BEFORE THE DAYS OF ANAESTHETICS. The A rch-ires of Military Medicine recently gave an interesting account of the medical history of the siege of Mayence in 1793. The medical officer in charge of the hospital says On the 11th of April there was a dreadful cannonade. Amongst the number brought us with enormous wounds—and the number was not inconsiderable (in less than an hour, eight for various amputa- tions)—was a little volunteer with great courage, although suffering teir.bly. I ordered that he should be undressed while I went round the ward to glance at the various operations which the assistant-surgeons were performing. Returning to him with Citizen Riviere, who was to perform the operation, we perceived an enormous lower limb, enormous from the unusual amount of swelling. Manipulating the limb, we came across a hard swelling, which we took to be caused by a grape-shot ball lodged in the limb Our aston- ishment was great when we found than an incision of five or six fingers' breadth was insufficient to extract this enormous foreign body, which, on beiiij finally got out, turned out to be a Prussian ball weighing no less than 131b How could a mass of this size have just the amount of force necessary to lodge in a thigh and not pass through it ? This problem I leave to natural philosophers, but I admit it to be almost necessary to have seen such things to believe them. Of c.-ut-se there was nothing for it but to operate on this poor fellow or leave him to certain death we therefore amputated high up. When we had finished h3 asked if it was done, and on being told that it was, he cried out loudly, 'Long live the na'ion!' Anaesthetics had not then s?en the light, it must be remembered. On another occasion the firing of a mine caused a tremendous explosion, which shook the hospital building terribly. At that moment I was engaged amputating the limb of a soldier. As I was sawing the bone amidst the general confusion caused by the first shock, a second occurred which brought down the whole of a glass skylight over the patient and myself. Not knowing whence all the ghs, came, I asked those standing round what was the matter. The patient over- heard me, and said, Go on, don't alarm your- self, you will s, c plenty of this kind of thing.' When I had finished the operation he cried, Vive la llepublique
THE GREAT FRENCH PAINTER. Meissonier, like Napoleon, whom he painted so superbly, was one of the little great men of the world. Ho was no tiller than Thiers and he was even less strongly built, a largo head and broad shoulders being supported by short and slender legs. His bushy beard and whiskers gave him a fierceness which was wholly belied by his gentleness of manner and by his shyness in the presence of s rangers. On the principle that he who drives fat oxen should himself be fat, Meissonier's littleness of person was very appropriate, for his pictures owe much of their fame t) their tininess. Take, for instance, Le Resit," which was in the Secretan collection. It is no bigger than a crown-piece, and the amonnt of tine wurk put in by the painter into the tiny panel is amaz'ng. Amazing, and attractive: for, as smie one said the other day of Meissonier, everybody is interested in seeing the Lord's Prayer written on a threepenny piece. At the Luxembourg, when you are seen approaching the smaller Mei^soniers, an attendant at once ruslei at y u with a mignifying glass. If the value of pic'u-es be judged by their prices per squire in.;h, some of Meissonier's must certainly be pronounced the most precious art "gems" in th-i world. The Napoleon," for instance, which Mr Ruskin bought in 1869, was sold in 1882 for £ 6,090. The little picture is only 12} by 9t, so that it was worth £ 56 the square inch Fancy prices such as these were, however, justified economically by the enormous cost of production, both in time and money, which Meissonier incurved. His collection of "pro- perties of all kinds was enormous, and he spared no trouble or expense to ensure absolute correctness When painting the "1814," for instance, Meissonier constructed a miniature landscape covered with models of waggons, tum- brils, cannons, and the other impedimenta of an army, which were drawn across hit landscape covered with some white powder suggestive of recall tly-fallen -,n )w. Oher stories t,- the same effect will be found in the very interesting mono- graph on Meissonier which formed the Art Annual for 1887.
A SCHOOL BOY'S LOVE LETTER. Ona of the most delicious love letters ever read was intercepted the other day by a teacher in one of the public schools. The boy who wrote it was ten years old, and the girl presumably of the same age. Here is the charming missive :— Dear Einnit, I love you, and I wish you would write to me. I love you, and I wish I could kiss you, Emma, you look so rosy. I love you don't you love nn I I think you love me. I don't care if you don't, I will write to you any- way. I want you to write to me, and if you have no lead pencil I will give you one and some piper. I am so glad you love me. Emma, did you tell that boy that Iive3 beside of your house that yon was going to slap my nose ? Emma, I could not help but cry when that boy told me. Emma, I thought you thought more of me. I have given you abjut twopence worth of toffee, and you don't treat me well."
STRANGE AFFAIR AT BELFAST. On Wednesday morning a full habit of a clergyman, including a gold cros^ and gold watch and chain, was found in a field close to the rive* Lagan, at Belfast. The clothes were scattered over the field except the trousers, which, with a quantity of loose silver and receipted accounts in the pockets, were suspended on some railings. The police, who were notified of the fact, at first thought it was a case of suicide, and had mad arrangements to drag the river, but further in- quiries led to the discovery that they belonged to a priest who occupic3 the position of Professor in a local College, and for some reason not yet explained undressed himself in thestreet at night, in a local College, and for some reason not yet explained undressed himself in thestreet at night, and after wandering about for hours in an almost node condition obtained friendly shelter in a gentleman's house. Somnambulism is the ex- planation give:i by the Collegiate authorities at Belfast of the affair. The distance from the college to the p'ace where the clothes were found is over two miles. The bishop of the diocese will shortly liojd an investigation into the strange occurrence.
