesley Bay, Hole Park, and elsewhere to meet the very languid demand which existed for sound agricultural information. The subject ought to be ventilated, an,I ideas respecting it oug-ht to be allowed to spread through the country. 1. If a Government grant was to he given it should aid existing efforts without greatly .controlling them. Scholarships should be given in order that young men of talent might take advantage of existing means aI instruction, or of those means of dnstruction which were arising, and would continue to arise if not throttled by an overshadowing Stirte-aided system, fettered by officialism and a prey to place-hunters. It must not, however, be too hastily concluded that agriculture required such aid. Although we had passed through times of extreme pressure, we seemed at last to have touched the bottom, and the man who thought of investing money in Land or in farming could do so at the present moment with a better expectation of commercial success than could have ibeen entertained at any time during the last 12 years. An inaugural meeting of the agricultural section of the National Association for the Promotion of Tech- nical Education has been held ia London-Earl Spencer in the chair—to consider the best means of promoting agricultural education. Among those !f»esent were Lord Balfour of Burleigh, Lord Lyttelton, Sir Henry Halford, Sir Lyon Playfair, M.P., Mr. F. de LMIne, Mr. C. T. D. Acland, M.P., Mr. Jesse Collings, M.P., Sir E. Grey, M.P., Mr. T. Ellis, M.P" Mr. H. S. Maakelyne, M.P., Mr. R. Munro Ferguson, M.P., and Mr. A. H. D. Acland, M.P. Lord Spencer was.appeinted chairman, and Mr. Ferguson, M.P., secretary, and it was resolved that & separate section of the Technical j Association should be formed for the consideration of agricultural education, and that various other gentle- men be invited to join the committee.
THE Court of Appeal fcas dismissed the appeal of Messrs. Werle and Co., of Rheims, from the decisionot the Divisional Court, which held that they are liable to pay income-tax on the profits of their business in England. AT Marlborough-street Police-court, W. S. Walker, clerk to Mr. Swaebe, Court dressmaker, has been committed for trial on the charge of embe/ii«g Beveral sums of money belonging to his employer, by entering larger amounts in the wo ires book than he had paid, and taking the excess, which he divided with a fellow clerk. MR. PETERSON, solicitor for the Clergy Defence Association, accompanied by his bodyguard and a dozen police, under Inspector Jones, Ruthin, visited Llanfwrog, near Ruthin, to serve distraint notices on behalf of the Rev. F. Reece, rector. He visited IS farms, but most of the tenants were attending a local fair. The weather was atrocious, snow falling heavily all day, and if it continues the campaign against the anti-titliepayers will have to be temporarily suspended. It is not likely that Mr. Petersou will revisit Anglesea for a fortnight. AT the Hammersmith Police-court, C. H. Beau- champ has again been brought up, on remand, charged with stealing jewellery to the amount of over £ 700. Mr. A. Lewis, from the Treasury, however, not being able to go on with the case, a further remand was ordered. On behalf of the Postmaster- General another charge was then preferred against the prisoner, that of tempting an official to steal a letter. An overseer of the Inland Revenue Branch of the Post Office having given evidence, the prisoner was also remanded on this charge. ARTHUR SHREWSBURY, the crack Nottinghamshire batsman, who will not return with his cricket team to Eugland from the Antipodes, amassed a splendid score of 206 in a match against combined Australia, concluded at Sydney on the 13th inst. The English Eleven beat the Colonists (for whom Jones, favour- ably known for his patient and sound cricket in this country, played a not-out innings of 134) by 108 runs. The same day Mr. G. F. Vernon's English team ended a match at Melbourne against an Eleven of Victoria, defeating their opponents by no less thitri 282 runs. The chief contributors to the English victory were Mr. W. W. Read, the dashing Surrey amateur, who carried out his bat for 142, and Mr. A E. Stoddart, who scored 75. «
