GREATER BRITAIN. — i A TELEGRAM from Allahabad states that Colonel Polosos aivl Captain Sniessareff, two Russian officers^ have reached Simla overland from the Pamirs by way of Gilgit. TIIK official plague report records that last week the total number of deaths fell from 5806 to 5156. Of these Bombay City had 101, Karachi 3, Bombay Presidency 4427, and Calcutta 47. No change has occurred at Madras, Mysore, or the Central Province, but the plague is said to be raging in the Hyderabad Districts. THE Indian Government are about to establish research laboratories under health officers in Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Agra, and Lahore. The existing laboratory at Muktesar is to be extended, and become tho central one for all India. THE second city of the British Empire in size is Calcutta. MAJOR C. C. TOWNSESD, R.A., maintain" in the Ni?.ieteentk Century that if India is to advance in the next century it must be in manufacture rather than agriculture. For manufactures, and in default of coal, electricity will be obtained from waterfalls. Three big schemes are under consideration firstly, the utilisation of a fall in Cashmere; secondly, of the great Silva Samundrum Falls on the Cauvery, for the Kolar goldfields, &c.; and, thirdly, of the Nerbudda Falls near Jubbulpore, for the proposed ordnance factory there. There are many great falls in Central and Southern India, as well as in the Himalayas, and rivers or canals might also be utilised in this way. TESTS—tensile and crushing—were recently made in Bombay to ascertain the relative strengths of karri wood and teak. They resulted in favour of karri, It was also found that the cost of beams of karri would be rather less than rolled stsal beams, while teak would be rather more, and that a solid timber beam 12in. by 16in. would make a more fire- proof floor than light rolled beams. COMPRESSED peat is made at Stratford, Ontario. Canada. The peat cut from a moss there, is driecJ; pulverised, sifted, and compressed into cylinders three inches long, and about as dense as anthracite. Tested as fuel in locomotives, 1001b. are equivalent to 951b. of coal. The cost of manufacture is 60 cents a ton. There are a millon acres of peat bog ïa- Ontario alone, and there are, doubtless, vast beds ïa the north-west. Some years ago the value of peat fuel for producing electricity was pointed out in tie Nineteenth Century, and we may expect its utilisation in this way before many years. A NEW electric fog-alarm has been invented by Canadian electrical engineer. The description is 90 follows: A naphtha engine supplies the motive power to a dynamo that furnishes the electric current, by means of which three pairs of electro- magnets operate half-a-dozen clappers that striktt against, a large gong with a frequency of about 36,000 strokes a minutes, producing an almost con* tinuous sound. Its effectiveness is enhanced by mechanism somewhat on the principle of a mega* phone, by means of which the sound is not only in* tensified. but thrown in the required direction. A model of this fog-alarm was not long ago tested it Ottawa, and although it was comparatively a small affair, its sound was easily heard to a distance of two miles. The sound of the completed machine will be—it is thought—distinguishable at a distance of 15 miles. THE Ontario Cabinet has been reconstructed, with the Hon. G, W. Ross as Premier and Treasurer. THE following amusing comparison between Dewey and Nelson appears in the New Brunswick SttiK When we come to compare the hero of Trafalgar with the hero of Manila we see at once the superiority of the live admiral over the one who rests in St. Paul's Cathedral. Admiral Dewey may be described as a neat fighter. Be knows how to take care of his ships, his men, and himself. His cruisers camo out of the great Manila sear fight all clean and nicew Nelson's ships after Trafalgar were much battered and bruised. Their decks were covered with blood and bodies and broken things. For it must be ad* mitted that Nelson was an imprudent fighter. In- stead of operating at a distance of two-and-a-half miles he took his ships so close to the hostile fleoti that the rigging touched, and so did the guns and the men. i So it happened that while Dewey fought his great battle without losing a man, Nelson bad some 2000 killed and wounded at Trafalgar, and perhaps half as many in the Battle of the Nile. All- these lives would have been saved if Nelson had re- mained a few miles from the French fleet, and there would not have been nearly so much of a mess on the deck. Nelson was himself a victim to this care- lessness. At Aboukir hit was. wounded in the head, and someohe else had to wind up the fight for him. He fared still worse at Trafalgar, for he was shot there by a man with a musket. This shot was at close range. Probably the distance of a bare 100 yards would have saved Nelson's life and enabled him to take part in a popular demonstration in honour of his victory. This is where Dewey has the advantage over Nelson. Not only has Dewey saved all his men, including him- self, but he so organised his sea fight an not to interfere with the regularity of meals on board ship. Nelson never thought of that. He- perhaps had some rum served before the action, but history does not record that when the fight was on he ever paid the slightest attention to meal-time. Admiral Dewey, after two hours of his marine pro- menade, remembered that the breakfast hour had rrived, land moved off to a retired place for a quiet meal. With such a commander there is no danger of a man-of-war's crew going on strike for shorter hours in the middle of an important battle. Now, we have looked carefully over the record of Lord Nelson's battle; Tqefwere undoubtedly great fights, of the rough, rude, and dangerous sort that prevailed in his day. But we regret to find no proof that he ever so far remembered his duty to himself and hit men as to adjourn a sea-fight fer breakfast. > ADVICES from various fruitsections of the province of Nova Scotia estimate the apple yield of that pro- vince at 90 per cent. of a full crop, and the second largest on record. MOTOR cars, it appears, are at present an impossi- bility in Queensland, there being no law under which they can move about. On an applicatioa being made to the Brisbane City Council for per- mission to run horseless vehicles on the public 'streets, the city solicitors reported that until the law was altered the Council could not grant permission, statibg, however, that their sympathy was with the moviement, they, believing it would be for the benefit of the citizens to have self-propelled vehicles. FROM Sydney, New South Wales, comes a poena which has evidently heen inspired by the departure of the Australian contingents., It is entitled "A Family Matter," and here is a specimen verse: Come my hearties—work will stands- Here's your mother calling; < Wants us all to lend a hand, And go out Uncle Pauling. Catch yer nags and saddle slick! Quick to join the banners! Folks that treat the family thick, Must be taught their manners."
