GREATER BRITAIN. TUII relations of the Indian Government with Baluchistan date from 1839, when the British Army advanced through the Bolan Pass towards Afghanis- ton. At that time the conduct of the Khan of Khelat, the overlord of the scattered tribes, was (the Daily Xews reminds us) regarded as so treacherous that General Willshire was ordered to assault his capital, and the town and citadel was stormed and taken after some sharp fighting. It 1854 a treaty was concluded with Khelat by which the Khan en- gaged to oppose to the utmost all the enemies of the British Government, and to enter into negotia- tions with no other State without its consent." It was in 1857, while the Mutiny was at its height, that a British officer was first appointed Political Agent at Khelat to advise the Khan in maintaining control over his turbulent tribes. In 1876, after diplomatic relations had ceased for two years, another treaty was signed, one of the clauses of which raised the subsidy granted by the Indian Government to the Khan to 100,000 rupees, while another provided for the administration of the Quetta district by British officers. In consideration of the loss of the surplus revenue which he continued to enjoy until 1882, KRan Khudadad was in that year granted an additional yearly sum of 25,000 rupees. In 1893 this ruler, found guilty of murdering his Minister and others of his subjects, was permitted to abdicate, bnt his privileges were transmitted in full to his son, the present Khan, Mir Muhammad. THE Khan of Kbelat is, as has been stated, at the head of a confederacy of chiefs, but his precise powers are difficult to define. The various tribes possess the right of electing each its Sirdar, and nominally the Khan has the power of confirming or disapproving the choice made; but this prerogative is never exercised. He, however, declares war and makes treaties for the whoie of non-British Baluchistan, subject to the restrictions imposed by the agreement with the Indian Government, and can order the Sirdar of each tribe to attend in person with his complement of fighting men. On the other hand, the local chief has the adjustment of petty quarrels, thefts, and disputed points of every kind, though appeal in cases cf im- portance lies to the Khan at Khelat. The latter, however, in all matters having a wider interest, is amenable to the advice of the Agent of the Governor- General, who also arbitrates in disputes between him and the minor chiefs. Baluchistan includes, besides that major part to which the foregoing remarks in particular applyj the districts of Quetta and the Bolan, administered on the Khan's behalf by British officials; the assigned districts of Pishin, Shorarud, Kachh, Kawar, Harnai, &c., which formerly belonged to Afghanistan and are now directly under British rule. During 1888-9 the Khetran district was brought under British control, and more recently British authority has been established in the country between the Zhob Valley and the Gumal Pass. WITH regard to the force which the Khan could bring into the field, accounts vary. He could pro- bably not assemble, however, an army numbering more than 10,000 men, and these are but poorly armed. There are numerous forts scattered about independent Baluchistan, but these could offer no re- sistance to shells. In the territory under the ad- ministration of the Indian Government fortifications have lately been erected, and are, of course, of a different class. Quetta, where the disaffected Sirdars have been arrested, has been occupied by British troops since 1876. Since then its defences have been greatly improved, and it is the headquarters of a strong brigade, and is the arsenal for the force. It was for some time the terminus of the railway, which has now, however, been continued to Chaman, 13 miles to the north-west. There is at the latter place a small military outpost, which, a telegram says, is now to be reinforced from Quetta. AT Quetta the European force at present consists of the 2nd Mountain Battery, under Major A. S. Smyth, D.S.O., a battery of Garrison Artillery, the 2nd Lancashire Fusiliers, under Lieut.-Colonel Collingwood, and the 2nd Border, under Lieut.- Colonel Brmd. The remainder of the troops in the Quetta command are Bombay native regiments. IN 1837 Canada had a population of 1,501,649. It is now 5,100,000. THE High Commissioner for Canada is receiving many applications from farm labourers and others accustomed to agricultural work, who desire employ- ment on the proposed Crow's Nest Pass Railway in British Columbia. An arrangement has been made between the Minister of the Interior of Canada and the Canadian Pacific Railway Company by which such persons may obtain work on the new railway for a year or more, subject to the ordinary conditions of such employment. The wages for unskilled labour are 6s. 3d. per day, and the cost of board and lodging per week 16s. 8d. Any persons desiring to take advan- tage of this offer are required to pay their own passages to Montreal, and they ought to go out at once. If their applications are approved letters of introduction are given to them to the Canadian Pacific Railway officials, and they will be conveyed by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company from Montreal to the works, the cost of the journey (about £4 17s. 6d.) being deduoted out of the wages. They must provide their own food on the railway journey. Free grants of land may be obtained by those who have been engaged on the railway. Forms and full information may be obtained on application to the High Commissioner for Canada. THB news is confirmed of the discovery in New- foundland of a seam of coal 13ft. wide in the Codroy Valley, close to the railway, 20 miles from Port au Basque. The quality is eaid to be excellent, but it will he tested. The seam appears to extend for a long distance. THE introduction of the electric telegraph system in New South Wales dates from January 26, 1858, when, under the superintendence of Captain B. H. Martindale, Commissioner for Railways, the first lines were opened, and on October 26 of the same year communication by wire was established with Melbourne. The late Lieutenant-Colonel E. C. Cracknell