HOW THE TRANSVAAL COMPARES WITH ENGLAND. Lord Salisbury advised some one, who was anxious about Russia's advances towards Afghanistan, to look at the district through the medium of an ordnance map, when the vast areas of the buffer States" would become apparent. So, in the case of the present war, it is difficult to realise the size of things it is difficult to realise that in steaming from Cape Town to Durban the trans- ports have as far to go as if they were coasting right round England and Scotland. One knows that the Transvaal is a fairly big place, but hardly realises that it is more than twice the size of England. The railway from lielagoa Bay to Pre- toria, looks a mere bit of a line on the map but it is as long a journey as from Hull to Glasgow, and from Glasgow to Milford Haven, as the crow flies, repre- sents the distance Kruger hask to go in order to see his good neighbour Steyn at BIfontein. The Orange Free State itself might be hkened in position and outline as well as in size to Ireland, with most of the Irish Channel thrown in, while to its right-hand bottom corner cleaves gallant little Basutoland, which is just about the sizepf Wales, as it used to be in the Golden Age for Welshmen, when Shropshire and Monmouth formed part of it. To the right of Basutoland in Natal, which cor- responds in size to our Midland Counties with Sussex thrown in, for if Ladysmith were put down at Bir- mingham, Maritzburg would coincide, as Euclid used to say with London, and Durban with Brighton. In advancing from Laing's Nek, on the border of Natal, to Ladysmith the Boers have covered as much ground as lies between Bradford and Birmingham. Supposing again that Birmingham represents Ladysmith, Kimberley, on the other side of the Free State, would be as far off as Cork, 290 miles away, so that the Boers in this direction are practically iso- lated from their brethren who are being shelled by the Ladysmith gunners. It is believed that part of the Army Corps will assemble at De Aar in North Cape Colony before it advances to the relief of Kimberley and Mafeking, The nearest port on the coast to De Aar is Port Elizabeth. Disembarking at that point our troops will have a London to Land's End railway journey before they arrive at De Aar. Then from De Aar to Kimberley and Mr. Rhodes will be anot her lengthy journey as far as the ima- ginary crow flies-no sensible one would do it-as from Land's End to Cork, while the journey from Cork to Londonderry, in the extreme north of Ire- land, would be equivalent to the final stage of the troops' advance from Kimberley to Mafeking, which is making scarcely less a heroic a defence than Derry made of old against James II.
THE LORD ADVOCATE. The Right Hon. Andrew Graham Murray (says the Star) who has been Lord Advocate of Scotland since 1896, and has filled in two Conservative Administra- tions the position of Scotch Solicitor-General, has given a striking proof of the attractiveness of political life. Mr. Graham Murray has refused the great office of Lord Justice General and Lord President of the Court of Session, Scotland, rendered vacant by the pro- motion of Lord Ilo^wtson to a Lordship of Appeal in Ordinary,preforrij ghis position on the Treasury Bench to the highest prize in the legal' profession in Scot- land. Mr. Graham Murray, who has just entered on his 50th year, had a distinguished career in Cam- bridge, where he was a scholar of Trinity. In his student days at Edinburgh he was a close friend with Stevenson, with whom he kept up a correspondence in his distant home at Samoa. Stevenson consulted the LOId Advocate on the legal aspect of his last work, "Weir of Hermiston."
BUDAPEST is just now enjoying a sensation of the first order. This is the approaching wedding of Prince Rudolf Lobkewitz, military commander of the town, to the widow of his predecessor, Baron Edelsheim Gyulay. The lady was once a famous actress, under the name of Friedrike Kronau, and she is two years older than her affianced husband, who is over sixty. Shortly before his death Baron Edelsheim fought a duel with Prince Rudolf and was wounded. THERE is much speculation among the virtuosi of Lima by reason of the discovery in an ancient Peru- vian tomb, which has just been examined, of a speci- men in perfect preservation of the standard gold coin of the old Roman Empire, the denarius aureus, which, according to Pliny, was first coined about 270 B.C. The tomb is believed to date from a period antecedent to the discovery of America by Columbus, 10 how the denarius chanced to be there is an inte- resting theme for antiquarian speculation. The coin is to, be: bent to a Lima museum. '.1"
TRANSVAAL LAND HOLDINGS. Per cent. Owned by British subjects 35 „ Boers 65 100 THEIR VALVE. Per cent, British Holdings 67 Boer 33 100 (These figures do not include the value of mining or township lands.) POPULATION. Per cent. British and others 73 Boers n. 27 100 Of the above 73 per cent., practically 30 per cent. are British. v
"1 KRUGER'S AMERICAN RELATIONS. Kruger has several relatives in Michigan, most of them living in Detroit and Holland. According to the Milwaukee Journal, it was there be visited for several weeks in the early seventies. Those who saw him then and remember his characteristics say that he impressed an observer as having remarkable bull- dog courage, and as one who, once convinced of the righteousness ef his cause, would turn backward at nothing less than Divine command. He spent five weeks in Michigan, and returned to South Africa by way of New York and England greatly impressed with what he had seen in the United States.
THE APPROACHING SALE OF KILLARNEY. The Muckross Estate at Killarney is to be put up for auction in Dublin on the 21st of this month. It is said (remarks a correspondent of the Times, that the estate might have been bought some years ago for £ 30,000. During the present year the reputed price has risen by steps from E60,000 to £ 90,000. The insuranoe company which controls the sale has pro- bably been disappointed, the correspondent thinks, in the hope of selling privately at the highest point touched by its desires, and has very reasonably decided that the fairest course in the interests of all parties is to submit their estimate to the touchstone of the open market. It is pointed out that the cele- brated lakes are not entirely contained in the pro- perty now offered for sale. There are practically two great estates that command the lakes, that of the Herberts of Muckross, now in the market, and that of Lord Kenmare.