DR KOCH'S REMEDY. Professors Cant. mi and de Renzi have given a report of the effects of Dr Koch's cure as carried on in their clinical rooms. Professor de Renzi madd 4G9 injections on 44 patients. Of those affected with tubercu'os's not in the lungs three were cured, and in all the others there are good hopes of cure. Of the 37 patients aflected with tuberculosis of the lungs, 32 have been under- going the cure long enough for the effects to be certain, and of-these four are notably improved, five slightly, eight have not visibly altered, 13 have become worse, and two have died. All, however, it must be added, except three, were seriously ill when received into the hospital. Professor de Renzi comes to the conclusion that although Dr Koch's cure till now cannot be called radically efficacious, there are great piospectsof its being p-jifecied in time. Professor Catitini made 146 in jections on 26 pa'ients, and presented to I he met t n; some of his patien's, in whom there was great improvement. The professor in his report insisled that the cure should be so carried on as to avoid any great general reaction, especially the arousing of high fever, which fatigues the organism. His opinion of the cure is that it is one of the greatest acquisitions of modern times, and that the experience made of it in Naples is very encouraging. t
AN ENGLISHMAN BITTEN BY A RATTLESNAKE. Mr Edward Bosanquet, the son of the well- known English banker, was bitten last week by a rattlesnake while he was shooting near Daytona, Florida. The snake struck him on the inside of the left leg above the ankle. Mr Evelyn Walter, who was with Mr Bosanquet, immediately applied his mouth to the wound and endeavoured to suck out the poison. Then, having tightly bandaged the wounded leg, Mr Walker raised his friend upon his shoulder and carried him to Daytona. It is feared, however, that all his gallant exertions to save the life of Mr Bosanqnet have proved of no avail. He is reported to be in a hopeless con- dition. Mr Walker himself is also seriously ill. It seems that he had a slight sore on his lip and absorbed some of the poison into his system. On his arrival at Daytona, broken down with fatigue, he was seized with an attack which resembled partial paralysis. Mr Bosanquet and Mr Walker were spending the autumn and winter at St. Augustine, Mr Walker having Ms family with him. Mrs Walker only sailed for England on Thursday.
A FAMILY ASPHYXIATED. At the Hungarian village of Komaron, near Greit Kanisza, a peasant's child had fallen ill. The young doctor who was called in, suspecting the approach of brain fever, ordered powders of calomel and anti-pyrine. The regular doctor of the district visited the child the same evening, I and confirmed his colleague's treatment, though at first he thought the child showed signs of hav- ing swallowed poison. He noticed a bad smell in the house, but as bad smells are uot uncommon in the houses of the Hungarian peasantry, he did not heed it. The next morning he was frightened out of his sleep by half the village, which had assembled ou'side his house with threats and the terrible news that in the peasant's house where the sick child was lying al had died in the night. He hastened to the scene, and describes it as having been most horrible. All the persons in the room had stiffened into death in the same lifelike position. The father was reclining in an old armchair, his head on one side. Near him was seated the old farm servant, the old glove he had just taken off still in his hand. The sick child lay dead on its pillow, and on a chair by its side sat the mother, whose head had fallen upon her breast, and whose hands were still holding the wet cloth mo int for the sick child's head." In another bed a little girl was sitting up, dead like the rest. All had yellowish wax-like features, and the immobility of death with the life-like attitude shocked even those whose are habitually insen- sible. The two doctors attempted to revive some of the victims, but they soon saw that their efforts were of no avail. The village people then accused the old district doctor of having p .isoned the family. With the younger doctor lie locked himself up in the dead peasants' house. The inquest was held meanwhile, and it was found that the stove was defective and had omitted so much gas in a short time that all the persons in the room died simultaneously, asphyxiated by the gas. The villagers, however, threatened to lynch the doctors, who finally wont to the window with what was left of the powder prescribed, and swallowed it before them. A post- mortem examination of the victims proved that death had been caused by asphyxia. The excite- ment of tho people has somewhat abated since the po ice pcsted bills threatening severe punishment to any who should speak a word against the doctors.
TAME RATS. An amateur naturalist relates some remini- scencs of a very tame white rat. Some time ago lie had a number of tame rats, one of which was a most inveterate fighter with her kind. After an exceptionally severe encounter she was at last removed and placed by herself in a cage, from which she used to frequently break loose. She then would enjoy herself at large in the room, sometimes for a day at a time. If her master entered while she was loose the rat would run up t) welcome him and follow him about the apart- ment, and sometimes across the staircase into an adjoining room. She would answer to her name or to a whistle, and never showed any fear indeed she was known to try to bite a dog who approached her, and, who, fortunately, was not a ratter. On another occasion she disgraced herself by killing a pet frog, who had escaped from a vivarium, and though very effectionate towards her master, was savage towards other animals. Rats are certainly delightful pets, but in order to fully appreciate them they should have plenty of space to themselves. At one time I had a lower room of the house given up to them. Every evening regularly at the same time they came out to be fed, and crowded up round the door as soim as I approached. Of course it does not do to keep many of them in this way, or they become a nuisance instead of a pleasure. Half a dosen are in my opinion, ample to let loose in a room at the same time. One peculiarity which I have noticed in most of my rats, more or less, is their thieving disposition and their love of hoarding up any property they come across. This was especially noteworthy in an old white rat who ranged the room by himself at one time. He had a cage with straw in it to which he retired at will, and there amassed a heterogeneous collection of articles. At one time it would be playing cards which were found in his bed, at another such un- comfortable things as dominoes and marbles. But he surpas ed himself on one occasion by mak- ing off with the iron spanner of a child's tricycle, which had been left on the floor, dragging it about four. inches up the side of his cage and depositing it therein-a feat which called for the exhibit ion of considerable strength.
