11 THE CLAIMANT DEAD. A UTIIUTT ORTON DIES IN LONDON LODGINGS. ArUrji- Orton. better known as the Tichborno claimant. died suddenly about, six o'clock on tha morning of the 1st inst. at his lodgings. 21, Should- ham-street, Marylebone. as the result of heart disease. Orton was 69 years of age. He came to Shouid- ham-strept. where he occupied the second floor, about two months ago with his wife. who is still a. com- pantively young woman, and his appearance was well known in the neighbourhood. He had been in very poor health for some time past. and suffered particularly from an affection of the bladder. So needy were his circumstances that he had to get parish medical relief, and was even advised by the parisii doctor to enter the infirmary. He was seen out in the street during the early part of this week. and on Thursday night retired to rest as usual. In the early hours of the morning Mrs, Orton awoke, and found him sleeping, and settled to rest again. On awakening some two hours later, however, she noticed a change in him. and at once summoned a medical man, and Dr. James, the police divisional surgeon, who arrived shortly after six a.m., at once pronounced life to be extinct. Orton, shortly after his release from serving his sentence, married his present wife, who, it is stated. was then on the music-hall stage, and only about 17 years of age. They at first travelled about from town to town, the deceased giving lectures on his past life and in support of his claims to the Tichborne estates. Upon the proceeds of his lectures, supplemented by help from a number of sympathisers who believed in his claims, the couple lived, but his health failing, he had to give up lecturing. I:> He then took a small tobacconist's shop in Isling- ton, doing fairly well for a time, his past history bringing in a number of customers anxious to see the the claimant." On leaving Islington he moved to Kilburn, where he got a living by showing in the various public-houses in the neighbourhood at enter- tainments got up for his benefit. To the end he maintained that he was the true Sir Roger Tichborne, and spoke of his wife as Lady Tichborne. THE RESTORED HEIR." A gentleman who was born on the Tichborne estate, Mid who was brought into personal contact with the claimant both before and after his conviction, has furnished the following sketch of this extraordinary man: My earliest years were associated with the famous Tichborne estate in Hampshire, and the story of the missing Roger mingles with my oldest memories. In those years of my boyhood in the neighbourhood of Tichborne, where every family I legend was well known to all, the abiding belief of fue old Lady Tichborne that her lost boy would re- turn to his village home was a pathetic incident none could despise. I have known many a tramping sailor or wan- derer, presumably from over the seas,'who would go down Tichborne-park to the picturesque old house. Most of these wandering visitors were absolute frauds, but they got at' Lady Ticbborne with so- It was ultimately felt in the neighbourhood that Alfred Tichborne, the younger son, must be regarded is the family heir. On the death of old Sir James Tichborne, Alfred took the title, he married, and his mother left the family estate for Paris, most of the Jid servants also leaving the place. Andrew Bogle, the notorious black man, then went abroad. I knew Bogle, and always had an instinctive dread of him. He was looked upon as a very smart' nigger indeed, the adjective not being strictly sartorial, though his neat appearance and old courtly ways were admirable. Sir Alfred Tichborne went the pace, and when he died at an early age there was no heir of Tich- borne left, young Roger being lost, and there being no means apparently of discovering him. So the famous home in the historic park looked like going into the hands of strangers. Then came the two most interesting rumonrs- tne, that the widow of Sir Alfred was in a condition the result of which might provide an heir to the estates, and the other, that the real Sir Roger had been discovered in Australia by Andrew Bogle, and was coming home without delay to revive the family fortunes and claim his own. He (Sir Roger) had, it was stated, not been lost, but had gone into trade, Dhanged his name, and had never intended to return to Tichborne. Both rumours possessed foundation. One day the bells of the old Tichborne Church rang out merry peals, an heir having been born to the estates. "Then Andrew Bogle arrived at Alresford, and the local excitement was such that description would be difficult. As a lively boy amid it all, my memory is very clear, and I have before me now that extra- ordinary night at the Swan Inn, Alresford, when the doors were besieged by callers. Seats were at a premium, and standing room was bought for the first time in the history of the ancient hostelry. Andrew Bogle was in the principal room, the guest of host Rous, who knew the real Sir Roger, and Rous told everyone that the news of the missing man was true, for Andrew Bogle had found him, and he wail coming home. | Sure enough Sir Roger' came, and as we saw him walk from the railway station with the old family lawyer, Ir. Hopkins, to the residence of the latter in Broad-street, the streets were lined with people, who vowed that the tall, stout-looking gentle- man. afterwards known as the claimant, was as true a Tichborne as ever breathed. Sir Roger was popular in manner, and made friends all round. The faith of Mr. Hopkins, and the enthusiastic support of Guilford Onslow and Mr. Whalley, then both members of the House of Commons, inspired the whole neighbourhood with the conviction that Sir Roger was the right man, a.nd must not have the estate denied to him by the friends of the little heir. As the fact became known that his claim to the estates was to be disputed. local sympathy deepened, and when Sir Roger took up his residence at Alres- ford. and drove about with 1 Lady Tichborne,' his wife, a somewhat coarse Australian, he was over- whelmed with attention, and at that time, had any- one gone against him, his position would have been perilous one, for disputants in several instances got wood duckings in Tichborne, Alresford, and other places because they denounced the restored heir' as in impostor. "While the trial was on in London, the sale of papers in Alresford and Tichborne made the fortune of the local agents, and one striking incident was that » train leaving Waterloo at five o'clock every day brought the latest evening paper from London, and crowds would gather at the railway station every evening, when I would read to a most appreciative audience the doings of the trial up to the time of publication of the paper." A RECORD TRIAL. The legal proceedings were the longest on record, having lasted from beginning to end seven years and 18 days. Following the civil case, in which Orton claimed the Tichborne estates, came his trial for perjury, which concluded at the beginning of 1874, and re- sulted in his being sentenced to penal servitude for 14 years. During the five years he had been preparing and carrying on the civil case he had spent £35,000; and prior to the perjury trial defence bonds were issued, which were eagerly taken up by the public. Much of this misplaced confidence in Orton's claims was. of course, due to the fact that Dowager Lady Tichborne had herself acknowledged Orton as her long-lost son.