THIG COLT QUICK FIRER AND THE DUNDONALD CARRIAGE. A military correspondent, who has studied the present campaign, wiites to the frnuetwl Review expressing his surprise that in the rushes made by our men no mention is made by any corre- spondent of the Colt gun being used. It long ago have arrived at the Cape, and its destructive force and range is such that it is marvelloo8has not been heard of. Fortunately, Colonel Baden-Powell has provided himself with one, as well as a Dundonald car- riage—which is such a valuable adjunct to the weapon —aad this may partly account for the various Boer repulses around Kafeking. There is little doubt that the Colt is the infantry machine-arm of the future, as it fires 400 shots a minute automatically, and, un- like other machine-guns, thanks to its curious tarn*' struction. never gets hot. p-
WAR n SOUTH AFRICA. THE KIMBERLEY FIGHT. — CON- FIDENCE IN THE TOWN. BOMBARDMENT OF MAFEKING: ONE DOG KILLED." HOW GENERAL SYMONS WAS BURIED. THE CAPTURE OF ENGLISH HUSSARS. LADYSMITH SURROUNDED BY THE ENEMY. OBSERVATIONS BY BALLOON. There was at the beginning of the week a pause in the active operations in Natal-the lull which, as the Times special correspondent at Ladysmith observed, might possibly precede a storm. The Boer forces, under the chief command of General Jubert, and estimated at from 15,000 to 18,000 men, including commandos from the Free State, were closing round Ladjsmith in. a half-circle, pitching and intrenching camps and preparing positions for their guns but they showed no disposition to ccme to close quarters. Some of their commandos were working round to the southward, doubtless with the intention of cut- ting the communication between Ladysmith and Pietermaritzburg, and on Briday of last week they were moving on Pieters Station, between Ladysmith and Colenso, but were headed off by a cavalry recon- naissance under General French. The British cavalry were busily engaged in patrolling in all directions, and on Saturday night they got quite close to the enemy's positions and drove off a thousand mules. On Saturday a captive balloon was raised over the town, enabling General White to locate the enemy's works. The Boers have attempted to cut off the Ladysmith water eupply, but provision has been made against this eventuality. The British troops are reported to be bard worked, but in good health and spirits. KRUGER AT GLENCOE. The Times special correspondent at Cape Towir, telegraphing on Sunday night, said news has been received there that our outposts at Ladysmith were fighting the Boers on Sunday. He adds that Pre- sident Kruger is believed to be at Glencoe. YULE'S EVACUATION OF DUNDEE. Further accounts of General Yule's evacuation of Dundee and his march to Ladysmith leave no doubt that the operation was admirably carried out, and with such secrecy that no pursuit was.attempted for 24 hours. THE RIETFONTEIN ACTION. Details of the action at Rietfontein on Tuesday of last week show that the enemy's position was one of extraordinary strength. Our infantry behaved with their customary resolution, but the artillery did most execution and paralysed the enemy's fire. BOER LOSS AT GLENCOK General White's official estimate of the Boer loss at Glencoe is 500 killed and wounded. Three of their guns were dismounted and disabled, and left lying on the hill. An official account of the circum- stances attending the capture of a squadron of the 18th Hnssars after the Battle of Glencoe has been received at Durban. AT KIMBERLEY.—MR. RHODES CONFIDENT. The news from the western frontier is most satisfactory. A special despatch received at De Aar from Kimberley on Saturday states that the utmost confidence is felt there. Reconnaissances are extended seven miles from the town. There are stores of provisions estimated to amount to nine months' supply. Mr. Rhodes has mounted and equipped a town guard of 400 men at a cost of £15,000. These and other forces are drilled by the Lancashire Regiment, and furnish excellent fighting material. Small Boer patrols are seen at times, and their guns occasionally open fire at long range with- out doing any harm. The Boer blockade to the south is now more stringent, and it will be difficult, if not impossible, to send further despatches before the place is relieved, but there is no cause for anxiety. Mr. Rhodes addressed the volunteers on their return from the successful engagement outside Kimberley on Tuesday of last week, complimenting them on their day's work, and remarking that he heard there was one man in Kimberley whom the Boers wished to capture, and that was himself, but be felt perfectly safe. MAFEKING BOMBARDED. On the 17th of October the Boers bombarded Mafeking for four hours, and killed a dog. On the 23rd they began another bombardment at a range of two miles and a half, but did little damage. Only one shot was fired in return, but it disabled one of their guns. The Boers have taken possession of the waterworks, and cut off the supply, but this causes )o anxiety, a water is available in the tanka and Irells. It is reported, via Kuruman, that Command- ant Cronje has sent to Pretoria for two siege guns to make the bombardment more effective. He has decided not to attempt to carry Mafeking by assault. THE AUSTRALIAB CONTINGENT. • The Victorian contingent of 250 men, together witii 80 Tasmanians, was embarked at Melbourne for South Africa on Saturday afternoon amid great popular enthusiasm. Before starting the troops were addressed by Lord Brassey, who said that it was because the contingent represented untold numbers of brave men in every part of the Empire ready to take their share in its defence that so great a significance attached to the incident of that day. They were worthy to stand shoulder to shoulder with that band of heroes who day by day, in those stubborn convicts in South Africa, were adding glorious pages to a long and splendid history. He expressed the warm feeling of gratitude jswpired in the mother country for the loyalty and patriotism displayed in the colonies, and said all this marked a turning-point in British history, and made us absolutely secure from foreign aggression. The first portion of the NeW South Wales contingent sailed from Sydney on Saturday, and were escorted to the wharf by cheering crowds. AMERICAN NEUTRALITY. A Washington telegram authoritatively describes the position of the United States in regard to the war. The United States will not participate in any effort to bring about mediation, nor in any note of interrogation regarding Great Britain's ultimate in- tentions. It will regard European intervention as a menace to the well-being of all nations, believing that it would lead to a conflict of the nations, disturbing the balance of power, and raising the Chinese ques- tion, in which the United States has important inte- rests. It cannot be indifferent to any demonstration of interference in South Africa by a nation not diredly involved in the Transvaal war. THE LATE GENERAL SYMONS. Lady Symons has received the following cablegram from the Prime Minister of Natal, Lieut.