NEWS NOTES. TIIE Home Secretary has framed a scalp of allowances to he made to those dependent upon Army Reservists who are members of the Metropolitan Police Force during their absence on active service in South Africa. At the earliest time possible after the meeting of Par- liament Sir Matthew White Ridley will intro- duce a bill for granting the requisite statutory power, and giving covering authority for all anticipatory payments. It will apply to all the police forces in the country. Perhaps it might have been as well to have made direct allow- ances right off to the connections of Reservists not in the public service officially. The claim of one class is just as great as that of the other upon the nation at large and this war busi- ness is certainly not one in which invidious distinctions should figure at all. THE battle of Elandslaagte, according to the graphic descriptive letters to hand from the special correspondents at the front, was a particularly brilliant affair in which all engaged distinguished themselves. General French's force succeeded in driving away the Boers from an immensely strong position, and the honours rested with our side after a very stubborn struggle. Just as tho dark was drawing on and the rain was falling fast the British decided upon a desperate bayonet charge in full force, their artillery fire having failed to dislodge the enemy. At this critical moment strange bugle calls of "Cease fire" awl" Retire were sounded from somewhere out of sight in the vicinage of the British position. It arose from a concealed Boer bugler, who had learned the British calls, and had been instructed to send forth a deceitful summons when it would occasion most havoc. Thh is no more civilised warfare than is the the misuse of the truce-Hag and the red cross 1 and a continuance of such base usage can only lead to exasperation on the part of our men which nothing will be able to keep within bounds. As it is Sir Hedvers Buller will have to consider the matter very gravely indeed. IT was as little as could be done to take off the customs duties on tobacco in Cape Colony and Natal where such is being sent for the use of Tommy "A,iins." Even Governments can be human after all. MR. WINSTON CHURCHILL'S valourous action in the armoured train incident last week covers that brilliantly promising young gentleman with new glory. It may be fervently hoped that his wound and his capture will not be of serious eflect, for he has abundantly proven already that he is a worthy son of a clever sire. THE German Emperor's visit, of a strictly private and family character though it has been, is a pleasant incident at a time when Britain is viewed with eyes none too friendly by certain Continental nations. THOSE Frenchman who howled against Queen Victoria and called upon their com- patriots of the Mediterranean shore to refrain from "offering her Majesty hospitality" are chagrined now to know that the Queen's next holiday will be spent, all being well, in the Italian Riviera. The change will be their loss, and greatly so: a thing they did not really desire, of course. Yet her Majesty's plans were not altered because of any ill-natured newspaper sneers but for quite other reasons. Italy, it need hardly be said, is delighted. THE war is bringing out many good points of generosity and self-sacritice amongst the combatants on both sides when tho pas- sion of the fighting is not upper- most. There is a story from a nurse who tells of a wounded Boer being brought in from the British amputating tent to the field hospital, having had his leg taken off by our surgeons to save his life. He was laid in the next bed to a British private who had also lost a limb. The latter begged the sister to get the Boer a cigarette from his pouch and light it for his fallen foe. The big Boer, only just recovered from the shock of the operation, burst into tears: and," says the nurse, when Tommy Atkins made a dnet of it, I nearly joined in the concert." The Boer is finding the Briton a very different man from what he thought him, in many ways.
BULAWAYO EXPLORATIONS. The run on Rhodesian properties is one of the most striking incidents of the tinnncia'. year. It is stated that the most popular undertaking just now is j the Bulawayo Exploration Company, whose El shares are quoted at a premium, as well they may be, considering the extent and value of its properties, on line alone of which—the Shamrock and Ruse of Sharoa-pro.ed and developed gold reefs extend for neafly 3*- miles, averaging ISdwts. of gold to the ton 2 1 1 of ore throughout. This makes the shares look cheap at and well-found rumour predicts double this figure at any early dite. That this will bo reached in the present humour of the market there is every reason to believe, and a purchase of shares now may easily result in a small fortune for the lucky possessor of them. Bu^, on the principle of the early bird, he or she who buys to-d ty will do better than the laggard who comes in when the price is a pound or trvo higher.
UNIMPORTANCE OF THE PARSON POSITION. Considering tho number of novels Messrs. Besanfc and Eicc have written either separately or together, it is-singular how seldom they have maue use ot the parson. Out of Ml their stones there is not one in which a parson either ligurVs as the hero or as taking the nest most important part, Nothing (says writer in tho Church Gazette) could more clearly show the unimportance of the social position of the parson in modern society than this fact, for Sir Walter Besant, whether writing in partnership with I Mr. Bice or alone, is an author who is emphatically the iiiirror-of his age. This marked avoidance of the parson is the more surprising as their novels are so thoroughly good in tone. There is not one that even Miss Podsnap would have been forbidden to read.
WHERE AMERICANS SCORE. As ingenuity and the mechanical instinct is wide- f spread in America) it becomes easy to understand I how the Americans, hampered by der labour and great distances, have succeeded in utilising their in- I genuity to overcome them. As a result, labour-saving appliances have reached perfection. The geo- graphical difficulty of great distance, according to ¡ Engineering, has been met by an unrivalled system of inexpensive and efficient railways. Cheapness of construction has been attained by the adoption of bogie rolling stock by the absence of stringent re- gufations as to signals, stations, fencing, &c., and by the cheapness of land and the simplicity of the legis- lation for its compulsory purchase. The result is that goods can be carried in many cases at one-sixth of a penny per ton-mile, which is very much lower than the usual rate in England.
AMERICAN SHIPBUILDING COM- BINATION. It is reported in New York that a consolidation of all the important shipbuilding yards in the Eastern States is contemplated and a shipbuilding trust with an enormous capital. The New York correspondent of the Morning Post learns that there are good pro- spects of the combination being made at an early date. It will be to the advantage of shipowners if the trust should be formed, is it. would doubtless ensure the passage of the Payne Shipping Subsidy Bill, which wilt be taken up by Congress early next session. The bill, which appropriates 9,000,000dol. for the purpose, provides that bounties be granted to American-built ocean-going vessels of all kinds. It has been shown that the United States pays over 200,000.000dol. annually for oversea carriage of freights, most of which goes to British owners.
