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THIRD SERIES. [Edited by W. FERGUSSOK IRVINE and J. B'AOWNBIIili.J Being Local Gleanings, Historical and Antiquarian relating to Cheshire, Chester and North Wales, from many scattered fields. Oh, let me teach you how to knit again This scattered corn into one mutual Sheaf. Titus Andronicus, V, iii, 70, 71. NOTES. [6461 SANCTUS, SERMON, AND ANTHEM BELLS. (See No. 602.) Many churches possessed a "Sancte," "Sanctus," "Sacrying" or "Saunce" bell. As the priest said the" Sanctus" the custom was to toll three strokes on a bell, which was hung in a bellcote between the chancel and the nave, that the rope might fall at a short distance from the spot where knelt the youth or person who served at Mass, at the high altar. Such a bellcote exists at Prestbury in Cheshire and other churches. At other altars in the church a small handbell was used. Such an one is still preserved in Gumfreston Church, Pembrokeshire, and several have been found in churches in North Wales. Fuller in his "Church History says the Hand bell was not fixed as the rest, in any place of church or steeple, but being diminutive of Saints bell was carried in the sexton's band at the consecration of the Sacrament, the visitation of the sick, etc." The Injunctions of Edward VI. in 1547 say that in the time of the litany, of the high Mass. of the sermon, and when the priest readeth the Scripture to the parishioners, no manner of persons without a just and urgent cause, shall depart out of the church and all ringing and knolling of bells shall be utterly forborne at that time, except one bell in convenient time to be rung or knolled before the Sermon." In 1549'' the ringing of Sacrying bells was expressly forbidden, and it was also ordered "that going to the sick with the sacrament the minister have not with him either light or bells." In 1554 under Queen Mary the Articles of Visitation ask whether there be a little Sanctus bell" and bells and coops" in all churches, and Cardinal Pole in his visitation of the diocese of Canterbury asks whether the Sacrament be carried devoutly to them that fall sick, with light, and with a little Sacring bell" ? In 1557 (1. Elizabeth) the injunction of Edward VI. regarding the knolling of bells and the Sermon bell was again enacted. The existence of Sanctus and Sermon bells gives such an air of plausibility to an Anthem bell that the latter has been accepted as a natural corollary even by such an experienced antiquarian as the late Mr. Earwaker, though he confesses that he was a good deal puzzled to explain the meaning of the name of this bell and could only conclude that it was the same as the Sacring bell. That this was not so can be seen by the accounts of St. Mary's Church which he quotes, for we find in that the church- wardens in 1545 paid For a rope to the Antam bell iijd and also Paid to Elyn bushell for a Sacrying bell iiijd so that the two bells were co-existent. In the first place let us observe the spelling. It shows strange variants, even allowing for the eccentricities of the period. In St. Oswald's accounts it is spelt Anthem once in the 16th century, but we also find 1705, 29 June, paid for a Rope for the Tantany Bell 10d. 1710, March 25. pd. for a Rope to ye Tanteny Bell Is. Od. In the accounts of St. Ma.ry-on-the-Hill it stands as follows 1536, Antoll. Antyll; 1541-2, Anthem (twice); 1542-3, Anthem (twice); 1545, Antam 1547, Anton; 1548, Anton; 1551-2, Antem; 1553-4, Anten and Anthem; 1554, Antyn; 1556, Anton (twice); 1557-8, Anton; 1558, Antan; 1617, Antom and Tanton 1G46, Antham. The following quotations appear to supply a clue to the whole matter. In "Bells of the Church" by the Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, p. 30,5, we find :-The Tantony Bell: In the churchwardens' accounts of Lamport (co. Northampton) is this entry: "22nd March, 1747, a Tantony bell rope, 9d." In Baker's "Glossary of Northamptonshire Words and Phrases" Tantony: The small bell over the church porch, or between the chancel and the nave; the term is also applied to any small hand bell. Ring the Tantony is evidently a cor- ruption of St. Anthony, the emblem of that saint being a bell at his tau-staff, or round the neck of his accompanying pig. Hone in his "Everyday Book" (i. 60) mentions ■u .^hoiiy's fire> an old name for erysipelas, for which St. Anthony's help was invoked, and quotes Bishop Patrick as saying that in honour of St. Anthony s power of curing pigs also, "they used in several places to tie a bell about the neck of a pit? and maintain it at the common charge of the parish whence came our English proverb of Tantony pig or t Antony, an abridgement of the Anthony pig. 1 remember," says Stow, "that the officers charged with the oversight of the markets in this city did (livers times take from the market people, pigs starved, or otherwise unwholesome for man s susten- ance these they did slit in the ear. One of the Proctors for St. Anthony's (Hospital) tied a bell about the neck (of one of them) and let it feed on the dunghills no man would hurt or take it up but if any gave to them bread or other feeding, such they (the pigs) would know, watch for, and daily follow whining until they had somewhat given them; whereupon was raised a proverb Such an one will follow such an one, and whine as it were an Anthony pig.' If such a pig g-rew to be fat and came to good liking (as oftentimes they did) then the Proctor would take him up for the use of the hospital." Halliwell's "Dictionary of Archaic and Pro- vincial Words" has Anthony Pig: The favourite or smallest pig of the litter, a Kentish expression, according to Grose To follow like a tantony pig i.e., to follow close at one's heels. The following occurs in Mrs. J. R. Green's Town Life in the Fifteenth Century," Vol. I., p 99 :—An account book of Wm. Mucklow, merchant in the Passe Mart at Barro, Middleburg, in the Synxon Mart at Antwerp in 1511 records sales of white drapery and purchase of various goods, fustian knives, sugar ribands, leather, buckets, Antony belles, saclce belles, sheets, etc. This last shews an earlier use of the