-Colonel Hine: "Lady Penn Symons, care of War Office, London. Pietermaritzburg. October 27. M On behalf of the Government of Natal, I tender yon my sincerest sympathy upon the death of your brave and gallant husband, who was beloved by all who knew him, and who has giveu his life in defence •f this Colony. (Signed) PRBUI: MINISTER." After the death and burial of General Symons, the following message was forwarded by Commandant General Joubert to Sir George White at Ladysmith: "We beg you to convey to Lady Symons our deepest regret at the untimely demise of her gallant Irasband, whom we buried with the fullest honours. Jfany of us on both sides may soon, perhaps, be des- tined to share the same fate. He was a brave man, aad we deplore his loss." I Among the papers left by General Symons a cable message from his wife was found, in which she con- gratulated him upon his success. r THE KIMBERLEY BATTLE. The following telegram was received at the War OCee at eleven o'clock on Saturday night i General Officer Commanding Capetown to Secretary of State for War. CAPETOWN, October 28, 5.50. received from Colonel Kekewich, Kim- "fcerley, October 24, 9.0 p.m., states that at 4.0 a.m. Mine day 270 mounted troops, under Scott Turner, 2nd Black Watch, engaged enemy at Riverton Road Station. Detachment 1st Loyal North Lanes. Regi- tnent under Major Murray, with two guns, came to support, dislodged enemy, casting fcvpjes, kiUing Boer Commandant Botha, and inflMy,ing great loss. Troopt foaght ■candidly. v The-following despatch was i^eived at Capetown. on Saturday from Orange B'ver • Rhodes, ad- SSitliiToluntoOT within 10 rt thrir return from the successful engagement at Bpad, coiwrfinwnted them on their da. » STrerorkhig that he had heard it ™ one man whom the Boers wished to wm himself, but he assured them be perfectly safe in Kimberley. On the conclu Mr. Rhodes' speech the men gave cheers for Queen, the Governor, Mr. Rhodes, and their Two gentlemen who have arrived here in a cart from Kimberley report that there are 300 Boers 3U Bales Trust of the town, where they have looted..De Been farm and made the caretaker prisoner." A patrol of mounted infantry on Saturday re- jwrtsdhaving seen a Boer force five miles to the aorth of the camp. The Lancers were sent out to asnsrtnin their strength, but found no tracoof the Thamttht was dark and wet. and the trooo* I have been greatly inconvenienced by the fielding of their \cnts. THE CAPTURED HUSSARS. The following is the official account (according to a Reuter despatch from Durban, dated Sunday) of the capture of a squadron of cavalry after the battle of Glencoe, as narrated by Captain Hardy, R.A.M.C.: After the battle three squadrons of the 18th Hussars, with one Maxim, a company of the Dublin Fusiliers, a section of the 60th Rifles and Mounted Infantry, Colonel Moller commanding, kept under cover of the ridge to the north of the camp and at 6.30 moved down the Sand Spruit. On reaching the open the force was shelled by the enemy, but there were no casualties. Colonel Moller took his men round Talana Hill in a south-easterly direction, crossed the Vant's Drift road, captured several Boers, and saw the Boer ambulances retiring. Colonel Moller, with the "B" squadron of the Hussars, a Maxim, and Mounted Infantry, crossed the Dundee-Vryheid railway and got near a big force of the enemy, who opened a hot fire, and Lieutenant McLaohlan was hit. The cavalry retired across Vant's Drift, 1500 Boers following. Colonel Moller held the ridge for some time, but the enemy enveloping his right he ordered the force to fall back across the spruit. The Maxim got fixed in a donga (waterhole), Lieutenant Cape was wounded, three of his detachment were killed, and the horses of Major Greville and Captain Pollok were shot. The force reformed on a ridge north of the Sand Sprnit and held it for a short time. While Captain Hardy was attending to Lieutenant Crun, who was wounded, Colonel Moller retired his force into a defile, apparently with the intention of returning to camp round the Impati Mountain, and was not seen afterwards. CIVILIANS MURDERED BY BOERS. It is reported on good authority (says a Renter's Ladysmith despatch of October 26) that the Boers, when they reached Dundee, finding arms in the hands of some of the Town Guard, pistolled several of them in cold blood. Other men, it is likewise affirmed, were dragged out of the houses and shot. With regard to the conduct of the Boers at Dun- dee, they entered the place on Monday morning of last week (continues the same authority). At Rowan's Farm, two miles out of the town, were 20 men of the Dundee Town Guard. A shell from the enemy's big gun forced them to clear out of the house, and they run on to the neighbouring hill. Here they were surrounded by 300 Boers and shot down. These facts are told by men who managed to escape in the direction of the town. The Boers, following them up, dragged some civilians out of their houses and shot them in the streets. It is becoming generally recognised, after recent experience, that the hoisting of the white flag by the Boers is merely a subterfuge to assist a retreat or to draw our men under fire. The destruction of the bridge over the Sunday River will prevent the Boers from bringing their big uns to bear on Ladysmith. Now that General Yule baa joined forces with Sir George White, the British Army is strong enough to repel any attack. Everything was reported quiet at Ladysmith on Sunday. None (? nine) resident civilians had been ordered to leave Ladysmith under penalty of arrest. Lieutenant M. Meiklejohn, of- the 2nd Battalion Gordon Highlanders, who was severely wounded at the battle of Elandslaagte, has had his arm ampu- tated. He is now doing well. DEPARTURE OF MORE TROOPS. The Union liner German left Southampton for the Cipe on Saturday, having on board the 1st Battalion of the Rifle Brigade and other details, the total number of troops she carried being 40 officers, two warrant officers, and 1428 non commissioned officers and men. The Duke of Connaught, who is Colonel-in- Chief of the Rifle Brigade, witnessed the embarkation and inspected the liner. The G Battery Royal Horse Artillery, numbering 183 officers and men, with 196 horses, left the St. John's- wood Barracks on Sunday night for Birkenhead, where they embarked on Monday for South Africa. The embarkation of the 1st (Royal) Dragoons in the transport Manchester Port at Tilbury was delayed owing to. a strike of the carpenters who were carrying out the necessary work of alteration on board, and also to the circumstance that the hay for the horses, which was put on board at Liverpool, had to be rejected as damp, and, in part, of bad quality. The German Emperor, Colonel-in-Chief of the Royal Dragopns, addressed to the Lieutenant-Colonel the following telegram Bid my farewell to the regi- ment. May you all return safe and well." CAPTAIN NISBETT WELL TREATED. A despatch from Mafeking, undated, states that by permission of Commandant Cronje a native runner has arrived with a letter from Captain Nisbett intimating that he had been well treated by his captors on the way to Lichtenburg, and thence to Pretoria. The messenger says General Cronje has sent to Pretoria for two siege guns, to make the bombardment of Mafeking effectual, and has detached a large fprce towards Vryburg. He has decided not to at- tempt to carry Mafeking by assault, fearing the loss which such an operation would involve, but is meanwhile closely investing the town, and having taken possession of the. water supply hopes to reduce the garrison by hunger and thirst, KHAMA EXPECTING AN ATTACK. Lieutenant Llewellyn with a force of police and railway men is (according to the latest Buluwayo message to hand) holding the Boers in check to the north of Ootsi, near Lobatsi. Linchwe is loyal, the presence of troops and the result of recent actions naving restoied his confidence. Khama is expecting an attack bya large commando of Boers from Silica. He has appealed to the authorities for assistance. It is hoped that the railway will be kept open without further interruptions. The natives are perfectly quiet, and there are no signs of unrest. Food is plentiful, and there is abundance of arms and ammunition. A towit-guard has been formed in Bulawayo. CORRESPONDENT ARRESTED AS A SPY. Having witnessed the occupation of Dundee by the Boers, and seeing no further good now in remaining, I (wires the Central News correspondent) started with two friends. Mr. Dundas Simpson and Mr. David Croombie Grieg, to seek more congenial sur- roundings but this was much more easily conceivsd than carried out. We were stopped on attempting to leave the town, and told that we could not depart by any road without first securing a permit from the field cornet in command of Dundee. About one hour after our return to town a field cornet with six armed Boers came and arrested one of my companions and myself on a charge of being spiee. He announced his i intention of taking us before the General. When we found General Meyer he treated us with courtesy. He satisfied himself that our explanations were genuine. He identified Simpson personally, and wrote out the necessary permit that made. us prac- tically free men. One definite fact I ascertained in the Boer camp, and that was that many of the burghets were becoming tired of the campaign, and were returning home. It was not what they expected. HOW BOTHA WAS KILLED. The Boer leader Botba was killed, during the Kimberley sortie, by a shot in the left breast from a Lee-Metford rifle at 1000 yards' range. The death wound was so small that it was scarcely perceptible. GERMAN HELPERS OF THE BOER.