ADMIRAL SIR HENRY KECPEI,, when be was gig's midshipman in the Twerl at Rio, got ho of a small I monkey, which he smuggled aboard in the captain's cloak-bag, and then stowed in the scuttle of the mid's berth, as pets of that nature were not allowed. When nnder sail, Keppel was invited to dine with the captain; and unluekiiv. the monkey, who had been let out for a run by a messmate, found its way to the cabin. The captain called the sentry, and ordered him to throw the poor little beast overboard but the marine's first movement frightened tbe monkey, and sent it flying- on toKeppeFs shculders, clutching him J round the foreheadwith its paws. Of course this at once proved who was the culprit; but the captain relented, and the monkey w'frse&ved. 1 »
IS NAIL-CUTTING SURGERY? Some time ago a German court had to adjudicate on the question whether corns constitute a disease. A still more abstruse problem has recently enpaged the attention of a Vienna tribunal. A medical prac- titioner of that city, having occasion to operate, very properly trimmed his nails as a preliminary. In doiny so. however, he cut his finger, but was never- theless able to perform several operations on tha Bame day. The wound became infected, and the practitioner himself had to be operated on. He was thus disabled for 21 days, and therefore claimed five fiorins a day from an accident assurance company. The company repudiated liability on the ground that, according to its bye-laws, no claim can be entertained for -in operation performed by a medical practitioner on himself. The question whether ni.il cutting is a surgical operation appears to have proved too much for the judicial intellect, for, after hearing arga- ments 0:1 both sides and suffering much vexation of Spirit, the court reserved its decision.—British Medical Journal.
KEAT'S HAMPSTEAD HOUSE. Much indignation has been caused in Hampstead by a proposal of the School Board for London to build a new Board School in John-street, acquiring the sites of four houses, and pulling them down for the purpose. John street has a particularly rustic aspect for a street, so near the heart, of London, and one oc the houses in it is famous as the residence of Keats.
HALF-A-BARREL OF LOVE LETTERS. ITalf-a-bnrrel of love missives formed a small part of the evidence in a sensational breach of promise 8;11it by Miss Lida B. Delaney against Thomas J. Jrlusband, juri., a Philadelphia pharmacist,, tried in the C,retlit Court at Camden. Miss Delaney, says the Xcr York Tribune, first made inroads upon the after! ions of Mr. Husband when she was 17, which Was ol years ago.
MR. RHODESS CATTLE. The liiihcwayo Chronicle last month noted the arrival of a second special train, laden with cattle for Mr. lihodes, at the Khami Siding, making some 8130 head alre.-i.lv received by Mr. J. G. Al-Donald on Mr. lihodes's behalf. It is understood that the total will reach 1000 head, and that a large number of ostriches will be introduced on Sauerdale, while, later. Mr. Rhodes intends to introduce Angora 6, o u s.
— H.R.H. AND THE FOREIGN HATTERS. The powers of a Prince If no man is a hero to his valet, it is perfectly certain that princes may be heroes for their hatters. When the Prince of Wales was at Homburg he was wont frequently to visit the famous hut-making establishment, there of Ilerr iNi olc To Mokel the boon was enormous, because it set the fashion of u. walk up the hill to his factory, where his visitors were shown over, and saw the making of what was c;Iled Homburg hats from the moment when the rabbit hair was blown on to a sieve until the thne when the hat was complete. At Marien- bad his footsteps turn to Pioil's, where lie has pur- chased a number of hats, both for himself and his friends. The year before last lie is said to have bought nine; brown being his favourite colour, but he also favoured that particular green which all who have visited Austria and the Tyrol arc familiar with.
SAMOAN PRINCESS'S POVERTY. One of the first duties incumbent upon Germany will bo (writeg a Chronicle correspondent) the making of provision for the Princess's Faamuu, the sister of Malietoa Tanu, who recently had such a brief and troubled reign as King of Samoa. She is now living with friends in .he neighbouring British Colony of Fiji. She is described as "a bright and intelligent princess of some seventeen summers." She recently sent, a petition to the three Powers—Great Britain. Germany, and the United States—asking for an annuity, on the grounds that she was educated as a princess, but was now, owing to political vicissitudes, entirely dependent on her friends.
COFFEE CULTIVATION. The eitraordinary impetus given to tea cultivation in India and Cevlou seems to have been taken for granted by a great, manv people as meaning the I»ssing of coffee." 1a af-Jisease. says the Indian Plan lers Gazette, was the ciuse of coffee cultivation being abandoned in Ceylon but that fact in itself must not be taken to mean that every other coffee- growing country is also likely to' abandon that crop. The coffee plant is not, it is true, quite as hardy as the tea-plant; yet it is cultivated as a main crop in many countries, notably South America and Java. Africa is also becoming a great coffee-growing Doujntry, while in India we have this industry pursued with much profit in the South. The people of ^.merica—North and South—are coffee drinkers the] people of the United States, are, however, now being educated in acquiring a taste for Indian and Ceylon teas, but it may be safe I to hazard the prediction that, however popu- lar the consumption of Indian and Ceylon teas may become in the near future, tbt're will always j be a large percentage of coffee-dritikers in the world. It is well to bear this fact in mind and that there will always be a large market for coffee— of good quality. Where tea will grow, there coffee will grow. Southern India, especially the province of Coorg, :)ffers exceptional facilities for coffee cultivation. There are still available vast tracts of splendid coffee land in Coorg and the Nilgirie-Wynaad, which might, with advantage be taken up, for coffee is of superior quality, and finds a ready market in Europe. There are great tracts of most suitable land in Assam which could be usefully planted with a pro- spect of yielding fair profit. The planting of coffee ought not to be done at the expense of tea coffee should be an alternative cro.p in the event of tea proving a failure in any season. Coffee is a much aasier crop to grow and gather than tea, and does not require such expensive machinery.