THE ECLIPSE OF THE SUN. There wa3 an interesting gathering of the members of the Royal Society in London the other day. to hear from the lips of some of the most distinguished observers some account of the total eclipse of the sun as seen in India last January. The Astronomer- Royal (Mr. W. H. M. Christie) illustrated his pre- liminary report on the observations at Sahdol by showing a series of very successful photographs of the corona upon a large scale. These photographs indicated the details of the structure both at the base and as it stands out from the sun. Another part of his programme was to determine the position of the moon at that part of her orbit when she is invisible except by eclipsing the sun. For this purpose a series of photographs were taken between the first contact and totality and between second contact and totality. The time at which each was exposed was obtained by determining local time, and then fixing the longitude of the station from Greenwich—a work admIrably carrIed out by the Indian Survey Department. The Astronomer- Royal's station was situated in a dense jungle, in which a clearing had been made for the occasion, and every- thing was declared to be most comfortable by the party. Mr. Christie expressed himself well satisfied with the photographs, which were taken with a shortened tube, and with the aid of theecelostat—novelties in connection withthe observation of eclipses ofthesun. Other photo- graphs show the variations in the register of magnetic currents at Greenwich at the time of the eclipse. The variations had been remarkably small in 1897, and the currents were quiet both before and after the eclipse, at which time there were three fairly striking groups of sun-spots. It is pretty well established that there is a general correspondence between magnetic move- ments and sun-spots, though the connection between individual spots "•-l disturbances is aa yet not made out. Amt who addressed the meeting were Sir Lockyer, who gave a preliminary account of the ( h" rvations at Viriadrug: Professor II. H. Turner, who -leak with the pohuf scopic results obtained at Sahdoi the Astronomer- Royal for Scotland (Dr. R. Copeland), who contri- buted a note on photographs taken at Ghoglee and Captain E. H. Hills and Mr. H. F. Newall, who drew attention to the observations made at Pulgaor.
A "GRAVE" NATIONAL DANGER. The Earl of Hopetoun, as president of the Insti- tution of Royal Naval Architects, expressed the opinion at the annual conference of that body that there was nothing of a startling nature in the Admiralty programme for the present year. Six new battleships, he said, were to be laid down three of the Formidable, or improved Majestic, type, but the designs of the remainder had not he under- stood, yet been decided upon. Last July it was announced that the Admiralty had arranged to have four cruisers built with vertical 3ide armour. Until the recent improvements in armour were affected it would not have been possible to put plates on the sides of swift cruisers of sufficient strength to adequately preserve them from the effects of shell fire. This was no longer the case, and they need there- fore feel no surprise at the Admiralty having decided to order the construction of these ships, which would have great speed, very considerable armament, and vertical protection to their vitals, sufficient to resist a.ny attack which they might reasonably be expected to encounter. Coming to the matter of the output of the ship- building yards, his lordship pointed out that Japan provided the largest amount of work for British shipbuilders, over 6 per cent. of the total output having been built for that country. Germany followed with over 3 per cent. Of the warship output, 30 per cent. was for foreign account Japan and Chili showing the largest totls. During recent years we had been accustomed to large additions to our tonnage, the net increase of the merchant navy of the United Kingdom during the first nine years of the past decade amounting on the average to 366,000 tons per annum, while during 1897 the net increase only reached the insignificant amount of 8600 tons. This great falling off was partly due, no doubt, to the strike, but it was also largely attributable to the great amount of tonnage which had been transferred to foreign and colonial owners during the year. These figures indicated that it was now becoming customary for an amount of tonnage equal to that of almost any other merchant navy to be removed within, say, every two or three years from the register of the United Kingdom on account of foreign sale. This was a matter of grave importance. It was a sign of the times which should not escape the notice of those who were responsible for legislation. It appeared to be scarcely doubtful that the foreigner was often able to secure an adequate profit from vessels which his British competitor did not find sufficiently remunerative. From a national point of view, however, there was one consolatory aspect of this subject. Nearly three- fourths of the vessels transferred from the United Kingdom during the last two years were built before 1885; but they could congratulate themselves that the greater part of the vast British mercantile marine was of efficient modern construction.
WARFARE IN FIGURES. SOME SIGNIFICANT STATISTICS. Those who like to feel their pulses stirred at the prospect of war must have been more in their element during the past twelve months than for a quarter of a century. International situations and rumours of war have been the order of the day since. Strangely enough, though almost everybody talks glibly enough of war just now, it is generally agreed that no one can possibly realise, much less describe, what the horrors of the next great war will be like. Perhaps the statistical method is as affective as any in an attempt to represent the results of war. In the last really great war—that between France and Germany—France lost as many as 136,000 men, of whom some 80,000 died of wounds received in battle, 36,000 by sickness, accident, suicide, &c., and 20,000 in German prisons. A French statistician estimates that his countrymen who were wounded. but who survived, numbered 138,000, those injured cn the march or by accident 11,421, those who re- covered from illness 328,000, making a total of 477,421, direct sufferers. The German killed num- bered 40,877 17,255 died on the field and 21,023 in the ambulances; making 79,155 in all. The wounded who survived numbered 18,543 men. From first to ast the German field artillery fired 340,000 shots and the infantry 20,000,000. The booty of war con- sisted of 5526 fortress guns, 1915 field guns and rapid firing cannon, 107 eagles and flags, and 855.000 rifles, exclusive of what was captured at leisure on abandoned fields. The monetary loss suffered by France was 12,666,487,522fr., including 2,386,412,558fr. for military expenses, 5,742,938,814fr. paid to Germany. loans 1,156,327,955fr.; losses suffered by the State 2.033,939,000fr., public works 207,239,800fr., in- demnities paid by the State to departments 604,622,425fr., damages borne by the communes and not reimbursed by the State 535,007,000fr. Captain Otto Berndt, of the Austro-Hungarian Grand General Staff, published about a year ago figures relating to the mortality in particular battles between the French and the Germans. Here they are:—Woerth, 82,100 Germans against 48,500 French; German loss 10,640, or 13 per cent; French loss 20,100, or 41.4 per cent. Spicern. 34,700 Germans against 27,600 French; Ger.nan loss 5740, or 14 per cent.; French loss 4080, or 14"8 per cent. Colombey Nouilly, 57,300 Germans against 84,200 French German loss, 4910, or 8'2 per cent.; French loss 3670, or 4 per cent. Mars la Tour, 63,000 Germans against 113,500 French; German loss 15,000, or 23'9 per cent.; French loss 16,930 or 14 per cent. Graye-Iotte-St. Privat, 187,600 Germans against 112,900 French German loss 21,130, or 11'3 per cent. French loss 12,270, or 10'3 per cent. Sedan, 154,000 Germans igainst 90,000 French; German loss 8920, or 5 5 per cent.; French loss 38,000 or 42 2 per cent. The total loss to both sides averaged 125 per cent. of the fighting strength. For the Seven Years' War the average was 23'5 per cent.; for the Napoleonic wars 19; Russo Polish war (1831) 18'5 Italian war (1838-49) 5*5 Austro-Hungarian war (1848-49) 4'5 Crimean war 15 Austro-Prussian war of 1866, 12. Turkey, partly from necessity and partly from choice, is the most warlike of the European nations. Her record from the beginning of the century to the end of 1896 was 37 years of war and 59 of peace. Spain with 31 years of war to 65 of peace has second place; Then comes France with 27 years of war and 69 of peace Russia 24 years of war and 72 of peace; Italy 23 years of war and 73 of peace England 21 years of peace and 75 of war Austria-Hungary 17 and 79: the Netherlands, 14 and 82; Germany ex- clusive of Prussia) 13 and 83 Prussia 12 and 84 Sweden 10 and 86; Portugal 12 and 84; and Den- mark 9 and 87. There was peace for European Powers in the periods of 1816-18. 1841-47, 1879-81, and 1886 up to the war between Turkey and Greece. The Captain Berndt to whom allusion has been made above is authority for the statement that in the past four centuries Austria has waged 63 wars against foreign foes, 22 of them against France. In these 22 she fought 92 battles of importance and 106 minor engagements. Of the 198 engagements Austria won 110 and France 88. The Italians occupied Austria's attention in 10 wars, Turkey in 9 wars, and Prussia in 5 wars. All told, the troops of Austria have fought in 7000 engagements, great and small, in the last 400 years, an average of over 17 per annum.