— COLQNEL SCHIEL'S DESTINATION. The German Corps fighting for the Transvaal has been re-organised and brought up to its original strength of 600. It was terribly cut up at Elands- laagte, where Schiel, the German adventurer and very skilful soldier, was captured. Colonel Schiel is to be placed on board her Majesty's ship Penelope in SimorH Bay. THE FLAG OF TRUCE. w r 01; General Rock's wife has arrived at Ladysmith under a ø.g of truce, for the purpose of nursing her husband. Belated despatches from various war correspon- dents give some further interesting details of the fight at Glencoe, and makes clear the circumstances which mado the evacuation of Dundee so imperative. It appears (that at the moment the Dublin Fusiliers and the Rifles reached the summit of the kopje at Glencoe, the Boers showed a white flag and asked for a truce to bury their dead. Our artillery were at once ordered to cease firing, and the cavalry reined in. The enemy took immediate advantage of the position to continue their retreat, hurrying away safely in dense masses, which otherwise would have been decimated by the fire of our guns. For more than 24 hours before General Yule's Column left Dundee the camp had been continually harassed by the enemy's guns, which were posted advantageously on the hills almost circling the British position. CamD was struck at nine on Sunday evening, the whole fforce, officers and men, of transport, being obliged to abandon THE BOER ANNEXATIONS." Sir Alfr»d Milner and the Cape Premier, Mr. gchreiner, hsye issued a proclamation declaring the Boer °°mfr»"ndeering" of certain portions of Cape Colony null. Any of her Majesty's subjects volun- tarily acmptiag recognising the Boer annexation will be guilty of high triaaon. AMERICAN HOSPITAL SHIP. The qaorement started by Lady Randolph Churchill for fitting out the American steamship Maine for service in South Africa as a hospital ship for wounded British soldiers has been taken up in New York in a thoroughly enthusiastic manner. It is to be a purely American donation to the British people, and no subscriptions towards the cost will be accepted from any but American citizens. Mr. W. K. Vanderbilt telegraphed to Lady Randolph Churchill signifying his hearty sympathy with the idea, and forwarding a substantial dona- tion. Other leading American people are doing like- wise. It is understood that the steamship Maine will be ready for service in less than three weeks. OFFICIAL DESPATCHES.—CASUALTIES IN RECENT BATTLES. The following was issued on Monday from the War Office: SKIRMISH OF OCTOBER 28. From General Officer Commanding Natal to the Secretary of Shite for War. Ladysmith, October 29.—Casualty return yester- day (October 28). 19th Hussars.—Wounded slightly 3600, Lance- Sergeant Thomas Pearman; 3948, Private William Dodds. BATTLE OF ELANDSLAAGTE. Ladysmith. October 29, 9.30 p.m.-2190, Private Christopher Williams, 1st Manchester Regiment, died October 26 in Pietermaritzburg Hospital. News has been received from unofficial sources that Captain C. H. Mullins, of Imperial Light Horse, was only slightly wounded at battle of Elandslaagte, and is now almost well." BOER CASUALTIES AT GLENCOE. The following statement was received by the War Office shortly after seven o'clock on Monday night: The General Officer Commanding in Natal reports that the Boer loss at Talana on October 20 was 500 killed and'wounded, and that three Boer guns were dismounted and disabled and left on the top of the hill." THE SORTIE FROM KIMBERLEY. The following particulars relating to our casualties at Kimberley on October 24 have been communi- cated to the War ütlice by the General Officer com- manding in Cape Town: Killed.-PrivateH. J. Elliot; 311, Private R. S. Mackenzie, Cape Police Trooper Leopold, Kim- berley Light Horse. Slightly wounded.—Lieutenant R. L. M'Clintock, R.E. Severely wounded.—Lieutenants J. G. Lowndes and C. H. Bingham 4188, Private A. Milner, 1st Loyal North Lancashire Regiment. Slightly wounded.—3983, Private H. Lee, 1st Loyal North Lancashire Regiment. Wounded.—C. H. Hopkins, Dye, Gow, Simpson, Peterson, qnd Gradwell, Cape Police Dodds, Harris, Chapman, M'Caskial, Brady, and Boddy, Kimberley Light Horse; M. N. Hartigan, F. D. Paynes, A. F. Dickinson, and A. N. Bankier, Diamond Fields Artillery. ACTIONS IN NATAL. FURTHER DETAILS. The general officer commanding in Natal has fur- nished the War Office with the following further in- formation i concerning our casualties in the recent actions in that colony: Battle of Dundee (Glencoe).—The Private Bryant, of the 18th Hussars, wounded in this engagement, bears the regimental number 4110; Lieutenant M'Lachlan, 18th Hussars, wound described as not dangerous. Battle of Elandslaagte.—Lieutenant Normand, Im- perial Light Horse, is now convalescent, and rejoins regiment soon Trooper Thomas Edward Kavanpgh, wound in finger, Boer Advance of October 19.-Trooper Spencer, of Natal Carabiniers, should be reported as wounded alightly only. Progress Report of Wounded, Ladysmith.—All doing well, progressing favourably, except Colonel Dick-Cunyngham, 2nd Gordon Highlanders, injury complicated with ague; Lieutenant Gunning, 1st Devons, injury complicated with pleurisy. 5787, Private H. Pollock, 2nd Gordon Highlanders, condi- tion serious. Lieutenant Meiklejohn, 2nd Gordon Highlanders, condition arm comminuted fracture of humerus serious. Maritzburg hospital report will follow. TIIZ IMPERIAL LIGHT HORSE. The following has beeii issued from the War Office: "From the General Officer Commanding Natal, to the Accountant-General (received October 29, 2.21 a.m.) "Ladysmith, October 28, 11.55 p.m.—Referring to your telegram, full casualty returns Imperial Light Horse as follows: Killed; Colonel James Scott Chisholme Squadron Sergeant-Major Ernest Henry Cuthbert, Sergeant Charles Henry Hendley, Trooper Francis John Tuidale Hunt, Trooper Alfred Cyril Walter Sillery, Trooper Kerr M'Clintock, Trooper Robert Stanley Farran, Trooper John Patrick Forestal Cunning- ham, Trooper Hubert Joseph Wolseley, Trooper Fr ink Charles Fisher. Died of Wounds: Trooper Castell Damant Bowker White. "Wounded; Major Aubrey Wools Sampson, Captain John Ernest Orr, Captain Charles Michael William Curry. Lieutenants Reginald Walter Ralph Barnes, Patrick Hill Normand, Arthur Dashwood Shore, William Lachlati Forbes, Douglas Campbell, Sergeants George Endell, Tyler Hawtry, Cyril Ben- son, Corporals Douglas Edward Dauiant, Albert David John Taylor, George Albert Butterton, Rupert Wickham, T. J. Crean, H. Bracken, Troopers Harold Cecil Ochre, Thomas William Godfrey, James Hills Jones, Charles Farquharson Lamb, Percy Harry Evelyn Moore, Duncan Fleming Maclachlan, Clarence Edward Bertie Hunter Blair, Henry Corbelt Gorton, John O'Hara. Donald Far- quharson, Patrick Maxwell, Archibald Morrison, Henry Edwin Wiltstead, Herbert Hamel, Frank Wadresfield Davis John Edward Palmer, Thomas Edward Kavanagh, William James Mullin, Robert Tinsley, Alfred James Dubery, Arthur Ainsworth Howard Marshal, Frank Frederick Collins, F. A. (? Prince), E. G. Brier, C. A- Bettington." FIGHTING ON THE RHODESIAN BORDER. The following telegram from the Commandant- General to. the High Commissioner, dated October 22, has been forwarded to the Government by Sir A. Milner: Cape Town, October 26.