CORRESPONDENCE. i [We do not hold ourselves responsible for the opinions of bar correspondents, j YSTRiDYPOD ff 6 SCHOOL BOIRD liD ITS BLUE BOOS. To the Editor of the Chronicle. SIR,-A few days ago I was shown a letter which appeared in your issue of the 2nd inst., subscribed by one "Economist," and purporting to be a criticism upon the Blue Book of the Yatradyfodwg School Board. Most of the statements made in that letter have already been docmed to the worthy fate of ob- livion. Had I been sooner aware of the existence ot this scoffing epistle, I should have sooner endeavoured to unshroud the effete statements made by the cowardly scribbler, who veiled himself trom Publicity behind a fictitious name, and dsnounced an efficient and experienced public official-the Inspector of the Ystradyfodwg School Board. Had this been all-the latter gentleman's repatation, woven b., faithful public service of 20 year* would, naked and unarmed, withstand and flatten tha treacherous bullets, and turn aside the poisoned dart of any such roguish sharp-shooting. But when an attack is made npon a public institution, such as the Higher Grade School, it is necessary, in the interests of parents who see* superior education for their children, that mis-repre- sentations of the work done at such places, shouldnot go unmasked, even though the misrepresentations be conveyed in a scoffing and slip-shod epistle. The "higher education" of the Ystradyfodwg School Board it teated in this epistle by the per centage gained. The Higher Grade in the past year, you were reminded, scored only 87 per cent., whilst under Mr Ho^g, the previous year, ifc reached 93 por cent, Were I Mr Hogg, I would certainly feel extremely grateful to this scribbler, whatever he be, for thus effectively advertising my school, for undoubtedly the p excellent abilities of Mr Hogg that (all alore, I pre- sume) procured him 9# per cent, in a public Higher Grade School, will accompany him to a private High School;" Evidently the last spark of the humane embers that lie smothering in the writer s bosom has notdeparted, unless it did, on this occasion, when is flew off to warm the genial spirit, and P1?0^16, ^0 eternal gratitude of Mr Hogg.. At the ever, it wantonly "kicked against public mstitutio and public officials. To guage instruction imparted at a school, by refer- ence to the per centage, scarcely commends itself to exnerienced educationists. This would hardly be fair toWM-ds the most elementary school. As far as higher education" is concerned, bare mention of percentage should be as nauseous as fat bacon to orthodox Jews. But to humour the flighty "Economist" let us vault these scruples, and accept the statements made by him that under Mr Hogg the Higher Grade School scored 96 per cent., whilst this year it reached 87 per cent. In the same Bine Book, from which this state- ment is deducted, H.M. Inspector states Jhat the falling off may be accounted for bv the fact that there was a change of teachers in the middle of the school vear. All the members of the staff appear to nave woiked hard, but during the early part of the year, the conditions were not favourable. Who was res- ponsible for the condition during the early part of the year, when the foundation of the whole was to be Ian., and who is, therefore, partly, if not wholly. respon^ sible for the astonishing perc entage of^87. jThat the responsible person was the self-same Mr Hogg, who scored 96 per cent, the previous year, can scarcely be known to an honest "Economist," for he of all men is flware that half a truth intentionally suppressed is the blackest of lies. The Higher Graie School lay neglected ior monsns, I wbilst the cata were wrangling over the cheese ill. report nibbled away, bit by bit, the reputation of tne school. From the ill-treatment the school snffered I during those months of warfare, it can but slowly recover. Under the strict discipline and superior attainments of the present principal and his staff, it is, however, making great headway, and is fast gaining & reputation which it has lacked since its start. The average attendance for the last quaiter under Mr Hogg was 75, whilst for the corresponding period this year it is 86. The blackblight that almost gnawed away the only source of higher education in the valley has at length succumbed to the combined and eftec tual efforts of the Inspector and the staff of the school, and once more the school bids fair to realise the ardent wishes expressed by its promoters. The sucoess of the Science Classes under the Board were referred to in the letter. I have no tenure at nreeeut to enter intq deltaiii on that point, but cer- tainly the writer of the letter had better be wary in tt'.rring up some effete matter that mi^ht, unwitting- lv on his part, prove detrimental to his fncsud, Mr ^Other matters referred to, being of little impor- tance. may be allowed to lie peacebly in their ashes. With many thanks to you, Mr Editor, for inserting above, I remain, yours, acc., X. Y.