MATHEMATICS OF MARRIAGE. The chances at birth that a baby will eventually marry, says Mr. T. D. Denham, in Pearson's Maga- zine, are nine ill twenty, or rather less than one-half. This result may seem surprising, but it is largely accounted for by the great mortality of persons under marriageable age, especially of infants up to the age of five. No fewer than 38 per cent. of babies die before they are five years old, and 44 per cent. of the wholepopulationbeforetheageof eighteen. The females outnumber the males in this country in the propor- tion 106 to 100. Out of every 100 persons now living in this country 60 are single, 35 are married, and five are widowed. So that, on the average, one person in every 20 you meet in the streets, in the train, or wherever it may be, will be either a widow or a widower, and three out of five will be un- married. In England an average husband and wife on their wedding day may expect to live together for 27 years, in France only 26, in Holland and Belgium 23, but in Russia 30. The most popular time for a woman to get married is from her 21st to her 25 thyear, inclusive. More than one-half of the women who marry at all marry in these five years of their life, and another quarter marry between the ages of 25 and 30. With men not quite one-half marry between the ages of 20 and 25, and more than a third between the ages of 25 and 30. The average age of marrying is just over 26 for women and just under 28 for men. These figures include re-marriages. For spinsters only the average age is 25, and for;bachelors 26. It is a noticeable fact that in the last 10 years the average age of marrying has, for men and women alike, gone up half a year. Taking the complete quarters ending on the last days of March, June, September, and December respectively, the December quarter is most prolific in marriages, and the spring and summer quarters came next, about equal, with the March ouarter a long way behind. I,
THE FAR EAST. BRITAIN TO HAVE WEI-HAI-WEI. The Times Peking correspondent says that on Saturday the Chinese Government agreed to a de- mand by Great Britain for a lease of Wei-hai-wei after the withdrawal of the Japanese. The details have not been divulged. A despatch from Yokohama says the Japanese Press takes the view that the British naval display is not directed against Russia, but is intended to coerce China into granting a con- cession to Great Britain. The belief is expressed that Japan has been left in isolation, and it is urged that the Japanese troops should be left at Wei-hai-wei even after the payment of the in- demnity. The Russian Ambassador in Constanti- nople has informed the Sultan that 20,000 recruits for the Far East would shortly traverse the Dardanelles in vessels of the Russian Volunteer Fleet.
SPAIN AND THE UNITED STATES. INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATIONS. A New York correspondent says that President McKinley has not yet abandoned the hope that Spain will accept the inevitable with peace instead of the inevitable with war. Some of the leaders of the Congress are also willing to wait until diplomacy has succeeded. Congress is regarded as more dangerous to peace than Spain; if it escaped from its leaders it would accept nothing but war. The country, as a whole, would leave the issue with the President, though there are powerful sections which desire war for war's sake. It is not probable that the United States would accept direct mediation, but indirect mediation, in the form of good advice to Spain, would not be restnted. In the meantime, the air is filled with warlike rumours, true and false. There are move- ments of ships, orders to troops, councils of war, votes for the navy, the purchase of ships, the strengthening of coast defences, and the planting of mines in New York and other harbours. The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations has agreed to report a resolution declaring the inde- pendence of Cuba, and adding a reference to the Maine explosion. A special correspondent in Cuba reports from Havana that a request by Marshal Blanco to the commanding officers of volunteer regiments that they should use every effort to train their men and to raise more recruits is regarded as meaning that he considers war imminent. Two cruisers have left Havana to escort the torpedo flotilla from Puertorico to Havana. From Madrid it is reported that the chances of an amicable settlement are considered more remote than ever. The Spaniards will go to war with a firm conviction that they have done what they could towards a pacific solution, and have made every roncession fairly compatible with the national dignity. THE POPE AS MEDIATOR. The Spanish Minister of the Interior states offici- ally that the Pope has consented to act as mediator between Spain and the United States. At the sug- gestion of the latter both nations accept his media- tion.
THE SOUDAN CAMPAIGN. SKIRMISHES WITH DERVISHES. The situation on the Atbara remains unchanged. Patrols are scouring the country on both sides of the river in the direction of the Mahmud's entrenched position. They have encountered several of the enemy's advanced posts, but the latter on each occa- sion retired. Mahmud's secretary, who was captured at Shendy, was brought to Ras Hudi camp from Dakhila on Saturday. The information he gave confirmed the previous statements of dervish deserters. Mahmud, it appears, kept the fall of Shendy secret from all but the leading Emirs. Seven women of the harem, however, who escaped from Shendy, and have arrived at Naheila, Mahmud's entrenched camp, spread the news, which created great excitement among his black followers.
MR. GLADSTONE. The bulletin issued at Harwarden Castle on Sunday evening stated: Mr. Gladstone had a. pretty good night. He has been sitting out in the garden in the sun for some time this afternoon." Mrs. Gladstone attended morning service at the parish church on Sunday, accompanied by Mrs. Wickham and Mr. Herbert Gladstone.
ZOLA FREED. HIS SENTENCE QUASHED ON APPEAL. The Paris Court of Cassation has quashed the sentence passed upon M. Zola by the Assize Court, without ordering a new trial before another Assize Court. This decision is based upon the ground that it is not the Minister of War, but the court-martial, which was the object of defamation, that should have instituted the proceedings against M. Zola. The judgment declared that the courts military are a permanent body equally with the civil courts, and that the Minister of War had consequently no right to take proceedings on their behalf, inasmuch as they were the parties libelled by M. Zola. The reading of the judgment evoked no demonstra- tion, the audience being chiefly barristers and journa- lists. In the Chamber MM. Chiche and Habort, Radi- cals, interpolated the Government on the decision of the Court of Cassation. M. Meline, in his reply, justified the conduct of the Government. The Premier said that the procedure followed in the Zola affair had been regular and in conformity with the law. Before any legal proceedings were taken he had consulted an eminent jurisconsult. He de- clared that no exemption from further pro- ceedings in the Zola affair had been established. General Billot, Minister of War, would summon the military court, and the latter would then decide whether it should take action against M. Zola or not. The order of the day pure and simple was adopted by 333 votes against 174. In conformity with M. Meline's statement, General Billot will submit to General Zurlinden, the question of the calling together of the Military Court which tried Major Esterhazy.