—Armoured train under Llewellyn got within 1900 yards Boer laager, three miles south Crocodile Poort. Boers had driven in horses on arrival of train. Three Maxim belts were discharged into Boers, who must have had consider- able loss.. They returned 10 shots without effect. Plumer's outpost have had. several skirmishes, Crocodile River. Captain Blackburn seriously wounded. Killed :-Sergeant-Major George Young, Trooper George Nethercott. Died of Wounds :—Trooper Henry Julius Levy. Missing:—Trooper James Forbes, Trooper Walter Kelly, Trooper Richard Warren, Trooper George Cook. AT RHODES DRIFT. Major Wilson has been much harrapsed at Rhodes Drift. He has ascertained that the enemy is very strong, and that numbers of Boers are arriving from Watersberg with Maxims. In accordance with Colonel Plumer's orders, the British have retired to Tuli. Captain Blackburn died on the road. Captain fcrlyn scoured we country for eignt hours on tue Transvaal side of the Obibis Drift, and then retired. Lieutenant Kinsman has been ordered to Macloutsie, which is being strongly reinforced. A GALLANT SERGEANT COMMISSIONED. A Kaffir spy states that Captain Blackburn's party in their skirmish with the enemy killed 12 Boers, and that many more are lying in the drift dying. Sergeant Shepstone, who gallantly stood by Captain Blackburn, has received a commission as a reward fdr his bravery. A heavy rainstorm has washed most of the men in the Orange River camp out of their ttirits:" A man named Modhouse, who was token prisoner by the Boers, and who subsequently escaped, says that the Boers gave a smoking concert in honour of their prisone/s, the Boers singing "G;od Save the Queen with the rest. GENERAL SKIRMISH AT LADYSMITH.—ALL BRITISH TROOPS ENGAGED.—STAMPEDE OF BATTERY MULES. The following telegram from the General Officer Commanding in. Natal'has been received at the War Office: LADYSMITH, October ou, a p.m. "I employed all troops here to-day except an obligatory garrison for the works. I No. 10 Mountain Battery with Royal Irish Fusiliers and Gloucester Regiment to take up a position on the hills to clear my left (lank. "The force moved at eleven p.m. last night, and during some night firing the battery mules stampeded with some of the guns, which, however, I hope to re- cover. The two battalions have not yet returned. but" are expected this evening. "I detailed t*o brigade divisions Artillery and five battalions infantry, aided by th« cavalry under General French, to attack a position on which the enemy had yesterday mounted gunq.. We found this position evacuated, but our force was attacked with considerable vigour by what I believe were General Joubert's troops. Theyhadmany guns, and showed in great numbers. Our troop" were: all in action, and we poshed the enemy back for several miles, hut did not succeed in reaching his laagers. m Our losses estimated at between 80 ana 100, but that of the enemy must have been much greater. J. • Tire: (Ire of our guns ipppmeng vea enectire, -,ter being in action several hours I withdrew the troops and returned unmolested to cantonments. The enemy are in great numbers, and their guas range further than our field guns. I now have some 'naval guni wh ich have temporarily silenced, and I hope will permanently dominate, the enemy's best guns, wjth which he lias been bombarding the town at a range of over 6000 yards." NAVAL QUICK-FIRING GUNS IN ACTION. The above brief narrative of Monday's engage- ment is supplemented by an interesting telegram from the Times special correspondent at Ladysmith, who was present during the fighting. His account indicates that the movements of the British troops were, in the first instance, directed to an attempt to turn the enemy's positions on both flanks, but that the Boers executed a change of front and retaliated with an attack in force on our flank. The engage- ment ultimately took the form of a severe artillery duel, in which a naval contingent with quickfiring guns rendered excellent service on the British side, silencing the enemy's 40-pounder gun in five rounds. THE ROYALS OFF. The 1st Royal Dragoon Guards on Monday pro- ceeded by train from Hounslow to Tilbury Docks, where they embarked for South Africa on board the transport Manchester Port. The vessel sailed, after a delay on account, of inferior hay having been sent for shipment, in the evening.. SERIOUS LOSS OF MULES. The special correspondent of the Standard at Ladysmith telegraphed on Monday that the enemy had succeeded in capturing 1500 mules, a loss that will serioualy inconvenience our transport. UNSCRUPULOUS SPECULATORS.' According to a correspondent at Durban, General Sir George White has reoeived the following mes- sage by telegraph from General Joubert: Must 'express my sympathy. Symons unfortu- nately badly wounded died; buried yesterday. I trust great God will speedHy bring to close this un- fortunate istate of affairs, brought about by unscru- pulous speculators and capitalists, who went to Transvaal to obtain wealth, and in order to further their own interests misled others and brought about this shameful state of Warfare over all South Africa, in which so many valuable lives have been and are being sacrificed, as, for instance, Symons and others. I express my sympathy to Lady' Symons at loss husband.
JROVAL WEDDING AT KINGSTON. ¡ At the Roman Catholic Church of St. Raphael, Kingston, in the presence of Royalty and a large assembly of French nobility, the marriage took place on Monday of Princease Isabelle d'Orleans, daughter of the Comtesse de Paris, and sister of the Due d'Orleans, and Prince Jean d'Orleans, younger son of the Due and Duchesse de Chartres. The scene in the churcb was of the most brilliant description. It was handsomely decorated with tall palms and foliaged tropical shrubs, and the high altar was. artistically arranged with specimen white chrysanthemums, intermixed with white camellias, gardenias, and white roses in foliage. Many of the leading guests were in military and court costumes, with orders and decorations. The bridegroom was in the uniform of the Danish Infantry. The bride looked stately in a plain but elegant wedding robe of white duchesse satin and full court train from the shoulders, covered with old lace. The veil, also of old lace, covered a chaplet of orange blossoms, and she. carried a bouquet of white exotics. Her brother, the Due dorleans, gave her away. According to custom, there were neither bridesmaid. nor best;man." The service, which was choral, was conducted by the Bishop of Southwark, assisted by the Cure of the Madeleine, the Chaplain of St. Raphael's, and' several priests from Paris and London. Amonthe visitors present were the Princess of Wales, Princess Victoria of Wales, Comtesse de Paris, Duchesse d'Orleans, Due and Duchesse del Chartres, Princess Valdemar of Denmark, Princess Clementine of Coburg, Prince Philip of Coburg, Prince Henri d'Orleans, Doc d'Alen^on, Prince Antoine de Orleans, Duo de Luynes, Duchesse d'Aosta, Due de Montpensier, Due and Duchesse d'Uzes, and the Chinese,; Italian, Spanish and, Portu- guese Ambassadors. The ceremony over, the bridal party drove to York House, and early in the afternoon the Prince and Princess left for their honeymoon. The presents.. numbering over 500, were exhibited in Paris. England appears to have extended on Monday her hospitality to every claimant to the French throne. The Due d'Orleans,, Prince Jean, Prince Henri, and the Due de Chartres were at Twickenham, and the Empress Eugenie, Prince Louis Bonaparte, and Prince Victor Bonaparte were at Farnborough*
LORD SPENCER QN THE WAR. Earl Spencer, addressing a Liberal meeting at Cleator Moor on Monday night, said the Ultimatum of President Kruger was an insane and reckless document, and he did not see, how any Government who'had in view the1 honour of the country could have met it except in the way the Government had done. Mistakes, however, had been made. Diplo- matists ought to have shown the Boers that this country had no intention of annexing their territory, and that we had no desire beyond the redress of the many grievances of the Uitlanders. Great Britain must deal with the Transvaal, after peace had been concluded, in a generous and Statesmanlike spirit, and if we did that we might avert the dangers and difficulties which. would otherwise follow from this unfortunate war.