sucoeeded to the superintendency on January 15, 1801, and retained the position until his death in January, 1893. In the year 1867 the electric telegraph system, which had up to then been an adjunct of the Department of Public Works, was transferred to the control of the Postmaster-General. The telephone system was brought into operation in 1880, and rapidly gained public appreciation. THE drought in New South Wales has caused heavy losses to the squatters. On one station alone near Albury 45,000 sheep have been killed and boiled down for tallow owing to the scarcity of feed and water. THE output erf coal in New South Wales during 1896 was 3,900,507 tons, the largest quantity raised in the colony, with the exception of that obtained in 1891, which was 4,037,929 tons. IT is said that on the invitation of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Canadian Premier, the Duke and Duchess 01 iork will in all probability visit the Dominion next spring with a view to travelling on to Australia. MANY years ago the farmers of Australia imported bumble-bees from England and set them free in their clover-fields. Before the arrival of the bees clover did not flourish in Australia, but after their coming the farmers had no more difficulty on that score. Mr. Darwin bad shown that bumble-bees were the only insects fond of clover nectar which possessed a proboscis sufficiently long to reach the bottom of the long tube-like flowers, and, at the same time, a body heavy enough to bend down the clover-head, so that the pollen would fall on the insect's back, and thus be carried off to fertilise other flowers of the same species. According to a writer in Popular Science News, the bumble-boss sent to Australia cost the farmers there about half-ardollar apiece, but they proved to be worth the price. THERE is a scheme on foot for a railway connecting Southern with Western Australia. The length of the line would be 553 miles, and the estimated cost £2,000,000..As the country traversed is quite water- less, reservoirs would h&ve to be established every 25 miles. THE Bishop of Rockhampton, formerly a London clergyman, and before his ordination the engineer who superintended tbe building of Blackfriars-bridge, is starting a Bush Brotherhood. He is a splendid rider, and a man who in size and build bears con- siderable resemblance to Sir William Vernon H&r- court. The head of the mission, the Rev. G. D. Hal- ford, has left in the Oraga, of the Orient Line, and three other clergy will soon follow. The mission- bouse will be of wood, and adjacent to it will be a school for sociai and educational and religious pur- poses. The bishop has received about £700 towards the cost, which he reckons at £1000. MR. A, U. ALCOOK, a Melbourne electrician, has in- rented a position-finder for use in connection with shore batteries. Tke exact working of the apparatus is at preDt secret, but when the gun to which it is attached is laid on to a passing vessel the finder at once indicates the distance of that vessel, and gives the changes that occur in the distances as she passes the fort. Mr. Alcock has been experimenting with the invention for 10 years—ever since a Russian man- of-war entered Port Phiiip Heads by night without being observed.
A BOOK which may be of some interest to students of Shakespeare's family history has been written by the Rev. T. Carter, of Birmingham, who, taking ad- vantage of the Shakespeare Library of that city, and also of his proximity to Stratford-on-Avon, has made tepecial study of the life and times of John Shake- speare, the poet's father, and claims to prove that William Shakespeare was the son of a Puritan home, and that his up-bringing there explains much in his writings and also much in his life that is otherwise somewhat obscure. The volume is entitled Shaken PDeare, Puritan and Recusant." ); v tiv. .k
SCIENCE NOTES. TIIB heat which will raise lib. of water ldeg. will raise lib. of air—11 cubic feet—3'7deg. ACCORDING to Nilsson, the zoologist, the weight of the Greenland whale is 100 tons, or 224,0001b.; or equal to that of 88 elephants, or 440 bears. THE compressed air motor cars recently adopted on the New York Elevated Railroad some 10 months ago have now rnn over 29,000 miles, and carried over 180,000 passengers. DR. DE WATEVILLE has published a method of growing very large crystals from solutions of salts. A small crystal is rotated in a saturated solution of the salt at a speed of several turns a second. Copper sulphide, sodium chlorate, potassium, and ammonium alums are said to give particularly fine results. THE Kuseian bacteriological stations, or Pasteur Institutes," are displaying a considerable activity. We find, from the annual report of the Kazan station, that over 82,400 vaccinations against the Siberian cattle plague have been made during the past year, and that not only educated agriculturists but also the peasants begin to vaccinate their cattle. THE surveyors of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey have just made a record, on the range of the human vision. The longest distance that the human eye ever reached until this record was made between Algiers and Spain, and that was 168 miles. But now these surveyors have been able to extend the distance 183 miles, between the Uncom- pahae Peak, in Colorado, and Mount Ellen, in Utah. TIIB Germans have adopted a new gun for their field artillery. It is of nickel steel, and fires a shrapnel shell nearly five miles. It can shoot 15 shells a minute. However, the French believe they can go one better. Their Technical Committee of Artillery, after an exhaustive study of the subject, have fixed upon a quick-firing gun, which they are keeping a secret for the present, but which they consider the most perfect in existence. Parliament has only to vote the 300 million francs required and the new arm will replace the old. IT is asserted, though we do not know the authority on which the assertion is based, that our senses fall asleep in a definite order. First the eyelids close, and the sense of sight is lost, then the sense of taste follows, and after that smell, hearing, and touch go in the order named. Touch is said to be the lightest