A CO-NSFABLE OF THE TO\VER. INTERESTING CEREMONY". Old customs in this country die hard, and where they partake of an attractive, ceremonious character it would indeed be a pity were any of them to be relegated to oblivion. There are two ceremonies performed in London, one every year, and the other but rarely, concerning the origin of which, seem- ingly, little or nothing is known. Few Londoners there are who have not at some time or another witnessed the "Trooping of the Colour" on 71 Horse Guards' Parade, and certainly it forms r. spectacle which. once seen, is not likely to be for- gotten. Nevertheless, is it safe to affirm that not one person in ten thousand, who has seen that military function, would hazard a guess as to when and how it came to bean annual custom. The other ceremony referred to. is one of which probably very few people have ever heard at all, and takes place whenever a new Constable is appointed to the Tower of London The office dates back to the reign of William the Conqueror, who bestowed it upon his favourite. Geoffrey de Mandeville, but when the for- malities incidental to the installation assumed the form in which they are now carried through is not so generally known. Probably, though the few privileged spectatorswho, the other day, saw Genera! Sir Frederick C. A. Stephenson. G.O..B.. installed in the place of the late General Sir Daniel Lysons, as Constable of the ancient fortress, troubled them- selves but little about the antiquity of the interesting proceedings, and rested content in the assurance that "S they were carried out in accordance with tradition? only less old, perhaps, than the grey walls that frowned down upon them. In truth, the onlookers at the ceremony may count themselves lucky indeed, for they witnessed a spectacle which, being partly military in character. would have delighted all who love a brave show, in which scarlet uniforms and martial music have a prominent part. Conspicuous figures in it, moreover, were those faithful Warders of the Tower, familiarly known as Beefeaters. whose quaint and picturesque attire becomes them so well, and who form so interesting a link with an historic past. Long before the hour that saw the installation of the newly-appointed Constable, the eyes of visitors fell upon the richly emhroidered gold and scarlet coats, the white ruffs, and the beribboned velvet hats of her Majesty's brave Yeomen of the Guard. Carrying high their halberds, as with a due sense of their importance on such an occa- sion, they were early in the morning put through tlieir paces by Sergeant-Major Middleton, the "Yeoman porter," or chief warder, whose privi- lege it is to carry the staff crowned with a silver presentment in miniature of the White Tower. he yeoman porter it is who is answerable for the discipline of the 40 warders, and has charge of the gates, the wickets, and the drawbridges, as well as of the uniforms, the accoutrements, and the arms within the Tower. Another figure that attracted attention was that of Sergeant Sweeney, the yeoman gaoler, who, as bearer of a truly formidable-looking axe, still serves as a reminder of those sinister days when that weapon, now brightly burnished, was something more than a mere symbol of office. Set speeches formed no part of the picturesque doings of which General Sir Frederick Stephenson was the central figure. Had it been otherwise, and custom in this connection departed from, opportunity might have been found to recall the days when his successors received sundry fees from prisoners for the suite of their irons "-from a duke, P-20; an earl. 20 marks; a baron, £10; and a knight, 100s. Truly has time wrought changes in the duties that appertain to this high office, and at the present day, it may be remarked, the Constable of the Tower holds his appointment" by Royal letters patent under the great seal, and is honoured with the privilege of audience of and direct communication with the Sovereign." All this-and a great deal more—was duly set forth in the warrant handed to the new Constable by Mr. Wynne E. Baxter, who, by virtue of his office as her Majesty's Coroner for the Tower of London, dis- charged that duty. It should be stated that the cere- mony was performed upon Tower-green-in reality a quadrangle paved with flag stones, and having on the north side the Chapel of St. Peter, where lie buried so many who paid with their heads for offences, real or imaginary, against the State, Four small posts in the centre of the space fronting that chapel mark the spot where, as visitors at this day are reminded, Anne Boleyn. Katherine Howard, and Lady Jane Grey, among others, met their fate. The attention of all present at the ceremony was directed to the quadrangle overlooked by the White Tower, and oil the south side of which General Godfrey Clerk, C.B., Lieutenant of the Tower, and Lieu tenant-General G. B. Milman, C.B., the Major, and Resident Governor, were in readiness to re- ceive the new Constable and the leading personages in the ceremony. At the word of. authority from the officer in command, Major E. Dawsou, a detachment of the Royal Artillery marched four abreast on to the ground fronting Queen's House, where the installation was to take place, and were quickly followed by the 1st Bat- talion Coldstream Guards, under the command of Major the Hon. H. C. Legge, and with the regimental band and colours. In review order the soldiers'drew up on the Green, forming three sides of a square, and having in the centre her Majesty's Yeomen Warders, who bore themselves right well, and won the admira- tion of all beholders. In a word, it was a bright and inspiriting spectacle that presented itself when, all being in readiness, the Lieutfenant of the Tower went forward to receive the Earl of Pembroke, the Lord Steward, and deliver to him the keys of the venerable citadel. The Lord Steward it was who, as representing her Majesty, was eventually to entrust them to the new Constable. The last- named, wearing the uniform of his high military rank, was a prominent figure, and near him were Lieu- tenant-General Milman, the Earl of Falmouth, General Sir Hugh Gough (Keeper of the Crown Jewels), the Rev. W. S. Randall (the Acting Chap- lain), Lady Graves Sawle, Mr. Horace Seymour (Deputy Master of the Mint), and the Hon. Sir Spencer Ponsonby Fane, who, together with Mr. Daniel Tupper, of the Lord Chamberlain's Office, had accompanied the Earl of Pembroke. Brief enough were the actual formalities con- nected with the installation. As Lord Pembroke went forward with Sir F. Stephenson and the high officers of the Tower to the centre of the quadrangle, the military, presented arms, while the band played the National Anthem. Mr. Baxter, who wore Levee dress, then read out the Queen's patent appointing General Sir Frederick Stephenson, G.C.B., Governor and Constable of the Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower," and the roll of parchment, together with the Great Seal, were dtily made over to the new custodian of the Tower. From the hands of Lord Pembroke he received the Queen's keys," these being gold and of an ornate design, and then, in a solemn tone, the Yeoman Porter cried God Save the Queen the warders of the Tower responding with a fervent Amen and the troops again presenting arms. Anon the keys had to pass from the hands of the Constable to those of Lieutenant- General Milman, he being the resident Governor of the Tower, and with this formality the ceremony came to a close. It remained, however, for an inspection to be made of the troops and of the Yeomen Warders. The latter, who nad formed up in line, elicited from Sir Frederick Stephenson the well-merited compliment of being "a fine body of distinguished men," and thus, by a kindly word, did the new Constable of the Tower endear himself at the very outset to her Majesty's brave Yeomen of the Guard. • —mm———w—
A SPIRAIJ railway tower is being planned as one of the features of the forthcoming Pan-American Exhi- bition at Niagara Falls. The building will be erected on Cayuga Island, and the general design is as follows A steel skeleton tower, about 500ft. high and 80ft. diameter at the base, and 50ft. diameter 400ft. above the base. Around the erection, supported by strong brackets, a spiral railway will be constructed, which will pass 10 times round the tower in reaching the 400ft. platform. The motive power will be elec- tricity, and various safety appliances will be used in connection with the track. The spiral railway will be double, providing for independent up and down tracks, 20ft. apart. It is estimated that this tower will only cost some two-thirds the amount expended on the famous Ferris Wheel at the Chicago World'* Fair. Himm is an instance of longevity in a family which it would be difficult to parallel. The Rev. T. Hooper, rector of Castle Coombe, Wilts, died in 1851 at the age of 75. His wife died at the age of 90. They had 14 children. The eldest died in January last at the age of 94. He was rector of Midhurst. Five others are still alive. They are aged 93. 89, 82, 78, and 73 respectively. Longevity in the family may be traced back to several generations for an ancestor, Daniel Race, was in the employment of the Bank of England for fifty-seven years, and was chief cashier for 37 years. THE perseverance of the Sultan in regard to the Governorship of Crete is really admirable. In a message. described as urgent," which he has sent to Sir Philip Currie, Abdul Hamid again protests that Prince George is not to be thought of, and pro- poses the establishment of a regime like that in the Lebanon, with a Christian Governor, who shall be also an Ottoman subject. The arrangement is certain to be refused by the Powers, and the Sultan must be aware of it. He perhaps anticipates, however, that by dint ofLaheer obstinacy he may obtain yet further ttxvxaeiJ&from St. Petersburg,
RABBITS IN NORFOLK. I In Norfolk there is a large warren, comprising about 800 or 900 acres, where on summer evenings the visitor may see 500 or 600 rabbits playing about their burrows, and indulging in their merry gambols. From this warren the lessee contrives to clear about E600 annually. He drives the rabbits out of their burrows with paraffin oil, and for the oil and labour he has to pay £ 200 yearly.