DEATH OF LORD HILLINGDON. Lord Hillingdon, of Hillingdon House, Uxbridge, died suddenly in the Parish Church, Wilton, near Salisbury, on Sunday morning, just as the clergy and choir were entering at the commencement of the service. His lordship was on a visit to the Earl and Countess of Pembroke and was sitting between Lady Hillingdon and the Countess of Pembroke in the family pew. The de- ceased fell, and Doctors Stratton and Woodward, who were in the church, rendered immediate assist- ance, but medical aid was of no avail, death ensuing in two or three minutes. The body was taken to Wilton House, Lord Pembroke's seat, and the service proceeded. Canon Olivier, in place of the sermon, gave an appropriate address on the sad event. The deceased baron, who was born April 26, 1830, was a partner in the London Banking-house of Glyn, Mills, Currif>, and Co. He was aD.L. and J.P. for Middlesex and Kent, and a J.P. for Westminster. He unsuccessfully contested Northallerton in 1859, but was returned for that borough in 1865. He was, however, unseated and sat for West Kent in the Con- servative interest from 1868 to 1885. He succeeded his father Sir Charles Mills in the baronetcy in October. 1S72, and was created Baron Hillingdon in 1886. The Hon. Charles William Mills, eldest son of Lord Hillingdon, succeeds to the title.
MME. MODJESKA, who is playing in New York, has added the part of Lady Macbeth to her repertory. The New York critics declare that the part suits her to perfection, although she acts it on the old lines traced by Mrs. Siddons. She has also achieved great success as Isabella in Measure for Measure." TIIE French papers have revived the story that General Skobeloff, the famous Russian General, is not dead. In Russia he is better known as the White General," and there is a widespread belief in that country that it was merely a man resembling him who was buried. It is stated that the rank-and- file of the Muscovite Army, as well as the peasantry, are firmly convinced that their popular hero had a hand in the last Chinese-Japanese War. His myste- rious disappearance is explained as being due to con- siderations of an international as well as a dynastic character. SEVERAL learned societies are taking steps with a view to preserving a map of Jerusalem in mosaic, which was recently discovered at Madaba, Pales- tine. This was found by workmen while excavating the ruins of an old church about to be rebuilt. The entire pavement of the old edifice was a mosaic map of Palestine, that part containing the city of Jeru- salem being more or less perfect. RAGS for paper making, says Mr. Beadle, have now been very generally displaced by wood. So great is the demand for material, that whole forests are being cut down to supply the enormous requirements of the reading age. In the United States it is estimated that 500,000,000 cub. ft. of timber are turned into paper in a year, and 100,000acres of lumber land are cleared to provide it. The New York Herald takes daily the fellings from seven acres. Wood pulp is imported as such for paper manufacture in England largely from Scandinavian ports. Esparto and rags are prepared from the raw state after they arrive.
A TEilRIILK CONFESSION. The sextuple murder committed at Naseandres, Normandy, has created a great sensation, not only i.localise of the number of victims, but on accomit of the manner in which the crimes were perpetrated. Un being arrested the assassin Caillard related his crime as follows: "To penetrate into the house I intended to plunder I had to climb over the garden hedge. Having reached the glazed door, I looked in and saw a man sitting by the fire reading a news- paper. I had in my hand two guns I had stolen, and which I had loaded. I aimed at the man's head, and he fell dead. I entered the room. At that moment the woman, who had heard the report of my gun, came into the room. I stretched her dead at my feet with another shot. "Then came two little boys, one after the other, crying for their mother. I shot them down like rabbits. Thus having disposed of inconvenient wit- nesses, and feeling very hungry, I opened the cup- board, in which there was some cold meat and a bottle of rum. I sat down to table and commenced eating and drinking in peace. Suddenly, when I had nearly done, I saw a little girl in her nightgown coming into the room. My guns not being loaded, I rose from the table and cut the child's throat with the knife I had used to cut the bread, and which I had found on the table. This time I thought I had finished with every- body in the house, and that I should be able to set to work without being disturbed. In seeking for valuables, however, I entered a room at the further end of the house, and saw an old woman lying in bed. I said to myself, One more,' and I loaded my gun. I fired point-blank at her, and killed her. ] then broke open the cupboards, &c., and searched the house everywhere for valuables in perfect safety, for there was no living soul in the house but myself." The prisoner was taken to Nassandres, and in presence of the examining magistrate confronted with the corpses of his six victims in the house where he had murdered them. He seemed unconscious oi the enormity of his crime. He showed no emotion and contented himself with saying," I killed to steal. I had no work, and I was hungry." The gendarmes had again great difficulty in protecting their prisoner against the indignant crowd. The Leblond family was a model household. The man's employer, and everyone who knew him, speak in the highest terms of him. His wife, who was borr in Paris, was respected by all. The couple were per- fectly happy, and loved their children tenderly.
========= SCHOLARSHIPS GOING A-BEGGING. Some remarkable evidence as to the excessive number of bursaries- and scholarships available in Edinburgh, has been. given before the Committee oi Inquiry of the Educational Institute of Scotland, ap- pointed to collect the opinions of teachers and others on questions connected with higher education. At a sitting held in Edinburgh, Mr. James Arnot, clerk to the Edinburgh School Board, stated that, so far as the Edinburgh district was concerned, bursaries were utterly overdone. Their name was legion they were not confined to elementary and secondary schools, but included the University. He was safe in saying, he thought, that in the University there was a bursary for every fifth student in attendance. To him that seetned ridiculous. Coming down to the secondary schools, there were so many foundations and bursa- ries connected with the Merchant Company, the Heriot's School, and the High School, that really the bursaries were going a-begging. The system seemed to eat out the spirit of independence in the people. While he could not go so far as to say that there was in Edinburgh a oursary for every boy who went beyond the standards, he was of opinion that for every boy of scholarly attainments there were more than sufficient bursaries. In the course of his evidence Mr. Arnot stated further that there was no desire for bursaries on the part of the people, even where such were to be had For example, they had the Robertson Trust bursaries of £25 each for six years for boys of 13 years, the examination consisting of the work in the sixth standard. On one occasion when an examination was held the number of pupils who came forward, after extensive advertisements, to compete for two of these scholarships was one! Feeling in a difficulty what to do with the other scholarship, they raised the age to 14. Even then the number who came forward was only nine. Then, in connection with the High School bursaries given by the Heriot Trust in July last, five were offered at £30 each, available for five years the total number of candidates from the State-aided schools in Edinburgh was only seven—showing, again, that there was no desire whatever among the people to keEíp their children at school for higher work. How to induce parents to take an interest in higher educa- tion was a matter of extreme difficulty. Mr. Arnot also gave evidence in favour of the reduction and simplification of examinations. They were simply done to the death, he said, with examinations, not only elementary, bat secondary. He would go the- length of the late Professor Huxley, when he said: The education abomination of desolation of the pre- sent day is the stimulating of young people to high pressure by incessant examinations." Practically he would abolish them. He thought they were a great I curse.