sleeper of all, and the first to be aroused. The reader who is curious about such things might test the accuracy of these statements by experiments with his friends. EXPERIMENTS recently made at the Massachusetts Agricultural College tend to prove that electricity exerts an appreciable influence on the germination of seeds. When a current of the proper strength is applied it hastens the germination and early growth of the sprouts, but its influence diminishes as the plant increases in size. Seeds subjected to a single application of electricity show the effect for only a few hours, but if the current is applied hourly it acts constantly, except that as the plants mature the beneficial effect is gradually lost. THE importance of leaks in a steam plant is brought out with startling distinctnfss by the following calcu- lation A square inch oc area will discharge of steam per second for each pound absolute of pres- sure. Suppose a station to have 1251b. gauge, 1401b. absolute pressure, then a square inch of area would discharge 21b. of steam per second or 72001b. an hour, which, at the standard rate of 301b. per hour per horse-power, is 240 horse-power. Power" asks how many leaks it takes to aggregate a square inch. Is it any wonder that in a small station the unsuspected leaks ass ume a very large proportion of the steam produced ? IN Loch Katrine 548 soundings have recently been taken in different parts of the loch; the average depth of these is 236ft., or 39 l-3d. fathoms, and the greatest depth is 751ft., or 125 fathoms. The deepest sounding is situated towards the centre of the loch, midway between Brenacboil Lodge and Letter. The whole loch forms a single basin, the centre being occupied by a narrow depression, over four miles in length, in which over 60 soundings were obtained wich depths greater than 600ft., or 100 fathoms. The surface of the loch is 364ft. above sea-level, so that towards the centre nearly two square miles of the bottom lies below the sea-level. Loch Katrine is thus one of the deepest of the Scottish lochs, being 138ft. deeper than Loch Lomond. IT is ra'her hard to understand how such tiny drops can flatten down the enormous swells of an angry ocean, but the observations of a well-known Engllh scientist explains it clearly. Each drop, h/li says, sends below the surface a certain quantity of water in the form of rinos, which, with gradually decreasing velocity and incl easing size, descend as much as 18in. below the suiface. Therefore, when rain is falling on the sea, there is as much motion im- mediately beneath the surface as above, only the drops are larger and their motion slower. Thus, unseen by the human eye, the water at the surface is being made to continually change places with that beneath, and in this way the wave-motion is destroyed. THE bill of a mosquito is a complex institution. It has a blunt fork at the head, and is apparently grooved. Working through the groove,, and project- ing from the angle of the fork, is a lance of perfect form, sharpened with a fine bevel. On either side of the lance two saws are arranged, with their poiats fine and sharp, and the teeth well refined and keen. The backs of these saws play against the lance. When the mosquito alights, with its peculiar hum, it thrusts its keen lance, and then enlarges the aper- ture with the two saws, which play beside the lance until the forked bill, with its capillary arrangement for pumping blood, can be inserted. The sawing process is what grates upon the nerves of the victim, and causes him to strike wildly at the sawyer. Tllmroller-ship has, after several trials, attained a speed of six knots—so it is said but it is possible that they were only experimental trials—to get the machinery into working order-and that better results may be expected by-and-bye. In this connec- tion it is interesting to note the news from America, that faster than any vessel afloat in the world was the Ellide." This wonderful little vessel, it appears, lowered the world's record by covering a measured mile on the Hudson in Imin. 38sec., at the rate of over 36 miles an hour, and eclipses the speed record of the Turbinia, recently made in Europe." The trial was made down stream with slack water and a light breeze blowing from the north-west by north. There were 22 persons aboard when the trip was made. SICE the existence of countless millions of in- finitesimal organisms is an admitted fact, the lay mind has fallen into the habit of calling everything in the way of bacilli, bacteria, and microbes emissaries of evil. It was by the merest accident that the exist- ence of benevolent bacteria was made known, and now these critics find, to their astonishment, that there may be quite as many good bacilli as bad. Indeed, the good ones are credited with sus- taining life as well as prolonging it of keeping us in good health, and making mere existence a pleasure when normal conditions prevail. A laboratory presided over by gra- duates of the Boston Institute of Technology is now engaged in cultivating the bacteria of cream. A certain quantity of these organisms is put into the milk, whereupon the cream rises and goes through all of the processes necessary for the production of perfect butter. If cheese is to be produced there is a culture specially for this purpose. So well satisfied were the projectors of the plan of the feasibility of their undertaking that they are equipping their laboratory with every necessary appliance and pro- viding in every way for the successful carrying out of the experiment.
A RUINED PALACE. One of the Royal palaces of Henry VIII., structures not infrequently met with in the older parts of London, situate in Hercules-road, Lambeth, is now in course of renovation, after having been given up for many years to the possession of rats and u spooks the latter being vouched for by half the schoolboys of the district. The building is a pic- turesque one, and/whether ever a Royal residence or not of the Eighth Henry s period, has distinct archi- tectural claims of recognition. It has but barely escaped demolition by the South-Western Railway Company, whose bridge-widening operations are being rapidly pushed in this direction.