SCOTTISH AND OTHER HUMOUR. Ian Maclaren had a large audience the other even- ing at the New Court Chapel, Tollington-park. when he lectured on Humour—Scots' and Other Kinds." There were, he believed, not more than about 12 stories in existence derived from the classics and folk-lore. Humour was a doubtful possession. The man who got on best was a fairly stout one, with a loud voice and a profound air of wisdom. They know the man by repute. He was generally put upon a board of directors, for people looked upon him as reliable." There was the opposite to that type— a, bright, cheerful man, who was generally suspected because he did not look dull enough. (Laughter.) Humour was in reality a hindrance to a man in busi- ness. He would urge all young men who had a sense of humour to bury it deep, and not allow it to emerge unless they were very sure of their audience. He had in his mind an ecclesiastic who was the dullest man imaginable in public, but in private the most delightful humourist. He was a great success as an ecclesiastic. One of the grievances of his countrymen was that they were denied the posses- sion of a sense of humour. Everyone took his humour in his own way. A Scotsman might take a day to discover the humour of a thing, but having once discovered it he gave it as hearty a reception as any Southron would give it. If the face of the Scot was more solemn at the end than at the beginning of a story, it was only an example of the way in which he was enjoying it. A counsel had defended a murderer, and went to the cell to condole with the convict. "What can I do for you, Macfarlane ?" asked the counsel. "Well, sir, if ye could get my Sawbbath clothes I should be muckle obleeged." What do you want them for, Macfar- lane?" "Well, sir, to wear them on the occasion, just to show respect for the deceased "—(laughter). Dr. Watson gave other examples of Celtic humour. A shepherd told of a series of misfortunes that had happened to his master. A sheep died, was salted, and eaten. A cow died, was also salted and eaten. Then a pig died, was salted and eaten. The farmer's wife died—and then, added the shepherd, I left"— (laughter). Abe Lincoln and Jeff Davis were laid under contribution by Dr. Watson for some more or less known stories. American humour was, he thought, distinguished by irony with a dash of cynicism. Irish humour, on the other hand, was simply drollery. To his mind it was topsy turvey- dom—the Irishman seemed to be always standing on his head. If our legislators could only enter into the whimsicality of those delightful people, Ireland would be better governed. They could not rule Irishmen with logic as they did Scotsmen. His idea of English humou'" was good honest fun. There was nothing intellectual in fun. And it could be adapted to all audiences. The late Mr. Spurgeon was a conspicious example of the humourist he had in his mind. The negro had a keen sense of humour, as he had noticed during his recent visit to America. At the same time he implored them to cleanse them- selves of humour. It was peculiarly dangerous to a 11 man of his profession, for he never knew when he might disgrace himself.
AN EPISODE OF WAR. It is a fact not generally known that the first and the last stand of the Confederates was made on land owned bv the same man. A part of Bull Run battlefield was owned by Mr. McLean. After this famous battle he decided to move to a locality where there would be less fear from the ravages of war. By a strange coincidence he took up his abode at Appo- mattox, which subsequently proved to be the final battlefield of the Civil War. <!
POSTAGE OF NEWSPAPERS. The Rev. Charles Bullock, editor of the News, has been carrying on further correspondence with the Post Office with regard to their refusal to allow the Christmas number of his periodical to pass at the halfpenny rate. Writing on March 21, an official informed Mr. Bullock, on behalf of the Postmaster- General, that the number was objected to not only on the ground of the deficiency of current news matter, but also because the manner in which the supplement was intermingled with the paper was in direct contravention of the statutory requirements. In reply to Mr. Bullock's query why the authorities, hid not consented to mark in the number what they did and did not regard as news, the letter ""id L The Duke of Norfolk invited you to call here, that any further explanations might be furnished to you. This offer you declined, and the duke does not consider that any useful purpose would be served bv entering afresh into a detailed discussion of the con- tents of the number, especially as, apart from any question of news matter, it clearly fails to conform to the conditions laid down in the Act of 1870. Seeing that the responsibility for carrying out the Act in question devolves upon the Postmaster-General, and that the highest legal advice has from time to time been taken upon any point upon which doubt has arisen, nis Grace is sure that you will understand that he could not entertain your suggestion of submitting the question at issue to any outside legal or commercial authority." In his answer to this, Mr. Bullock complained that he could not get a definition of news or learn the exact quantity which the Post Office required. For a long time, he says, it was held, according to the present Postmaster-General, that a preponderance of news matter was necessary in publications sent at the half- penny rate; in 1881 it was agreed that one-third would suffice; and in 1890 Mr. Raikes declared that one-fourth would be enough. Further Mr. Bullock cannot understand how the folding of the supple- ment could be objected to, since the arrangement of the paper had been the same for 20 years, during all of which it was never once objected to.
OPENING UP AFRICA. The first locomotive of the Congo Railway arrived at the terminus at Dolo on Stanley Pool on March 16. The Congo Railway was begun in 1888. It is 250 miles long, extending from Matadi, 100 miles above the mouth of the Congo, to Stanley Pool. The railway was undertaken in order to connect the navi- gable portions of the Congo with one another. It may be pointed out that six steamers ply regularly on the first 100 miles of the Congo (to Matadi). Then comes a stretch of over 200 miles of shoals and rapids. After this the river is open, and steamers voyage as far as Stanley Falls, a distance of about 1000 miles. The railway, by bridging over the cataracts, will bring the heart of Equatorial Africa within reach of the ordinary tourist.