WAR IN SOUTH AFRICA. FARQUHARS FARM AND NICHOLSON'S NEK. MORE TROOPS FOR THE FRONT. COLENSO EV ACe ATED.-COLESBLJRG HEMMED IN. CONTINUED BOER PROCLAMATIONS OF ANNEXATION. THE REFUGEES AND WAR FUNDS. The Transvaal Refugees Fund at the London Man- sion House amounted on Saturday to over £ 156,000. Sir A. Milner, in acknowledging a further remit- I tance from the Lord Mayor, says the number of refugee3 must have reached 60,000, of whom at least one-quarter are receiving assistance in one form or another. Were it not for the liberal aid afforded by the British public, it would have n impossible for him to grapple with the problem. The Transvaal War Fund amounted on Saturday to £ 120,000. j THE AMERICAN HOSPITAL SHIP. The contributions at present in hand towards the American Hospital Ship Fund amount to over in addition to the complete equipment, manning, coaling, and furnishing of the steamship Maine. THE MILITIA. An Army order directs the embodiment of the Militia infantry units connected with 35 regular regiments. MORE TROOPS FOR THE FRONT. The 6th Dragoon Guards (C%rabinier-) have ombarked at Tilbury for South Africa on board the transport Wakool, and the 73rd Battery of Royal Field Artillery, the Ammunition Column of the 2nd Division, and other details on board the transport Idaho, at Chatham. The Castle liner Kildonan Castle sailed from Southampton for South Africa on Saturday evening, with 99 officers and 2242 non-commissioned officers and men, including the 1st Battalion Welsh Regiment, the 2nd Battai ion Northumberland Fusiliers, and details of the BLick Watch, Royal Engineers, and other corps. The Union liner Briton also sailed from South- amp: on with the 2nd Battalion Somersetshire Xighc Infantry and 349 petty officers, seamen, end marines for the ships of the Cape Squadron. Sir William Mac Cormac, President of the Royal College of Surgeons, who goes out to South Africa as medical adviser to the Army Corps, was also a passenger on the Briton. The Duke of Corn- wall's Light Infantry left Plymouth on Saturday night for London, en route for South Africa. In the morning the battalion was paraded and addressed by the Bishop of Truro, Lord Mount-Edgcumbe, and Sir W. Butler, commanding the Western District. General Butler exhorted the troops to remember first, whatever might come, the word Duty." If they did their duty all would go right. They had heard and read of the difficulties and troubles which our soldiers had had to meet in Natal. These were in reality nothing but the ordinary work of war; and it had been manfully and bravely met by their comrades in Souch Africa. He felt certain that they would meet it in the same soldier-like and Briton- like manner. SIR EDWARD GREY ON OUR LOSSES. Sir E. Grey, speaking at Peeb'es on Saturday night, ■aid the reverses and loss of life that had occurred in Natal were almost inevitable where our troops were so greatly outnumbered. There was compensation for the losses sustained in the courage shown by our troops and the impression produced on their oppo- nent. Moreover, the Boers were now putting for- ward their full strength under the most favourable Conditions, while our strength had not yet been put into the field. He believed the overwhelm- ing public opinion in the country was that in this war we were in the right. Sir Alfred Milner, being on the spot, had taken the serious view that things in South Africa were intolerable, and that un- less something was done to remedy them, not only our supremacy but out position and our rule would be undermined altogether. Sir Alfred Milner was a man of great ability, with a very cool and clear head, and his opinion must carry great weight on this question. Look at the tone and spirit of the ultimatum of the Transvaal Government, and the preparations they had been making for the war. The position in South Africa was precarious because the Boers were bad neighbours to us, and were armed. Boer independence had come to mean race ascendency and government, and this was the bottom of the difficulty. They meant to see the war through to the end, and to support the Government throughout; but he claimed that the settlement after the war should be a liberal settlement. GALLANT LIEUTENANT'S PROMOTION AND DEATH. The promotion of Lieutenant Egerton, of the powerful, to the rank of commander in her Majesty's Fleet for special service with the force in South Africa has been announced. Lieutenant Egerton, ho was wounded by a shell at Ladysmith on Mon- day of last week, is reported to have since died. TELEGRAPH COMMUNICATION INTER- RUPTED. The telegraphic communication between Lady- tmith and Durban being still interrupted, there has been a great dearth of authentic news from the theatre of operations in Natal. A telegram dated Tuesday of last week from the Times special corre- spondent at Ladysmith gives some brief details re- specting the disaster to Lieut.-Colonel Carleton's column, and a Reuter despatch from the same place describes the fighting at Farquhar's Farm, but neither message contained any new fact of im- portance. CONTINENTAL CANARDS. In the absence of trustworthy news the manufac- ture of canards has proceeded actively on the Conti- nent. A report was published in Berlin on Friday of last week alleged to come via Amsterdam from "Afrikander circles in Cape Town," to the effect that Ladysmith had already capitulated and that 9000 English, mostly wounded, had been made prisoners by the Bors. A Durban cablegram via London," also published in Berlin, announced that General White had made a sortie on Wednesday of last week and sustained an annihilating defeat, losing over 1000 killed and wounded. General Joubert invited General White, who is said to be severely wounded, to capitulate, but the invitation was re- fused. A Berlin despatch in the Paris Liberti an- nounces the capture of Mafeking and affirms that the War Office is withholding the news that General White is mortally wounded. OUR KILLED AND WOUNDED. The War Office has issued lists of the killed, wounded, aud misaing at Farquhar's Farm and Nicholson's Nek. The latter is necessarily incom- plete. According to the Press Association's estimate the total number of killed, wounded, and missing in the fighting in Natal was, up to Sunday, 1770-26 officers killed, 70 wounded, and 58 missing, and 199 ion-commissioned officers and men killed, 720 wounded, and 698 missing. THE SITUATION AT KIMBERLEY. A despatch from Kimberley, dated October 29, says that all the wounded are doing well. Small bodies of the enemy, 400 strong, have been frequently seen of late. They are apparently coming south from Mafeking. The absence of water outside Kimberley causes the Boers to be constantly on the move. The Boers are reported to have concentrated at Bethulie, on the southern frontier of the Free State, a force of 4000 men with field guns. PIGEON POST DESPATCH.—A SUCCESSFUL RECONNAISSANCE. On Sunday Sir Redvert Buller forwarded to the War Office a message he had received from General White by pigeon post, dated the previous Friday, announcing the death of Lieutenant Egerton, and reporting that on the Thursday there was a success- ful reconnaissance, and that on the Friday a force under Colonel Brocklehurst was engaged with the enemy south-west of Ladvsmith. The fighting lasted several hours, but our loss was very small. The 8eneral added that the troops were in good health fwd anirits. u- -r- COLENSO EVACUATED. I The War Office issued on Saturday a statement tllat the Colonial Office had received information to the effect that our troops had been withdrawn from Colenso and concentrated further to the south, but that there was no news of any engagement in the neighbourhood. Pietermaritzburg telegrams of Thursday of last week report that on the previous day a Boer force estimated at 3000 was discovered six miles from Colenso, and that their scouts and ours exchanged shots; also that Colenso was shelled without effect, the range being too long, and that trams between Ladysmith and Colenso were also shelled without any damage being done. Ladysmith telegrams received in Cape Town on Thursday of last week said that the women and children had been sent south. The Times special correspondent at Lady- smith, telegraphing on Wednesday of last week, re- portud all quiet there, but that the enemy had detached a commando to the