WHAT WE SHOULD EAT. Sir Henry Thompson, in the current number of the Nineteenth Century, once more points out, as he has often done before during 40 years of professional activity, the supreme importance of diet, and he sug- gests modifications which may be required to secure as far as possible unimpaired health and the attainment of a fair longevity. To those who lead an easy-going existence, in which little energy is demanded and little expended, as well as those whose careers involve con- siderable intellectual activity, the chief risk arises from a too free consumption of flesh and milk, and such persons might gain much by adopting a lighter diet of fish, birds, cereals, vegetables, and fruit. But Sir Henry is certainly not a Vegetarian." Some human stomachs find a difficulty in digesting vegetable foods. But oxen and sheep, exclusively vegetable feeders as they are, consuming only grass and a few roots, pro- duce largely and rapidly the necessary proteids in the form of flesh, as man himself is wholly incapable of doing, and meat thus becomes to him a concen- trated food of exceeding value, admirably adapted to his digestive system. The distinguished surgeon gives admirable advice on this head, because it can hardly be doubted that more flesh is consumed by a large part of our exist- ing population than is necessary or desirable. This is especially to be observed among those who possess ample means, and whose employments do not necessarily demand great muscular exertion, exposure in all weathers, and other causes of wear and tear to the animal tissues. Where exercise is very largely taken and manual labour is hard anil prolonged, the concentrated and easily digested proteids of flesh are the most valuable foods for man's purpose. Where there is but little physical labour or activity, a smaller proportion is mostly advisable, and a better state of bodily health may be generally assured by selecting an animal food-fish, poultry, and game, for example—less rich perhaps in proteids, and especially so in fat, than are beef and mutton, adding a considerable jjortion of cereals and other products of vegetable origin. During the term of middle hfe, when man's ac- tivity is at its maximum, food may be generous in quality and in quantity, corresponding, of course, to the nature of the force expended. But in later stages of life highly nutritious animal food, especially when containing also much fatty matter, is for the most part very undesirable. When through age man's natural powers fail, so that, no longer capable of walking three or four miles an hour, he finds two or two and a half in one hour suffice to exhaust his forces, he must lessen the supply of proteids and fats. The great error which friends usually commit is to urge him to take more nourishment to keep up his strength." This, however, he is in- capable of properly assimilating. n5* he conse- quence must be, unless an attack of indigestion forces him to change his course, that he gradually becomes fat and heavy; all movements are laborious and even painful, through the increased weight he has to carry, and from diminution, by reason of encroaching fatty deposit, in the space which lungs and heart require for their never-ceasing movements. For elderly people in this' very common condition perhaps the most injurious aliment which can be selected is milk, and precisely bemuse it is a con- centrated solution of animal proteids and fats. Eggs are similarly constituted, and for the same reason should only betaken in great moderation. The well- known combination of eggs and milk, animal basis of so much farinaceous cookery, popular in every domestic circle in the form of custard, rice pudding, &c., affords excellent support for the man in middle life who enjoys constant active exercise. It is, more- over, a form of nutriment adapted in the highest degree for growing young people; but it is on that very account objectionable for those advanced in years, who have long ceased to require materials idapted for increasing growth in association with habits of ceaseless activity such as those of young children, and want only to support life by easy digestion and moderate daily exercise, but noting slight diminutioriof weight, the usual experience of the hale and healthy octogenarian.
LABOURING men have 312 working days a year in Hungary, 308 in the United States, 278 in England, and 267 in Russia. THE Earl of Devon, 86 years old, preaches and performs all hia duties as Prebeaaary Canon af Exeter Cathedral. ¡; iJ t V'ri r \tt:- "< A
r SCIENCE NOTES. HEP.2 J. STAPLING, who accompanied An dree on his first abortive expedition to Spitsbergen in 1896. has been appointed by the Swedish Anthropological and Geographical Society to explore Siberia in search of news of the missing aeronaut. For this purpose h", will start early in April and expects to be absent till January. I MILITARY and other surgeons will be interested to learn a new method of localising the exact position ef bullets in the body by the Rontgen rays. Until now perhaps the best method was that of MM. Co-ntremoulins and Remy, but M. Morise has pre- sented the following plan to the Academie des Sciences. The patient being placed between the tube emitting the rays and the luminescent screen the shadow of the ball is seen on the latter. A small disc d lead rendered adhesive by wax or diachylon is placed on the skin next the tube and moved so that its shadow covers the shadow of the ball. A similar disc is then placed on the skin on the other side of the patient next the screen and moved till its shadow coincides with the other two. The patient is then turned at an angle and the process repeated. The positions of the four discs make a quadrilateral and the intersection of the lines joining them through the body mark the position of the bullet. EXPERIMENTS with a steam aeroplane are now being made at Carqueiranne by MM. Richet and Tatin. The aeroplane makes a start by running along a track on a chariot, from which it is liberated by knives cutting the ropes binding it. The aeroplane flew in a straight line or nearly so for eight or ten seconds, and covered 140 yards, then turned towards the left and came to the ground rather suddenly. The fall is believed by the inventors to have occurred through the lack of a rudder on -the machine. In their late, as in their earlier experiments, there was no want of motive power nor balance, but only of steering gear. This want can only be provided by automatic mechanism, difficult to devise, or by human co-opera- tion; which at present might be perilous. THE method of liquefying air, invented by Dr. Carl Linde, consists in letting air at high pressure escape from an orifice and cool by its expansion. The air so cooled is employed to cool more air as it approaches the orifice, and on this regenerative principle a very low temperature is quickly obtained. Dr. Linde is constructing a machine of 120 horse- power to produce liquid air for the manufacture of chlorine by the Deacon process. Dn. SHELDON JACKSON, with a party of Lapps and reindeer, is now on his way to the Yukon. His ex- pedition was planned by the United States War De- partment for the relief of miners in Klondyke, but afterwards found to be unnecessary. The Lapps and their deer, however, are to proceed to Dyea and settle in the country. There are 42 Lapps, lOFinns, and 15 Norsemen of the party, with their women and children. One of the Lapps is Samuel Johannesan Balto, who wears- a silver medal of King Oscar for accompanying Dr. Nansen across Greenland. Petter Stalogargo, a Finn, has been the most northern postman in Europe, having carried the letters to the folk of North Cape for eight years. The women do not show their age, those of 50 years looking but 30. The reindeer are fed on Arctic moss during the whole voyage. TIUBSRE is a lake in Kansas which, when frozen, can be set on fire. One has only to break the ice and apply a lighted match to get a flame as high as a man, which will burn for a minute or two. Of course, the secret is natural gas collected under the ice in the form of bubbles, sometimes 10 or 20 square yards in area. The