LEAKAGE OF METHODISM." Some time since An Old Wesleyan placed the sum of EIOO at the disposal of the Rev. H. Price Hughes, M.A., to offer as prizes of £ 50, £ 30, and E20 respectively for the three best essays on the subject of Tho Leakage of Methodism." The total number sent in from all parts of British Methodism was 154. These have been carefully gone through by a selected board of adjudicators consisting of three ministers and three laymen. The first prize has been awarded to Rev. R. Starling Boulter, of Halifax, the second to Rev. James Feather, of Wolverhampton, the third being divided between Rev. C. O. Eldridge, B.A., of Bolton, and Rev. T. F. Rawlings. of Swansea.
AN aeronaut says that there is the same difference in the air at the earth's surface and at an altitude of half a mile that there is between water in a muddy puddle and the purest spring water. He states that for a time one feels, after coming down from all ascent, as if one were breathing "solid dust." SI-ANKING by electricity is the latest method of corporal punishment adopted in the United States. It is said to be in operation at an industrial school for girls at Denver, the apparatus consisting of a seatless chair on which the victim is placed. It is high enough from the ground to allow four paddles to be operated by electric wires. The wrists are stripped to the arm of the chair, an attendant presses a button, and the chair does the rest. FoLESiin,L fever hospital has just been success- fully lighted by oil conveyed to the burners through pipes in a similar manner to gas, from a tank outside the building. This is of interest as being the first public institution so lighted, but there are several others to be lighted in the same style. NATURALISTS are concerned with the possible exter- mination of the sea otters. Harassed on all sides- netted in the sea, clubbed and shot on shore, its landing grounds rendered uninhabitable by human presence as well as by the refuse of fisheries and the decaying bodies of its own companions—the sea otter (says Mr. R. Lydekker, F.R.S., in Knowledge) is threatened with extinction. When the Russians first visited Alaska its shores literally abounded with these animals, which were relentlessly hunted and slain, affording a rich harvest to their captors. After a period they almost completely disappeared from those regions. Again, between 1873 and 1883, the natives of the Aleutian Islands captured on the average 3000 annually. Since 1888, however, there has been a rapid decrease. In the latter year 2496 were taken, but in 1896 the number was only 724. In 1888 the average price per skin was £21 10s.; in 1896 it had increased to £ bd.
SILVER INTO GOLD. DR. EMMENS' NEWEST A EC'I IK MY. A few weeks ago a brief account was given in most ,)f the papers of the transmutation of silver into gold .•xperiments of Dr. Stephen H. Emmens. of New 'Cork. Since this was written many new facts of interest relative to this matter have been brought to light. I have, for instance (writes a correspondent of the Daily Sews), received from Dr. EiiiiiieDS a letter. in which he tells me that he has received a communica- tion from a very eminent Fellow of the Iloyal Society, informing him that he has performed the nrucial experiment suggested in a letter from Dr. Emmens to Sir William Crookes. In this letter the Doctor remarked that if a dollar be treated in a certain way (by pressure, &<), a small quantity of gold would be produced. The chcmist in question informs Dr. Emmens that lie has found, by analysing a Mexican dollar before and after treat- ment, that the percentage of gold in it was decidedly augmented by the treatment. The gold contained in the dollar after 40 hours of intense cold and continued hammering, was found to be 20'9 per cent. more than the quantity of gold con- tained in the same dollar before the test. If this be so then Dr. Emmens is great indeed, since he has made a discovery which must rank ever as one of the most important the world has seen. It naturally occurred to one to discover who the very eminent Fellow of the Royal Society was." Sir William Crookes's reply was as follows I am afraid the paragraph will not fit me. I have obtained no gold from Mexican dollars." Although other scientific men were questioned, it was impos- sible to discover to whom Dr. Enmens referred. In a letter to Science, the doctor states that he does not claim, and has never claimed, to make gold- in the alchemical sense of the term. I do not pro fess," he says, to have shown how gold, or its simulaerum, may be produced at a commercial profit. I have, however, given every chemist and physicist the opportunity, if desired, of investigating the fundamental portion of my work. The necessary instructions for the requisite experiment have been widely published. The gold-producing work in our Argentaurum laboratory is a case of sheer Mammon seeking. It is not being carried on for the sake of science or in a proselytising spirit. No disciples are desired and no believers are asked for." I do, however, profess to be utilising the greatest power the world has ever witnessed (of which I alone have control) for the good of science at large. In addition to various physical researches of great in- terest and importance now being prosecuted in the Argentaurum Laboratory, I am aiding students of nature in all parts of the world to observe and collect facts in rectification of much hypothesis that now does duty for truth. By so doing, I of course incur the enmity of those who bow the knee to Mumbo Tumbo, but many a broad-minded and eminent leader of science is corresponding with me in terms of amity and sympathetic "encouragement." What is this greatest power" which Dr. Emmens has at his com- mand? Turning to his pamphlet Arcana Nature,' we find that by means of the Emmens Force engine pressure exceeding 500 tons to the square inch" may be readily produced. This certainly sounds an astounding power. In other words, it means a column of water 400 miles high (!) or cast iron 40 miles high, or about 10,000 engines of 100 horse-power each, all working on the same point. Yet, even without such an engine a chemist can-so says the doctor-produce gold from a Mexican dollar. All lie has to do is to place it in an apparatus which will prevent expansion or flow. That he must subject it to heavy, rapid, and continuous beatings under conditions of cold such as to prevent even a tem- porary rise of temperature when the blows are struck. If he test the material from hour to hour her will at length find more than the trace (less than one part in ten thousand) of gold which the dollar originally contained. The official figures of the weights of Argentaurum gold sold to the United States Assay Office in New York City do not do much to solve the mystery of Dr. Emmens' processes, because he does not conduct his operations in the presence of wit- nesses. One could wish some more English chemists would try their hand at changing silver into gold.
MASSACHUSETTS PATRIOTS. The patriotic societies and chapters of Massachu- aetts have taken into their hands the interior adorn- ment of the nqw Paul Revere School, now in process of erection. The plan of decoration includes paint- ings, engravings, and casts, illustrative of the history of America, the State and city, for the walls of the halls, corridors, and class-rooms, each contribution to bear upon its frame, or if a cast, upon the pedestal, a plate, giving the name of the donor. The Society of the Sons of the Revolution has already appointed a committee of selection, and various schemes of decoration are being considered.