THE STORY OF A BLIND PRINCIPAL. One of the most successful of philanthropic insti- tutions in London is the Normal College for the Blind at, Norwood. Thero are many interesting par- ticulars in the last Home Magazine concerning it and its principal. Not many may know the history of Dr. Campbell. More than half a century ago, a little boy of four was playing in a sunny garden in South America, when a sharp acacia thorn pierced his eye, and before many months had passed the light had faded from both eyes. The record of that waning sight is pathetic. His mother would take him each evening to look at. the stars, nntil one night thai baby voice wailed, Mother, why has not God lit up the stars for your little boy to-night ?" And the mother's hot tears fell on the face of her blind boy. Everything was done to spoil the blind pet of the family, but he proved unspoilable. Work was an essential for so energetic a disposition, and soon he was seen chopping wood and taking his share of farm occupations. At the age of 10 he started for a 'I Blind School in Tennessee. From that day he steadily scaled the heights of learning, till, at the age of 18, he was instructing others in that Tennessean school. Overwork resulted in a breakdown, and health was restored by a wild life on the home farm. And later on, when recruits for the Blind School had to be beaten up. he undertook to scour the States on horseback for this purpose. Eventually the need of more complete change and rest drove him to Europe, where he purposed visiting every blind-institution in the Old World. It was I n janxiary, 1871, that what seemed the merest chance threw himin contact with Dr. Armitage, a well-known friend of the blind. It appeared a chance meeting, but it resulted in a friendship which in time culminated in the rising of the unique world-famed establishment at Norwood now known as the Royal Normal College and Academy of Music for the Blind. Through the liberality of the Duke of Westminster and others the property on which it stands was purchased, and Dr. Campbell was at liberty to realle his dreams and build an ideal Home for the Blind. Since the college was started £ 200,000 has been contributed by the public.
NITROGEN IN PEACE AND WAR. It seems to be a perversion of real progress, says the Lancet, that human ;ngeniiity should be turned to the best means of destroying human life and to obtaining maximum effects in this direction. It ill well, however, to bear in mind that the evolution of tbe terribly dynamic explosives has owed its rapid progress not so much to the frequency of war as to the fact of their immense utility in com- pleting the work of explomtiong in opening up hitherto unapproachable areas as in the construc- tion of roads through a rock-bound country, and in loosening stubborn deposits containing a wealth of material. Indeed, we do not hesitate to-say thit the high explosive is as much a weapon in the time of peace as it is in the time of war. Strange as it may appear, it is that most inert of chemical elements, nitrogen, which exists so abundantly in the atmosphere we breathe, that is the essential con- stituent of modern Explosives, such as expand on sudden combustion from nothing, 150 to ."pd, .tu infinity. f. '¡o
THE CITY OF KN0XVILLE. The founder of Knoxville (Tennessee) was General James White, who built the first house within the present city limits, about 1787. This house, says the Knoxville Sentinel, stood upon the site of the Ken- nedy residence, on State-street, between Clinch and Union. It is believed that a portion of this first house is still standing, being a part of the Kennedy house. It was built of logs and loopholed. but was afterwards weather-boarded. General White built also a mill and a blockhouse. The name first given to the settlement was White's Fort. It was not called Knoxville until 1791. Until 1790 what is now Tennessee belonged to North Carolina. In that year it became by cession of North Carolina to the General Government, a territory of the United States, and was called the Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio. In 1791 Governor Blount made Knoxville the capital of the territory. The name Knoxville was adopted in 1791 in honour of General H. Knox. who was then Secretary of War. The fatuous treaty of Holston, between the whites and the Cherokees, was held on the hillside overlook- ing the river west of First Creek. July 'J, 1791. Some 1500 Cherokees, including 41 chiefs, were present. It was an exceedingly ceremonious and stately occasion. The town was laid off in 1792. February 10 has been adopted by general consent as the birthday. Knoxville was never attacked by the Indians, although many murders and depredations were com- mitted by them in the vicinity. On the night of September 24, 1793, a body of Creek and Cherokee warriors, more than 1000 in number, came within eight miles of the town and destroyed Covet's station, 11 or blockhouse, and murdered its inmates. It had been their intention to attack Knoxville, but they were delayed by dissensions among their leaders, and finding, or believing, that their presence was discovered by the settlers and by the soldiers of Knoxville, they retreated on the 25th. The number of men at Knoxville capable of bearing arms at this time was 40. These 40 determined to resist to the last, and to strike the invaders by surprise, if possible. Therefore, 38 of them, leaving two aged men at home with the women and chil- dren, passed a night in ambush, on the ridge west of the city, where the Knoxville College now I stands. Among these fearless defenders was Dr. Samuel Carrick, a Presbyterian minister, and after- wards President of Blount College. His wife had just died, and he was making preparations to bury her, when the call to arms was received. With heroic fortitude and a noble devotion to duty, he left her remains to be buried by the women of the neighbourhood, and hastened to take his phce in the little army of defenders. A month later Mr. J. Sevier, with the T nnessee Militia, was in the heart of the Indian country, and the battle of Etowah, oii Octoher 17, 1793, broke the power of the Indians. The first constitutional Convention of Tennessee met in Knoxville January 11, 179(i, and completed its work on the 6th of the ensuing February. The first' General Assembly of the Stato met on March 28, 179G, before th?' State was. in fact, admitted to the Union. Knoxville was the capital of the State from 1796 to 1811, except that the Legislature appears to have remained at Kingston for a few days in 1807. Again. from 1817 to 1819 Knoxville was the capital, but never afterwards.