skater can puncture one of these- bubbles with a chisel and procure a rearing flame at which to warm his hands. In some parts of the lake the warm gas is plentiful enough to keep it from freezing. Doniphan Lake, as it is called, is four miles north of Atchison, Kansas, in a bend of the Missouri River. THE Prussian military authorities have decided not to continue the experiments on the Schwarz alumi- nium balloon, and the great hall for it, erected in the Barrack Yard of the Berlin Aeronautical Depart- ment, is being pulled down. RONTGEN rays are known to act on. the skin, and have recently been employed to cure certain skin dis- eases, by isolating the affected part and submitting it to the action of the rays. THH members of the expeditions to Greenland sent out by the Geographical Society of Berlin have ascertained some facts about the structure of ice. In the ice of brooks and lakes freezing occurs by the union of hexagonal crystals; which are contrary to a common opinion, differently oriented unless there is a great calm. Below the surface the crystals are parallel, and form themselves under pressure caused by the dilation in freezing. The optical axis of the crystal is- more or less inclined. In the ice of fjords the surface ice is not continuous, and almost all the optical axes of the crystals are on the plane of the surface. In the ice of glaciers the crystals of snow forming it are oriental in all directions. In every sort of ice the primitive crystals lose their contour and are rounded into grains by the warmth of the air, but the grains keep the orientation of the crystal. TIIE Argentine Republic has refused to join in the promotion of an international survey of the earth. The Republic has a territory of three million square miles, and a population of four million. Yet it de- clines to subscribe a few hundred dollars annually to the movement in question. Almost every other nation has supported the work. VATICANA is the name given to one of the latest asteroids discovered, No. 416, in honour of Father Bocardi, of the Vatican Observatory, who has com- puted its course. COMPLIMENTARY portraits of Lord Kelvin and Mr. Herbert Spencer are to be painted, that of the natural philosopher for the library of the Royal Society, that of the moral philosopher for tho National Portrait Gallery. PHONOGRAPHS have been adopted by the Municipal Council of Stampes, in France, to record the verbal utterances of the councillors. GLUCINUM, one of the rare metals, is likely to become less so by the discovery of a process for its extraction from the double fluoride of sodium and glucinum. M. Lebeau, in a recent communication to the Paris Academy of Science, states that by passing a powerful electric current through the substance it is decomposed, and pure glucinum is deposited as a white or silverine metal. TUB poisonous qualities of water-gas are so extreme that steps are being taken by the Liverpool City Council to ascertain what can be done to diminish the risk now run by consumers of the local supply, which is enriched by the addition of the noxious con- stituent. Inhalation is sufficient to cause death in a brief time, but some protection is afforded in the warning smell that follows an escape of the accom- panying coal-gas. Pure water-gas has no odour, and consequently it cannot be used alone without infinite danger. ANOTHER new illuminant has appeared. At the present rate the cry for "Light, more light" will surely, in a sense, be more than appeased. Liquid air mixed with powdered charcoal makes, it seems, not only an explosive, but also a slow burning fuel and illuminant. When the possible developments and applications of this material are considered, it will be conceded that there is a full answer to the inquiry as to what use ever could be made of such a discovery as the means of liquefying air. A compact and portable heating and lighting medium may even- tually come to hand rivalling, perhaps excelling, cal- cium carbide in value for certain purposes. BESSEMER steel was, it is said, suggested to its originator on the spur of the moment one day at Vincennes, where he was watching the process of casting an iron gun. The steel of 1853 was made in crucibles that held 301b., and it cost £,150 or £70 a ton. Bessemer's converter deals with several tons at a time, and turns it out at less than £10 a ton. The operation is extremely simple in principle; it con- sists in blowing a current of air through the contents of a crucible full of molten iron. This, by furnish- ing the necessary oxygen, allows the more readily combustible constituents of the mass to burn away, leaving steel behind. At Dowlais Iron Works the process was first put into operation, but it was noi till Bessemer himself took up the manufacture that its practicability was demonstrated. Up to 1870, royalties alone had brought in to the inventor ovel £1,000,000.
COURT dresses nowadays are made of all kinds of extraordinary materials, even metals being used. At present there is being woven at the Weaving School in Blenheim-street, a dress made almost entirely of aluminium. This material is a very difficult one to weave, and it can only then be done by hand. The metal is twiated on silk or cotton thread and then woven on to spun silk. This will be the first dress ever made containing such a large proportion of I aluminium. It has been used to make lace, but foi dresses it it quite a new thing. I:)
REVENUE RETURNS. NET INCREASE £ 3,SI7,767. An account has been issued of the ievenue returns of the United Kingdom for the last quarter of the firuuiorai year, ending on the 31st ult., and the total returns for ths whole year. The sum paid into the Exchequer during the year has reached the enormous and unprecedented amount of JEI 06.614,004; no less than £ 9,402,310has been paid into the Local Taxation Accounts, and the total revenue, therefore, for the 12 months amounts to £ 116,016,314. For the year ending March 31, 1897, it was £ 112,198,547, and the increase is therefore £ 3,817,767. of which the Local Taxation Accounts have absorbed an additional £ 1,153,648. The increases have taken place in nearly every department, and, compared with. the previous year, tabulated as follows: Increase. Decrease- £ £ Customs 542,731 — Excise 900.256 — Estate, &c., Duties. 1,364,661 — Stamps 300,000 — Land Tax 20,000 — House Duty — — Property and Income-Tax. 600,000 — Post Office 310,000 — Telegraph Service 100,000 — Crown Lands — Interest on Suez Canal Shares 2,631 — Miscellaneous — 322,512 4,140.279 322,512 Net Increase £ 3,817,767. Perhaps the most satisfactory item of these figures is the augmentation of the receipts of the Post Office, and this, notwithstanding the revised and lowered scale of charges announced by the Chan- cellor of ths Exchequer in his last Budget. The totals of the various departments are as under, com- pared with those of the preceding year 1897. 1898. £ £ Customs- 21.462,571 22,005,302 Excise 32,366,870 33,267,126 Estate, &o., Duties 13,963,221 15,327,882 Stamps 7,350.000 7,650,000 Land Tax 920,000. 940,000 House Duty 1,510,000 1,510,000 Property and Income-Tax 16,650,000 17,250,000 Post Office 11,860,000 12,170,000 Telegraph Service 2,910,000 3,010,000 Crown Lands 415,000. 415,000 Interest on Suez Canal Shares 731,266 733.897 Miscellaneous 2,059,619. 1,737,107 E112,198,547 XII,6,016,314 These increases have been spread over the whole year. In the first quarter there was a rise of EI,404,779, in the second it fell to £ 688,566, in )he third it fell again to E28,5,129, and rose again during the last three months to £ 1,439,293. The net increases actually paid into the Exchequer during the same quarters were £ 944,413, E195,100, £ 260,535, and £ 1,264,071, or a total net increase of £ 2,664.119. During the last three months the total revenue has amounted to 9,38,650,194, of which £ 35,929,506 has been paid into the Exchequer, and E2,720,688 has gone to the Local Taxation Accounts. The figures for the corre- sponding quarter of last year were £ 37,210,901, C34,665,435, and, zE2,545,466, the main increases occurring in the Excise, Estate Duties, Property and Income Tax, and Customs. Another account showing the receipts. into the Exchequer during the last quarter, the issues out of the same, the charges on the Consolidated Fund at- that date, and the surplus of the balance- in the Exchequer on March 31 contains the fol- lowing figures. The revenue paid in is, as we have seen, £ 35,929,506, creationof debt for supply has brought E4,544,700, repayment of advances for pur- chase of bullion E200,000, and casual receipts, £6464, giving a total of £ 40,680,670. On the other- side, there was a net deficiency of the balance in the Exchequer to meet the charge on December 31, 1897, as per last account, of £ 986,038; the amount applied out of revenue to supply purposes has been 922,003,189; and the Consolidated Fund charges for the quarter amount to £ 12,312,358. ( ,un