MANCHESTER EXPLOSION. GAS WORKS MANAGER KILIED, AND TWELVE MB* INJURED. A serious explosion occurred at the Rochdale-road section of the Manchester. Gas Works on Monday morning. Some improvements were being carried out, in the course of which an old main pipe, which has not been used for some time past, was disturbed. A few minutes later a loud explosion took place, creating the utmost consternation not only amongst the workmen, but for a considerable distance round. It was immediately seen that a large building known as the Clock Tower was on fire. The city 4birigade were communicated with, and as quickly as possible steamers were got to work. The connec- tions were cut off in various directions, but in spite of this many thousands of cubic feet of gas caught ,fire, to the imminent danger of a large mass of pro- perty. Ultimately the flames in the Clock Tower were extinguished, but not until the lower floor had fallen in with a crash, and the meter-house had been completely burned down. A portion of the fire brigade kept up a continued deluge of water on the fractured main, but for a long time their efforts were apparently useless, huge tongues of flame constantly flaring out from it and from the site of the old meter-house. In the end the main from which the flames were fed was ordered to be cut. Great fears were at one time entertained lest the Clock Tower, which was in an undermined and ruined condition, should fall upon a vast tank con- taining half a million cubic feet Of gfti, which would 1 thus have been set free just over the spot where the main was,oldire.. I The officials are unable to say now the accident happened, but it is surmised that whilst the gas was being transferred from an old to a new meter at the opposite end of the works a stream came in contaot with a naked light, probably in the Clock Tower, and thus was set on fire. Eleven inen-wo,re engaged on the workj, under the superintendence of Mr. G. E. Stevenson, the. manager, and Mr; James Hill, depart- ment manager. All, were seriously injured, Mr. Stevenson being frightfully burned and cut about the head. They were conveyed to the infirmary, with the exception of Mr. Hill, who, though badly hurt abott the head and hands, was able to go to his house. Mr. Stevenson died during the afternoon. By evening 10 of the sufferers were able to go to their homes. After the fire had been in progress about three hours it was f<^und necessary to intercept two mains, a hole, being >• each, and by forcing clay into the apertures the supply of gas was cut off. =="
POLICEMEN AS CtJ-KRENCY. Policemen have many functions, out it IS some- thing new to bear of their Yet we read in the report of the British Resident in Perak that last year's expenditure was swelled by loss of exchange^ on relôittance8 to India of police- men, for which no estimate had been made." This is clearly one of the things that might have been expressed differently.
THE marine fireman ef Liverpool and district hav- ing seceded from the union controlled by Mr* H. J. Wilson, M. P., have decided to form a union of their own. MK. JAKa WILLIAM JAMIESON has been appointed Her Majesty's Commercial Attache and Consul in China. MK. LHABY, the governor of Guam, the chief Island of the Caroline group, ceded to America by Spain after the war, has sent an urgent request to Washington for reinforcements. IT may not be generally known that the Dum-Dum htdlet derives its name from Dum-Dum, India, where if, W" first made. Its top is of brass and hollow. When it strikes its victim it becomes umbrella-shaped, and tears its way -through the flesh making a aan- gerous wound. Blood-poisoning ofteft setls itt.withia 80 minutes after the bullet strikes.
CURRENT SPORT. One of the most interesting events of the cross- country season that so far has taken place was brought off on Saturday at Highgate, where the well- known Union Athletic Club has promoted an open race over three miles of country. The entry was of wonderfully good class, including Charles Pearce, the ex-champion at four miles; J. Weaver, four miles champion of the Midland counties; J. Pratt, of the Highgate Harriers; and W. H. Cornelius among the 64 starters. Victory rested with T. W. F. Clark, of the Northampton Institute Harriers, who, with a sfart of 2min. 20sec., ran home 100 vards ahead of. J. A. Tuck, of the Highgate H., who was on the same mark; S. J. Woolley, also of Highgate, with 2min. start, was third. J. Weaver, of Higbgate Harriers, with 30sec. start only, did the best perform- ance of the back-markers by finishing sixth in 16min. 41 3-5sec.. an achievement which won him the special prize for ,the fastest time. J. Pratt, the scratch man, finished strongly, but just failed to do -so good a time as Weaver. At the, ordinary council meeting of the National Cyclists' Union, held at the Inns of Court Hotel, on Saturday, the chief item on the agenda was Dr. E. B. Turner's proposition that, in the event of any person being found guilty of roping, falsi- fication of entry form, offences against certain clauses of the amateur definition, or of any dis- honest or dishonourable act in connection with sport, he should be permanently warned off all tracks, enclosures, and dressing rooms where races are held under N.C.U. rules. The main argument adduced in support of the motion was that if a man were so bad that he could stoop to take mean and dishonourable advantages of his fellow-riders he was a disgrace to the sport—and the sport (both in its professional and amateur branches) should have nothing more to do with him. Several delegates opposed the motion on the ground that there might be many cases in which the punishment of permanent suspension would be too severe. On being put to the vote the necessary, two-thirds majority in favour of the pro- < position was not reached, as (with proxies) there were only 23 for, while 15 votes were registered against. The motion was, therfore, not carried. In the. competition for the Autumn Gold Medal of the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, at Muirfield, on Saturday, Mr. J. E. Laidley and Mr. Leslie Balfour-Melville, both amateur ex- champions, were paired off together. The match resulted in a tie with a fine score of 86 each. On playing off Mr. Laidley returned 86, and Mr. Mel- ville 89. The former thus becomes the medallist. The Cottesmore Hounds met at Wild's Lodge, and were rather heard than seen to great advantage in a wonderfully sharp scnrry from Laxon's Covert. In the first pilace the body of the pack stole away with a long lead, and subsequently Whissendine presented difficulties which literally proved insurmountable. Hounds rpn without a check across Stapleford-park, just touching a corner of the cottage plantation, and on past Whissendine Station, up the grass fields, into the village, where they killed their fox in a cabbage garden, amidst considerable local excitement. Scent was first-rate, but there was disappointment when the small coverts on the Burton flats were drawn blank at the outset of the morning. The true methods of Rugby Union football could scarcely have received better demonstration (says the Times) than on Saturday in the Rectory Field match, when Blaekheath beat their famous opponents from, Newport, Mon., by a goal from a drop-kick and a try to a goal from a try. The fine forward work, the skill and general resource of the halves, the quick and often unerring passing of the three-quarters, and the defenqe of Russell, the full back, were the things that secured the brilliant victory for Blaekheath over Newport, who are a great side. The Welsh three-quarter system to be effective must see the ball controlled by the forwards in the scrummage and heeled out quickly. The system breaks down when the forwaras do not get the ball to control. And this is exactly what happened on Saturday. From past observation this season it was difficult to conceive that Blaekheath were the side vanquishing the famous Newport men. The forwards