ACCORDING to the report of 1 he commission, which field an inquiry into the recent accident on the French cruiser Bruiz, the breakage of the piston-rod was due to the quality of the steel from which it was made. THE Due d'Alengon has purchased the estate facing Wimbledon-common known as Belmont, and he in- tends to reside there as soon as the mansion has undergone the necessary redecorations. THE tunnels of the world are estimated to number abeut 1142, with a total length of 514 miles. There I' are about 1000 railroad tunnels, 12 subaqueous tunnelø, 00 canal tunnels, and 40 conduit tunnels, with aggregate length* of about 350 miles. j :Ä /,1 "b ".i, ,tJj"
THE WOMAN'S WOULD. THE short jaiket is frequently seen in open-front style, with rounded basques and broad collar and lapels. SLEBVHS for dresses are cut very long, and almost invariably finished with frills of some sort. Many low-cut evening dresses also have long sleeves. SLEEVES without fulness are being shown by some of the best dressmakers, and there seems little doubt that the perfectly flat dress-sleeve will be in vogue before long. TIIE cravat bow is worn with all of the newest toilets. For present wear tulle bows tied without ends are most affected, but for the fall cravats of black satin or kilted glace silk will be the most cor- rect thing. TnE new blouses are often made with open front to show a chemisette. An attractive model of this order is seen in a white serge blouse, with frilled chemisette of brown silk. A green-grey cashmere blouse has a chemisette of gold-coloured silk. A SOFT velvet toque is, as a rule, becoming to almost every type of feminine beauty. A UNIQUE effect in passementerie has beaded orna- ments holding two spreading ostrich plumes in Alsatian bow fashion. This is intended to be worn on a low-cut bodice. THE increasing propensity towards extravagance is shown in the bejewelled chains, vinaigrettes, bonbon boxes, and other so-called trifles" that the woman of fashion deems she must have in order to be happy. THOUGH the Eton and bolero styles are not so much in evidence as in the spring, they are to be fashion- able through the autumn. VERY smart indeed is the grey cashmere go with black velvet bolero. The skirt, four yards and a half wide, has four tucks around the hips. Other- wise it is perfectly plain. THE blouse bodice is tucked crosswise from collar to girdle, and over this is worn a bolero of black velvet, slashed and finished at the edge with a ruch- ing of black chiffon and application of heavy cream lace. Jet may be substituted in place of the lace ap- plique if desired. The bolero requires 3fyds. of velvet and the same quantity of silk lining. BRAID is very effectively used on plain cloth as a side panel for the skirt, laced across with cord held by tiny buttons. The short Eton jacket is ornamented with soutache and button trimming on revers, collar, epaulettes, and sleeves. The blouse bodice worn under the jacket is of silk. IN the varied collection of stuffs shown for bicycle and golf suits, the fine twilled English cheviot known as vigoreux" is exceedingly popular. It is well suited to summer wear because of its lightness of weight and its sensible colourings—browns and greys. The pretty satin-finished coverts and fine diagonals are also much liked by golfers and cyclists. As organdies and Swiss muslins are being made up now by the half-dozen, it is well to consider the styles which will be seen in these filmy materials. The sunburst" — or pleated skirt — is used quite as mucii as it now is in chiffon. But as muslins and organdies are not made in such widths, the material must be seamed together until the piece measures three yards square. From this great rectangle cut your skirt. The circle for the waist must measure a yard round, no matter what your belt measurement. The larger circle at the foot of the skirt is as wide as your material will ex- tend. Next slope the scissors between the circles. The skirt is now ready to be sent to the accordion pleater, who will graduate the pleats in even ranks— fine at the waist and broader below. Although the fashion is intended to embellish tall, slender forms, it is likely that every woman, broad and plump, thin and tall, will display at least one sunburst" pleated summer dress in her wardrobe during the hot months. A NOTICEABLE tendency of the time is to have all the small articles of the toilet table in expensive form. SILVER and gold button-hooks and shoehorns are now finished with an immense mineral stone, in imita- tion of milady's birth-stene. GOLD safety pins, large and small, and dainty little frosted safety pins of gold to catch up the always too long dress sleeves of infants, are con- sidered indispensable in all well-equipped nurseries. These same pins are also used to fasten mamma's cuffs, or to hold her satin stock collar in place. A NEW penknife that will save many a broken finger-nail opens with a spring. A tiny button that looks like a part of the chasing on the silver case is pressed lightly, and the blade springs out into place. HAIR ornaments of polished and dull steel, and also of gun metal, are especially popular. They do not, however, look well in light brown or blonde hair, but are decidedly ornamental to black hair. SEAWEED has its decorative uses, and will be found a very pretty medium in the hands of a tasteful amateur. It may be used for the borders of marine water-colours and on mirror frames, where it may lap over on to the glass here and there with artistic effect. Monograms and many fanciful designs may be formed with seaweed, and it makes an excellent border for the glass of an aquarium. When collected, the seaweed should be dried between blotting paper and then washed in a solution of mastic gum dis- solved in tuipentine, which gives it a fresh appear- ance. It should then be affixed to the leaves of a scrap-book by means of gum, and can readily be detached by moistening the reverse side of the leaves. ACCORDING to an expert, too much heat and dry- ness is worse for a piano than too much moisture; the latter may rust the strings and make the keys stick, but the former is likely to crack the sounding- board. In winter, therefore, the piano should be kept as far away from the fire as possible, and in summer it should not be too much exposed to the sun. The instrument should not come in direct con- tact with an outside wall; it may be placed near such a wall, but a space should be allowed between wall and instrument. Pianos should be kept as free from dust as possible. Odds and ends of work, scraps, &c., should not be put on the piano; a pin may fall in upon the sounding-board, and before long there will be "something wrong with the works." If you don't want the keys to turn yellow, see that the piano is not left continuously closed, and when dusting the instrument, take care not to brush off the dust into the works. If you really have the welfare of your piano at heart, pro- tect it from the thumping of children and other in- experienced players. A good player may pound a piano vigorously without doing it any harm, bnt an unskilled performer will thump the music out of it in an incredibly short space of time. IT is jingle, jingle, indeed, wherever you go. It sounds exactly as if the historic lady who wore rings on her fingers and bells on her toes had Come to town and taken possession of it. The belt is largely responsible for the popularity of the chatelaine. A white leather belt with gold serpent for its buckle has too plain an expression unless there hangs from its left side a gold chatelaine shaped like the half of a devil fish, with the long gold chains from each of his points tipped by some gold toy. There is the key in gold of my lady's jewelled case and the key, also in gold, of my lady's travelling bag; there's a golden set of tablets and a golden pencil, with a star sapphire set in the end, that does not write there is a tiny gold walnut that opens and shows a wee little powder puff there is a pair of gold scissors, a gold penknife, a gold scent-bottle, some odd gold coins, indeed any little trifle that cost a lot of money and that may come in a basket of roses with somebody's compliments for somebody else's chatelaine. In addition to the chatelaine, there is tucked away in the belt a small purse of knitted gold, but it is on the end of the long thin chain that is about the neck. And then there's the chatelaine watch. It may match all the other belongings, or it may absolutely contrast with them, but it must be a watch that goes. In Paris every gold chatelaine has all its tiny belongings studded with the gem that my lady has selected for special wear this season. Perhaps she has chosen the ruby, the gem that signifies intense love; perhaps! she has selected emeralds, because they will bring her good health; perhaps the glittering, ever- changing catseye is her choice, for it will fetch her good luck, or, prettiest of all, she may take the turquoise, that perfect blue, cool-looking gem, because it will make her friends true to her but whichever has been her choice, it must appear in the handle of her parasol, the och at her neck, the rings on her fingers, the buckles on her shoes, the comb in her hair. as well as the necklace that encircles her pretty neck. My lady is nothing if not consistent, and when she chooses a colour or a gem it reigns triumphant until another caprice causes her to cast it aside and forget it. < f.