DR. ARNOLD OF RUGBY. A memorial brass to Thomas Arnold, D.D., has been placed on the north wall of Laleham Church. It is carved in brass, with letters in relief, the brass being designed and executed by Messrs. Benheim and Frond (Limited), Chandos Metal Works, London. The in- scription is as follows: To the memory of Thomas Arnold, D.D., head maaterof Rugby School, 1828-1842, Regius Professor of Modern History in the University of Oxford, 1841-1842, scholar, historian, and theolo- gian, who, as the head of a great public school, raisedthe character of all English education, powerful to rouse and train the intellect, but desirous above all to im- press religion and duty upon the hearts of his pupils in this parish, beloved by him as the home of his early labours, is offered this grateful tribute of respect and admiration. Born at West, Cowes, June 13, 1795; died at Rugby, June 12, 1842. Erected March, 1898." The inscription was written, at the vicar's request, by the late Dean Lake, formerly Dean of Durham, then senior surviving pupil of Dr. Arnold. Dr. Arnold lived at Laleham, in a house occupying the position of tt* present. vicarage, during the years 1819-1828. 1!1
EAST BERKS ELECTION. The following is the result of the polling for the election of a Parliamentary I epresentative for the Wokingham Division of Berks, in succession to the late Sir George Russell (C.): Captain Oliver Young, R.N. (C.) 4736 Mr. G. W. Palmer (L.) 3690 Conservative majority 1046 The results of previous elections in the division were as follows: 1885.—Sir G. Russell (C.), 4710; Mr. E. Lawrence (L.), 3062-Conservative majority, 1648. 1886.-Sir G. Russell (C.), unopposed. 1892.— Sir G. Russell (C.), 4986; Mr. F. J. Patton (R.), 2738 Conservative majority, 2248. 1895.—Sir George Russell (C.), unopposed. Captain Oliver Young, of Hare Hatch House. Twy- ford, Berks, who thus succeeds to the seat vacated by the death of Sir George Russell on March 7, is the eldest surviving son of the late Mr. Adolphus Wil- liam Young, of Hare Hatch, Berks, J.P. and D.L., Liberal M.P. for Yarmouth from 1857 to 1859, and for Helston, 1865-66 and 1868-80, by his second wife, Jane, daughter of Mr. Charles Throsby, of Throsby- park, New South Wales, and was born at Hare Hatch House, on July 11, 1855. He was educated princi- pally at Burney's Naval Academy, Gosport, and entered the Royal Navy as a cadet in August, 1869, serving in the West Indies, on the south-east coast of America, and on the West Coast of Africa stations, as also in the Channel and Mediterranean Fleets. He was gazetted a sub-lieutenant in December, 1875, and lieutenant in June, 1880. He was lieutenant of the Beacon at the bombardment of Alexandria on July 11, 1882, and during the Egyptian War, for which he has the Egyptian medal, with the Alexandria clasp and the Khedive's bronze star. In 1883 he joined the Condor, and served several months at Souakim and other Red Sea ports during the Soudan campaign, afterwards serving on board the Devas- tation, under Captain Lord Walter Kerr, and finish- ing his naval service on board the Minotaur, the flag- ship of the late Admiral Sir William Hewitt, V.C. In June, 1887, he was placed on the commanders' retired last. He has been a magistrate for Berks since 1889, a member of the Berks County Council for the Twyford Division since its foimation, a member of the Wokingham District Rural Council and Board of Guardians, and Vice-Chairman of the Wargrave Parish Council. He is a well-known fol- lower of Hounds, and a member of Mr. Garth's hunt; is President of the Wargrave Football Club, and a Vice-President of the Berks County Cricket Club Captain Young married, in 1888, Mabel, second daughter of the late Mr. William Lansdowne Beale. D.L., J.P., of the Manor House, Waltham St. Law- rence. This is the first time he has contested a con- stituency, and he now enters the House of Commons as the 50th new member returned since the general election of 1895, his return, however, making no difference in the balance of political parties, while it completes for the first time for many months the full number of members.
Swiss funeral customs are most peculiar. At the death of a person the family inserts a formal, black- edged announcement in the papers asking for sympathy, and stating that the mourning um will be exhibited during certain hours on a special day. In front of the house where the person died there in placed a little black table, covered with a black cloth, on which stands a black jar. Into this the friends and acquaintances of the family drop little, black- margined visiting-cards, sometimes with a few words of sympathy on them. The urn is put on the table on the day of the funeral. Only men ever go to the churchyard, and they generally follow the hearse on foot. THE Princess Eulalie of Spain, who is now with us not for the first time, is the youngest surviving child of Queen Isabella II., and, therefore, an aunt of the present^boy-King of Spain. She is married to a first cousin, Prince Antoine. She is a handsome woman, with a tendency to grow a slight moustache, which in tome parts of South Europe ia regarded as a beauty in women. I w. Jt.
———————————- w HOW MR. JOEL WAS MURDERED. The Tantallon Castle which arrived at Plymouth from Cape Town on Saturday. -brought details of th assassination of Mr. Woolf Joel. According to the story Von Veldtheim pestered Mr. Joel continually for money, and at last Mr. Harold Strange saw UllY blackmailer, and told him Mr. Joel would do nothing for him. This was in the street. Von Veldtheim would not be shaken off, however, but followed Mr. Strange to the Consolidated buildings. Ultimately Mr. Joel consented to. see him. Von Veldtheim said he was leaving by the day mail train for Cape Town, on his way to England, for which he needed money. This- was refused. Mr. Strange stated that he was in the act of cocking a single-barrelled pistol, which, fearing mischief, he had previously put in his pocket, when Von Veldtheim said You two know too much for me, and neither of us leaves the room alive." He then produced a revolver, and covered Mr. Joel. Mr. Strange drew his derringer and fired at Von Veldtheim, but he could not say whether it hit him or not. Von Veldtheim fired three- shots at Mr. Joel, each one taking effect. The victim sank to the floor with a groan, and attempted to draw a revolver from his pocket. Mr. Strange rushed to possess himself of this, for he had discharged his only weapon. Veldtheim at this moment fired at Mr. Strange, but missed, and the bullet embedded itself in a huge oaken desk. Mr. Strange had seized Mr. Joel's revolver but the murderer put his foot on Mr. Strange's hands and fired again at him. By this time assistance arrived. The door was broken open and the criminal overpowered. The post-mortem examination showed that Mr. Woolf Joel was shot in three places-one bullet entered the right shoulder, another pierced the ribs, botk lungs and the heart, and the third entered at the bridge of the nose and took a downward course, lodging in the mouth. The prisoner was secretly conveyed to the court, and a very large crowd assembled t demonstrate, but the authorities outwitted them. He said the name he went by was Ludwig Von Veldtheim, but his right name was Carl Braun. The Public Prosecutor cited the charge, and on his formal request the case was adjourned.