HOW HEMP IS GROWN. Hemp, or rather the plant from which it is manu- factured, is (says a Manila correspondent of an American paper) known in scientific circles as Musa textilus," and by the natives as abaca. It belongs to the plantain family, closely resembling the banana plant. The latter has a leaf similar in shape to that of the abaca, but of slightly darker green. The difference in appearance must be told by.the expert, the,inexperienced can tell the difference only by tasting the fruit. The abaca tastes like a green persimmon. Many or me natives are engaged I in its, growth and sale. It flourishes on hilly ground, and, like the banana plant, take3 about three years to flower. When ic comes to the flowering age it is cut down and made ready for Scraping. The stalk springs up again from the roots, and soon begins to seed. It is not per- mitted to dp, so, however, as the seeding process reduces the quality of the fibre. The abaca grows to the height, of Sit., but is not a tree in any sense except that it gives shade. Its leaves run from its roots, enfolding the flower stem until near the top, when they branch out into great waving fans. Most of the plantations are on hilly ground, and nearly all, for that reason, are in the mountain districts. The plantations are worked by the natives, but they are seldom owned by them. The work is done on shares, usually, the labourers receiving half the product. Two men are required to do the work in a field, which is limited to about two acres. When the stalk is ready it is cut and, the leaf layers are separated, making what is known as bast." These leaf stalks are about 6in. wide and about 6ft. long. The operator has a dull knife fastened to a hinged block, and an attachment which allows him to work it with his feet. The pulp is dexterously scraped from the pbrer. and then the fibre is hung out to dry, being, later gathered into bales and marketed. The planter seldom owns his own boats, and is not often ablo to carry his hemp to Manila, whjch is the market, and so does his business with the nearest agent of the Manila house. The hemp is packed in by the natives, a bunch at either end of a carrying pole, which is a method of transportation similar to that of the Chinese tea-carriers. The agent grades it and bargains for a low price, taking advantage of his customer with the true Indian trader skill. Often he has advanced money to the grower and taken a mortgage on the crop. The native knows nothing of prevailing prices. He takes what lie can get, cheats as often as he can, and wears his life away in the business—for it is said to be the hardest kind of work that a native can do. No one yet has invented machinery that can do satisfactory work in preparing the hemp. The trader gathers np his hemp and sorts it out to its different grades, until he has enough for -a boatload, if he happens to be on one of the islands, and then he charters a vessel and sends it to his house in Manila. If he ia in Luzon he gets it ito the river and loads it into the cascos, and 'then floats it down to his bouse," which takes care of it and ships it out. In America it is made into binding twine or into ropes. The whiteness of the 'hemp designates its grade, of which there are four. Binder twine hemp is classed as current,' '• fair ■current," 8nd brown." There are without doubt many tricks in this trade, and they are worked all j the way from the lazy cultivator to the exporting agent, and back again. The pressing of hemp costs one dollar a bale the landing and shipping charges at Manila are 30 cents a bale. The freight to Manila averages about 1 dollar 25 cents a bale. The jobber's profit is enormous.
y A TEACHER said to a member of the State Board of 'Health who was investigating the condition of the room No, I haven't any ventilators. I don't see liny use for them." But. how do you keep the air |»are ?" 0h. iVe eot a thermometer." I ;i. :.1- '1*
PEERS WHO HAVE BEEN MAYORS. Since Lord Bute set the example at Cardiff some eight years ago (says M.A.P.) members of the peerage have taken kindly to muncipal affairs, and show they recognise their responsibility for good government. The Duke of Norfolk-the present Postmaster-General—was Mayor of Sheffield some three years ago, before the chief magistrate there was a Lord Mayor. About the same time Lord Derby was Lord Mayor of Liverpool, and Lord Windsor was Mayor of Cardiff. Earl Beauchamp had been Mayor of Worcester, and Lord Lonsdale Mayor of Whitehaven, the Duke of Sutherland Mayor of Longton, the Earl of Dudley Mayor of Dudley, the Marquis of Zetland Mayor of Richmond (Yorks), the Earl of Warwick Mayor of Warwick, and Lord Wimborne Mayor of Poole, while Lord Bute, in addition to having been Mayor of Cardiff, was also Provost of Rothesay a few years ago.
ENGLAND'S LATEST GUN. In accordance with the recommendation of Parlia- ment, the British Navy is being strengthened by the addition of a remarttable new gun. It is known as the 12in. steel and wire gun, and is not only the best weapon which the Royal Navy has ever had, but is far superior to any gun possessed by a foreign navy. It weighs 50 tons, is 41ft. long, and has a muzzle velocity of 2367ft. per second. The projectile weighs 8501b., the bursting charge being 831b., and the firing charge 167Mb. of cordite. The Admiralty has ordered 450, at a cost of £10,000 each. Of these 150 have been completed, and 300 are still in the hands of the contractors. Each man-of-war will carry four of these formidable weapons, and when the navy is supplied, they will be issued to forts on the sea fronts. The new British naval gun, mounted on the heights of Dover, can, however, drop a shell on the shores of France.
— PROVISION FOR VOLUNTEERS' WIDOWS. The death-roll of Natal's Volunteers has so far not been exceptionally heavy, but it is interesting to learn that the Colonial Government has made full and generous provision for the wives and female relatives of those volunteers who fall in action. If any member of the volunteer force is killed while on military service, his widow, during the widowhood, is entitled to a sum of riot less than £ 52 per annum, while each child under the age of 16 years receives the sum of E12 per annum. If a volunteer be un- married, with female relatives who are dependent on him, the sum payable to a widow shall be handed over to his relatives. It may also be mentioned that a member of the volunteer force, injured when on military service, may receive such compensation as the Natal Government consider fair and reasonable.
A CHURCH WITHOUT A NAMK. "ivith the demolition of the parish church of Loudwater, Bucks, which is shortly to be accom- plished to make room for a splendidly-designed modern edifice, will disappear what is considered to be the most curiously-designed place of worship in England. The external view reminds one of the paper mills which are common in tho parish, while infernally it resembles the cabin of an old-fashioned frigate. The high and cumbrous pews are yet retained. Although the church has existed at le-st 150 years, it has, ecclesiastically, never had a niwn, although, of course, it was dedicated when it was opened—Morning Leader-
INTERESTING WOODEN WALL." The Ganges, which was built at Bombay 80 years ago, and is one of the few remaining representatives of the wooden walls of England, was towed on Saturday from Sheerness to Harwich to enter on a now term of service as training-ship for boys at that port, the Admiralty having recently decided to station a training-ship at-Harwich for the accommodation of boys recruiting from the Eastern Counties. The jSangea has never been fitted with steam power, and is.the last line of battleship which entered Sbecre.ess Harbour under canvas. Her final term of fcv-iign service was as flagship on the Pacific, from which 'she returned in 1861. She has since served fee 30 years as trainrnc shiD at Falmouth. I i
COMPANY FRAUDS. SENTENCE ON BEALL AND IIIS COLLEAGUES. At the Central Criminal Court on Saturday, before Mr. Justice Channell, the trial was concluded of Edward Beall, solicitor Charles Singleton, agent; William James Carruthers Wain, engineer; and Thomas Harrison Lambert, on indictments charging them with alleged conspiracy and fraud in connection with the promotion of the London and Scottish Bank- ing and Discount Corporation. Air. Justice Channell, in summing up, dealt in de- tail with the specific charges contained in the indict- ment against the defendants, and explained the law applicable to the case. The Crown alleged that these persons had been parties to a criminal conspiracy to obtain money from the shareholders in the bank under false pretences, and that in this connection they had, amongst other pretences, made statements with reference to the bank which were not true in fact, and which they knew were untrue at the time they made them. If this was established a criminal offence had been committed. These proceedings were important also from a public point of view, having regard to the conduct of company business. It was said that there was a prejudice against company promoters; but mere promotion of companies was not blameworthy. The main issue for the jury was one ail to the bona fides of the defendants. Did the facts satisfy them that the bank was an honest undertaking, or was it merely a fraudulent pro- motion conceived for the purpose of swind- ling the public? The jury found the prisoners Beall, Singleton, and Wain guilty, and the prisoner Lambert not guilty. His lordship sentenced Edward Beall to four years' penal servitude, Charles Singleton to 18 months' hard labour second-class, and James Carruthers Wain to 12 months'hard labour second- class.