southward-presum- ably against Colenso-had occupied all the points of Vantage round Ladysmith, and were building em- placements for the posi on guns which were arriving mm the Transvaal. On the following day the same Correspondent reported that the enemy renewed the bombardment with their bi, giin, but did littledaraage. Our naval iCunA returned their fir* with excellent results. The investment of Ladysmith was practi- ) caily complete, the enemy having tapped the wires in our rear. It is suggested that they believe Ladysmith to be in their power, and are anxious that all our military stores should be got up before they deliver their attack. The Times correspondent added that a reconnaissance of the 5th Lancers, with a field battery, found a Free State laager, and shelled it heavily, driving out the Boers. REPORTED SANGUINARY BATTLE. A Pietermaritzburg telegram of Sunday says that Dutch residents 'there have received news of a sanguinary Dattle fotight on Saturday, probably between Ladysmith and Colenso, in which many Boers were killed. MORE PROCLAMATIONS. It is reported from Cape Town that the Boers have proclaimed the Upper Tugela division of Natal to be Free State territory, and that they are march- ing through Zululand hoisting their Sag. THE NICHOLSON'S NEK DISASTER. The total missing of the Gloucester Regiment and Royal Irish Fusiliers at Nicholson's Nek was 843. Of the Gloucester 32, and of the Fusiliers 10, were found dead on the field, while 150 wounded were brought into camp at Ladysmith. Between 70 and 100 of the men escaped and got back into Lady- smith. BOER ADVANCE ON COLESBERG. Various reports from the southern frontier indi- cate that the Boers have invaded Cape Colony from Bethulie and advanced on Coleaberg, which, accord- ing to same acccunts, they have occupied but their main camp still remains on their own side of the frontier. THE RHODESIAN FRONTIER. There has been further skirmishing on the Rhode- sian frontier, where, however, the enemy has not yet assembled any considerable force. The transport Nineveh, with the New South Wales Lancers from Aldershot, arrived at Cape Town on Thursday of last week. The colonials received a hearty welcome. The Premier of New South Wales has suggested to the other Australian Premiers the despatch to South Africa of another body of troops, to be called the Australian contingent. BRITISH PRISONERS PLAYING FOOTBALL. Amongst the papers found by the Boers at Dundee according to a Pretoria message) was a congratula- tory telegram from Lady Symons to her husband. On the death of the British Commander, General Joubert sent a message to Lady Symons through Ladysmith, saying that her husband had baen buried with the fullest honours, and adding that perhaps many on both sides were destined to share the fate of the British General. Colonel Moeller, who commanded the detachment of the 18th Hussars, captured near Dundee, and who is now a prisoner here, declined to say anything about what happened during the pursuit, or how he and his men fell into the enemy's hands. He would only say that he, his officers, and men had been treated with consideration by the Boers. The rank and file make the best of things as they find them, and amuse themselves with playing foot- ball. The sole anxiety of the officers is to be ex- changed. MR. RHODES AT A DANCE. An interesting letter has been received at Do Aar from an official at Kimberley. He speaks of several successive sorties from the place, all of which had proved successful to the British garrison. The Boers," adds the writer, seem to have little stomach for serious fighting in this. locality. They have the meet wholesome dread of showing themselves in the open country. The residents in Kimberley are sanguine and happy. A large dance in the town followed one of the minor skirmishes. Mr. Cecil Rhodes looked in at the pleasure makers, and smiled his benisons upon the gay throng." THE SIEGE OF MAFEKING. The Cape Times says it has received trustworthy information that there have been no casualties at Mafeking since the 13th ult. After a heavy bom- bardment, General Cronje called upon the town to surrender. Colonel Baden-Powell was asleep when the sum- mons arrived. He received the messenger hospitably, and politely replied that he would let General Cronje know when he had had enough. PRISONERS AT SIMONSTOWN. A considerable number of British wounded, sent from Ladysmith to Durban by rail, and thence by sea have arrived at Cape Town. The newspapers had notified their imminent arrival, and large crowds assembled at the landing-place to welcome them. As the poor fellows were brought ashore the people cheered with great enthusiasm, and lustily sang Rule Britannia," God Save the Queen," and Soldiers of the Queen." Nearly all the wounded have benefited by the sea voyage, and are doing well. The first batch of Boer wounded have been landed at the dockyard at Simonstown. There was no demonstration. BOER HUMANITY ON THE FIELD. There is no gainsaying (says Mr. G. W. Steevens, in a graphic account published by the Daily Mail, and received from Ladysmith on Monday) that the Boers shot magnificently at Nicholson's Nek and with great keenness. The moment any of our men put up his head to see where the enemy were, he instantly fell back with a bullet through it. After the engage- ment the Boers showed great kindness both to the wounded and unwounded, and this has elicited the highest praise. They collected water for our wounded, and gave them blankets, captured mules for the hospital panniers, and rifles for splints. Some asked for our soldiers' embroidered belts as mementoes of their great victory, but on being told that many contained money, the pay of the men in many cases, they refrained from pressing the requests. Some of the wounded dropped their money, but the Boers would not take it. Only one man attempted to loot the hospital panniers, and he was a German. The Boers, how- ever, checked him from doing so. Owing to the Boers needing their medical equipment for their own wounded, a message was sent on here, and Sir George White despatched bearers to bring ours into camp. The prisoners were removed to Pre- toria, but many managed to escape, and stragglers are still coming in every day. Father Matthews, the Roman Catholic chaplain, of his own free will, ac- companied the men to Pretoria. The Boers spent the afternoon in singing doleful hymns of victory undor the trees. They had reason to be doleful, having lost many men. They admit their casualties at Farquhar's Farm were heavy, and unfortunately their principal doctor was killed there. BOERS SICK OF THE WAR. The Natal Mercury publishes the following tele- gram from Ladysmith: Dr. Hornabrook, who climbed the Ambulwane Mountain in search of the body of Lieutenant Clapham, was accosted by the enemy. He was well treated, and conversed with many of the Boers, among whom the consensus of opinion seemed to indicate that they were sick of the war and would like to throw up the sponge. They admitted that their losses were very heavy, and stated that they were chiefly due to the British artillery fire. Dr. Hornabrook recovered Lieutenant Clap- ham's body." GENERAL KOCH'S DEATH. The Cape Times has published news from Lady- smith announcing the death of the Boer General Koch, whose remains have been taken to Pretoria. Several of the townspeople of Ladysmith, including some ladies, witnessed the recent fighting. The re- sumption of fighting was hourly expected. EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS. The following forms the full text of the notifica- tions posted late on Sunday night at the War Office Following message received from Sir Redvers Buller CAPETOWN, November 5, 8.40 p.m. "Following message by pigeon post from Lady- smith received to-day -through Commandant at Durban: November 3. Yesterday French went out with cavalry and field artillery, and effectively shelled Boer laager, without loss on our side. Lieutenant Egerton, of Powerful, wounded in Naval Battery, since dead. Joubert sent in Kincaid, Royal Irish Fusiliers, and nine wounded prisoners, Eight Boers sent out in exchange. No others fit to travel. To-day Brocklehurst, with cavalry and field artillery aad Imperial Light Horse and Natal Mounted Volunteers were engaged to south-west of Ladysmith. Fighting lasted several hours. Our loss very small. Bombardment