READINGS FOR THE YOU KG. RAGS. Rags was a very poor boy, who lived in a large town. He had no one to be kind to him, for all his friends were dead. Every day, Rags got up early to work. His work tasted all day, and up to late at night. He had to ride horses to the stable after they were taken out of the tramway ears. One day Rags was going through the streets, and, looking round, he saw a horse, with a little boy on his back, rushing madly down the street. Now, though Rags was little, yet he was very brave. As the horse came bv, he ran and took hold of the bridle. The horse tried to go on, but Rags pulled as hard as he could, and made him stop. The little boy on the horse's back was very much afraid he might have been badly hurt if Rags had not been so brave. Do you not think Rags felt glad that he saved the boy ? At last Rags had found a friend. The little boy's mother came to tell him how glad she felt, because he had saved her boy. She took him home with her, and she was so kind to him that Rags loved her as if she had been his own mother. She sent Rags to school, and he worked so hard at his lessons that he soon made up the time he had lost when working in the stables. He grew up to be a good and honest man, and never forgot his kind friend.—Century Header. THEY SURPRISED QUEEN VICTORIA. As is well known, the Queen is very fond of children. It is said that one day when her Majesty was outdriving in Scotland, she saw three little girls who lived at the same manse thoroughly enjoying themselves at a good game. She sent a messenger to make inquiries about them, and desired that they might come and visit her at the castle. It so happened that their parents were not at home at the time, and, although they were in high glee, the children did not quite know what to do. One point which troubled them very much was how they should address the Qiieen. However, after a little talk, they decided they could not do better than address her as the kings of old were addressed in Bible story. When they were taken into her Majesty's presence, to the Queen's great amusement, they fell immedi- ately down before her, and very solemnly exclaimed: 0 Queen, live for ever I" They spent a delightful afternoon, and all too soon the time arrived for them to go home. Imagine the Queen's surprise and amusement when, on leaving, they again fell down together, and said, this time: "0 Queen, live for ever! And please may we come again another day ?" GOOD-NATURED BIRDS. Edward, the naturalist, gives the following instance of the kindness of birds to each other One day he had shot at and wounded a fine speci- men of a tern. It fell into the sea a few yards out, and he waited until the waveB brought it in. Just as he was going forward to lift it, two unwounded terns fluttered down, and, each lifting it by a wing, flew with their wounded companion out to sea, followed by two other birds. When they were tired out, they gently laid it down, and was lifted up by the other two. In this manner they continued to carry it until they reached a rock some distance away. Edward at once went to the rock, but the terns swarn.ed about him, and made the air resound with their cries. On approaching nearer, the wounded bird was lifted in the same manner and carried-off till it was quite beyond his reach. A THRONE WAS SAVED. Some years since (says a writer in Chums) there was living at Hawaii an American named Harvey Gillig, a friend of King Kalakana, who had benefitted him in various ways. Mr. Gillig's usual companion on his walks was a bull pup named Pierrot, to whom he was much attached. In appearance Pierrot was fierce and forbidding, but as a matter of fact, he was gentle and playful, and as harmless as a kitten. One night it so happened that the Imperial Hawaiian army, of about 70 men and nearly as many officers, decided on starting a revolution. Accordingly, to the sound of rolling drums, it formed and proceeded to march towards the palace. Pierrot's master heard the noise, and knew just what it meant. He was determined to aid in protecting his friend the king, so, seizing his revolver, he started off at a run in the direction from which the noise of the drums came. Pierrot, dog-like, trotted along behind his master, who was far too excited to notice him. By the time Gillig caught up with the army it was in front of the palace. The lamps shone down on the showy uniforms of the officers and men, and all was excitement. Pierrot, supposing that the entire affair had been prepared for his amusement, began to bark and dance by way of expressing his apprecia- tion. "Bow, wow!" yelped he gaily, making towards the line. His jaws were red, his eyes were bloodshot, and as his bowlegs hurried him along he looked distinctly dangerous. For a moment the army wavered, then broke, and fled in disorder. Pierrot, feeling sure that this was indeed fun, rushed after the retreating men. Some took refuge in neighbouring houses, others climbed fences, while others, again, sought refuge in the trees. After all was over and the last soldier had disappeared, Mr. Gillig took Pierrot to call on the monarch whose crown he had saved, and Pierrot got as fine a meal as dog ever tasted. But, richly as he deserved it, no medal was ever struck to commemorate his valiant exploit. THE SWALLOWS. Why are the swallows going away ?" the little one asked. The summer is over," the elder sister answered, and in the English winter they would be starved and die of cold and so, when the summer goes, they journey south." Our mother and sisters are in the south," the little one said, as they looked after the birds. Dear little swallows, tell mother that we are watching for her." But the swallows were already far away, flying over the sea. The chilly winds tried to follow, but they flew so swiftly they were not overtaken. On they went, with the summer always before them. They were tired maay a time; once they stayed to rest upon the French coast, and once, in the Bay of Biscay, they clung to the rigging of a ship all through the night, but in the morning they went on again. Far away in the south two English children were looking out of the turret window of an old castle. Here are the swallows," tbey said perhaps they have come from England. Dear