MANCHESTER COLLISION. SEVERAL PERSONS INJURE!) AT THE CENTRAL STATION. Sixteen people were injured in a railway accident outside the Central Station at. Machesteron Saturday morning. The Central Station is used both by the Cheshire Lines and by the Midland Company. A dense fog kept a Liverpool train (containing chiefly Urmston and Flixton residents on their way to busi- ness) waiting on a high viaduct outside the station. Just after the signal dropped to let the train in, two coupled engines, tenders iirst,, charged the train, which had that second stirred. The impact smashed three of the rear coaches, lifting them from the metals. The cries of the passengers brought a crowd of people from the station. It was found that only a few had received serious injuries, and of 16 who were taken to the Royal Infirmary only four were detained. These were James Wilson Wiseman Wilson Alcock Stephen Burrows, of Urmston and George W. Mellor, of Fiixton. All four were last night reported to be recovering. Some of the battered passengers left blood behind them. In one broken compartment lay a newspaper plentifully splashed: while another contained a pair of boots which had been cut from a man who had been held fast by a pile of debris. The companies have not yet fixed the liability for the accident. FOG AND FROST. An overdue mssenger train dashed into some coal waggons at Widnes Station in the dense fog of Saturday evening. The brakesman was badly in- jured, and had a narrow escape from death, the brake van and two, trucks being smashed and the engine damaged. SeveraLin the passenger train were cut and bruised. Fourteen degrees of frost were registered at Market Harborough on Sunday morning. Leeds was enveloped in darkness, the electric cars running illuminaied all day. Fog rendered all outdoor sport impossible at Leicester, and several minor street casualties were reported. There was a sharp frost in the evening. At Wednesbury and the adjoining districts the fog was the worst for many years, and the railway goods traffic was suspended. Several people walked into canals near Tipton, but were rescued.
LAST OF THE PATRIA. BUTTING LINER A TOTAL WRECK NEATT DEAL. The Hamburg-American liner Patria, on which fire broke out on Wednesday morning of last week. has now stink about two miles off the South Fore- land, between W'ahner and Deal. She now lies a total wreck in about six fathoms of water at low tide. She has been apparently completely gutted but surveyors had not at the time of the latest report been able to get on board to ascertain what prospects there are of salvage. Captain Fronlich, of the Patria, states that had it not been for a panic among the passengers they could have savejd their personal belongings. ADVENTURES OF THE CREW. The Athesia (a Hamburg correspondent telegraphs) arrived in that harbour on Saturday. He interviewed the first officer of the Patria, Herr Brunswick, and Captain Voss, of the Athesia. They gave a detailed description of the burning of the Patria. The fire broke out on November 15, and 'was discovered at 3.30 a.m. It began in the boiler compartment, and in spite of the at- tempts which were immediately made to ex- tinguish it, it spread with fearful rapidity. At eleven o'clock the whole cattle-deck was in flames. As the fire continued to spread the lifeboats were quickly lowered, and in 10 minutes all the pas- sengers were taken off and were conveyed on board the Ceres, the discipline being excellent. The crew then went back to the Patria, which was now wholly encompassed by the fire. The steam steering gear and the hand wheel were burnt completely, and the ship therefore could not be managed. At 7.40 all the crew of the Patria were tnken on board the Athesia, which then besan to try to tow her, but before long the steel hawser broke. A second attempt was equally unsuccessful, the hawser being burnt. A ship's council was called, and it was decided to abandon tha Patria, as the tremendous flames threatened also the Athesia, which steamed for Ham- burg.
IN battle only one ball out of eighty-five takes effect. RHODESIA, it'is calculated, will be presently brought, by means of the new agreement between England j and Germany in regard to Africa, within 20 days' journey of London. IN America complaint is being made that while the country is alive to the needs of the Navy, coast defence is in a terribly backward state. Two-thirds of the fortifications are, it is estimated, yet to be provided for at a cost of 46,000,000dol., exclusiva of armament Under the scheme of the Endicott board the defence might be completed by 1909, but it is ur^ed that matters should be expedited. The Hon. S?Tilden, who has taken up the subject, rightly declares that the notoriety of the fact that we have neglected the ordinary precautions of defence invites want of consideration in our diplomacy, in- I justice, arrogancc, and insult at the haplds of fareign nations."
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HIS UNCLE BAGGED. A little ray of humour is thrown across the tragedy of war in a schoolboy story which (says tho Chronicle) is going the rounds. Major W. ft. P. Wallace, of the Gloucestershire Regiment, who WM among the captives at N icliolson's Nek, has a nephew at Borlase School, Mariow. One day one of the form-masters there was reading to his boys a news- paper account of ihe capture of the ill-fated column. and when he came to the mention of Major Wallacies name, the thrilling narrative was suddenly inter- rupted bv a gleeful exclamation from one of the, boys: Tlienuiy old uncle is bagged too."
REMARKABLE RECORD. David Ramsay, a rural postrunner between the. Kirriemuir post, office and Alyth, in Scotland, recently retired at the age of nearly SO. In 37 years he covered a totwl distance of w32,000 miles. His youngest d uighter has been appointed successor to tho old man. A few years since the Hon; C. AL Ramsay, M.P. for the county, and Sir John Kinloch, M.P. for East Perthshire, tried to sooure.for Ramsay, a retiring allowance, but only succeeded in obtaining a gratuity of a few pounds. It is stated that Ramsay never absented himself from work for a single day.