continued yesterday and to-day. Many shells pitched into the town. Troops in good health and spirits. Note by Sir Redvers Buller: I think French's saine given by mistake for Brocklehirst." General Sir Redvers Buller to Secretary of State for War (received November 5, 9.30 p.m.): CAPBTOWH, November 5, 8.30 p.m. "Following message received from Kekewich, Kimberley., ,October 31, 9 p.m.: All wounded doing well Lieutenant McClintock discharged hospital to-day/" PRINCE CIIRISTIA-N VICTOR TO THE FRONT. Major Prince Christian Victor left Cape Town on Friday of lasc week on hoard her Majesty's ship Terrible for Durban, on his way to Ladysmith, to take up regimental duty there. The Terrible also took a number of other officers for Ladysmith to fill the place of officers killed and wounded in the recent fighting. COLENSO GARRISON EFFECTS SAVED. A telegram to the Natal Advertiser says that the garrison of Colenso saved all its stores, tents, kit, and the like. The enemy's force numbered about 5000 men. and comprised a fresh commando of Free Staters. The armoured train rendered splendid service, taking a detachment of the Dublins to relieve an outlying fort, which was garrisoned by volun- teers. POSITION AT PIETERMARITZBURG. Reassuring reports are to hand respecting the position at Pietermaritzburg. On inquiry at the War Office a representative was informed that no further official news had been received regarding the military situation in Natal, but the officials were of opinion that no undue signi- ficance need be attached to the sentence in the above telegram regarding the position at Pietermaritzburg. They had no information as to whether the railway was still intact or not, but admitted that Ladysmitb appeared to be completely surrounded by the Boers. BOER LOSSES AT TATHAM'S FARM. It is reported at Estcourt that the enemy lost 800 men killed and wounded and taken prisoners in the battle on Tatham's Farm, near Ladysmith, on Thurs- day of last week. NATAL VOLUNTEERS. A deputation of the Pietermaritzburg Town Council has waited upon the Governor, Sir W. Hely-Hutchinson, to confer with him as to the de- fence of the city. The Governor assured them that everything possible was being done. It was decided to send out an emergency mounted corps composed of gentlemen lesident in the district, who will form a serviceable body, all the members supplying their own horses and equipment. An ambulance corps is being formed. The military authorities have been offered the service of 2000 men, and have accepted those of 3 (XX) drawn from Pietermaritzburg and Durban. The Durban, Isipingo, Krans Kloop, and Malvern and Natal Coast Rifle Associations have been called out for active service. Kranz Kloop and Malvern are places on the line from here to the coast. All are in the Durban division of the colony. The Hon. Thomas Kenrick Murray, former Minister of Lands and Works and member of the Legislative Assembly, is also raising an irregular corps for service at I Pietermaritzburg. The duty on slaughter cattle and frozen meat has been suspended. "BRILLIANT BOER VICTORY:" AN ABSURD j REPORT. The Blncmfmtein E.vpr"ss of October 27 claims that a brilliant. Boer victory was won at Elandslaagte, It states that the British fled back to. Ladysmith and that the Boer forces only retired from the positions they had taken up because all their ammunition was expended. The journal adds that General White was killed, and that certain documents were taken from his dead body. THE BASUTOS. Since Sir Godfrey Lagden's determined action the Boers have (says a Maseru message) been leaving the pent (ferry) alone, and the natives are crossing in safety. They reiterate their statements as to being robbed by the Boers. The Basutoland Government is not disguising from the natives the nature and extent of the British reverse at Ladysmith. It has been explained both to them and to the European residents that it is a mere incident in the war, and of no real importance as affecting the final issue. It is thought better that everybody should know the true facts, and that this is wiser policy than to follow the example of the Transvaal and Free State Republics in concealing their reverses. Both Euro- peans and Basutos have implicit faith in the Govern- ment. HEAVY FIGHTING AROUND LADYSMITH. The Daily Tcleqraph war correspondent, in a mes- sage dated Pietermaritzburg, Friday, but only pub- lished In London on Tuesday, said Communication by railwtsy and telegraph with Ladysmith has now been severed. The Boers have effected a lodgment at Nelthorpe, south of Ladysmith. The Tugela Bridge guard at Golenso has been strengthened. It is probable that the troops at Colenso will retire on Estcourt, where the British garrison has been rein- forced. Among those invested at Ladysmith are the Earl of Ava, Colonel Rhodes, and Sir John Willoughby, with, it is reported, Dr. Jameson, and most of the Press correspondents. Nelthorpe is a sta- tion seven miles south of Ladysmith, situated midway between that town and Colenso. A bridge here carries the railway line across a branch of the Tugela river. LETTERS OF MARQUE. The Daily Telegraph Paris correspondent, allud- ing to th rumour that the Transvaal Government has issued letters of marque, says, "although there seems to be a complete absence of any positive in- formation in French official quarters, it would certainly be expedient to adopt precautions." Letters of marque are really a license or ex- traordinary commission granted by the sovereign or supreme power of a State to its citizens to I make reprisals at sea on the subjects of another under pretence of indemnification for injuries received-that is, a license to engage in privateering. European nations agreed, by the Treaty of Paris, in 1856, to abolish the practice, but America did not come into the agreement, as she took the broader ground that all innocent private property at sea should be exempt from seizure by private armed vessels in time of war. Spain and some of the South American States, like the Transvaal, are not signa- tories to this agreement. Whatever the scope of the daring policy of the Transvaal, the paramount Power is not unprepared, and every week will see her still better equipped to meet the danger. The Particular Service Squadron, consisting of four of the swiftest cruisers in the Navy, will be completed to-day, and after coaling will await the orders of the Admiralty, probably to make more effective that great patrol of the ocean now carried out by our warships along the whole coast of Africa. The Channel Squadron is at Gibraltar, while cruisers are at Las Palmas, St. Vincent, and other points on the route to the Cape, and British warships are con- tinually passing and repassing through the Suez Canal. THE QUEEN AND THE WAR FUNDS. The Lord Mayor of London on Monday received from the Keeper of her Majesty's Privy Purse a cheque for £1000 as a donation to the Transvaal War Fund. Her Majesty desires that jMOO should be allotted for the benefit of the wives and children of those serving in South Africa, and £ 200 to each of the other three objects enumerated in the Lord Mayor's appeal. The Prince of Wales also sent a cheque for 250 guineas, which he desires to be credited to the Soldiers' and Sailors' Families Association Fund; and the Duke and Duchess of York have subscribed £100, and the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz has given a similar sum. Subscriptions to local funds are being freely given in Liverpool, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, and other towns. A special Mincing-lane list was opened on Monday at the Commercial Sale Rooms, and about E4000 was subscribed in the room. A similar list was also opened on Monday by members of the wine and spirit trade, which it is proposed to extend to the United Kingdom. LORD WOLSELEY ON THE WAR. Speaking on Monday night at a banqnet in London, Lord Wolseley dwelt with satisfaction on the smoothness and success with which the mobilisa- tion of the South African Field Force had been carried out, expressed his confidence in the quality and courage of our troops, and, in reference to the numerous casualties which had already occurred among officers, said they expected to suffer and ought to suffer, and he trusted that in future lists of casualties they would figure as conspicuoijsly as they had done hitherto.