A SELL. Mr K an epicurean smoker, wa» travelling j on the railway with a passenger from Berlin who was smoking a horrid cigar. As all hints and signs proved unavailing, Mr K had recourse to an often tried experiment. R'sing from his J seat he politely said I Wilt you allow me to open the window 1" At the sauvi tinitj he quite accidentally" J brushed against the hand of his fellow passenger, causing him to drop his cigar. Mr K had Ibe additional misfortune to step on it, and said, in alarm Oh I beg a thousand pardons. Allow me to offer you one of mine, thoy are not half bad." "With your kind permission," answered the Ileriiiiej-, Iuite pleased. He took three cigars out of the case presented to him, and put them into his pocket, saying: 1 These are first-rate brand I'll saaoke 'em OK Sundays." And with that he proceeded to light another of 1 bis own. (
j A BIG OWL. For over a fortnight people Jiving in the neighbourhood of Stain burn Moor, about two miles from Workington, have been much concerned about a strange bird. The general impression of all who saw it was that it was an eagle. Oil various occasions sportsmen and others have tried to get within range of the hu^e bird but this was not accomplished iiatil the other evening, when William Bacon, gamekeeper to Mr Gordon Falcon, of Stainburn, managed to get within gun-shot, and fired. A few°stray pellets struck the wing of the bird and broke it, and after a desperate attempt to keep Hying the creature fell to the ground. The gamekeeper's retriever rushed up to the quarry. With one blow of its immense claw, the bird split open the dog's nose and severely lacerated -the side of its head. The dog, however, stuck to the bird till the keeper arrived. After a severe straggle the biid yielded, and it can now he seen a'ive at the keeper's house. It has turned out to be a monster moss-owl. It measures 3ft. Oin. from tip to tip of the wings head, body, and lei's are in proportion. -Its plumage is a rich, glossy, golden colour, and covers its body entirely, tyven down to the tips of its huge claws.
CURIOUS FACTS. Crocodiles, according to Dr Kemp, when sore pressed with hunger, swallow stones to relieve the uneasy sensation. Of the 2,800,000,000 pounds of paper produced each year, one-half is used in printing, a sixth in writing, and the remaining third in packing The cheapest railway travelling in Europe is the journey from Buda-Pesth to Kronstadt in Hungary, a distance of 457 miles, for which the fare, third class, is only 6s 8d., or at the rate of six miles for a penny. In one of the most ancient forests of Germany, situated on the summit of Wurzelberg, in Thuringia, as many as 700 annual layers of wood have been counted in the trunks of some of the fir trees that have been cut down.
A MISTAKE. The'young rector (in evident embarrassment)- My dear Miss Clara, I—(trying to leave his chair)—I believe I have formed an—attachment, and- Miss Clara (blushing ftuiously)—" Oh, Arthur-I mean Mr Greene, this is so unexpected, I must- The young rector (frantically)—"Beg pardon, Miss Clara, but I was about to say that I have formed an attachment for this chair, due to the presence of a bit of shoe- maker's wax, placed here by that unregenerate younger brother of yours." (Intense delight of th3 small boy, in ambush.)
A GIRL DEVOURED BY WOLVES. The wolves are this winter causing great con- sternation in the interior of Russia and Finland. A few days ago, in the government of Kietf, a young girl and her sweetheart were attacked by a pack of these ferocious animals, and the girl was torn to pieces. Her companion attempted to escape by climbing a tree, but fell down dead from fright. Curiously enough the wolves did not touch the inanimate body.
LUNATICS WITH OSTRICH STOMACHS. The Lancet reports the removal from a lunatic's stomach of a skewer and a pipe-stem, which the man had swallowed, and the patient's ultimate recovery. In another remarkable case a couple of pounds' weight of such articles as nails, knife- handles, iron shoe heels, pebbles, screws, button?, &c., was discovered in a lunatic's stomach for the first time post-mortem.
NO NEED TO FEAR THE FOG NOW. "The dark days before Christmas" have inspired a young American visitor to sooty London with the idea of making a fog costume, which, if successfully carrried out. will prove a formidable rival to Mrs Charles Hancock's Rational gown. The costume is to be made of light waterproof cloth, to protect the wearer from the damp of the fog. It is to be compact and comfortable in cut, and furnished with buttons the size of a half-crown piece. The whole brilliancy of the new garment lie; in the buttons, which will be really tiny electric lamps connected with a miniature battery concealed in the dress, after the style of those used by fairies in the pantomines. A soft toque, with lamp in front, is desirable, but not necessary, to complete the fog costume, which can be lighted up as occasion demands.