word and also that these bells were imported in quanti- ties from the celebrated bell-founders of the Low Countries as ordinary articles of merchandise. They would doubtless be well known in a mercantile centre like Chester. Ellacombe (p. 308) gives another valuable illustrationAt Eglingham Church, near Alnwick, there is a small bell dated 1489. The inscription in German, when translated, is this t Antony is my name. I was made in the year 1489. The Anthem bell at St. Mary's seems to have been in constant use by the number of ropes purchased for it, and it evidently hung in the porch, for in the Churchwardens' accounts for 1557 we find :— Peyd for nelys for mendying the howys (house) ower the Anton bell ijd. In concluding, I would desire to point out that Anthem bell is a standing warning of the necessity of careful investigation where old names and customs are involved. JOSEPH C. BRIDGE. The "Sabring bell" would seem, judging by it6 •weight, to have been a small hand bell, though it is sometimes distinguished from the "hand bell" in the lists of church goods. In the inventory of Sir John Fastolfs property (1459) occurs j sakering bell, weiyng xj unces," and in the list of church plate, etc., bequeathed by "Lady Margaret (mother ol Henry VII.) to Christ's College, Cambridge, in 1509, there is included" a sakering bell with a claper of siluer all white pondering v vnces price le vnce iijs. iiijd-xvjs. viijd." J. B. The Anthem Bell" was, one might suppose, the same as the Dagtale Bell (? Dity-telling)-a small bell formerly in Overton Church, F rod sham Jrarish, fixed over the chancel, in which there would ^J11lt,il,r°Pe-. 14 was called by some the "Dogtail Bell This bell was m the church, I believe, about 34 years ago, but one cannot answer for modem" restorers." There was then also a Book of Homilies," held to its chancel-wall desk by a rusty old chain, as old as the rather tattered first edition of the book. F. R. [647] CHESHIRE DOMESDAY NOTES. II. (See No. 645.) Areas of Manors.-The areas of woodland are usually given in Domesday Book, and in addition there are nine cases in Cheshire in which the area of the manor is given. As it is of some importance tb assure ourselves of the degree of accuracy attained by the survey, we may take as a good example, the boundaries being well known, the manor of Christleton (4b), which is said to measure two leagues by one, or 3 miles bv 1A. On consulting the map it will be found that this is as nearly exact as is possible without using smaller fractions than half a league. Christleton-the parish, not the township in this case—is about three miles from east to west and a mile and a half from north to south. This gives an acreage of 2,880, against the 3,284 acres of modern exact measurement, a loss of about 12 per cent. Eddisbury (3b) measured one league square. This is rather less than the modern township carved out of Delamere Forest (roughly, 2 miles by li), giving acreage of 1,440 against 2,085 (Cassell's Gazetteer 3,800 in the Directory). '\i Cedde>" llb.) measured two leagues by one, and had a wood one league by half a league. In this case it is not quite clear whether the Domesday manor included the whole parish or only the two townships (originally one) called Cheadle Bulkeley and Cheadle Moseley. These townships together measure 4-2 miles from north to south, and from lg to 3 miles east to west, with an acreage of 4,500. The Domesday measurement gives 3 miles by 11 for the cultivable part of the manor and 1 miles by a for the wood. These are much smaller than the dimensions of the two Cheadle townships, giving only 3,600 acres, a loss of one-fifth. The existence of heath or marsh, then worthless, may account for some of the difference. (To be continued.) QUERY. [648] BEACH FLATrS AND PEARL WALL FOUL LAKES. Tho. Calley for Beach flatts & Pearl Wall. £1 The above is an extract from an assessment on the inhabitants of the parish of St. Oswald, Chester, dated April 17, 1741. In the same assessment the "Foul Lakes" are mentioned. I should very much like to know where these places were situated. Chester. W. H. BENNETT. REPLY. [649] THE SAUGHALL ROAD. (Set No. 625.) Mr. Bennett's query as to Saughall Road, when taken in connection with the "Perambulation" of St. Oswald's Parish Boundaries in 1620 (See Nos. 609 and 615), re-opens the question whether the old Mollington Lane was the present Saughall Road, or the Parkgate Road. The following passage from the Perambulation document appears to favour Saughall Road:— Over Porte poole bridge, and then about the west side of the poole heys in Blacon Lordshipp, then turninge Eastward unto the further stone bridge in Mollington Lane, followinge the water course at the ends of certaine of the said poole heys wh: said water course doth there seperate our parish from Trinitie parish, and cometh from the aforesaid Stone Bridge." It would be quite correct to speak of the Stone Bridge in Saughall Road as the further Stone Bridge," as in one of the 16th century perambulations of the City, the Port Pool bridge is described as the first stonen bridge that you come unto from the towre of this Citie." Moreover, as far as the Saughall Road Stone Bridge, the water-course does separate St. Oswald's and Trinity parishes: whereas between Saughall Road and Parkgate Road the land on both sides oi the birook is in St. Oswald's. On the other hand the following passage a little later in the St. Oswald's Perambulation clearly points to Mollington Lane being Parkgate Road Item from Crabhall wee returned agayne through Mollington Lane aforesaide unto the further Stone Bridge, and from thence following the east syde of the aforesaid Poole Heyes in Blacon Lordshippe, wee turned over the said Mollington Lane, and entred into Mr. Dutton's Meddowes, out of the wh: we came into the Bach ground,"&c. A glance at the map will shew the reader that it would be going very much out of the way to go back to the Saughall Road bridge to get from Crabhall to Bache, but that the nearest and obvious way would be along Parkgate Road. E. C. L.



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