CAPTAIN CHARLES EDWARD JJUTTON JJUDWORTH, Royal Horse Artillery, is the officer who will assume the adjutancy of the Hon. Artillery Company of London. Captain Bud worth was gazetted to the Royal Artillery about 10 years since, and is a very popular officer generally with the gunners." FATER MATHEWS, the Roman Catholic chaplain taken prisoner with the Irish Fusiliers at Ladysmith, is a genial priest, about 40 years of age, well known in Aldershot. He has seen (active service in the Soudan campaign with Father Brindle, now Bishop- Assistant to Cardinal Vaughan. The fact that Father Mathews has been taken prisoner shows the fidelity •JO duty which led him to accompany the troops right op to the fighting line, in order to be at hand with ;he consolatious of :religion for the Catholic dying ,nd wounded soldiers. THE geysers of the Yellowstone are growing Feebler, and in eight or 10 years if they decline at ;he same rate they will disappear. Since 1895 Minerva Terrace has become extinct, the discharge from Pulpit and Jupiter Terracess has also fallen iff, and the Narrow Gauge-a fissure vent-is almost ixhausted. Roaring Mountain, though steaming yet, is silent. The Black Growler is less active, the Foun- tain Geyser is extinct, and the Dewey Geyser near by ia a wretched substitute. The Giant Paint Pots are shrunken; the pink half being out of action. The Grand Geyser, which ".erupted daily, does it )nly thrice in a season, and the Cascade has also lost as freauencv.
THE FREE STATE BORDER. The Orange River begins to form the southern boundary of the Orange Free State at a point close to Hope Town, which is only a few miles from Orange River Station on the Cape Town to Kimberley Railway. This (says a Daily Mail correspoi>dent) i» the line which ere long will be known as the Cape to Cairo line. The railway crosses at Orange River Bridge, which is actually the station for Hope Town; originally, in fact, it was called by that name. There are three railway bridges over the river-at the above-named point, at Norval's Point, aad at Berthulie. The second of these is the most important, as it is on the main line to Johannesburg and Pretoria. There are a number of ponts, or ferries,. and drifts, or fords, across the riverat comparatively SKETCH MAP OF TOTF OKA KGB ItIVEB BORDER. short distances. Speaking generally, the banks of the river do not shelve very much—nothing like those of the Crocodile, for instance. Here and there there may be a somewhat steep declivity, but, as a rule, the fords are quite easily negotiable by an ordinary team of oxen. Important points in the direction of the Free State border are De Aar Junction and Manuwport, also Coles berg, where the Free State troops were very active last week-end, and Stormberg Junction, evacuated as a camping-ground for strategic reasons by General Buller, according to a message from the Burghersdorp correspondent of the Daily Mail. The Orange River may yet atta,in an important position in the military operations.
BREWERS' EXHIBITION, LONDON. At the Brewers' Exhibition, recently held at the Agricultural Hall, London, there was upwards of 200 samples of barley shown in competition, repre- senting nearly every county in England and Wales, and also many foreign countries. The champion prize, open to the world, was won by Webbs' Kinver Chevalier (for the seventh year) and in addition to this Webbs' barleys secured nine challenge and other silver cups two gold and silver medals; 24 first and other prizes, and 25 diplomas. The total value of the prizes amounted to nearly £ 200, and this won- derful success is one of which Messrs. Webb and Son, The Royal Seedtuen, Wordslev, Stourbridge, ust be proud.
WOMEN'S ARMENIAN RELIEF FUND. The third report of the Committee of the Women's Armenian Relief Fund has just been issued. The report covers a period of two years, and is a record of the work carried on in Vau and its vilayet for the committee by Dr. and Mrs. Raynolds, the American missionaries. The plan followed by them was initiated immediately after the massacres by Dr. Grace Kimball, and has ever since been strictly ad- hered to. It consists in supplying work in spinning, weaving, knitting, &c., to the woman and children, and in paying them wages by which they can live. In addition to the Industrial Bureau, orphanages holding tOO Armenian boys and girls have been established in Vau, and are working admirablyjupon most economical and efficient lines. Besides giving the children a simple, yet thorough, education, they are taught trades or agriculture, or trained in domestic work. During the severe winter of 1897-1898 great stores of manufactured goods, amounting in value to some thousands of pounds, were distributed to the starving and naked villagers, together with food, seed corn, and agricultural implements, and wood, &c., for erecting new dwellings. During the famine of last spring, occasioned by the bad harvest, the committee co-operated with the various other agencies working for Armenia in raising money for keeping alive the unhappy agricultural and pastoral population of the Van province.
CRICKET IN 1900. We are authorised to state with reference to the leading fixtures for next season that the following matches at Lord's have now been definitely fixed, viz.: Oxford v. Cambridge, July 5, 6, and 7. Eton v. Harrow, July 13 and 14. Gentlemen v. Players, July 16, 17, and 18.