A POLITICIAN'S LETTER-BOX. The Right Honourable William Gregory was Under-Secretary for Ireland in 1813-31, and in the discharge of that office witnessed the great Emanci- pation struggles and other events of historic interest, in regard to the sister isle. A certain amount of Mr. Secretary Gregory's correspondence during this period is preserved in "a large iron-clamped, leather- covered box at Coole," as we learn from the intro- duction to a volume recently compiled by Lady Gregory, widow of the Secretary's grandson. Mr. Gregory's Letter-box is the title of this volume. The correspondence contained in the said box proved, the compiler tells us, to yield quite insuffi- cient material for a continuous narrative; but, by judicious selection, connection, and expansion, Lady Gregory has succeeded in producing a pleasant book, which, if it offers no solution of political mysteries, no fresh evidence to establish or to weaken the repu- tations of public men, does at least throw a few side- lights on the story of the times. The correspondents are Mr. Gregory and those with whom he was associated in the Government service, and concerning them Lady Gregory draws the satisfactory conclusion: Having read from beginning to end this mass of letters from those engaged in the Government of Ireland, the impres- I sion that remains is that they were all, all honour- able men, and not only that, but truly anxious for the welfare of the country, looking with kindly, if somewhat prejudiced, eyes through their party- coloured glasses." Among those who looked through party-coloured glasses was certainly Lord Talbot, during four years the holder of the Irish vice- regency. An honest, high-minded gentleman," of scrupulous honour and great amiability, he yet found Emancipation a red rag, and could not abide a Papist. Lady Gregory's selections give a clear view of the Protestant Peer's temperament. He tried to do his duty in Ireland, but felt the ungraciousness of his sudden dismissal, and was not ready to forget it. Perhaps he was happiest during those closing years, spent chiefly at Ingestre, where his love of home and family found requital, as is plainly seen from the domestic references in the letters here given. Another of Mr. Gregory's associates in office was a. greater than .Talbot—Mr. Peel. Of Peel's Chief- Secretaryship, the most popular survival is possibly the cant term peeler," inherited by the modern blue-suited constable from his progenitors of Irish race. Glimpses of more serious matters appear in the Chief Secretary's letters to his assistant, notably the allusions to that restless spirit, which was laid on the field of WaterlQo. Lords Whitworth, Wel- lesley. and Anglesey, the Duke of Northumberland, Mr. Grant, Mr. Goulburn, and Mr. Lamb, are the remaining correspondents of whom this volume has most to tell. Lady Gregory has carried out her worthy purpose, and fulfilled her task with ability and discretion. If much of the matter in this book is not of national importance, it is almost all illus- trative of life and character in days not yet too re- mote to attract even the superficial student of his- tory.
A NOBLE INSTITUTION. The eighty-fifth anniversary festival of the London Orphan Asylum has been duly celebrated, the Hon. Alban Gibbs, M.P., in the chair. In proposing the toast of the evening, "Prosperity to the London Orphan Asylum," Mr. Gibbs said he had visited the institution, and was delighted with the admirable arrangements made for the orphans. As most of them knew, the institution had been established 85 years. and over 6000 fatherless children, representative of all callings from the metropolis and all parts of the Empire, had been maintained and educated within its walls. The managers did not cast them off when they were sent out into the world, but looked after them, and watched their progress in life. It was gratifying to know that the old scholars cherished a fond remembrance of the institution, and testified it in a variety of ways, according to their means. The institution was really one of national import- ance, but it did not get all the support to which its usefulness entitled it. There were at present 500 orphans in the asylum, and they could accommodate 600, one house, which had been provided by a friend of the institution, being absolutely empty. With the utmost economy the managers needed iEI5,000 per anntom to pay their way, but their only fixed income was £ 1300 a year. Last year they had been obliged to sell out E2000 of their small invested capital. If they did not get more money they would be obliged to do less good, and he, therefore, earnestly appealed for their liberal support. The secretary announced a list of donations amounting to E4300, including 20 guineas from the Queen, £ 25 from the Chairman, £ 1600 from the London Stock Exchange, and 100 guineas from Mr. Hookham, the first orphan ad- mitted to the-school, and now in his Slst year.
OUR SEA FISHERIES. A Parliamentary paper containing statistical tables and memorandum relating to the sea fisheries of the United Kingdom in 1897 has just been issued. It states that the total quantity of fish landed on the coasts of England and Wales during 1897, exclu- sive of shell-fish, amounted to 7.946,000cwt., or roughly speaking to 397,000 tons, of the value of £ 5,569,000, which, with the addition of the value of shell-fish-viz., £ 335,000, makes a total value for the year of £ 5,904,000. The corresponding values for the years 1895 and 1896 having been E5,438,000 and E5,,510,000 respectively, it would appear that there has been a distinct increase in the value of the fish landed in each of the last three years. For Scotland the returns for the year 1897 show a total quantity of 5,002,000cwt. landed, exclusive of shell-fish, the value being £ 1,627,000. To this should be added E83,000, the value of the shell-fish landed, making a total of £ 1,710,000. The corresponding figures for Ireland show a total of 819,000cwt. landed, of the value of Y-284,000, exclu- sive of shell-fish, the total, including shell-fish, being valued at £ 296,000. It should be remarked that in 1897, as compared with 1896, there is in Scotland a considerable decrease in the quan- tity, but at the same time a slight increase in the value of the fish landed, whilst in Ireland there is a decrease both in the total quantity and the total value of the fish landed. The aggregate results for the whole of the United Kingdom show that in the year 1897,13,767,000cwt. of fish (exclusive of shell-fish) were landed, or, approximately, 688,000 tons, valued at E7,481,000 at the point of landing. If to this the value of the shell-fish, amounting to E430,000, be added, a total of £ 7.911,000 is arrived at as the value of the sea fisheries of the United Kingdom at the place of land- ing in the year 1897, £ ompared with a total value of £ 7,529,000 in the year 1896.
THE PLAGUE AT JIDDAH. When the news arrived that two or three cases of plague had occurred at Jiddah, little importance was attached to the intelligence, precisely the Mine in- formation having been telegraphed on several pre- vious occasions. Unhappily (remarks the Globe), there is no room for further scepticism; the dread- ful scourge has undoubtedly advanced so far en route to Europe. Cases increase in number daily is the latest report, while so grave is the out- look that even the Turkish authorities recog- nise the necessity of adopting precautionary c measures. But their remedial action up to date has been of the feeblest and most ineffectual character, mainly consisting in sub- stituting Ras el Awad for Jiddah as the port for the landing of pilgrims. As the two places are close together, this precaution is simply futile to the last degree. What has chiefly to be guarded against is the conveyance of the disease to Egypt and Asia Minor by pilgrims returning from Mecca. To leave that vitally important business to the local authorities would be absurd naturally, their inclination will be to get rid of infected persons as quickly as possible. It rests, therefore, with the Turkish and Egyptian Governments to establish a cordon, and it may be as- sumed that they will ostensibly comply with that obliga- tion. Indeed, the Khedive has already decreed that, in the event of plague breaking out at Mecca, Egyptian pilgrims must not return under six months. But it is very certain that the wealthy will find little difficulty in evading this regulation by bribing the officials. Even, however, if the embarkation of pilgrims at Jiddah and Ras el Awad were prohibited, and absolutely prevented, they could make their way overland to other ports on the Red Sea. The only effectual pre- caution would be to form a sanitary cordon round the infected districts, and then proceed to stamp out the disease inside. But as the Turkish authorities cannot be trusted to discharge this duty, the time has clearly come for the Great Powers to initiate com- bined action against a common danger. If the plague once reaches the shores of the Mediterranean, Eastern Europe will not be long before it is invaded, and after that conquest the terrible disease will travel ever the whole of the Old World as during previous visitations.