A REMARKABLE CASE IN COURT. A preliminary hearing in a highly interesting case was held before Judge Blauvert last week. Although still in its infancy, the phonographer has been adapted to many novel uses but pro- bably the purpose to which Mr Theodore Emmond has just put it takes precedence for originality and audacity. Mr Emmond appeared as defend- ant in an action brought by Mrs Margaret Dusen for conspiracy and defamation of character. The facts of the case are briefly as follows :—Mrs Margaret Dusen keeps a boarding-house, and Mr Theodore Emmond is one of her boarders, the price he paid for his lodging and keep being five dollars a week. It is not a princely amount, and anything like sumptuous fare cannot be expected for the money. Mr Emmond appears to have been grievously dissatisfied with the fare, and he devised and carried out a striking method of at once finding out the nature of the provender placed before him and his fellow hoarders, and avenging himself and them for Mrs Dusen's shortcomings. In pursuit of his scheme, Emmond placed a phonograph in the kitchen and privately oribed the cook to set it working when her mistress was talking. This she did, and on Sunday last, after dinner, the instrument having in the meantime been brought from the kitchen into the dining room. Mrs Dusen was invited to join the boarders and witness an exhibition of the new instrument, which Mr Emmond explained to be a newly-invented music-machine. It was soon evident, however, that it did not produce harmony. After deluding his landlady into the notion that the phonograph was an instrument for producing a concord of sweet sounds," suitable for a Sunday afternoon, he induced her to preside thereat. She had, how- ever, no sooner set the machine working than the assembled boarders heard the following deliver- ance in Mrs Dusen's own well known voice Mary, you don't want to pay over eight cents a pound for meat, anyhow. Its good enough for them. You can get it in Mulberry-street for that. You are giving too big prices for steak. If they don't like it, let them eat more vege- tables. Yesterday you bought fresh pie. How often h ive I told you to save five cents by getting it stale and warming it up. Then this bill of 25 cents a pound for coffee is too much coffee at 15 cents a pound will do in the future. I have got enough trouble t ► make both ends meet with- out feeding three men at 5 dollars a week on porterhouse steak:" When Mrs Dusen heard this peculiar sort of music," she darted from the room and sought the advice of her lawyers, with tho result that Mr Theodore Emmond was summoned to appear before Mr Justice Blauvert to-day, ti answer the charge of defamation and conspiracy preferred by his incensed landlady. After hearing some of the evidence, which created the greatest merriment in court, Judge Blauvert adjourned the further hearing of the case.
WRITING MATERIAL BEFORE PAPEft WAS KNOWN. B.fore paper was made, the earliest mode of writing was on bricks, tiles, oyster shells, stones, ivory, hark, and leaves of trees, and from the latter "leaves of books" is probably derived. Soon after this epoch of preliminary method, or even coeval with its later existence, copper and brass plates were used, and a bill of feoffment on copper was some years ago discovered in India bearing a date equivalent to 100 years before Christ. Leather was also employed, as well as wooden tablets. Then the papyrus from which I the term paper is derived came into vogue, and about the eight century the papyrus was superseded by parchment. Paper itself is never- theless of great antiquity, especially among the Chinese, but. the first piper mill in Britain was erected in 1586, by a German, at Dartford, in Kent. It was nearly a century and a half later, however, before paper-makiig in this country was brought to anything like perfection, and the person to whom the credit of so improving its manufacture is due was a stationer of London, named Thomas Wat kins.
CAMEL RACING PROMOTED BY A CARDINAL. Cardinal Lavigerie has founded a prize of £60 for a camel race, to be held annually at Biskra, in Algeria. The improvment of came! breeds which the"Ctrditial thus hopes to foster is an important object in view of the anti-slavery crusade for which he has aroused such univeisal enthusiasm. The camel far better than a railway will enable France to make her authority over the Sahara desert effective, and as the European fleets close the sea route to slave traders, so the Cardinal's cavalry will cut them off from the caravan routes across the desert to Tripoli. The first camel race will probably take place at Biskra on the occasion of the vieit of the President of the Republic.
LAMPETER. SCHOOL BOARD.—A meeting of the Board was held on Thursday, the 5th inst. Present-Rev. Daniel Jones, M.A., in the chair, Rev. Evan Evans, and Mr John Fowden, Bank Hall.- Vacancy: It was proposed by the Rev. Evan Evans that Rev. Joseph Jones, of The Priory, be elected to fill the vacancy on the Board. There being no seconder, it was proposed by Mr Fowden that Professor Walker, of St. David's College, be elected to fill the vacancy, which was seconded by the chairman, and Mr Walker was declared duly elected.-Eitlargeiiient of Peterwell School: The Clerk was directed to write to the Education Department enquiring the nature and extent of the enlargement of the Girls' School, and the size of the class-room of the Infant School. OBITUARY.—The funeral of Mr Thomas Edmunds, of this town, to whose death reference was made in these columns last week, took place on Monday afterncon last, at the Parish Churchyard. A large number of relatives and friends had assembled together to pay his remains the last tribute of respect. The member? of the Town Council were also present in their robes of office. The Rev. J. R. Jones, B.A., curate, assisted by the Revs. R. Williams, Nantcwnlle; an.l It. Jenkins, Bettws officiated. The deceased had been an Alderman for the Borough of Lampeter, since its formation, and had proved himself worthy of the honour thus conferred upon him. His collegues will undoubtedly miss his help and advice very much. He had acted as Sidesman in the Parish Church for many years, and was always ready to help I lie good caiise in ] evi rv nossible wav.