FUNERALS OF THREE EARLS* The funerals of three earls took place on Saturday —probably an unparalleled occurrence. The Earl of Cawdor was buried at Stackpole Elidor, Pembrokeshire. There was a large gather- ing, representative of the three counties, Cardigan, Carmarthen, and Pembroke. The mourners were Lord and Lady Emlyn, Lady Victoria Lambton, Lady Rachel Howard, Lady- Muriel Boyle, Hon. Alister Campbell, Hon. Hugh Campbell, and other- members of the family. The Bishops of Swansea; Llandaff, and St. David's officiated. The remains of the Earl of Strafford were removed from St. James's-square to Barnet for interment in the family mausoleum at Wrotham-park. The ser- vice was read by the Rev. G. Bell, in the absence of the Bishop of London. The Queen was represented by Lord Churchill. The body of the Earl of Suff alk and Berkshire was- cremated at Woking. A memorial service was held at the Chapel Royal, St. James's, the sub-dean officiating. Among those present were the Duke of Cambridge, who was attended by General Williams. The ashes were interred on Monday in the family mult, Gharlton-park, Malmesbury.
MURDER ON THE STAGE: A sensational murder took place in London (Ontario) on Saturday night. The Wesley Dramatic Company was advertised to appear at a local music- hall, and the building was crowded. There was some- delay in the raising of the curtain, which provoked loud calls of curtain from the spectators, and the- rsurtain was presently raised about 6ft., disclosing James-Tuttle, the company's manager, in the centre of the stage, and opposite him Walter Emerson; one of the actors. Emerson was loudly demanding his, own and his wife's salary to be paid before the piece should proceed. Tuttle began speaking the opening lines. Emerson then, drew a pistol and fired afc. Tuttle. The bullet entered the eye and passed through the head, the manager falling dead instantly. Emerson was arrested. The murder caused a. panic: among the spectators.
LADY SOCIALIST'S TRAGJG DEATH. An inquest was held by Mr. G. N. Wood, deputy- coroner, at Sydenham, on Saturday, on the body of Eleanor Marx, otherwise known as Eleanor Marx Aveling, who had died from prussic acid poisoning. Dr. Aveling. lecturer; said that deceased was- not legally married to him, but had lived with him as his wife for 15 years. She was about 40 years of age, and. her real name was Eleanor Marx. The reason they had not married was that witness had married previously. He had had no quarre-l with the deceased, but she was of a morbid disposition, and had threatened to take her lite so often that he had come to look, upon it as idle talk. Whenever they had difficulties to face she would suggest that they should end them together in death. The evidence of Gertrude Gentry, the servant, was to the effect that before D; Av.eling had left for town on Thursday morning of last week the deceased, who had wanted him not to go, sent her to i chemist's shop with a note, and she brought back a 3mall parcel and a book to be signed. SoonafteEwarda she found her mistress undressed in bedand dying. She died before assistance could be got. The chemist said that the note was for enough prussic acid to kill a dog, and he sent it under the impression that the note was signed by Dr. Aveling, and that he was a qualified medical man. The medical evidence showed that death was due to prussic acid poison- ing. A verdict of "Suicide while temporarily in- sane was returned. The chemist's poison book, which was signed by the deceased, was impounded, the deputy-coroner saying he should report the case to the Public Prosecutor. The deceased, who was the daughter of Karl Marx, was herself a well-known writer and speaker on Socialism.
MR. CECIL RHODES IN LONDON. Mr. Rhodes and Dr. Rutherfoord Harris arrived at Plymouth on Saturday morning on board the Tantallon Castle from Cape Town. Mr. Hawksley and Mr. Rochefort Maguire travelled down from London, and went out to meet the mail steamer in a special tug. Ir. Rhodes, though he appears to have aged somewhat, looked bronzed and in the best of health. He expressed himself as de- lighted with the result of the Cape elections but in reply to questions put to him by a number of journalists, said I am not a public man." Dr. Harris said that Mr. Rhodes had never been so fit mentally or phsically for the past four years as now. The results of the elections, Dr Harris added" undoubtedly meant the return of Mr. Rhodes. to power at the Cape. Asked if Mr. Rhodes would be elected Chairman of the Chartered Company, Dr. Harris said that, of course, de- Sended on the shareholders but he did not link there could be much doubt that both Mr. Rhodes and Mr. Beit would take their seats on the board of directors. Mr. Rhodes remains in England about two months. As the Tantallon Castle had to remain for coaling, and was not likely to leave before evening, Mr. Rhodes, who had intended to> go on to London by the steamer, landed in the afternoon and, accompanied by Mr. Beit, Mr. Rochefort Maguire and others, proceeded to town in a special saloon attached to the 2.25 train on the Great Western Railway.
IT may not be generally known that Duke Charles of Bavaria, the Royal oculist, has two principal establishments at which he performs operations, one at Munich, the other at Meran in the Tyrol. His chief hobby, however, is to visit the blind and the afflicted among the Bavarian peasant folk round Tegernsee, his home in the Bavarian Alpst ANOTHER poleward expedition is to start next summer under the command of the Dub, of Abruzzi, an Italian nobleman of scientific tastes, who has already done a lot of arctic travelling in Alaska. He will establish depots along the route taken, and so provide a broken chain of communication from the starting-point, Franz Josef Land, onwards. Travel will be almost entirely by dog-drawn sledges. There is no lack of money in the venture, so it will doubt- less be successful if persevered in long enough, as it can be resumed season after season, if necessary, with lessening difficulty each time. ALTHOUGH he has already found fame and rank, Sir Harry Johnson, K.C.B., is only 39 years of age. His first intention was to become an artist, and with this end in view he studied for four years at the Royal Academy School. Always fond of travelling, he contracted a great love for the Dark Continent. He has explored West Africa from end to end, and 12 years ago he was appointed Vice-Consul for the Cameroons. He is the father of the British Central Africa Protectorate, of which he has been for many years administrator. OFFICIAL figures, gathered in connection with the new insurance laws, are to hand showing the average wages paid for ordinary labour" in 28 German towns whose populations exceed 100,000. Men are best paid in Hamburg, Altona, and Bremen, where the rate is 3s. per day. Only one town, Dantzig, pays as low a rate as Is. lOd.; all the others go to 2s. or more. The average for the whole 28 towns ia 2s. 5d. Boys from 14 to 16 years of age earn as much as ls. 6d. a day in Dresden and Cologne, and this sinks to 10d. at Leipsig and to 8d. at Dantzig. For women, the average daily pay ia la. 6d,. taking alltha towns together.