swallows, have you brought us a message?" they asked. "It was very cold, we had no time for messages, and we must not lose the track of the summer," the swallows twittered. And they flew on, until they reached the African shore. "IT STINGS." How pretty cried little Sam, as his little fat hand grasped a bunch of white lilac which grew near the gate of his father's mansion. The next moment the child's face grew red with terror, and he dashed the lilac to the ground, shrieking, It stings it stings What made it sting ? It was a bright, beautiful, and sweet-emelling flower. How could it hurt the child's hand ? I will tell you. A fine little bee, in search of a dinner, had just pushed his nose in among the lilac blossoms, and was sucking the nectar from it most heartily, when Sammy's fat hand disturbed him. So, being vexed with the child, he stung him. That's how Sammy's hand came to be stung. Sammy's mother washed the wound with hartshorn, and when the pain was gone she said Sammy, my dear, let this teach you that many pretty things have very sharp stings." Let every child take note of this: Many pretty things have sharp stings. It may save them from being stung if they keep this truth in mind. Sin often makes itself appear very pretty. A boy once went to a circus because the horses were pretty and their riders gay; but he learned to swear there, and thus that pretty thing, the circus, stung him. Another boy once thought wine a pretty thing. He drank it, and learned to be a drunkard. Thus wine stung him. A girl once took a luscious pear from a basket and ate it. Have you eaten one 1" asked her mother, pleasantly. Fearing she would not get another if she said "Yes," she replied" No," got another pear, and then felt so stung that she could not sleep. Thus you see that sin, however pretty it looks, stings. It stings sharply, too. It stings fatally. The Bible says:— The sting of death is sin." If you let sin sting you, nothing can heal the wound but the blood of Jesus. If you feel the smart of the sting, go to Jesus with it, and He will cure it. After that, never forget that many pretty things have very sharp stings, and be careful not to touch, taste, or handle such things. 'Tis not enough to say, 1 We're sorry and repent, And then go on from day to day Just as we always went. Repentance is to leave The sins we loved before, And show that we in earnest grieve By doing so no more." — The Children's Friend. J.
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PERILS OF ASTATIO TELEGRAPHING. When the Gilgit-Srinagar section cf the British telegraph line to India was run there wen- pro- phecies that the danger of maintenance would be so great as to dissuade operators from undertaking them. There has, as a matter of fact, been no diffi- culty in filling up the entire staff, says the St. Louis Globe-Democrat, but that the perils of the service were not over-estimated is seen in an incident told by a telegraph master as happening between two offices called Minrnarg and Astor, near the dreaded Burzil Pass. The Burzil, 13,500 feet, and the Rajdiangan, 11,600 feet, are two most difficult passes, most dangerous to cross in winter. In the Burzil in severe weather the snow will lie to a depth of 20 feet. The chief causes of damage to the line are breakdowns from the accumulation of snow on the wire and avalanches. The first is guarded against, as far as possible, by planting posts close together and using steel wire in the most exposed places. But nothing can withstand an avalanche if it comes down across the line of route. Shelter huts are built at short intervals for the use of repairing parties. When once the winter sets in, the stations are cut off from the outer world except by wire. Two white men, with a suitable staff of native linemen and subordinntes, are stationed at each office, and made as comfortable as circumstances will permit. They are fully rationed and equipped with suitable clothing and furnished with snow shoes. Rifles and ammuni- tion for sporting purposes are provided, as well as books and games to enable the men to pass the monotonous hours of the dreary winter months. The telegraph men have no duties to perform except to cut in on the wire at certain hours and satisfy themselves that the line is working and mes- sages are passing between Gilgit and Srinagar. Directly there is an interruption, a repair party sets out, with provisions and bedding. In January last there was a fault near the Minimarg office, and a party of nine khalassis (labourers), one lineman, and the telegraph master left the office at 7 a.m., and reached the break, about two miles out, at 1 p.m. While the men were repairing the line the telegraph master heard the noise of a coming ava- lanche far above them, but he could not see its direction, as the snow was falling heavily. Finding escape impossible, he turned his head away and quietly awaited the result. He remembers, after the avalanche struck him, being carried along at a swift pace downward, sometimes nearly suffocated when he was at the bottom of the rolling mass, and, then thrown to the surface, and then to the bottom again, until the avalanche reached the Burzil stream, a distance of about 300 feet, where it stopped. His body was entirely buried, but his right hand and wrist were free, and in hopes of attracting attention should anybody have escaped, he began shaking his hand. He was almost exhausted, his head being two feet under hard snow, and every muscle in his hody tightly engripped. His senses were leaving hill1, when he felt someone take hold of his hand, and soon his lineman dug him out. He was badly dazed, and the lineman left him to dig out two khalassis, one of whom was completely buried except the crown of his head, while the other, who was found to be uncon- scious, bad a foot visible. Two men who were thrown to the surface were running about, crying and wring- ing their hands. Another of the labourers was dis- covered buried head foremost, with one foot showing, but life was extinct. Four others were buried in the avalanche beyond recovery, and there was absolutely nothing found of the equipment the party bad taken out with them. The prompt and plucky action of the lineman, Sarfarez Khan, saved three lives.