-On the second instant, the news of the death of Mr James Edwards, of Peny- bont farm, near this town, was unexpectedly received. Although deceased was known to be ail- ing, yet it was not thought that death was so near, the cause of which was disease of the heart. The funeral took place on Friday last, the interment taking place at St. Peter's Churchyard, where a large number of relatives an I friends were present. He leaves a widow, three sons and three daughters to mourn his loss.-Ou Monday last, Mrs Elizabeth Grant, widow of the late Major General Lewis Grant, died at her residence, in Bridge-street, in this town, after a few week's illness, at the age of 35 years. She leaves four children—three boys and one girl, the oldest of whom Master Edmund Grant is of the age of 14 years, and is a pupil at St. David's College School. Mrs Grant was a native of Lampeter, being the daughter of Mr Samuel Davies (Globe), of that town. The funeral took place on Thursday (yesterday), and was largely attended. BOARD OF GUARDIANS.-At a meet ins of the Board of Guardians held on Friday, the 6th inst., there were present—Mr David D ivies, chairman; Mr John Fowden, BauK Hall; Revs. Daniel Griffiths, Trefilan; Daniel Joaes, Lampeter; Messrs David Evans, Cellan; Thomas Price, Llanycrwys; William Williams, Llanfairclydogau Evan Davies, Llanwenog; Thomas Evan3, Llanybyther; John Rees, Pencarreg; D lvid Evans, Pencarreg; John G. Marsden, Silian D. Lloyd, clerk and Mr Abel Evans and Mr E. H. Griffiths, medical officers.- The out-door relief during the past fortnight appeared as follows :-L impeter district, per David Parry, relieving officer, for 163 paupers, < £ 35 4s; Llanybyther district, per David Evans, relieving officer, for 15;) patipers, X36 6s, total .£71 10s.— The in-door relief for the fortnight was as follows:— The number of inmates in the Workhouse were 32, as compared with 24 in the corresponding fortnight of last year. Number of vagrants relieved were 52, as compared with 43 in the corresponding fortnight of last year. -The monthly statements of the collectors of th various p Irishes for the iiionth of January last were laid before the Board.—The Master reported as follows: Tii:tt nearly all the children in the House are suffering from measles, but are progressing qlite satisfactorily, and a few of the children that are not in the measles are suffering from mumps, but they also appear to be progressing favour-,tbly.After.v.-irds a meeting of the Rural Sanitary Authority was held, with Mr John Fowden in the chair.— The aunual report of Mr E. H. Griffiths, the Medical Officer of Health for the Llanybyther district, was read as follo,vs GENTLEMEN,—I have great pleasure in presenting to you my report for the Llanybyther district for the year ending December, 1890. The returns are based on an estimated population of 4,600 persons. The total number of births during the year was 100. This gives a birth-rate of over 21 per 1,000 inhabi- tants. As to sex there were 52 males and 48 females. The number of deaths during the year was 62. This gives a death-rate of 13 per 1,000 inhabitants. Ages at Death: Died under 1 year, 12; between 1 and 5 years, 5; between 5 and 15 years, 5 between 15 and 25 years, 0; between 25 and 60 years, 14; over 60 years, 2rj; total, 62. Cause of Death: Found drowned, 1; accidentally drowned, 2; ulceration of bowels, 1; paralysis, 1 senile decay, 5; bronchitis, 9; convulsions, 7; dropsy, 1; pneumonia, 4; Blight's disease, 3; phthisis, 7; cancer, 3; asth na, 1; mortification after injury, 1; epileptic fit, 2; child birth, 1; premature births, 2; gout, 1; congestion of lungs, 1; gastritis, 1; enteritis, 1; chronic disease of liver, 1; whoopiag coug'i, 1 erysipelas, 1 pleurisy, 1; puerperal fever, 1; measles, 2. Though the death-rate of 13 per 1,000 inhabitants is less than it was during the last quarter of 1830 (time covered by my last report), when it was 15 per 1,000 inhabitants and 16 p?r 1,000 inhabitants during the year 18S8, it is still higher than it should be in a country district. I fiud that in the Ltanybyther district as many deaths as 1 in 8 have occurred from phthisis, and 1 in 5 from other chest diseases. In the Llanwenog district 1 in 11 have died from phthisis and 1 in 4 from other chcst diseases. Deducting the two children who were born prematurely from my calculations, I find that as many as 21 per cent. of the deaths were those of children under 5 years of This is a terrible infant mortality, and when we find that convulsions was the cause of death in 46 per cent. of these, it is only reasonable to believe that if greater care had been exercised in nursing these children some of the lives might have been saved. When so many young lives have been cut short by death it is a relief to the oth ir side, where we fi-id that 2G or over 41 per cent. of the 62 deaths were those of persons 60 years of age and upwards, giving a mean average age at death throughout the district of a little over 42 years. I have systematically visited the various places in the district during the year. I find the schools were kept clean and satisfactory, also the outbuildings, except in Llanybyther schools, where the privies should be kept cleaner; they also require white-washing. The lodging houses in the district were clean and decently ventilated. Instructions were given to have the lodging house at Llanybyther white-washed, which were carried out. The farmsteads visited were on the whole clean, but greater care should be bestowed on the mannro heaps in the different yards, which, by