ASSAULT IT PENYGRAIG. At Yatrad police court, on Monday, William Evans was cbaraed with assaulting Allen Edwards. Gomnlainaut, a labourer, said he told defendant he had better leave women's names alone. Defendant went home and told his wife, and the wife came and abused bim. He told defendant he must be a bad minded man to do such a thing, and defendant caught him toy the neck and gave him several blows just as he was about to enter the carriage. He gave a dezen blows, knocking him down, and continued to beat him on the ground. Benjamin Williams saw the two scuffling on the ground, but nothing more. Evans was uppermost. To pay the costs, 29s, and to be bound over in £5 to keep the peace for six months.
The Sunday Closing Act at Cwmpark. At Yatrad police court, on Monday, William Miles and Thomas Thomas were charged with falsely rep- resenting themselves to be travellers at the Freeman Arms, and were fined 158 each.
POfilLISTS M TROUBLE AT DIIAS. A BATTLE ON TYNYCYMMEK MOUNTAIN. At Ystrad police court, on Monday, Wm. Jenkins, John Williams, John Morgan, and Hopkin Evans were charged by P.O. Weeks with having on Monday, the 5th inst., tought to settle a quarrel which had occurred at a public honse on the previous Saturday. Morgan backed Williams, and Evans backed Jenkins. Jenkins and Evans fined 10s each, and the other two 181 each.—It was said that the principals carried on their battle on Tynyeymmer mountain for three-quar- ters of an hour, several rounds having been fought in the regular style of the modern pugilists. They might have come to hard blows if the police had no interfered.
MAKING HIMSELF COMFORTABLE- BREAKING INTO TYNYBEDW COLLIERY STORE. I At Ystrad police court, on Monday, (before the Sti- pendiary, Messrs D. W. jDavies and Mr T. P. Jenkins), James Webb was charged with breaking and entering Tynybedw Colliery store.—P.O. Reed said that about 5 o'clock on Sunday morning he was asked to go to Tynybedw Colliery. Ou reaching there he found de fendant in the stores in front of a large fire which he admitted he had taken from the boilers. There is a fireplace, but there had been nc fire for some years. Defendant said he had that day walked from Ponty- pool. and was nearly perishing with the cold. He could see someone had interfered with the oil, as there was a quantity of paraffin on the fl >or. Examined the lock, and found it had been forced. Charged defendant with breaking aid entering the store. He said he did not break in, as the door was partly open. Found Is Oid on him. Daniel Edwards said he saw the door safe at 11 o'clock on Saturday night. Force would be needed to get in. Fined 8s 23.
CR ELTYTO A HORSE AT BL1ENCWM At Ystrsd police court, on Monday, Henry Whiting, haulier, and David Davits, ostler, were charged with working a horse while in an unfit state. William GreenweU, Inspect >r of the B.P.C.A., said he visited the colliery on the 6th of March, and found, a horse with a wound on bis forehead the size of the palm of his hand, from which matter oozed. He gave directions that the animal should not be worked, but in defiance of this defendants did workthehorse. The ostler did not appear. His Worship told Whiting that be mu3t refuse to worn a uorse in sncb a state. If he refused, his em- ployer could do nothing to him, for he was not obHged ( to do an illegal act. Whiting was fiuedlOs, and Davies 258. 4-
LEISHOM Y. THE PONTYPRIDD LOCAL BOARD. ACTION AT THE ASSIZES. At the Glamorganshire Assizes, held at Cardiff, on, Friday, the long-talked-of action brought by Mr D. Leyshon, grocer, Graig, against the Pontypridd Local Board, was heard before Mr Justice Wills- Mr Bowen Rewinds. Q.C., M.P., and Mr Benson (instructed by Messrs Spickefctand Sons, Pontypridd)1' a appeared for the plaintiff, Mr Daniel Leyshon, general merchant, 18, High street, fontypridd ana Mr B. F. Williams, Q.C., and Mr Abel Thomas (in- structed by Messrs Gro\"f'r and Grover) for the de- fendants, the Pontypridd Urban Sanitary Authority. The plaintiff, Mr Leysbon, is the owner and oc, cupier of a house and shop known its 18, Higla Street, Pontypridd, and the pavements, qteps, and appurtenances thereto belonging. The defendants^ the Locf.1 Board of the District, had threatened, and still threatened, to break a.nd enter the pavements of plaintiff's premises, and, as a matter of fact, had,, since the issuing of