REMARKABLE MILITARY FAMILY. Constable Clarke, 337 H, who has been called up as a reservist, is a member of a remarkable military family. Clarke's grandfather, for many years, served in the 17th Lancers, and his father served in the same regiment, and was in the Crimea and Indian Mutiny. He had three brothers serving in the same regiment. At the age of 14 Clarke himself enlisted in his father's regiment, serving in that and in the Army Medical Corps for 12 years. He is in posses- sion of three medals, and has spent four ChristmaSes fighting on behalf of his Queen and country, He ivas at Dargai, and was one of those who rendered assists ance to Piper Findlater when the latter was shot. Clarke has three brothers in the 5th Lancers, and all II took part in the battle of Glencoe. Another brother is in the Army Medical Corps.
I' IJORD jJuiNDoNAi.ii, according to a contemporary, is to get regular employment when he arrives in South Africa; mdeed It is scarcely likely that Sir Kedvers Buller would fail-to avail himself of the services of so energetic and clever a cavalry officer. It was Lord Dundonald who brought the news of the fall of Ivhariotuti. — J < <; ,n~„. > ,-f. > ■ ,1.
OUR LONDON CORRESPONDENT. > Now that the success is assured of the Trarit.- Taal War Fund, which has the Lord Mayor of 5iondon for its organiser and the Mansion House as its central home, questions are natu- rally being put by the benevolent public as to ihe manner in which the large sums of money thus collected will be allotted. Not unnatu- rally, the bulk has been dedicated by the givers themselves to the widows and orphans caused by the South African struggle, for their sad case immediately appeals to the sympathies of all. But it is not to be forgotten that this category does not exhaust the list of sad cases, and means are being taken to bring to general notice the condition of the wives and families of the Reservists, suddenly called from civilian em- ployment to active service with the colours. It seems probable, indeed, that very soon we shall find that among these are some of the saddest cases of all, for it must be remembered that this is the iirst occasion upon which the Army Reserve, as organise 1 under the short service system, has been summoned hack to the ranks, and that, therefore, most of its members had not had it borne in upon them that at a few days' notice they might have to serve in the ranks again. The consequence is that very many of these man had married and secured comfortable little homes, which are now in I danger of being broken up unless help is given from outside. Generous employers have done much to lessen the hardship, but the public will need to do more, and that is a point not to be lost sight of just now. I In the old exclusive days, when a barrister- at-law was a lofty legal being apart from his fellows, and the Inns-of-Court were the abode of frigid and learned dignitaries, it could not have been imagined that the democratic spirit of the age could ever have touched them in the fashion it has done. "Who could have thought even a few years azo,, for instance, that such an announcement could possibly be made as that the general public were admitted without tickets last Sunday afternoon to tho perform- ance in Lincoln's-inn Chapel of Mendelssohn's Hymn of Praise ?'' But there the fact stands, and on the same day there was a much larger attendance than usual at Gray's-inn Chapel, because of the inauguration of what is known as the archbishop's window," which contains representations of live Archbishops of Canter- bury, all of them in some way connected with Gray's-inn. The modern spirit, indeed, has penetrated even into the four Inns-of-Court, grave and reverend as they are and neither the law nor those who thrive by it seem a whit the worse for the process. Yet, despite this incursion of the modern spirit, the groat Inns-of-Court in themselves afford havens of refuge in this bustling, push- ing London of ours to those of quiet mind. No one can go into the courts of the Inner and the Middle Temple, into the silent squares of Gray's-inn, or into Lincoln's-inn-fields, without sharing in the reposeful feeling they enjoin, while the courtyard of Staple-inn, the old hall of Clifford's-inn, and the square of New-inn—to take some of the subsidiary and now extinct Inns of Court are vases of refuge I in the swirling sandy desert of modern metro- politan life. As one simple example, let there be taken the Chapel of Gray's-inn, lit only by I candles ?. Is there not something wonderfully old-world in the idea of a building in the very heart of the London of to-day which depends for its illumination upon similar means to what were employed in the days of Elizabeth ? Constant travellers in and out of the southern suburbs of London will have watched with a keen personal interest the installation, now almost complete, of the electric light at Ludgate-hili Station. The matter, in fact, has been thought to be of such general importance 7 0 that it Was formally mentioned in Parliament during tha last short Session, and it is one theme for joyful remark to many thousands of daily users of this station. But this very fact calls attention to the almost Cimmerian dark- ness of the much-frequented railway stations in the metropolis. It is now nearly twenty years since Liverpool-street, into and out of which more suburban passengers daily go than any other in London, was lit by elec- tricity: but, as a contrast, the terminus of the richest railway of all that comes into the metropolis is still most inadequately lit with gas, to the constant annoyance and frequent discomfort of the passengers. And after Lud- gate-hill, we can surely hope for better things. A few days hence, there will be held a meeting for the purpose of founding a society of Yorkshiremen resident in London, 1 and thus wijl be established another of those county societies which have sprung :up so hardily in the metropolis of late years, and which have done so much to sustain and stimu- late local patriotism. The essential idea of such bodies is, of course, no new thing, for they have certainly been known for a couple of cen- turies but it is only within the last two decades that in their present form they have really come to fruition. The Cornishmen in London set an example which (their county neighbours, the Devonians, speedily followed; and since this time several such associations, both Eng- lish and Scotch, have come into the field. In one case there is even a duality, for the Kentish Men and the Men of Kent join—though why should they even be separate ?-to form a fJounty society of their own. I • Clearance having now been made of all the ôùUdings which stood on what has been generally I known as the Carrington House site, it may be taken that the foundations for the new War Office will soon be laid. Controversy I however, Continues to rage in certain aesthetic and artistic quarters as to the plans for this vast building, and the Office of Works is being bombarded I y requests to allow the public to I see a model of it. On the face of it. this re- rece- 3uest is neither unreasonable nor tinprece- ented, for it was certainly yielded to in the case of so vast and important a building as St. Paul's Cathedral but the Office of Works stands on its dignity and will not yield. Of course, there is more in the matter than appears on the surface, for the real point is as to the design for the proposed edifice. There are some who wish it to be in perfect harmony with—and. in fact, to be a complement of-the great Banqueting House of Inigo Jones, which is the only portion left to us of what was intended to be the magnificent Palace of Whitehall. But, great as we moderns sometimes think ourselves, is there one among us so daring as to think he can lift the pencil of Inigo Jones ? The two great cycle shows we now yearly see in London have once more come and gone, and eir visitors have just head to head together to see how far forward they have got. The 2eature of the exhibitions necessarily was the free wheel, which just at present is all the rage, and which promises to be even more so during next spring and summer; and, even apart from any special advantages this system may possess, the point to be largely considered is that it is fashionable, and fashion in cycling means much. As for the rest, there were various. improvements in detail to be seen; but the every day cyclist is still search- ing for that delightful but delusive desideratum perfect lamp, that will be warranted not always to go out the moment a constable heaves in eight. The man who first devises that lamp will be assured of a colossal and well-merited fortune. H.