a little care, ould be kept tidier. I find that in many thatched cottages the windows are not made to open, consequently proper ventila- tion is impossible. Even in houses where the windows can be opened, in many places they seldom are; the dread of catchiug cold being always the excuse for keeping the windows shut. In one house I visited, where there were three children ill with the measle3, the foul air was almost suffocating, yet the mother persisted in saying the stench arose from the fever, and was not due, as I said, to the want of fresh air. This state of things will, I am afraid, continue until the people are better educated on the question of sanitation and ventilation. Privy accommodation is still defioi-nt in many places, though attention is paid to it, especially where new cottages are built. In the early part of last year a severe epidemic of influenza broke out in the district, and two deaths occurred as a result of pneumonia following the influenza. In the autumn, again, the district was visited by an epidemic of measles, mostly of the siniple kind, but it attacked as many as between 60 and 70 in the neighbourhood of New Court alone. To try and prevent it from spreading I give instructions for the schools at New Court to be closed for 14 days. Finding at the end of the 14 days that there were still some cases about, the schools were closed for an additional period of seven days, when the epidemic disappeared. I am glad to say that only two deaths occurred after measles and one from whooping cough during the year. None from other epidemic diseases. List year I called the attention of your B)ard to a pi^stye by Bryn Shop, Llanllwni. The sewage therefrom still continues to lie in pools alongside the main road, and often it comes over the road. Either a proper drain should at once be made to carry the sewage into the adjoining fields, or the pigstye should be removed altogether. Means should also be taken to prevent surface water running into the well by Tynewydd, Llanllwni, or the well should be closed up. The open trench which runs at the back of the houses facing tho Black Lion, Llanyhyt her, should be kept cleaner, as it is, now there beiug no proper flow, the water in it thus becomes stagnant. At t ie end of the year the sanitary condition of the district was fairly satisfactory.—I am, Gentlemen, yours obediently, E. H. GRIFFITHS, L R.C., P.S.E., Medical Officer of Health for the Llanybyther District. Feb. 2nd, 189t.A vote of thanks was unanimously passed to Mr Griffiths for his able and valuable report. rrOWN COUNCIL, At a meeting of the Town Council, held on Saturday, the 7th instant, there were present:—Councillor Thomas Lloyd, deputy mayor; Alderman David James, Whitehall; Alder- man Thomas Owen, Station Terrace Councillors I John Jones, Hope; Joseph Jonos, Priory; Roderick Evans, Apotliectries' I-Itll; Charles Evans, Mark Lane Stores; David Davies, Queen's Arms; David T. Davies, Bridge street Jenkin W. Evans, Medical Hall; Samuel Davies, Emporium William Jones, Black Lion.—The appointment of Mr Thomas Lloyd as deputy major was laid before the Council, and crdered to be entered on the minutes. —The deputy mayor moved, and Mr David Thomas Davies seconded, "That the members of the Lampeter Town Council desire to place on record the expression of their regret at the untimely death of Mr Alderman Thomas Edmunds, who as a member of the Council from its formation, assisted materially in the work of the Council." Carried unanimously.—It was further unanimously resolved that a copy of the resolution be sent to the Rev. Thomas Edmunds, the nephew of the deceased with an expression of the Council's sympathy with him and the other relations of the deceased in their I bereavement.—Resolved that the motion of Alder- man Thomas O.ven as to the bye laws be further adjourned to the next meeting, and in the mean- time the clerk was requested to apply to the Local Government Board for copies of model bye laws.— Councillor Joseph Jones moved and Councillor Samuel Davies seconded :—" That every proposition as well as every amendment sha l be written on p1.per, an.i handed up to the chairman."—Councillor Jenkin W. Evans moved as an amendment, and Councillor William Jones seconde I, that the word I amendmeny shauB be omitted. The amendment was put to the mooting and carried.—Alderman David James, Councillors J. W. Evans aod D. T. Davies were appointed a deputation to wait upon the County Council to urge upon the Council to adopt as main roads, the highways asked for hy the Coiincil.-Geneial district, highway and water rates were made as follows :-G.meral district rate, Is 4d ia tho X highway rate, 6d in the £ water rate, 6d in the X. ST. DAVID'S COLLEGE.—On Monday evening last an entertainment of a most amusing and novel character was given by the ladies of the College in the College Hall. The first part of the programme consisted of -1 Tableaux Vivants," interspersed with suitable songs. The tableaux were beautifully got up, and showed to great advantage in the lime light effect produced by Professor Scott. The feature of the evening, however, was Mrs Jarley's Waxworks,in which Mr Augustus Field acted as showman, with Mr George Williams as his man Friday." It would be useless to attempt to enumerate the various characters which were re- presented in the waxworks, or the intensely comic chesnuts which fell from the showman's lips while exhibiting his world renowned show." Mr Glad- stone wa3 to be seen cutting into chips "The British Constitution" and "Guy Fawke's failure to blow up Parliament," owing to his having omitted to buy a box of Bryant and May's safety°matches, and his vain attempt to strike a match on the seat of his trousers. There was an amount of freshness and novelty about the whole entertainment, which rendered it doubly attractive. The proceed- ing; terminated, as usual, with the National Anthem. Appended is the programme :-Piano- forte solo. Miss C. M. Evans; tableaux, "Romeo and Juliet," Miss D. EJmondes and Mr Hum- phreys; song, Mr H. S. Rees; tableaux," Pygma- lion and Galatia," Miss Davey and Mr Hall; song, Mr T. T. Roberts; tableaux, "Rebecca at the AVell," Miss Edmondes; song, "Banks of Alan Water," MrBowen; tableaux, do., Miss D-tvey and Mr Maclean; song, Mr J. LI. Davies; son", "Darby and Joan;" tableaux, do.Masters W. Lloyd aud T. Grace; tableaux, "Rosamond and Eleanor,' Miss Neville and Miss Tait; sonw, "Phoebe," Mr Ihll; tableaux, do., Miss Davey; s,.)n-Cliorry Ripe," Mr Bowen; tableaux, do.. Miss Cissy Jones; song, Mr Hall; duet, Messrs. Evans and Beynon; 1. Waxworks, Mr A. Field; song, Mr Bynon; II. Waxworks, Mr A. Field; song, Mr W. Maclean; III. Waxworks, Mr A.' Field, finale. AGUICJLTUKAL SHow.