the writ, so broken and entered, part of the pavements. Plaintiff thereupon claimed, an injunction to restrain the defendants from con- tinuing the work and damages. In the statement of the defence, the defendant authority alleged that tho pavements formed part of the street, which was vested in them by the Public Health Act, and that they had a right to break and alter the pavements, which, if not part of the street under the Act, had long since been dedicated to the publio use. Mr Bowen Rowlands, Q.C., M.P., stated that hia task had been rendered considerably easier by the fact that the jury bad themselves visited the place,, and oarefully inspected the premises and their sur» roundings. The plaintiff, who was a general mer- chant, carrying on business in various ways, was the son of the late Mr Leyshon, of Pontypridd, who waSi the original lessee and owner of the ground upon which he built the premises, part of which were the- grounda of the dispute. The Board had certain powers vested in them by Acts of Parliament, were no doubt. imbued with a desire to make certain improvements- Amongst other places they wished to improve was the plaintiff's premises, the pavement and steps in front of which they contemplated removing and sap- planting by others. The jnrlge I suppose the real qaestion at issue is whether this is a street or not Mr Bowen Rowlands: No, my lord the real ques- tion is whether the property proposed to Le touched by the delendants is cur private property. The Judse If the pavements are part of tiM- street your claim will be for compensation, but il private property then the defendants have no right tQr touch them. Mr Bowen Rowhmas as-ented, and proceeded to S!1y wen d be a ^e to prove that the footpath in front of the premises was the plaintiff's exclusive pr: pert. with which ih1 defendant authority had no right to \ntarfere. Originally the street was a turn- fike road under tho control of the Country Roads Joard, ni d the hill at the side, which had been ex- cavated to allow of the buildings being erected, originally ran down beyond the verge of the present pavements. The county rcall was bounded by a small low or retaining wall, part of which was now conspicuously visible at the corner at the corner near Union-street. Thi-.t retail ing wall stood whilst the excavations wore being made in tha hiii and plaintiff built his premise", which were erected entirely within the boundary, *s the rem uusof the wall would testify. The pavements in dispute w"re, therefore, private property, at.d a., such the Local Board had no power to interfere with t:IUffi. The first w itne-s called was Mr George Thomas (of: the firm of Mtsers beward and Thomas, architects, Cardiff), who produced plans of the premises. Mr Daniel Loys-hon, the plaintiff, said that the pave* ments, which were originally laid down by bis father at the time the hr.i'dings were erected, had been re- peatedly lepnired by them. The Local Board had never objected to bis exposing his goods for sale on this particular footpath, though they bad obligedhim to discontinue the practice at another shop he had in another part of the town. The remains of the old- boundary A a'l were still to be seou outside the pave- me: t. He had constantly turned people cff the foot- path. CrOss-exrmined by Mr B. F. Williams, witness ad- mitted that tho navement in front of the Green Mea- dow Inn, adjoining his property, was a public pave- ment. The footpath in front of the premises, how- ever, was r.ot nsud by the public, except it was as a. pi*age to Lis shop. Jasob Morgan, qnarryman, residing at Pontypridd, aaii! that he was 75 years old. and that he bad lived at Pontypridd close upon fifty years. He remembered the old tuvnpiKe road, which was bounded on one side by an 0](1 b"ulliJ"ry w.11, at the back of which was a. sloping hauk ao-n" .10 u>et high. The excavations for the plaintiff'•» ptcacftthniidmn-) were carried on before the boundary was raised. No part of t.he pavement in tront of the plaintiff's buildings extended beyond the old boundary line. Messrs Dari,l Rickey, mason, Thomas Thomas* plumber, und Thomas Morgan, Llantwit Fardre,gave corroborative evidence. Mr John Stockwood, derk to the Pontypridd magis- trates, bad never seen anyone who had not business* at the plaintiff's premises walking along the footpath, the twenty yearij he bad