THE plague at Uporto does not seem likely to be stamped out as quickly as it has been at Alexandria. According, however, to Dr. Albert Calmette, the head of the Pasteur Institute at Lille, who has paid a pro- fessional visit to the Portuguese city, the efficacy of inoculation has been decisively proved. The local doctors were a little obstructive at first, but finally yielded, and Dr. Calmette states that inoculation re- duced the mortality from 43 per cent to 13. In cases where the serum is used before infection absolute immunity is believed to be secured for a period of 20 days. Dr. Calmette points out, as other visitors to Oporto have done, that the filthy condition of the place is the great obstacle to sanitary measures, and he recommends the entire destruction of the poorer quarters of the city. His experience of the tractibi- lity of the plague, evefa in such unfavourable circum- stances, inclines the French doctor to predict that Paris is in no danger. He is confident, at any rate, that if the disease should gain a footing there, it can be stamped out in a fortnight. DEAR ROLB is contributing a series of articles on roses co Country Lije. They are written in his delightful, unconventional style. But is the follow- ing new reading of Tom Moore intentional or un- conscious ? "I feel like one who treads alone some banquet-hall deserted, Whose guests are fled, whose roses dead, and aU but 116 departed."
CURRENT SPORT. 1 In the League Championship Association foot- ball competition the weather affected the attendances at many of the grounds on Saturday but the coarse of the games worked out pretty much according to the book, so that the heavy going made little appre- ciable difference to the matches. Liverpool, after losing their first eight engagements, had run into form, and this opinion is now strengthened by their feat in playing the invincible Sheffield United- the Cup holders and at present the leaderg, in the League-a draw of two goals each. Sheffield United had perhaps underrated the skill of their opponents, (always a dangerous policy, for they had let off Ernest Needham and Bennett for the local Association's match with Glasgow. The absence of two of the finest men on the side was sufficient to go a long way towards disorganisation, particularly when it is remembered that Ernest Needham, besides being one of the best halves of the day, yields to no one in the capacity for keeping a side together. This drawn match still leaves the United in a very good position at the top of the League table; but Aston Villa drew nearer to them with a clever win over Newcastle United, who, as was expected, gave them a pretty hard fight on the Birmingham ground. One of the best wins of the afternoon was that of Sunderland against Everton. Sunder- land are going very strongly, but that they have had to fight very hard for their record may be gathered from the fact that their goal return is only 14 for and five against. Neither of the Notts clubs was successful, but Notts Forest certainly had what credit was to be got from a drawn game with Bury. Manchester City have scarcely ful- filled the promise of a few weeks ago of being one of the best sides in the League, while Gloasop, who had no match on Saturday, have not only one of the worst records in the League, but have even lost their tie in the qualifying round of the English Cup com- petition. The Stoke Club are among the most con- sistent performers in the League. For those who insist on the advantage- of playing at home Saturday was a great day of demonstration. In no instance was a visiting team successful, for there were six home victories and two drawn games. In the Second Division on Saturday, visiting Burton, Small Heath won by three goals to none. The game at Bolton between the Wanderers and Leicester Fosse was drawn, each side scoring twice. Nothing was scored at Lincoln in the game with New Brighton. Gainsborough Trinity and Luton drew their game at Gainsborough, each scoring twice. A draw of one goal all was. the result of the Walsall v. Middlesbrough game at Middlesbrough. Burslem went to Chesterfield, and beat the home side- by four goals to none. Loughborough and Barnsley, played at Loughborough and drawn, nothing being scored. The following South League games were' played on Saturday: Tottenham Hotspur v. Thames Ironworks.—The home side had matters all their own way at Totten- ham and won by seven goals to nothing. Millwall v. Chathani.-Millwall won on their own ground by twj goals to one, after having much the better of the play. Southampton v. Reading.-An unexpected result was arrived at, Southampton being beaten on their own ground by two goals to nothing. New Brompton v. Portsmouth.—Playing att home, New Brompton won by one goal to nothing. Gravesend v. Bristol Rovers.—Gravesend won at home by five goals to three. Bristol City v. Brighton United.—The City team gained a victory at Bristol by three goals to two. Swindon v. Bedminster.—On their own ground, Swindon won by two goals to one. Cowes v. Sheppey United. Visiting Cowes, Sheppey United won by three. goals to one. "Weakened by the absence of W. R. Moon, for whom a substitute kept goal, the Corinthians were beaten by four goals to one at Queen's Club by Derby County. The heavy ground was somewhat against the amateurs, but in the first half, although having three goals to one scored against them, they played fine football, and the game was full of inte- rest.. Afterwards the visitors only scored once, the Corinthians often pressing hard and enjoying any- thing but good luck. Considerable headway was made with the competi- tion in the Rugby County Championship on Satur- day. At Camborne, Cornwall, after a hard fight, were beaten by Gloucestershire by a goal and a try. This was their second loss this season, for they had previously suffered defeat from Devon. Their third match is at Weston-super-Mare with Somerset, next Saturday. Lancashire beat Cheshire by a goal and four tries to one try, at Liverpool, and Yorkshire vanquished Durham by three goals and two tries to nothing, at Cleckheaton. The Yorkshire forwards are very good this season. In a hard Rugby match on the Richmond Athletic Ground, the Blackheath team were beaten by the Scot t ish, who scored a goal and a try to nothing. The Scottish were very good in the scrummages, and it was their fine footwork that really turned the game for them. The match furnished plenty of keen tackline. It was not a dav for the development of any highly finished work outside the scrummage. All the scoring occurred in the second half of the plav. Cowey and Henderson gained the tries, and the former's was converted into a goal by Rottenburg. Oxford won a splendid match with Richmond, at Oxford, by a goal and a try to a goal. At Rochdale, on Saturday, a pedestrian race at half-a-mile for the world's championship was run by E. C. Bredin, ex-amateur champion at a quarter and half-mile, and H. Cullum, of Cardiff, ex-amateur champion of Wales. The track on which the race was run was rather holding, and there was a nasty cross-wind blowing. Cullum jumped away with the lead and kept in front all the way. Bredin made a gallant effort nearing the end, but was beaten by a yard in 2min. dead. G. J. Brassey won the Thames Hare and Hounds 8t miles handicap, with 2min. 50sec. start, by 13seo., in the net time of 30min. 42sec. L. Indermaur, Imin., was second, and made the fastest time, 29min. 5sec.; while S. W. F. Dixon, 2min. 50sec., was third. C. E. Haydon finished fifth from scratch in the South London Harriers five miles handicap, and thus retained the Croydon Cup his time was 30min. 55sec. J. H. Bessell, 4min. 15sec. start, finished first, and won the handicap. The Blackheath Harriers' Five Miles Challenge Cup was won by E. Ratqliff by 100 yards in 33min. 41 2-osec., the only other competitor being H. Bull. W. H. Dunwell, with 2min. start, was first man home in the Ranelagh Harriers' Two and a Half Miles Handicap, C. Roffej, 2min. 20sec., being second, and G. L. Merritt, Imin. 40sec., third. W. Cryer won the Cambridge Harriers' Nine Miles Walking Handicap from scratch in Ih. 8min. 30sec. The Highgate Harriers' Five Miles Handicap at Waltham was won by S. J. Woolley (3min. start), J. A. Tuck (3min.) was second, and J. Pratt (scratch) third. Harry Brown, of Leigh, gave the Australian cyclist, C. H. Jones (now of Blackpool), a double beating on Saturday. They were matched to ride the beat two out of three matches at half a mile, one mile, and five miles, at Leigh, for £100. The longest race, however, was not necessary, as Brown won the half-mile by a little over a length and the mile by three lengths. Brown was a warm favourite. There were about 600 spectators. Sheffield United played a First League match on Monday with West Bromwich on the ground of the latter. On starting, the visitors kept the opposing defence very busy for a time, but the Albion assumed the aggressive, and after 20 minutes had elapsed Perry got through, and, beating Foulkes, gave the home side the lead. The visitors, pulling themselves together towards the close, scored twice in quick suc- cession through Priest and Hedley, thus gaining an Unexpected victory by two goals to one.