TO FIGHT TRADE RIVALS. The establishment in London of an Oriental College, fully endowed and adequately equipped, is regarded by Mr. Yerburgh, M.P., as absolutely essen- tial, if we are to keep pace with our trading rivals in China and the Far East generally. The hon. gentleman has informed a Press repre- sentative that he has stayed,his hand for the moment in regard to meetings on the Far East question, but, with regard to this particular subject of an Oriental college, notwithstanding Mr. Balfour's unfavourable reply when appealed to, he intends to return to the matter on one o. O theevotes of Supply. Meanwhile it may be well to set forth a few facts in relation to this really important matter. There can be little doubt that linguistic marches are being stolen upon us by more than one eager trading rival, not only in China, but in the Far East generally. In France, in Germany, and even in Austria there are at the present time State supported colleges, where the teaching of the Chinese, Indian, Siamese, Japanese, and other languages is carried on much to the commercial benefit of those countries whereas we in this country, despite the fact that our Empire includes some 300 million men and women of Eastern races, have no establishment of the kind. Mr. Yerburgh has now brought the neglect of Oriental languages, in which we of all people in the world ought to shine, well before the notice of the House of Commons and the country, but he does not pretend to have discovered it himself. On the con- trary, it is an old. standing grievance among those who are interested in our Eastern possessions and interests-trade and other-and it is actually some 40 years since a great Oxford professor first raised the question, and declared that the Indian Mutiny itself might to some extent be attributed to this strange neglect and ignorance of ours. Russia is at the present time coiling herself like an immense snake round the hopeless and helpless body of the Chinese Empire. She may rely to a large extent on brute force to achieve her ends, but none the less she, too, has awakened to the wisdom of helping her people to get the trade by mastering the language of the Celestials. She maintains at the cost of the Central Government a constant succession of pupils intended for the civil, military and naval services, and they receive regular instruction, as Professor Salmon^ has pointed out, under competent masters in the living languages of the East. After keeping so many terms at the college they are despatched to the various countries in which they are to be em- ployed, in order to study the vernacular of each dis- trict. Even Italy does more than Great Britain in this direction.
HUMAN RECUPERATION. The Droitwich remedy for Rheumatism Gout, Sciatica, and Kindred Maladies is for the patient who tries the, St. Andrew's Brine Baths to soak in Droitwich Brine for 20 minutes, to be then swathed in steaming hot blankets, and the Brine allowed to dry on. Its eflicy is proved by numberless testi- monials and the increasing number of visitors each year. Many cures recorded by patients in the visitors' book read more hke miracles. Droitwich has improved very much of late, the fame 6f its Saline Waters having,.brought, many extra visitors. It now possesses threp good hotels, the "Park," "Raven, and Worcestershire, "the latter a hand- some up-to-date establishment, containing 150jrooms, n and adjoining the St. Andrew's Brine Baths.
IMPROVEMENTS IN EDlNBUKdll. In connection with a great city improvement made by the Corporation of Edinburgh in the rebuilding of the North-bridge and the widening of North Bridge-street, an important sale has taken place of the areas on each side of North Bridge-street, recently acquired by the city. Much.local interest was excited by the sale. The whole of the west side of North Bridge-street, from the bridge to High-street, with a frontage of 350ft. and a depth of about 130ft. was ,exposed for sale in one lot at £ 120,000, and was pur- chased at that figure by the proprietors of the Scots- man newspaper. It is the intention of the purchasers ito erect on the principal portion of the site which faces Prince's-street new, extensive, and handsome offices for the accommodation of all (1Ppart merits of the Scotsman. A block on the east siofe of the street was sold to the Commercial Bank for E35,000, while two remaining blocks, on the same side, did not find a purchaser.
THE most singular ship in the world is the Poly- phemus, of the British Navy. It is simply a lorg steel tube, deeply buried in the water, the deck rising only 4ft. above the sea. It carries no masts or sails, and is used as a ram and torpedo-boat. M. FRANCOIS COPPEE, the French poet and dra- matist, is a bachelor, and devoted to his pet cats. A friend who visited him a few years ago avers that he found one cat in the ante-chamber of the poet's resi- dence, two cats in the dining-room, four in the drawing-room, and pight in his study. THE Lord Chamberlain is authorised to state that Drawing Rooms will be held under th usual regula- tions at Buckingham Palaoe on Tuesday, the 10th of May next, and on a further day to be hereafter announced. The sames of ladies to be presented at these Drawing Rooms cannot be received at the Lord Chamberlain's oflioe until Thursday, the 14th of Anril next.
WILLS AND BEQUESTS. Mr. Henry Stacy Marks, R.A., who died on January 9 last, at the age of 68 years, appointed as his executor his brother, Mr. Alfred Marks, probate having been renounced by Mr. John Richard Clayton. To his wife, Mrs. Mary Harriet Marks, the testator bequeaths E50, his furniture and household effecls, together with any pictures or works of art he may have for sale; to each of his executors the choice of a picture the residuary estate he leaves in trust to pay two-thirds to his widow during her widowhood, and subject to such interest to hold these two-thirds in trust for his two sons and daughter, Agnes Drysdale Marks and the remaining third to be in trust for his daughter, Edith Fanny Helen Guinness. The amount of the personalty for probate has been declared at Y-9388 5s. 9d. Personal estate to the value of E122,331 gross, and E4729 net, has been declared for probate under the will of the late William Rushton Adamson, J.P., D.L., director of the Thames and Mersey Insurance Company, and of the North Metropolitan Railway Company, who died on January 31 last, and whose will was proved on March 23 by his executors, his widow, Mrs. Fanny Adamson, and his sons, Rushton Webber Adamson and Norman William Adamson. The testator leaves to his widow all his freehold, leasehold, and other property absolutely, and the income of the residuary estate for her life, and at her decease to pay a legacy of £ 10,000 to his son Rush- ton and the ultimate residue is to be held in trust, in equal shares, for his three sons and his five daughters. Mr. Meaburn Staniland, who died on January 2G last, at the age of 88 years, and who was from 1859 to 1865, and in 1866 to 1867, M.P., for Boston, ap- pointed as his executors Robert William Staniland, Meaburn Staniland, and Alfred Meaburn Staniland, his sons to his daughters he bequeaths Y-6500 each, and to his sons shares in a brick company, and in equal shares the residue of his real estate. The amount of personalty for probate has been returned at P-16,510 12s. Id. Mr. Frederick Weymouth Gibbs, C.B., Q.C., for- merly tutor to the Prince of Wales, who died on February 18 last, at the age of 76 years, appointed as his executors Mr. Bertram Vaughan Johnson, Mr. Walter Edward