set a great pace, holding the ball, coming round quickly, and keeping on it in the loose in a way that surprised everybody. Blaekheath playedilettor. football than they have shown for many a day. A month's hard work seems to have discovered their game, and if consistency is theirs they will be a difficult side to beat this season. Their kicking and their tackling were splendidly done. Playing behind a strong pack, the old Oxford halves, Unwin and Cattell, were very good, and the three-quarter line, in which were Gordon-Smith, Skrimshire, Forrest, and Royds, were brilliant alike tn defence and attack. The Welsh system is never greatly profitable unless the forwards can easily command the turn of events in the scrummage, and the fact that they could not do this on Saturday once more exposed the fallacy of making the forwards subservient to the backs. The secret of the Newport defeat could be at first traced to the fact that they met a band of splendid scrum- magers who took the ball ou with them and left the halves to; look after themselves, as good halves should be capable of doing. The Newport backs showed a splendid capacity for kicking, but the defence wfis too much for them. Gordon-Smith got the Blackheath try and Forrest dropped the goal. Late in the game Newport scored their goal by the aid of R. Jones, who kicked it from a try by Alexander. Mr. G. C. Lindsay, the L' old Oxford three-quarter, was referee. In the Rugby county championship on Saturday, at Newton Abbot, Devon beat Cornwall by two goals and a try to nothing. ■ Among club results were Cambridge University beat Richmond by two goals and a try to nothing, Croydon beat Kensington, London Scottish beat Harlequins, Old Merchant ■ Taylors beat Old Leysians, Lennox beat Sandhurst, Cardiff beat Guy's and St. Thomas's Hospitals, Gloucester beat Bristol, Northampton beat Bedford, Civil Service beat Berkshire Wanderers, Coopers-hill beat Catford-bridge, London Irish beat St. George's Hospital, and Swansea beat Llanelly. Sheffield United won a hard match against Aston Villa, at Sheffield on Saturday, before 25,000 people, in the Association League Championship by two goals to one, a result that leaves the United in a very strong position at the head of the clubs. Liverpool beat Manchester City (1—0), Wolverhampton Wan- derers beat Newcastle United (1—0), Notts County beat Burnley (6—1), Bury beat Preston North End (2—0), West Bromwich Albion beat Sunderland J-O). Derby County v. Notts Forest and Stoke v. Everton were drawn. The Corinthians and Sheffield Wednesday played a drawn game at the Queen's Club, West Kensington, saeh scoring once. For the most, part the football was fast despite the heavy ground; but at half-back the Corinthians were rather weak, C. Wreford- Brown and E. C. Bliss being obviouxly short of 'practice. H. R. Barrett, however, did a lot a»f work, and C. B- Fry and W. J. Oakley were'5 strong in defence. Of the forwards. G. O. Smith, G. C. Vassall, and B. 0. Corbett were aften prominent, and a clever run and centre by last j fear's Oxford captain enabled Smith to obtain the first goij. Almost immediately afterwards Millar made the score level, the only goals of the match joining early in the second half. Sheffield Wednes- day, who have an unbeaten record in the second division 6f the League to which they were relegated last season, forced the game towards J;,be clpse, but in the absence of Spikesley their attack lacked sting. Another round of the Football Association Qualifying Competition was run through on Satur- day. Among the surviving elubs were: Millwall Athletic, Luton, Chatham, Thames Ironworks, Queen's Park Rangers, Civil Service, Leicester Fosse, Burton Swifts, Watford, Barnsley, Grimsby, Burslem, Richmond, Reading/ Marlow, Portsmouth, East Bristol, Bed minster .Bristol Rovers, and Small Heath. lang Oxford University beat London Caledonians ffi—0), Cambridge University beat Old Westminsters' (9—3), and Old Cstrthusiahs drew with Westminster School.
THE NEW LORD OF APPEAL. It is reported that Lord Justice-General Robert- ion, who it also Lord President of the Edinburgh Court of Session, has been appointed a Lord of Appeal in succession to the late Lord Watson. Lord President Robertson was appointed to his present post in 1891 on the death of Lord Justice-General Inglis.
GENERAL JOIJBEET, the Commandant-Generai ot the Boer army, though within a few months of his 70th year, and despite his adventurous life, is still a magnificent type of a Boer farmer-soldier. He stands erect and his steely eye is undimmed, although his long, full beard is white. As commander-in- chief of a farmer army he is unique, and he is venerated by those who have served under him. UNDJCR a scheme for recruiting mechanics for the navy, the United Kingdom has been mapped out by the Admiralty into five, engineering districts, to each of which an Admiralty recruiting agent is to be ap- pointed. The recruiting agents will be engineers. and will receive regular salaries and capitation grants ig addition. The Scheme is likely to involtfe lome outlay, and is to be tried for 12 months.
SCIENCE NOTES. THE reason of the sun assuming such a deep red colour on a misty day is owing to the fact that fog permits the passage of red rays more easily than any other. ACCORDING to the experiments of Mr. W. J. S. Lockyer with electrIC sparks as described in Nature, dark lightning flashes do not exist, but they appear on photographs owing to some chemical actions in the gelatine film. ST. LOUIS, United States, has adopted an electrical street-sweeper. The brush is revolved by an electric motor instead of the wheels, and with advantage. FRANK V. BAI-LIN, of Blue Island, Ill., was troubled with a stiffening of the ankle joint, and his physicians tried to ascertain the cause by subjecting the limb to the X-rays. The intense light caused the flesh to decompose, and three amputations of the leg were necessary. He sued his doctors, and the jury awarded him lO.OOOdols. MICROSCOPISTS require two sets of eye-pieces for their achromatic and apochromatic objectives, but the new holoscopic eye-pieces serves for both, and gives very beautiful images. A GERMAN has constructed a bacillus-proof house. The supply of air is first forced through a pipe, it is then filtered through cotton-wool, and. lastly, is driven against a sheet of plate glass coated with glycerine. This is supposed to catch all the bacteria which have not been seized by the cotton-wool. It is built entirely of glass, that the heat of the sun may kill any stray microbes that have entered by chance. THE recent balloon trip of M. Hermite from Saint Denis to the mouth of the Rhone is not, perhaps, the longest, but is the fastest on record. The balloon never escaped from the clouds all the way, and it encountered a whirlwind that made it gyrate. Hand- bills were thrown out to mark the course of the ballon, each instructing the finder where to send it. IN his experiments on wireless telegraphy made 20 years ago, Professor Hughes, F.R.S., empliyed his microphone to receive the electric waves, that is to say, as a coherer." All coherers are a species of microphone. That used by Marconi and others is of metal, but M. Tommasina has returned to the carbon forms of Professor Hughes, and finds them quite as good or better than metal ones. As in the case of the X-rays, it is possible that one of the earliest practical uses of liquid air will be in surgery. Already experiments have indicated that a spray of liquid air can be applied as a local ana's thetic, but the application should never be made except by an experienced operator. In a minute a small portion of the body can be frozen as hard as ice, and surgical operations conducted With the aid of liquid air are attended with no hemorrhage. In the Medical Record Dr. A. C. White describes various ex- periments with liquid air, including the successful treatment of such diseases as sciatica, neuralgia, and ivy-poisoning. GLASS I'LATKS cast with wire