MAJOR H. V. (JOWAN, K.A., who has taken over the duty of assistant military secretary to Lord Roberts, commanding in Ireland, has been serving on the staff of Major-General J. F. Maurice, C.B., as brigade- major of the artillery at Aldershot. The Major, who is a Staff College man, was awarded the medal with three clasps after the Afghan war. He acted as aide-de-camp to the general officer commanding the third division, and was present at Peiwar Kotal, Charasiab, and the operations around Kabul, includ- ing the investment of Sherpore and the storming of Asmai heights. The Major also went through the Egyptain war of 1882, and he was very severely I wounded at Tel-el-Kebir. His [conduct was men- tioned in despatches, and was rewarded with the Medjidieh and Khedive's star. THE French farmer appears this year to be in a specially fortunate condition. The harvest, as in this country, was a good one, and the beet sugarjerops are turning out well. Potatoes are describedj&s the least l hopeful of the autumn crops, but are better than in England and elsewhere. The vine-growers, moreover, Me generally well satisfied with both the bulk and Quality of the year's vintage,
EXETER ELECTION Polling to fill the vacancy in the Parliamentary representation of Exeter, caused by the appointment of the Hon. Sir Stafford N orthcote as Governor of Bombay, opened on Monday in fine weather. The candidates were Sir Edgar Vincent (C.) aad Mr. Allan Bright (L.). The result was announced soon after 10 o'clock at ftight as follows: Sir Edgar Vincent (C.) 4030 Mr. Allan H. Bright (L.) 3371 Conservative majority m 659 The results of previous elections in the constitu- ency are as follows: 1885. The Hon-. H. S. Northeote (C.) 3315 Mr. M Johnson (L.) 3074 Conservative majority 241 1886. The Hon. H. S. Northeote (C.) 3222 Mr. E. Johnson (L.) 2879 Conservative majority 343 1892. The Hon. Sir H. S. Northcote (C.). 3834 Mr. A. K Dunn (L.) 3329 Conservative majority 555 1895. The Hon. Sir H. S. Northoote 3857 Mr. A. S. Hogg (L.) 3363 Conservative majority 494 After the declaration of the poll Mr. Bright ad- dressed his supporters from the balcony of his hotel. He thought that in ordinary circumstances the Liberal party would have won. He was prepared to fight again and to win. Sir Edgar- Vincent also spoke. The city, he said, had been true to its motto Ever faithful," and he would be faithful to the constituency. He was glad that they had shown their confidence in the Govern- ment. Later on Sir Edgar visited the Constitutional Club, and from the balcony expressed similar senti- ments. The excitement after the declaration of the poll was more intense than usual from the fact that the 5th of November (always a great day in Exeter) was being celebrated. When Sir Edgar left the club he was escorted to his hotel by a huge crowd singing patriotic songs-. Sir Edgar Vincent, who thus succeeds the Hon. Sir Stafford Northcote in the representation of Exeter, is the- youngest son of the late Rev. Sir Frederick Vincent, and brother of Sir Howard Vincent, M.P. Born in 1857, he was educated at Eton, and in 1877 passed at the head of the list the examination, for student dragoman in Con- stantinople. He did not, however, take up the appointment, but joined the Coldstream Guards. In 18H0 he was appointed military attache to the Con- stantinople Embassy, and private secretary to Lord E. Fitzmaurice, the Commissioner for Eastern Rumelia, and in 1881 he was assistant to the British Commissioner for the evacuation of territory ceded to Greece by Turkey. In the following year he left the Army, and was appointed British, Belgian, and Dutch representative on the council of the Ottoman Public Debt in Constantinople. In 1883 he became president of the council of the Ottoman Public Debt, and the financial ability which he had already displayed no doubt led to his appointment in the same year to the exceptionally difficult post of financial adviser to the Egyptian Government, which he held till 1889. He- did not leave Egypt until he had brought order out of chaos, and placed the finances of the country on a sound basi3. From 1889 to 1897 he was Governor of the Imperial Ottoman Bank in Constantinople. Sir Edgar Vincent, who was created K.C.M.G. in 1887,' married in 1890 Lady Helen Duncombe, daughter of the first Earl of Feversham. Sir Edgar Vincent published in 1881 a grammar of modern Greek, which was adopted by the University of Athens. His return on the present occasion (muses no alteration in the position of parties in the House of Commons.
LORD ABERDEEN AT SCAR- BOROUGH. The Earl of Aberdeen addressed a meeting in the. circus at Scarborough on Monday evening. Mr. Marillier, chairman of the Scarborough Liberal Association, presided. Lord Aberdeen said some people might feel that the present was not an oppor- tune time for a political, or, at any rate, a Liberal meeting, for as all knew we were passing through a very serious and grave period and a time of sad- ness. It was well that the attitude of Liberalism and, Liberals should be clearly set forth at such a period as this. The attitude of Liberals might be described as twofold. First, it had its positive aspect. That was to say, now that the war had begun they were standing shoc.lder to shoulder with all our fellow-countrymen in firm determination to support the carrying through of this war to the end. Lord Rosebery had said they must see it through, and so they must. Then there was the negative attitude. Liberals would not make themselves responsible for what had preceded the outbreak. They were reserving their criticism and lending support in the manner that passengers on a ship did when it got into danger. They might afterwards require an explanation as to how the Government got into that, position. They had been told that war was inevitable. He regretted that during the nego- tiations utterances should have been made by some in authority which were not calculated to promote the success of the negotiations. After making the same charge against some sections of the Press, Lord Aberdeen said they were all anxious to know what was to be done with the country when the war was finished. God grant they might not have a second Ireland in South Africa.