Don't COUGH.—Belief can be obtained imme- diately. Use KEATING'S COUQH LOZENGES —well known as the utterly unrivalled Cough fiemedy. They at once check the cough and remove the cause-without any after effect; the most deli- cate can therefore take them. Sold evervwheire it ttns 13id. each. THE affecting story of General Pomeroy Colley's last fight at Majuba and the days before thought are well told in the English Illustrated., though no new facts are given. In his last letter to his wife occurs the passage: "I am going out to-night to try and seize the Majuba tlill, and leave this behind to tell you how very dearly I love you, and-, what. a happi- ness you have been to me. Don't let U hfebe darh. to you if I don't come back to you." .4h.)t is a human document, m truta. this sad "letter! The General was abo-t in the forehead by a Boer as.,he stood trying to rally his men, H.M.S. WIVERN has gone to Canton, with, (THE object, according to looal authorities, of having a moral effect on the viceroy. THE Dundee whaler Polar Star has been lost while 196le Ashing in Hudson's Bay. ^The crew was saved, And is on board the Active.
CURIOUS WEDDING CUSTOMS. Among the most curious wedding customs are classed those of the Coreans, says a correspondent, of the New York Tri/mue. It is said that in Corea the woman must be as mute as a statue throughout her entire wedding day. Should she say one word or make a sign she would be ridiculed by her friends and family and lose caste for ever, though her husband is free to taunt and to try to provoke her into saying something. There are places where the eating or drinking from the same plate or cup is all the wedding ceremonial that the people have. With some people it consists of the two drinking rurn from the same cup, as a sign of their linked lives. In still other parts of the world the two families meet at a banquet and signify by their partaking of a meal together that an alliance has been ei'ected. In Maoriland and Burmah there is no ceremoiij', marriage being regarded as a busi- ness partnership. It is said by one who has lived there that all the gods and goddesses of Maoriland help the Maori whose wife betrays or dishonours her husband. But she may trade or exchange him to suit her own sweet will. In Zulularid hair dressing is an important feature with both bride and bride- groom. The head of a Zulu bride is closely shaved except for the hair which is left, to aid in the cone- shaped erection which is the lawful coiffure of a Zulu wife. In the Philippines the marriage laws are all in favour of women, and with her it. is a clear case of "what is yours is mine, and what is mine'is my own.' She adds her husband's name to hers, and the children take the name of both. In Siberia a bride on coming to her husband's house is required to prepare a dinner with her own hands as a test of her skill as housewife. In Sweden the bride wears a coronet of myrtle or of coloured paper. One of the superstitions of that country is that if a girl loves cats she will have a sunny wedding-day. The Japanese bride, dressed in a long, white silk kimono and white veil, sits upon the floor facing her future husband. Two tables stand near, and upon one are two cups, a bottle of sake and a kettle with two spouts. Upon the other are a miniature plum tree, ri typifying the beauty of the bride; a miniature fir tree,"which signifies the strength of the bridegroom, and a stork standing upon a tortoise, representing long life and happiness. The two-epouted kettle is put to the mouths of the bride and bridegroom alternately, signifying that they are to share each other's joys and sorrows. The brictfs keeps her veil, and it is used as her shroud when she dies.
SUBSIDISED HOSPITALS. It is somewhat difficult (says the Hospital) for us in this country, where hospitals are either exclu- sively voluntary or exclusivelv rate supported, to realise the complications which are introduced into the hospital problem in some countries, where not only do the hospitals receive a subsidy from tho State or the municipality, but where at the same time jjatients who can be classified as indigent are paid for by the State. The constant abuses arising from tl-ie system of appropriating public funds for the support of private hospitals in various American cjties are a frequent theme for writers in the American medical journals. Dr. Herbert Horrocks, in the Auttralati'in Medical Gazette, writes: "A comparatively well-to-do man is admitted as an in- patient, and remains in the hospital for four weeks. He is utated by them to be indigent, and therefore tilie Government pays at the rate of £ 2 10s. a week fi)r him. On leaving the hospital he makes a dona- tion of £ 16 to the funds of the hospital, and they receive a subsidy of ihe same amount from the State. Result: L12 to tha good. This is only one of many abuses.
EXTINCTION OF ABORIGINES. The aborigines in South Australia are rapidly dj ihg out, and the date of.their extinction does not (remarks the Morning Post) seem far off. According to the report of the Protector of Aborigines, the number of births recorded among them during the past eight years was 270, while the deaths in the same period numbered 533, being an excess over the births of 263. The number ot Aborigines in the colony is now estimated at 2>71.
MISTAKES IN COURT. An amusing scene was witnessed in Justice Keke- wich's court the other day. Soon after the judge came in .the usher w»s seen making frantic signals to the gallery, and it. appeared that he was signalling to the unconscious wearer of an Alpine hat to-take it off owing to the. presence of the judge. At length the usher managed to attract the attention of the wearer of the hat, who got, up, and, to the disgust of the nsher. turned out to be a lady. Not even the sternest cries of silence could stop the burst of merriment that rose from bench, bar, and gallery. Such mis- takes are not very uncommon. A well-known judge .has been known to order a negro witness who was taking the oath to take off his glove, and a very diminutive barrister was on one occasion sternly ordered to stand up when he was addressing the Court.
A NEW PRESERVE. The Rev. John Goring, of \Viston-park, Sussex, has a second crop of figs ripening out ot doors, being only the second time he can remember such an occur- rence during nearly 70 years. The other occasion was in 1S65. Then a very dry autumn extended to October 8. when a deluge came and swept everything away. Mr. Goring is anxious to know whether tho berries of the common berberis (Mahonia aquifolium) are edible, and whether a preserve made of them would be wholesome. I have had some made, but should like, before eating it, to be assured that we shall not be poisoned. Birds, blackbirds especially, are very fond of the berberis berries."