Moore, and the Rev. Lewis New- comen Prance, who duly proved the will on March 19 last. The testator made numerous gifts to chari- table institutions, and included the Devon and Cornwall Hospital, tho Royal Victoria Patriotic Asylum, the Sailors' Orphan Asylum, the Corpora- tion of the Royal and Literary Fund, the Trinity College Mission, Cambridge, to each of whom he bequeathed £100. The portrait of himself ,by G. F. Watts, and his painting the Campagna di Roma," by E. Lesi, lie bequeaths to the Prince of Wales, with a request that he will accept them as a memorial of the testator; his etching of Windsor Castle, by Seymour Haden, to the Empress Frederick. with a like request; to the Princesses Victoria and Maud P.2500 each; but after the marriage of Prin- cess Maud he revoked this legacy, and by a codicil bequeathed her ZCIOO as a small memorial of him. To the Duke of York and the Duchess of Fife, 100 guineas each, certain silver .plate presented to him by her Majesty the Queen and the Prince of Wales he leaves to the Honourable Society of Lincoln's-inn, and directs bis executors to restore to the secretary of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, his badge as Companion, and further directs his executors to give to her Majesty the Queen two packets of letters, kept by him in the red box containing his patent as Queen's Counsel, and further described in an accompanying memorandum for the executors. The testator leaves numerous and liberal bequests to relatives and friends, including £ 1500 to his clerk, and £ 500 to a servant, and makes specific gifts of pictures and other articles, and finally leaves his residuary estate to his cousin, Miles Henry Prance, and to the Rev. Lewis Newcomen Prance. The amount of the personalty is returned at £ 32,4G5. Mr. Edmund Tattersall, was senior partner in the well-known firm of equine auctioneers at Knights- bridge,"and died on March 5, at the age of 82 years. To his widow he bequeaths £ 5000,' his residence, Coleherne Court, furniture, &c.: the portrait of his great-grandfather and certain sporting pictures both at Coleherne Court and Knightsbridge to hisf son Edmund. To his widow during her widowhood Z4500 per annum until 1907, when the term of the existing partnership expires after that £ 4000, but in the event of her remarriage this is to be reduced to £1O<XJ for life. The testator makes liberal be- quests to his sons and daughters, and to his brother Henry he leaves a life annuity of ElW. To servants of the firm he gives various amounts, and directs his executors to concur in any arrangements for the transfer of the business to a joint stock company. The amount of personalty has been returned at £ 107,839 4s. 6d. gross, and £ 96,879 4s. 6d. net. By her will of July 22, 1897, with codicils of August 3, 1897, December 24, 1897, and January 12, 1898, Mrs. Susan Brine, of 31, Thurloe-place, who died on January 21 last, aged 63 years, daughter of Major Henry Leeky, of Milton Lodge, Londonderry, and widow of General Frederick Brine, bequeathed to Vice-Admiral Lindesay Brine, of the Atheriaium Club, her collec- tion of medals; to Colonel Bruce Brine, her late husband's sword; to Dr. Alexander Wallace, of Col- chester, £ 500 to her Tdnswoman. Henrietta Mary Usher, £ 500 to Captain -'Cecil Hamilton Browne, EIOOO; to his sister, Constance Browne, £ 100; to the Dean of Derry, for Cathedral charities, ZIOO and to the Vicar of Holy Trinity, Brompton, for the poor, Z20. Mrs. Brine left her freehold and leasehold property in London- derry to her father's kinsman, Captain William Lecky Browne, and she bequeathed to Edith Mary Adelaide McAusland the income during her life of a sum of Y-9000, which is to be in trust, subject to her life inte- rest, as to £1000 for her children as to Y-2500 each for Admiral Brine and Colonel Bruce Brine and a a to the remainder of the trust fund for other relations. The testatrix left her residuary estate, subject to some other legacies, to Admiral Brine. The late Mrs. Brine's personal estate has been valued at £ 16,064. Miss Elizabeth Fripp, of the Grove, Teignmouth, who died on January 20 last, leaving personal estate valued at E53,771 9s. 10d., appointed as execu- tors of her will, Mr. Henry Napier Abbot, of Shannon Court, and Mr. Steuart Fripp, of Corn- street, Bristol, to each of whom the testatrix be- queathed £100; to the Teignmouth Dispensary and Convalescent Home, £ 200; to her sister. Fanny Lyon, Y-5000; to her maid, Susannah Carpenter, £ 200, and a life annuity of P-200; to Isabella Spratt and Amy Rudkin, £100 each, and bequests to various servants. ■< By his will of November 30, '1894, Mr. Mayow Wynell Adams, of the Old House, at Sydenham, J.P., chairman of the General Reversion and Investment Company, and a director of the Guarantee Society, who died on February 18 last, aged 89 years, appointed as executors his wife, Mrs. Anna Maria Adams, his grandson, Herbert Mayow Fisher Rowe, and his nephew, Baldwin Dacres Adams. The testator bequeathed to Mrs. Adams the use and enjoyment of the Old House and its furniture, and the income during her life of his residuary estate. Subject to her life interest, Mr. Adams left the Old House and its furniture to his said grandson, and he bequeathed to his niece, Mrs. Gemma Cecilia Clarke, wife of Lieut.-General Charles Mansfield Clarke, the silver inkstand which belonged to her father and £ 200. The testator bequeathed a number of sums, and left the residue of his property to his grandson, Mr. Fisher Rowe.
DUCHESS OF YORK'S NOAH ARK. The Marchioness of Dufferin and Ava has inaugu- rated the Nine Elms branch of the Children's Happy Evening Association at the Ponton-road Board Schools. The Duchess of York sent a box of toys, some of them, including a huge Noah's Ark, being disused ones belonging to her children.
SAINTS' DAYS. An appalling amount of time is spent by Roman tradespeople in the celebration of Saints' Days (says the Rome correspondent of the Morning Post), even though they only close their shops for half the day. Efforts are, however, being made by the Clerical party to induce shopkeepers to close their shops for the whole of the day, though hitherto with but little success. Even good Roman Catholic tradesmen are startled at the thought of the loss they would Buffer by hearkening to their spiritual advisers, and appear to be far from satisfied by the assurance that the loss would only be temporary. On the occasion of the Feast of the Annunziata a serious attempt was made by the Clericals to cause all shops to be closed, but it evidently failed, for the shops remained open until past midday. For the evening an attempt of a different kind had been planned. The Catholic Union prepared a manifesto inviting all true Catho- lics to hang Chinese lanterns outside their windows and to burn red and green Bengal lights on the tops of their houses. There again, however, the Fate, were unpropitious. The Quaestor of Rome most un kindly confiscated the manifesto, while the weather provided an obstacle for the occasiea in the shape of a storm of hail, rain, thunder, lighlfcing, and wind, which effectually quenched the illuminations. The illuminations are said to have been intended exclu- sively in honour of the Festa, but it i* also rumoured that if they had succeeded they would have been interpreted by the Clerical party as a popular protest against the Statute of the Constitution. .I
THIS," said the little boy who was showing some country friends the sights of London, is the square that the Battle of Trafalgar was named after."