-zi meeting of the com- mittee of the Agricultural Show was held at the Royal Oak Hotel on Friday last. Present—Messrs T' H. R. Hughes, Noyaddfawr (in the chair), W. Cotterell, Derry Ormond; John Rees, Dolgwru D. Davies, Velindre; Daniel Jenkins, Pentrefelin G. Giifliths, Dolau; William Jones, Cwm; William Williams, P-ntre; J. Jordan Jones, Rhydygof; Jenkin Jenkins, Blaenplwyf; T. Price, WVrdiendi- gaid J. D, Jenkins, Rhydybenc; David Griffiths, Ffrwd; David Davies, Tyncoed Thomas Davies, lirongt st; David Davits, Qut«_i*s Arms; David Williams, Maescanol; Daniel Jones, Llwynieir; W. D. Rees, Velindre; John Evaus, Maespwll; David Junes, Old Bank, treasurer; and David Evaus, Old Bank, secretary.-All the present numbers of the committee were re-elected for the coming year, with the exception of Messrs J. Jones, 1 ro B. Rowlands, l'yndolau and Thomas Evans, Tynant, for whom Messrs Griffith Griffiths, Dolau Davi t Griffiths, Ffrwd, and William Jones, Geili- I.io, were substituted.—Mr T. H. R. Hughes was re-elected chairman; Mr David Jones, Old Bank, treasurer, and Mr David Evaus, Old Bank, secretary.—The treasurer produced the accounts of the Society for tho past year, which were gone through, and considered very satisfactory, the sum of IL3 10s 6d being in favour of the societv.-It was decided to hold the next show on th 31st beptembei next, aud that all entries for green crops should be made on or before the llth September, and of stock on or before the 24th of the same month. It was decided to continue the jumping competition, and that it should take place nt 12 o'clock, instead of 3 p.m., as hitherto.—The secre- tary was directed to write Messrs J. C. Harford, Falcandale, and Divid Evans, lihoscellanfawr, near Aberystwyth, thanking them for their special prizes—the former for the best colt by Rameses" and the latter for the best colt by Royal Revenue." —Several of the members who had been appointed to collect towards Mr Divid Lloyd's (DJlgwm House, late secretary of the society) testimonial, brought in their list and amounts, and others were n >t quite ready, and it was resolved to defer the closing of the list for a week or so, and the Chair- man (Mr John Rees, Dolgwm), the treasurer, and secretary wire appointed a committee to procure f >r Mr Lloyd a gold watch for a testimoni.il and aud present him with it.
LLANEDY. CHURCH CHOIRS. The choir of the Parish Church of Manedy, and also that of the Mission- room of Tycraes, were on Thursday e veiling ('i9i.li ult ), invited to a most sumptuous supper by their much respejted Rector, and Mrs Williams, who are always up and doing, and spaje no trouble or expense for the welfare of the Church and the parish at large. About 70 sat at the tables, in- cluding the Churchwardens and Sidesmen, &j. On this, as on all similar occasions, a hearty reception was given to all by the young ladies of the Rectory, who did all they could to see that each one did himself ample just ice with the dainties pro- %ided for them. After the tables were cleared, many games were indulged in. Youug and old joined heartily to make the evening as enjoyable as possible. The Misses Williams the Rectory, and Miss Jeffreys, of Tycroes, took an active part in the evening's proceedings, 1 and to them as well as Mr Joaes, schoolmaster, Tycroes, the success of the entertainment was chiefly due. After this was over seter.ilof the older members of both choirs spoke of the great hospitality of the Rector and his family, aud thanked them most warmly for the great trouble and expense they had not spared to provide so extensively for them.— Mr Thomas Evans, one of the oldest members of the Llanedy Ch ueh, said although he had lived long he never enjoyed himself so much as on that cvelliug, and in a sympathetic way urged the younger members to ontinue regular in their attendance at Church and Sunday school. He was sure they could show their gratitude to Mr and Mrs Williams in no way more than by being always present at these.—The Rev Evan Jones, curate, said that, although he was yet almost a stranger to many of them, it afforded him great pleasure to be present there that evening, and to find that so much interest was taken in the choirs by the Rector ar.d his family, and that such good feelings existed between them. He hoped that during the ensuiug year these ties would be faster than Evans, Scripture-reader of Tycroes, propostd a vote of thanks to Mr and Mrs Williams fjr their great kindness that evening, and Mr Jones, of Tycroes National Schools, seconded the proposition, and three hearty cheers were given to the family.—The Rev R Williams, in responding, said he was happy to find that all seemed to have enjoyed themselves Life had its two phases, the grave as well as light. He imprcssingly laid before them their responsibility to attend Church and all the services, and to make good and constant use of the talents entrusted to them. Nothing would be more gratifying to him than to see each one that was there a zealous member of both choir and Sunday school.—The proceedings were shortly afterwards brought to a close.