THE LATE MAJOR MYERS. Major Myers. the Old Etonian, whose determina- tion to take, part in the war in spite of the War oflice fclioived by his fall on the battlefield three short, days after his arrival in South Africa, was not only known as a soldier; he was an archaeologist of 'considerable standing, and he had-made the most of liis opportftnit-ies tor travel as well as for procuring specimens. He had given particular attention to the relics of ancient Egypt; and at present in the main building of the Vic-toria and Albert Museum are a number of case's filled with blue glazed pottery of, the 17th and 18th dynasties (n.c. 1700-1300) lent by him. Some examples, chiefly of prehistoric (New Race) work, from his collection he presented to Eton College Museum a few weeks before he left this country, thus adding to many previous gifts for he was a benefactor to the '"nsfuxt as well as to the bqys library, and hoped one day to see an Ethno- logical department brought into existence.
WANTED-OLD IRON. Cuban war relics, says the Philadelphia, liee-rd, selem to be a drug on the market, while, on the other hind, the scarcity of scrap iron i3 almost unprece- dented. These two circumstances have resulted in tile shipping to Philadelphia of great, quantities of shot, and shell from the battlefields of Cuba, which are being snapped up at prices varying from Vidol. to 17dol. a ton. n. fa all, kinds of old iron, be they relics or not, are coming this way from the West Indies., From Cuban sugar plantations which were wrecked during the war large consignments of disused iron are being sent. Negotiations are now pending for the importation into the United States of all the old iron that can te found. Five thousand torls have been shipped here from Cuba within the last two months.
fHE QUEEN'S ITALIAN HOLIDAY. An announcement to the effect that the Queen had signified her intention of spending her spring holi- day in the Italian Riviera this year has received official confirmation. A Rome correspondent states that an omcial announcement was issued on Sunday that the British Ambassador in that city had had an audience of King Humbert, and informed him that the Queen intended to make" stay at Bordighera next year. His Majesty received the news with much pleasure. The official confirmation has been hailed with enthusiasm by Italian public opinion and the news- papers, and it is already reported that members of the Italian Royal Family will take advantage of her Majesty's stay in the country to visit, her. It is said that the Queen decided to spend her holiday in Bordighera in 1900, during her visit to Nice this spring, 'when she visited the Empress Frederic at Bordighera, where the latter h&s a villa. The Empress pointed out. to her mother how much a residence at Bordighera was preferable to a holiday at Nice. The fact, that the Queen will spend two months or so on the Italian Riviera, will be an undoubted benefit to that beautiful district. Already it is announced that, the pro- prietors of all the hotels in ttiz) Italian Riviera will shortly hold a meeting for the purpose of taking steps to render the sojourn of the English colony even more agreeable. Above all, a service of fast trains will be inaugurated, particularly with Monte Carlo.
A THOUSAND POUNDS IN JEWELS STOLEN. A dressing-case belonging to Mrs. Bevan. of 52, Grosvenor-street, London, which is said to have con- tained jewels and trinkets to the value of was stolen on Friday evening of last week. According to the story furnished to the police, Mrs. Bevan came up from the country and was met at the station by her brougham, on the roof of which the valuable case was placed with other luggage. On arrival at her residence the case had disappeared. The lost jewels consist of diamond necklaces, brooches, pearl collarettes and necklets, a ring, two muff chains, and several other articles of value. It is not explaineci why these valuables were put away on tha roof. The assumption is that a quick-witted thief, observing the case, followed the brougham into a quiet, street, and under cloak of the fog got up on tha back of the brougham and removed the case.
TIIK Mazieres Mission, which was to explore the country from Lake Chad to the Mediterranean, has been obliged to turn in consequence of the capture* and death of M. Behagle. GKSKUAT, 8m EvMLYN WOOD, Adjutant-General to the Forces has been appointed Honorary Colonel. of the 11th Middlesex (Inns of Court) Riflo Volun- teers- F
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IN CLOVER AT NAAUWPOORT, It would seem that the hard treatment in the way of food melted out to soldiers on the way to Lady- smith, which was complained of in a letter published some time ago, is not the experience of soldiers in other parts of the field. One of the garrison of Naauwpoort,. Cape Colony, writes: "When we are on outpost duty they bring us coffee, cake, meat pies, pudding, and nearly everything we can think of at four o'clock in the morning."
GUARDING GREENWICH TIME. A conference, presided over by Sir Courtne Boyle, at the Board of Trade, has appointed a com- mittee to suggest experimenis for discovering the amount of magnetic disturbance produced in the neighoollrhood of electrical tramways and railways tluiTt and worked under Board of Trade regulations. lit was asserted that the leakage of current from these electrical lines of traction interfered with the sensi- tive instruments in the Itew and Greenwich observa- tories, and the Astronomer Royal said there must be some such magnetic distllrlnnc Sir Dougla3 f'ol would not admit, however, that any interference of a magnetic nature had been proved against the elec- trical lines they represented. So the committee was appointed to investigate the question.
A NEW lock is being constructed by the Thames Oonser.vancy at Shepperton, to replace the existing one, which is much decayed and difficult for traffic in dry seasons. THE Prison Commissioners have intimated that there are a number of vacancies on the Discipline Staff of the Prison Service, suitable for discharged soldiers.
COCOA-The National Drink. N.EVFA in the history of the world has Cocoa been go much held in favour as a national drink as it ig at the present dav. Yet there are Cocoas and Cocoas. MIKSRR FRY have gained no fewer than 276 GOLD MKDAL8 and DIPLOMAS, audi their Pure Concen- Itrat^l Cocoa istbø result of an accumulated experience of 170 which places this well known Firm at an Ildvantage far above all the ri mIry existing amongst ttrms fJÍ latter-day growth. ue "0 than FRYS PURE COCOA Of which Dr. Andrew Wilson, F.R.S.E., ideal olperfection." tttst THEIE WO-ELD8 are necessary in order tojret the rigUt Cooua, viz., iTvT'l P1TKK OOiMCBttT«.A.T?ED.