ART AND LITERATURE. SOME learned and ingenious notes on a half- obliterated tempera painting in St. Albans Abbey, by Mr. J. G. Waller, appear in the quarterly number of Middlesex and Hertfordshire Notes and Queries. The illustrations not only include a tinted representation of part of the painting, but a figure which the author regards as a painter's mark, and as probably intended for a star." It is much more like a sea-anemone, and may afford an interesting mediaeval example of the use of such signatures. In our own time we have the butterfly. 1.[n. ELLIOT STOCK gives an amusing instance of the absolute illegibility of the late Dean Stanley's hand- writing. He says: Some years ago the postman delivered, among my letters, one which he thought was addressed, Elliot Stock, 62, Paternoster-row,' but which, on being opened, was found to contain a receipt for an article in the Contemporary Review by the dean, and intended for Mr. Strachan, Ludgate- hill.' The address was certainly as much like the one as the other." IT is pleasant to see that Fanny Burney's Evelina is to be republished. Macaulay, it may be recollected, had a very high opinion of the work of the very gifted 18th century lady novelist. MAURICE JOKAI, the novelist and Poet Laureate of Hungary, has given permission to M. Bala Lukacs, the Royal Hungarian Commissioner, to reproduce in the Hungarian Section of the Paris Exhibition a facsimile of his library and all its furniture and con- tents. The library is one of the most remarkable in existence, and it contains an enormous bookcase, which holds over 200 volumes from the pen of the poet himself. The most remarkable fact of all is that the majority of the books are worth reading. A COpy of Casscll's Magazine for March has just been sent back to this country by a subscriber in Moscow. It reached him with the first page of Mr. Arnold White's story, A White Night," most effec- tually blocked out out by the Censor, and the sub- sequent pages cut away. The Russian authorities evidently read Casscll's Magazine very closely, for last year, when Mr. Headon Hill's story, By a Hair's Breadth," was running through its pages, it was carefully blocked out every month. APPARENTLY, when in England Li Hung Chang spent a good deal of his time giving sittings tc artists. One of the latest portraits of him is that which Mr. Alfred Praga is sending to the Royal Academy. It is a presentation picture, and it is an admirable likeness. Lord Li is wearing his celebrated yellow jacket, but the under robe is of pale blue silk; his head is covered by a black cap of the approved Celestial shape, the hard outline emphasising the set character of the face. Another portrait which Mr. Praga has recently finished is a profile head, a bust of Miss Nora Vynne, the novelist, and here again the likeness is remarkably good. Tins Guild of Handicraft announce that they are about to publish a translation, by Mr. C. R. Ashbee, of Benvenuto Cellini's treatise on goldsmiths' work and sculpture. This edition of a work which has never yet been translated into English is intended to serve as a companion volume to John Addington Symonds's translation of Cellini's autobiography. The translation is based on the Marcian code, that being the original version of the treatise as Cellini dictated it to his amanuensis. He himself withdrew it from publication, and it did not reappear till the middle of the present century. MR. SOLOMON J. SOLOMON has chosen a civic sub- ject for his Royal Academy picture this year. If no change is made in the title this work is to be called On the Threshold of the City." It represents the scene on Jubilee Day, when the Lord Mayor and Aldermen waited to receive her Majesty at Temple Bar. A portrait of Sir G. Faudel Phillips, Bart., is | included amongst other works which Mr. Solomon is sending to Burlington House, and also one of the artist's wife. MR. CIIEVALLIEI: TAYLER has again made a study of artificial light for his most important picture. This canvas is called "The Sisters, and it has apparently been inspired by the lines, A sorrow's crown of sorrow is remembering happier things." The chief feature is that of a woman wearing a dress of black; she is seated beside a table, OIl which a .candle burns beneath a green shade, the play of light showing remarkably clever handling. A wealth ,of flowers are about the room, and at the far side you see the figures of a man and woman, the latter outlined against the intense blue of night, seen through an open window, or glass door. Although 1 Mr. Chevallier Tayler has pjveral portraits on the easel, this is the only picture he is sending to the Academy this year, the others being still unfinished. ONE of the artists who has accustomed us to expect from him year by year pictures of exceptional import- ance is Mr. J. W. Waterhouse. He will this spring be seen quite at his best, for he has for the Royal Academy two admirable canvases of large size, and a smaller one for the New Gallery. His chief compo- sition, The Wooing of Flora by Zephyr," is an exquisite example of imaginative design, remarkable especially for its refinement of colour and grace of draughtsmanship. The figures of Flora and her attendant maidens who fill the foreground of the picture are drawn with delightful delicacy, and the harmony of their purple, grey, and blue robes, set against the background of foliage, is rich and varied, and yet perfectly restrained. In his other large picture of Ariadne reclining on a terrace overlooking a classic harbour he has dealt with an arrangement of red, purple, and deep green that is full of strength and decision and he has in the attitude, of the figure gained a touch of dramatic meaning that is amply expressive, and yet without exaggeration. The New Gallery picture is less ambitious, a half- length of a young girl in an old Venetian dress, a study of delicate form and glowing colour. MR. F. MARKIIAM SKIPWORTII has (the Globe says) completed a large picture with a classic motive, a group of Roman women watching from the benches of the arena a duel to the death which is supposed to be taking place below. The moment chosen is when the loser has made his appeal for mercy, and the feminine spectators refuse him what he asks. Their down-turned thumbs condemn him to death, as a punishment for his want of success. The artist has gained a point, of interest by suggesting the unwil- lingness of one maiden to join the others in the con- demnation, and by representing her struggling with a companion who wishes to compel her to side with the majority. The picture is brilliant and full of action, a popular subject treated with great technical skill. MR. WILLIAM STOTT, of Oldham, who was pre- vented by illness from exhibiting last year, has been able to finish this spring two pictures that represent j him very thoroughly. The Happy Valley," a young girl in light draperies walking with a classic youth through a smiling landscape, is a very successful study in delicate tones of grey and green and Autumn," a dark-haired maiden, in deep red robes seated among • sheaves of corn, and surrounded with bright-coloured fruit, is a vigorous arrangement in red and golden orange. Both are robustly decorative, and full of in- stances of technical decision. THE number of portraits available for the exhi- bitions is fairly large. Mr. Spencer Watson has three, a three-quarter length of "Lady Douglas Powell," a strong and characteristic study of Father Watson in a black cassock, and an elaborately- painted seated figure of "Miss Watson" in a pink dress. Mr. C. Kerr has a delightful full-length of Mrs. George Noble" seated at a spinning-wheel, and a smaller picture, of "Mrs. Samuel Cohen." Mr. R. Peacock has a very dainty full-length of a pretty fair child in a black dress, set against, a background of carved oak; Air. E. Patry a clever rendering of "TVIrs. Walter Cutbill" in a grev pink Watteau dress and a large grey hat; and Mr. Coutts Michie an attractive half-length portrait of Mrs. George McCulloch." Mr. W. Wontner has on the easel a soundly-handled likeness of the Duke of Argyll, wearing the Blue Ribbon of the Garter, anc two or three other canvases which show to grea: advantage his minute and elaborate method.
THE Duke of York is the only member of the Royal family who can dance a genuine sailor's horn- pipe. The steps he learnt while a young cadet, and it is told how often he and his brother, the late Duke of Clarence, would go into a cabin together, and whilst the latter whistled Prince George would step it out. An old man-o'-war's man told the writer that for smartness in tying the various sailor's knots with the rope, the Prince would want a lot of j beating. TitE consumption of tobacco is shown to be de- creasing in France. It is now about 21b. per head of the population annually, against 71b. in Holland, 51b. in America, 31b. in Germany, 2jlb. in Canada, and not quite 1lb. in Great Britain. The consumption of matches in Europe in 24 hours is said to be 2,000,000,000—12 er head of the population in Germany, eight in England, and six in France. IT is interesting to note that out of every 1000 men in the British Army there are 18 over 6ft. in stature, 27 of 5ft. llin., 52 of 5ft. 10in., 93 of 5ft. Pin., 141 of 5ft. Sin., and 184 of 5ft. 7in. Taking one year with another, it is found that these figures vary but slightly each 12 months. Out of the 2000 British soldiers of 6ft. and over, 400 are in the Line regi- nIPnt.