ADVISING A MILLIONAIRE. A good story is being told at the expense of a great, wise, and eminent one on the Liberal Front Bench. When the late Sir Isaac Holden returned to the House of Commons, after a long absence, in 1882, on the death of Lord Frederick Cavendish, a right hon. gentleman who always took a friendly interest in any new member on the Liberal side, hearing vaguely that Mr. Holden was somehow connected with a spinning-jenny, rashly assumed that he was a working-man member, and watched his opportunity of saying something gracious and friendly. Noticing the new member making his modest meal of oranges and apples at the refreshment bar of the House, Ah, Mr. Holden," be kindly said, I see you like fruit. You will find it's very good here. I often eat an orange myself. But, let me put you up to a thing worth knowing. They charge more for oranges at the members' bar than at the public bar in the outer lobby, and yet the oranges they sell to the strangers are quite as good as ours. If you eat much fruit you will find it makes a considerable difference at the end of the session." Mr. Holden politely thanked his adviser, who went away smiling with conscious benevolence, believing that he had been giving a really valuable piece of advice which would help a working-man to eke out his weekly salary. On his emotions when he dis- covered that he had been counselling a millionaire it were kinder to draw a veil, for he was a man who had a proper respect for wealth "nd its possessors.
A BRAZILIAN FANATIC. Brazil has (so the Sketch says) got hold of a fanatic, Antonio Conselheiro." His real name is Antonio Vicente Mendes Maciel, a native of Ceari (north coast of Brazil) he is of white race, sun- burnt, thin, of little physical vigour, and frequent paroxysms of coughing seem to indicate that he is suffering from organic disease. He wears a long blouse of American blue drill, goes bare-headed, and carries a pilgrim's staff. Long, unkempt hair falls down over his shoulders; his wavy beard is grey, almost white; the deep-set eyes are rarely lifted to glance at anyone; the face is long and of almost corpse-like palior; a grave demeanour and the air of a penitent give him, in fine, that appearance which has contributed not a little to deceive and attract the simple and ignorant people of the interior of Brazil. Among the disciples who form the guard of honour of the fanatic are Joao Abbade, a criminal who has perpetrated two homicides, and Jos6 Venaneio, who is said to have killed 12 persons. They all wear shirt, trousers, and blouse of American blue drill, a cap of the same colour, and on their feet coarse sandals of jute or hemp.
MUSIC AND MUSICIANS. Young Siegfried Wagner, the great composer's only son, has made an extraordinary speech concern- ing the Wagner Festival. He said: "The French have always been our most zealous adherents; and now, as always, the principal supporters of Bay- reuth are French, American, and British. Moreover, the English shame in every way the Germans, who, as regards the good cause, are supine, while the German Press are antagonistic. But it can continue to be so, for the more it abuses us the greater is our success. You can also see now what a miserable state German music and German musicians are in. At present, what are our national high schools of mueic doing for us and our cause, and what have they done ? Nothing. If they ever occu- pied themselves with the works of my father, they did it, not out of conviction, but because they had to, because they would have disgraced themselves if they had stuck to their craziness or spitefulness. Get along with your Germans and Germanism! If it depended on them the existence of our Festspiele would long since have been endangered.
THE courteous burgomaster ot Uordrectit, wnicn Queen Wilbelmina and the Queen Regent of the Netherlands have just visited, likened Queen Emma, in the course of a pompous speech, to William the Silent-a compliment, surely, that few others of her sex could claim. I.