regularly visited Pontypridd. Mr David Riohttrds, mason, deposed that some ton years ago the plaintiff engaged him to repair the- footpath, which, in cross-examination, he admitted was well worn. Mr John Evans, grocer, residing at Pontypridd, re- membered the late Mr Leyahon building the shop anct premises, 18, High Street. He also affirmed that no part of the pavement projected beyond the place occupied by the old boundary wall. Mr John Calvert, colliery proprietor, Pontypridd, pri and the oldest member of the County Roads Board, remembered warning the late Mr Leyahon, who was., a personal friend and an employee of his, not to let his buildings encroach beyond the old boundary line. Mr John Evans, Navigation, surveyor to the Rural: Sanitary Authority of the Pontypridd Union; Mr C. Grainger, cabinet maker, and many other witneasaw- corroborated, and the case had not concluded when the court rose at six o'clock. On Saturday, Mr John Byron Lyall, watchmakar having been called on behalf of the plaintiff to cor roborate previous witne8se8" assertions that the foot path was never used by the pudlio unless they were proceeding to the plaintiff's premises on business, Mr B. T. Williams opened the case for the defence. He did not think he would be doing Pontypridd atk/ injustice when he said that the place not very many years ago was a small country village, or town,. where matters were tolerated, not as assertions of private right, but because the authority, if there- existed an authority at all, was of a aluggiah. character, which befitted the time and place. Now, however, matters had considerably changed, and from being a small oountry village of little practical importance, Pontypridd had grown to be the centre of a population numbering from 70,000 to 80,000 people, for the benefit of which the responsible' authority deBircd to effect all possible improve- ments. Proceeding, the learned counsel thought the, jury would agree with him, speaking upon the evi- dence that bad been adduced, that there never was any nuggestion by the plaintiff of private right in the, pHV-:m>-ut until the question arose with the defen- dant authority. The Judge (interposing): You have got to make out that cas 3 (Mr Williams.) Thirty years ago it undoubtedly private property. Mr Williams, with submission, proposed to pat his case in two ways. First, he proposed to show upon the evidence as it stood, and the conveyance of the property, that the pavement never was the pro- perty of plaintiff; and, secondly, that even if it was> his property the public had acquired a right over it by use, or. in other words, that the plaintiff bad dedicated it to public use. Orijina ly the property belonged to the Hev. Helv Rickarcs, from whom, plaintiff's father acquired the property by lease, and in 1806 by conveyance. The conveyance, however., it would be proved did not include the pavement in. front of the plaintiff's premifes. Abont the samtt- time the Green Meadow Inn, adjoining the plaintiff's: buildings, was nlso ccnveytd to the predecessor ill- title of tue gentleman who now cw: ed the inn. Neither did thii coiiveypre,- include the footpRth ia front of the inn, nor was any claim made that it was. private property. Mr E d. Rees, surveyor to the Local Eoard, ettift that be had many times used the pavement in front, of the plaintiff's shop. He nf v«r saw the footpath. entire j obstiueted until tLe a« in had commenced. Mr M>ea Chile, builder and surveyor; Mr Davict- Leyshon, brewer and owner of the Green Meadow Inn Mr David Charles; Mr H. S. Davies, assistant overseer fcr Llantwit Fardre Mr Edward Evans. slater and plasterer; Mr James Roberts, manager ot the Treforest Iron and Steel Works; the Rev. W. L Morris, Independent Iminister; and Mr Thomas Llewellyn, insarance agent, gave evidence to the same effect. Counsel on both sides having addressed the court atIsnath, His lordship laid the facts fully bafore the jury, remarking that all they had to consider was whether the pavement was within the boundary of the land purchased by the plaintiff's father, and thus the plaintiff's private property, and, if so, whether or not he had allowed it to become dedicated to the publie use. The jury, without leaving the court, returned a, verdict for the plaintiff, for whom bis lordship there upon entered judgment with an ipjuuetion, bat without damages.