UNION LINE for the SOUTH AFRICAN GOLD FIELDS. Sailings from Southampton every Saturday. Calls made at Madeira and Tenerife. Apply to the UNIOS STEAM SHIP Co., Ltd., Ca.nute Rd., Southampton, an- South Africn n House, 94 to 98, Bi sHopsgatc St. W ithin, Londom. IRON 8UILDIKCS AND ROOFING. 9 Churches, Cha-pels, Misnion and School XLoom^ fl Lawn Tenni., Golf, mid Cricket Pavilicins. Coib. S t&ges, Stables, Fr.rm Buildings. BooUng- ft every Description of Irou Buildings. Mlpi ^-1 South BERMONDSBY STATHML W. london, S.E. JCTNO CYCI* £ S are the Very Best» Diamonds, from JElO 1 lis. Kd. Monthly. 12 Monthly Payments. Lady's and G,-nfs Safeties, &12 1U, 21s. Mo.thly. E14 14s.; 24s. 6d. Write son's List of JUNO Cycles aid P 0 SITR Accessories, Post free. Riding i m ii uu. W'ly i. V. School, 1,700 feet, »'™HriMiirl now open. Metropolitan Machinists' Co., ^.td. 75, 76, Bishop* gate Without, E.O., and at Piccadilly Circus (exactly oppogit# the Criterion). LtXyCON, W. THE NEW FRENCH REMEDY: TJjrni Dinil This successtui and highly popular I niLnMrlUn. remedy, as employed in the Continental Hospitals, by Ricord, Rostan, Jobert, Velpeau, and others, combines all the desiderata to be sought in a medicine of the kind, and surpasses everything hitherto employed for im- purity of the blood, spots, blotches, pains and swellings of the, joints, kidney and liver diseases, gravel, pains in the back, nervousness, sleeplessness, dre. Therapion is prepared ia three different forms, Nos. 1, 2, and 3, according to diseases £ or which intended. Full particulars sfml stamped aiMreaaod envelope for pnmplilot to Mu. R. JOHNSON, 43, HOLFORB ByUAHE, [.ONIn''N, W.C. Name thin Paper. "COOPER» CYCLES From JE5 10s. COMPETITION DEFIED. Latest design gP frame, large weldless steel tubes, A ball bearings, tangent wheels, brake and mud,guards; cushion ffi': tires, £ 5 10s.; pneumatio, il fTTl £ 7 10s. Ladies', with dress gear- guards, from JE6. Twelve YK *> /yy months' warranty. Lists free. T *■" •»•» Aeenr.8 Wanted. WM. COOPER, 753, OLD KENT ROAD, LUX DON. S.E. ♦ w | Sgseoiai Offer to | Poultry Fanciers, T1JTE are certain that <► I VV the ZEBEIL" Ex- o tract of Meat is superior to all other Animal Foods > for Poultry, and to give 0 Poultry Fanciers an opportunity of testing S ♦ our assertion, we have decided to offer £ 50, <► which will be given in 0 sums varying from zClO <► to ..£1 I- to persons who, ❖ during the year 1898, 1 are most successful in winning the highest num- > ber of Prizes with Fowls fed on "ZEBElL." J Write To-Day for Full Par- ticulars, tvhich may be had <► ♦ post free from < ► I "ZEBRIL" LIMITED, il 17, Withy Grove, Manchester, o CYCLES at Wholesale Cost! < Gents' Pneumatic Safeties. E7 17 s: r A 'Arrx. Ladies' Pneumatics £ 7 18 & Gents' Cushions £ 6 12 & Ladies' Cushions £ 7 7 fr %?/WSr WaxvolloU3 Value. Lists free. -2&=^-THE CYCLER its, 20. LYTTON ST., LIVERPOOL* FOR THE VINOLIAI SOAP (for the Complexion), -ly 4d.. Tabitt. CREAM (Itching, Burning Face Spots), 1/lj. POWDER (Redness, Roughness, Sweating, &c.), 1/-
HIIAXN.IAN rubber export, according to a recent Foreign Office report,, amounted, in the year ended June .'i0, 1897, to 22,315 tons, and 9100 tons or' this was from Para. About half goes to Europe and half to the United States. The value of the year's pro- duce was nearly £ 2,000,000. THE owners and ratepayers of houses in the vicinity of the London and North-Western railway station, Euston-road, Morecam.be, having recently memorialised the directors of the company named with reference to a proposed stonemason's yard in New Queen-street, the following reply has been received from the secretary of the London and North- Western Railway Company, dated March 2: "In reply to your letter of February 11, to the chairman of the company and myself, I have made inquiry into the matter, and find that the applicants for a site on the company's land in Station-road. Morecambe, for the purpose of a stonemason's yard, do not propose to use sawing machines, but merely a planing machine, and I am informed that no nuisance will be caused thereby. I understand that similar- machines to the one that is proposed to be used at Morecambe are in use at other seaside towns, and that no complaint has been received with regard to them." TUB Queen, notwithstanding her unprecedentedly long reign, has had only 10 Mistresses of the Robes. They have been two Duchesses of Buccleuch, two Duchesses of Sutherland, the Duchess of Atholl, tho Duchess of Bedford, the Duchess of Wellington, the Duchess of Roxburghe, the Duchess of Argyll, and,, for a very short time, the present Duchess of Devon- shire, when her Grace was the Duchess of Man- chester.
C' ARTGR'S UTTLE | LIVER PILLS. f/V am*u- JjX ML EmaU STIVER Trie. 'ortyin a Purely Yeptabl.. Cure Torpid I-lT*r, Bile, Sdl'ow CnmpioiHti, and Sick 31, 1 promptly: and m h'1 •« m IQ NJIIt:I sand. t;.4e¡¡ào,k" It r BEAUTIFUL TEETH for all who om daily on tiie k. brash a few drops oi SOZODONT th* ple"test dautiirlca 1n as world. Cleanses the teeth and spaces between them as nothing els* will. Sound and pearly white teeth, rosy lips, and fragrant breath ensured. AsJfc for SOZODOJJT- s. M- Il
JixTRAORMNAny official figures are published coti- cerning the extent of the export of books from Ger- many last, year. Their value amounts to £ 3,100,000, against £ 1,325,000 in 1883, and makes up 1-7 per cent. of the total German exports. Books to the value of £ 1,400,000 are sent yearly to Austria, of E160,000 to England, and E60,000 to France. On the other hand, F,1,000,000 worth of books were im- ported, of which England was responsible for £ 3^,500 only, while £ 140,000 worth came from Franco. No other large city is as quiet as Berlin. Railway engines are not allowed to blow their whistles within the city limits, and the man whose waggon gearing is' loose and rattling ia subject to a fine. Strangest of all. piano playing is regulated" in Berlin. Before a. certain hour in the day and after a certain hour in. the night, the piano must be silent in that musical city. Even during playing hours a fine is imposed for mere banging on the piano. THIS is to be a year of centenaries. France will, have three—the centenary of Jasmin, the barber poet, who was born at Agen in 1798, and died in 1864; that of Auguste Comte, founder of the Positivist School, who died in 1857; and that of Jules Michelet, the famous historian, who was born on- Aiigust, 21, 1798. There will be two centenary festivals in Italy, in memory of the poet Leopardi and of Savonarola. Besides the centenary celebra- tion of the independence of the Canton of Vaud, the Swiss will commemorate the fourth centenary of Hans Holbein, the great painter. On May 21, Portugal will commemorate the fourth centenary of the explorer Vasco de Gmna. THE new Lancashire coal mines, to which sinking shafts are now being made, are stated to be more numerous and important in extent than any that have been developed for upwards of 10 years past. About £ 1,000.000 of capital is being laid out over the necessnrv work.
BLACK 11IA.L I D/LEAD