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LLANWRDA NOTES. 1 [BY GWKDA.] TREAT. On Friday evening, 6th inst., the children of the Llanwrda Endowed School, and the Church Sunday School, together with the members of the Llangadock Church Choir, were regaled with a bountiful supply of tea, cake and the many other delicacies appertaining to a tea-party, at the School rooms, through the kindness and generosity of Mrs Bishop, of Dolygarreg. The rooms were beautifully decorated for the occasion by Mrs Bishop, Miss Copner, cf Bradford; Mrs Morgan, School House; and Mrs Jones, Glandulais. Suitable mottoes were scattered on the walls of the edifice, particularly of which wo may mention the follow- ing --I' Welcome," Mewn undeb mao nerth," "Long life to Mrs Bishop," etc. No fewer than about 200 sat at the tables, which were splendidly laid out by the above ladies, assisted by Miss Jones, the Vicarage; Miss Price, Glamlulais; and Miss Morgan Hitting. His Honour Judge Bishop, the Revs. D. Jones, B.A., vicar; J. Davies, curate; W. Rees, Llangadock J. Williams, Llandovery Mrs Rees, Miss Rees, and Miss Neames Llangadock; were also noticed amongst the guests. We very much regret the absence of Mr J. Morgan, our respected school-master, who has been obliged to leave the place for a short time, in accordance with medical advice, for a more equable climate, in consequence of ill-health. We, however, hope he may be soon restored to his usual health. After each one had done ample justice to their appetites, all the children were summoned to attend the play- ground attached to the schools, where rustic sports were arranged and freely indulged in much to the delight of the children, anI pleasure of the numer- ous spjctators. Prizes were distributed amongst the best of the little sporting characters. In the evening, after duõk, a very interesting and success- ful entertainment was given at the schools, gratis. The rooms were crowded to excess. There were many who actually failed to gain admission, and had, therefore, to content themselves by listening to the proceedings from without. Mrs Bishop had been kind euough to engage the services of Messrs Bui bridge and Co., of Cardiff, and their "Punch and Judy Show," an exhibition which created not a li'tle amount of amusement to the lai-c assembly. The perfurmanco was divided into two parts, one of which was given at the commencement of the entertainment, while the other was given at the end. Each performance was veiy much appreciated by the attentive audience. The exhibitor's dog, "Toby," performed the part allotted to him in a most creditable manner, while poor "Punch was knocked about in a most brutal manner. The children were greatly amused and felt exceedingly grateful for the opportunity of witnessing such a beautiful show. During the interval which separated the two performances, an excellent programme of music was drawn out, which was most creditably reudered as follows :-Duett, Miss Copner and Miss Rees, Llangadock song, Plas GogerdJan," Mr D. Williams (temporary school- master); song, Miss Rees; song, Llwybr yr Wyddfa," Mr Lloyd, Dderwenfach; song, "Under an apple tree," Miss Copner (encored); song, "Longshoreman, Mr Jaines Thomas; song, Pennillion Serch," Rev. J. Williams, curate, Llandovery (encored); duett, Larboard Watch," Messrs D. Williams and James Thomas; song, "The British Lion," Mr Jame3 Thomas; song, "Mary Lee," Miss Rees, Llangadock; song, "Anchor weighed," Mr D. Williams song, Adre, aire'n ol." Rev. J. Williams, Llandovery; glee, "Mai," Llanwrda Glee Party (Mr James Thomas). At this juncture the second programme of Punch anI Judy," was piocceded with to the satisfaction of all present, after which the Vicar rose up to pro- pose hearty votes of thanks to Mrs Bishop for her great kindness and liberality in entertaining theui there that evening and ,J.¡dge Bishop for having taken such an active interest in the proceedings, :n<1 hoped they would have long life in order that they may continue in their good deeds which aie highly appreciated by their nunu-rous friends and fellow subjects. The R v. W. Rees, Llangadock, very properly seconded the proposition which was carried unanimously. J¡¡dgo Bishop in thanking the reverend gentlemen for the kind references made to himself and wife, wished to thank the kind lrdi. sand gentlemen who had also contributed to- wards the success of the entertainment by means of songs, &c., f.nd to tue "showman" for having performed his pait with ?o much skill aud ability. L HId and prolonged elleei.9 were afterwards given to the Judge and Mrs liishop. after which the s ng ng of Hen wlad fy Nhadan'" aud the National Anthem, coaeladed a most enjoyable evening. B in- & were distributed iiiiotigit the children by Mrs Bishop as each left the rooms. We should also mention that Mrs Jones, Glan- dulais, Miss Neamen, Llangadock, and the Rev. J. Williams, Llandovery, acted as accompanists, while the vicar occupied the chair. It is most gratifying to note that the best possible order was maintained throughout the proceedings, although the spxeious rooms were uncomfortably seated, a fact which reflects the highest credit upon the god behaviour of the school-children, and loyalty of the law-abiding people of ofir romantic little village and its surroundings. e regret that the river Towy makes tl)e passage between Dolgarreg and Llanwrda su impervious, but. we trust that Judge Bishop will think of some scheme, which will render the passage more accessible in order that tho union now existing between the Dolgarreg fomily and the iuhabitan's of Llanwrda may be made infinitely closer. ACCIDENT. On Saturday last, about eight o'clock in the evening, one of the brakes conveying the Lampeter football team from a match at Llan- dovery, was upset at the foot of Neuadd Bridge, opposite the Post Office, Llanwrda. Those of your readers, who are accustomed to the place, will be aware that in crossing the bridge there is a rather steep descent and a curve at the foot of the bridge for the Lampeter road. It is alleged that tho driver who was driving at a very good speed turned round the corner too sharp, thereby upsetting the brake, which now lies at Mr Spencer Davies's yard in broken fragment?. Luckily, no one was hurt, and the company managed to proceed homeward bound" in a larger brake. This may be a warn- ing to drivers, generally, to be more cautious in driving down hills and round sharp curves in future, as the results are sometimes very dis- astrous. • It may interest yonr readers to know that the wild beast which we reported through these columns to be at large a short time ago, has since been slaughtered and the carcass sent, away to Market Harbcro. Tho news has been received with great joy by the Llanwrdaites, who had been quite shocked at the outrageous conduct of the infuriated beast.
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