THE SIRDAR BREAKS RECORD. Lord Kitchener arrived at Cairo on Tuesday after a journey of 71 hours from Khartoum. He expressed his intention to proclaim the Soudan open to all comers early in December, when the railway, which has been delayed for over two months by storms, should reach Khartoum. He has organised a tourist service between Wady Haifa and Khartoum with dining and sleeping cars for 18 passengers, and a small hotel will shortly be opened at Khartoum. During his recent expedition the Sirdar ascended the river 400 miles and pene- trated 50 miles inland to within 30 miles of the Khalifa, when, finding the latter in retreat, he decided not to continue the loug chase, as, in order to surprise the Khalifa and prevent his getting in- formation, he had not arranged before the expedi- tion started for the co-operation of native tribes. He does not consider the Khalifa, who has 5000 fol- lowers, dangerous at present. The Sultan of Dar Far is displaying satisfactory dispositions.
SKELETON AT THE CROSS-ROADS. A singular discovery has just been made at Har- borne, near Birmingham. A number of labourers were engaged in the vicinity of four cross-roads ex- cavating the ground for the purpose of widening the road, when they unearthed the skeleton of a man, with a wooden stake driven through the sternum. The skeleton was evidently that of a suicide, who. in accordanee with the custom of the old days, ha, lad a stake driven through his heart, and then been buried at the dead of night at cross-roads.
HUMBLE HEROES AND HEROINES. The idea originated by Mr. U-. D. WattEN K.A., or constructing a memorial cloister in the" Postmen's, Park," Aldersgate, for the names and deeds of every- day heroes and heroines, is now being carried into, practical effect. Mr. Watts, who will defray the cost, has oonceived a very simple design, consisting of a redtiled roof, sloping from the wall to a height of 7ft. from the ground. The floor, which will be about 7ft. wide, will also be red tiled, and the covered-way will extend a distance of 50ft. Above. the seats are to be placed a number of memorial tablets, which will contain a record of the names and heroic achievements of all those who deserve the Victoria Cross of Peace.
BOER MODESTY. A correspondent tells an amusing story of Boer conceit. A Boer was lately told by an Englishman that the Government were sending an Army Corps to the Transvaal, and was asked what he and his. friends intended to do. We shall shoot them," was the abrupt reply. But then the English Government will send, out another," retorted the Britisher. Well, we shall shoot those, too," replied the Boer. "But," persisted the Britisher, "do you know that the English Government can go on like that sending out army after army for twelve years ?" "Good God 1" exclaimed the Boer, now thoroughly aroused, "you don't mean to say that I have got to go on shooting Rooineks for twelve years?"
TREASON. ITS LEGAL ASPECTS. "When disloyalty so rears its crest," says Sir William Blackstone, "as to attack even majesty itself it is called by way of eminent dis- tinction high treason, alta proditio." Alle- giance," says the same writer, is the tie or ligament which binds every subject to be true and faithful to his sovereign liege lord the King, in return for that protection which is afforded him and truth and faith to bear of life and limb, and earthly honour; and not to know or hear of any ill intended him. without defending him therefrom." In these fine words the great jurist sums up th& duty of every English subject. Any person owing allegiance to the English Crown, wherever he or she may be resident, can (says the Globe) be tried for treason in the English Courts when such person has been brought within the jurisdiction. The nature of treason is defined by the Statute of Treasons, 1351 (25 Edward III., statute 5, chapter 2), which runs as follows: Item, Whereas divers opinions have been before this time in what case treason shall be said, and in what not; the King, at the request of the Lords and of the Commons, hath made a declaration in the manner as hereafter followeth that is to say, when a man doth com- pass or imagine the death of our Lord the King, or of our Lady the Queen, or of their eldest son and heir; or if a man do violate the King's com- panion, or the King's eldest daughter unmarried, or the wife of the King's eldest son and heir; or if a man do levy war against our Lord the King in his realm, or be adherent to the King's enemies in his realm, giving to them aid and comfort, in the realm of elsewhere, and thereof be probably attainted of open deed by the people of their condition." To compass or imagine the death of the Sovereign is a phrase that to the lawyer has a definite mean- ing. Sir James Stephen tells us in his Digest of Criminal Law that everyone is deemed to have formed an intention to put the Queen to death who forms and displays by any overt act an intention (a) To depose the Queen from the exercise of her Royal authority in any part of her dominions; or (b) To leny war against the Queen either in the first or in the second or the senses assigned to that expression in Article 53 [i.e., by open war or by in- surrection organised to intimidate the Queen or Par- liament]; or (c) To instigate any foreigner with force to invade this realm or any other of the Queen's dominions or (d) Who conspires to levy war against the Queen by open war or by insurrection organised to intimi- date the Queen or Parliament (Article 52)." Now one of the important questions, at the pre- sent time is whether a treasonable speech is an overt act that forms and displays an intention to do any of the acts that amount to imagining the Queen's death." It would appear that the speaking of words expressive of such an intention is not an overt act (Stephen). It is true that in the reign of Edward IV. two persons were executed for treasonable words, but it gradually came to be felt that it was sufficient for such words to be treated as a high misdemeanour, for they may be spoken in heat, without any intention, or be mistaken, per- verted, or misremembered by the hearers; their meaning depends always on their connection with other words and things they may signify differently even according to the tone of voice with which they are delivered and sometimes silence itself is more expressive than any discourse (Blackstone). But while spoken words that merely amount to vulgar abuse or stingless malice are not regarded as high treason, spoken words may, in cer- tain circumstances, amount to high treason. The speaking of words of advice, consultation, or com- mand, or otherwise connected with the execution of such intentions is an overt act amounting to high treason (Stephen). The difference between the two cases is clear. If any person expresses an intention of instigating the Boers to levy war against the Queen the speech is not treason but if the same person advises the Boers to take such a step, or commands anyone to take such a step, or enters into consultation with others as to the way in which war should be levied, he is guilty of A TT J 3 *11 A 1 I IL. /I 1_ —A treason, xxara worus win not, nurt me vruwn, uut the encouragement of open enemies might do so. To write words expressive of the intentions above re- ferred to ie, however, high treason, though the mere speaking of them is not; and "the speaking, or writing, of words accompanied by or explana- tory of conduct connected with the execution of such intentions" is high treason (Stephen). Conspiracies to levy war, or to incite foreigners to invade the realm, may be dealt with either as constructive treason or as treason-felony (Anson). The punishment for treason is hanging, but the Queen has power, in the case of a male traitor, by a warrant signed by one of her principal Secretaries of State, to direct that the culprit shall be beheaded. The maximum penalty for treason-felony is penal servitude for life. It is well that at this time the meaning and the results of treason should be appre- ciated both here and in South Africa.
WHO our advice leads a man to success it is good deal easier for us to recall the start than it i* t for him. I;