gauze enclosed in its substance, submitted to tests at tbo Chemnitz Tech- nical Institute and the Vienna Technological Museum recently, were found to possess great con- sistency as well as resistance to pressure, shock, and the effects of heat, the resistance being 3611b. per square inch, and the consistency 36101b. per square inch of the transverse sectional area. While plates of ordinary glass frequently broke under the sudden application of pressure, the strengthened glass was only cracked; and the cracks caused by rapid changes of temperature permitted neither damp nor flame to pass. Glass so made has already been used for water gauges. ACCORDING to some naturalists, men could once direct the flaps of their ears in order to hear sounds better, as many animals-for example, donkeys—do, but the muscles involved have fallen into disuse, ex- cept in rare instances. An American journal would have us believe that man had formerly a thsi-d eye on the top of his head, so that he might see above him, and that his horizontal eyes have gradually moyed round from the sides to the front of his head. They have not yet reached the position they are aim- ing at, which is perhaps the root or point of the nose. Wish an eye on each side of his head and another on the roof the primitive man would have made a capital war (colfespondent; and altogether his extinction seems to militate against the doctrine of the survival, ■ of the fittest. TnjB.New York Electrical Review gave particulars of a recently invented electrical and chemical fire alarm apparatus, which gives its indications when the atmosphere becomes so vitiated with smoke that it will not support the combustion of a gas flame. In < the interior of the apparatus a small gas flame con- stantly warms a thermostatic bar, the electric circuit through the apparatus being normally open as long as the Game holds out to burn. If. the air in the apartment in whichthe apparatus isinstalled becomes vitiated with smoke, the little gas flame goes out, and the thermostatic bar, cooling off, closes the circuit and gives the alarm. IT was mentioned recently that the first use of aluminiurp as an electrical conductor on a large scale had been made at Northallerton. Three sizes of wire have been employed, having diameters of "662in., and "330in. The necessary joints in the con- ductors have been made by screwed sockets,,a thread being formed on the ends of the wires to be jointed. Of five miles of overhead mains erected at, present, four are entirely aluminium. Those responsible for 'the work calculate that, at the present price of copper. they have made a saving of 20 per cent. by the use of aluminium. THE ordinary newspaper correspondent is not (says a writer in the Globe) a very safe guide in matters of science. Ho is apt to be imposed on by I' charlatans, or, in his ignorance of science, to give the matter undue importance. The invention for seeing- by electricity which was heralded by a London daily, is not credited in the best scientific, circles, and the system of telegraphing 100,000 words an hour, which is reported from Vienna, is at least open to question. For one thing the use of a telephone as a receiver is not new, since it was invented in this country some I years ago, ond is partly described in Bright's "Sub- marine Telegraphs under the head of Munro and Bright's recorder," For another thing the retarda- tion of signals from induction on actual telegraph lines is fatal to very high speeds.if the line is at all long, though, as in this case, the apparatus may work well enough on short or experimental wires. This element in the problem is frequently overlooked by inventors' in their laboratories, and, of course, a Press man could hardly be expected to it. ^Knowledge has an interesting article by Mr. W. S. Bruce, F.R.G.S., formerly in charge of the Ben j Nevis Observatory. The staff at the Observatory consists of two observerll, and a cook. There is a night wateh from 8 p.m. to 4 or 5 a.m., and then a day wfuh until noon or 1 p.m., when the night watchman sleeps. Shorter dog watches fill the time after pinner at 1 p.m. to 8 p.m. A round of observa- ions includes the Fortin barometer, the dry and wet i bulb thermometers in the louvre screen, the rain, guage, and the anemometer on the roof of the obser- vatory. The clouds are also noted-—whether high or low, what sort, and how much of the sky they cover j above30deg. from the horizon. Sunshine, fog, glories, halos, &c., are also, noted. In the ,office, which communicates with the roof by a ladder, the observer records his observations on (orms.) Sometimes the whole top of the Ben is missing j (by day) and gleaming (by night) with tit. j Elmo's Fire: The boservatory, the anemometer, every post or pole, even the observer's fingers, hair, r: pencil held aloft are luminous. Bad weather is the j rule, and the observer usually goes out in bilskihs and i sea-boots. If his lantern blows out he is in danger of falling over the Great Cliff, sheer down for nearly 2000ft. Worse than the snow which drifts over the establishment is the hoar frost, or the oj silver thaw, which encrusts the tower and instruments withi ice. For 17 years, the observatory has been supported by voluntary contributions and workers, but considering its value to a seafaring nation, the Government tnight give support to an institution! hitherto maintained under the auspices of the Scottish Meteorological Society. It spends a great deal of mbneyonKewand Greenwich; why not a little on Den Nevis? The French, German, and American Governments would be less niggardly or more enlightened. •*
MANY military people are wondering how Lord Charles Bentinck, who has been wounded at Mafe- king, came to be amongst the gallant defenders of that place. It was generally supposed that Lord Charles was on leave m this country, but not a few ? cases have been. known where officers have Obtained' leave in order to attach themselves to expeditions > engaged on active service. Often it has attempted to estimate how many pressed men one volunteer was worth, and on many occasions such j volunteers have shown that the number cannot be properly calculated. Colonel Baden-Powell is believed to have a weakness for volunteers of this kind, and rumour says that he has quite a number: of them with him at Mafeking. # i [ THIRTY-TWO Mussulmans who "were implicated in IQMsacreB at Tokat in 1897-, and who weCo exiled to Tripoli* in Africa, have been oardoned.
THE LATE MR. CANDY, Q.C. The late Mr. George Candy. Q.C., whose death occurred af his London residence last week, at the age ot. 58, was the son of the Rev. George Candy, Trinity Church, Bombay, in which city he was born. He received his education at the Islington Pro- prietary School, and at Cheltenham and Bristol. Going to Oxford in i860 as Scholar of Wadhaui College, he was five year later elected Fellow of St. Peter's College} Radley. He proceeded to the degree of M.A., and- while studying for the Bar was assistaatrmastpr at Wellington and Marlborough and at the Manchester Grammar School. He was called to the Bar in 1869, and took «ilk in 1886. While at college Mr. Candy ob» tained celebrity as a fencer and in other fields where tnost robust qualities were necessary, stroking the College Torpid, and rowing No. 7 in the College eight. Professionally, he was beat known as an authority on the Licensing Laws, and wrote several works dealing with them, including" Is Local i Option a Fact?" (1863) and The Public and the I Publican: A History of the 'Dover There also came from, his pen an edition of (fray's d- poems or the use of British India schools and col- leges, and The Jurisdiction, Practice, and Proce- dure of the Mayor's Court, London" (1879). In 1896, qn the unseating, of Yr. Tankerville Chamber- lain, Mr. Candy, who had been principal counsel for the respondent in the election petition, unsuccessfully contested Southampton against Sir Francis Evan", the present Radical member for the constituent*