AMERICAN HUMOUR. CIIICAGO is a queer town," remarked a Detroit lawyer who had been out there during the fair. How ?" inquired a listener. In its views of law and enforcement thereof. During my visit there a man stole 500dol. in cash, and, though there were at least 50 people to testify against him and plenty of lawyers to prosecute him, I'll be blamed if he didn't get off scot free." Aw, come off," exposulated the listener; there's some catch to that." No, there isn't or wasn't," protested the narrator. They couldn't catch him in the crowd, and he escaped. See ?" BANKS (flicking off the ashes with his little finger): Yes, I smoke a good deal. A cigar is company for a fellow when he's lonesome." Rivers (raising the window): You must have been hard up for com- panionship when you lit that one." I WONDER why Miss Lightop wears that trying shade of green ?" Mercy, it's because it is difficult to match and gives her such a magnificent chance to go shopping." ELOISK I can't make out whether that man I talked with last night was an Englishman or not." Helene: Did he talk with a marked English accent and bitterly denounce everything American ?" Eloise "Yes, that's exactly what he did. Helene: Then he's an American." A COSTERMONGER, meeting one of his own fraternity the other day whose pony might be considered a beautiful specimen of a skeleton, remonstrated with the owner and asked him if he ever fed him, Ever feed him ? That's a good un!" was the reply. He's got a bushel and a half of oats at home now, only he ain't got any time to eat 'em MRS. DIBBs (on a call) "Goodness! Has a cyclone struck your parlour ? Everything upset and that beautiful alabaster vase smashed to pieces Mrs. Squibbs: II Oh, you know, Mr. Squibbs is a handy man about the house. He just thought he'd economise by doing a little mending himself." DEALER: "You say you used to be in the shoe business. What do you think of these?" Customer (looking at the sample): "I can't say. You see, they only made shoes out of leather in my time." MODISTE Haf you look over ze new-fashion plates I send you ?" Lady Yes, very carefully." And vat you decide ?"' I have made a composite photograph of them all, and I wish you to make my dress look as much unlike it as possible." LITTLE Roger had gone into the country for the first time, and his grandfather had taken him out to see the colt. There, Roger," said the old gentle- man, did you ever see such a little horse as that ?" Roger never had, and his eyes shone, but there was one drawback. What's the matter with him, grand- pa ?" he said. He hasn't any rockers ?" W HAT will you do when you are grown up, Toto?" I shall be a soldier." But you will run the risk of being killed." By whom ?" "By the enemy." Toto, after a moment's reflection: Then I'll be the enemy." DR. EHWARI) PAYSON, the beloved minister of a church in Portland in the first part of our century, was a preacher who could present the truth intrusted to him with a wise skill and tenderness of feeling calculated to disarm the most prejudiced foe. Even in administering a rebuke he was ever tactful and gentle, and one instance of such care is often related of him. What makes you blush so?" said a reck- less fellow in the stage to a plain country girl who was receiving the mail bag at the postoffice from the hand of the driver. Dr. Payson, who sat near him and had been until this moment unobserved, gave the girl no time to answer. Perhaps," he said gently, it is because some one spoke rudely to her when the stage was along here the last time." c A cuiuous illustration of what may be called illogical logic is reported by a gentleman who had to wait a long time at a railroad ticket office for the clerk at the window to get ready to wait on him. Come, come said the would-be passenger, grow- ing impatient at last, I've been here at this window five minutes!" That's nothing," said the clerk. I've been here eight years, and I never found fault about it yet." SWELL OF THE PERIOD Oh doctor, I have sent for you certainly still I must confess I have not the slightest faith in modern medical science." Doctor Oh, that doesn't matter in the least. You see, a mule has no faith in the veterinary surgeon, and yet he cures him all the same." I XOTICE" said the editor to the novelist, that in every chapter you refer to the hero as having an 'elastic step.' Why do you do this?" I. Why-er- you see, he's one of these cautious men who never go outdoors without wearing overshoes." A NEAR-SIGHTED girl happened to pass a furnishing store and to glance at the show window. She checked a scream and said to her companioh: "Oh, please come here and relieve my suspense." How ?' Tell me what I am looking at, boa-constrictors or' bicycle stockings' MOTHER," said Mrs. Smarton, "says the smell of stale tobacco makes her sick." Ah!" said Mr. Smarton, filling his pipe. So she has concluded, she says, that she will stay until she gets used to it, if it takes her all the summer." JOHN," said the father who had just listened to his son's commencement oration, "I hope the man that you are going to take a position with didn't hear you read that piece." Why not ? I thought it was that you are going to take a position with didn't hear you read that piece." Why not ? I thought it was first-rate." "Itwasfine. I'm afraid that if he finds out how much more you know than he does, he'll get jealous and won't want you in the same business with him." ''So you want to marry Fred, do you?" said the father. Yes, papa," replied the daughter, with her arms about his neck. And go away and leave me alone ?" "Why, no, papa; I know Fred will be willing to leave mamma with you I" YOU'RE charged with riding through the city at more than ten miles an hour," said the judge sternly. Where are you from ?" Philadelphia, your honour." Then the accusation is preposterous. You can go." VISITOR Why, how big you are growing, Tommy if y0U don't look out you will be getting taller than your father." Tommy Won't that be jolly ? Then pop'll have to wear my old trousers cut down for him." ENRAGED SUBSCRIBER: Is the redheaded hyena that edits this paper in Office Boy: Yes, eir." E. S. (c oling off) Confound it! Why, a fellow just told me he was out!" jus I RELIEVE in trying to put as good a face as pos- sible on everything in times like these, Maria," said Mr. BIlJus, looking again at the bill that had just been brought in, but it does seem to me that 3.75dol, for complexion wash in one month is putting it on little too thick FATHER. "The idea of marrying that young fellow. He couldn't scrape enough money together to buy a square meal." Daughter But what difference need that make ? We haven't either of us had a bit of appetite for months." Nono "I've got an engagement with my wife to meet her on this corner at two" (looking at his watch). It's two now. Todd (married himself) "What time do you expect her ?" MERCHANT "Why the deuce don't you shut the door ?" Insurance Agent: Do you think I'm fool enough to cut off my retreat ?" "WHAT'S the matter wid yer, anyhow?" asked Meandering Mike. "Yer acts like yar was goin' ter cry." I d' no," replied Plodding Pete. Maybe I am. I've been thinking uv my wasted life, and I'm homesick." Homesick Well, I don't know but what it's natural. I'm gittin' kind o' that way my- self. We hain't neither uv us been inside uv a gaol fur more'n six months." MARK HAM is wretchedly absentminded." What's he been doing now?" Went out to dine yesterday and apologised profusely at the end of the dinner for the poorness of the spread." f.. (. t :1
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