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THE EARNINGS OF THE WORKING…

MORTALITY IN THE MERCHANT…

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MORTALITY IN THE MERCHANT SERVICE. The rate of mortality in the British Mercantile Marine is a subject which has especial interest at the present time. Attention has been called to the un- satisfactory nature of the materials which now exist for the calculation of such a death-rate. The Par- liamentary return annually furnished by the Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen is made up from a return of accounts of wages and effects of seamen (exclusive of masters) dying before the termination of the voyage, received by the Board of Trade." The return includes the deaths of most sea- men who die ashore in foreign countries after bein<i' discharged from their ships, but does not include the deaths occurring in the United Kingdom after diacltargc. The causes of death, more- over, which are in the Parliamentary return classed under thirty-nine headings, are for the most part assigned by the masters of the vessels; their value for statistical purposes could not, therefore, be easily underrated.. As regards the death-rate from all causes, calculated upon a strength which varied during the four years, 187.9-82 between 192,903 and 195,937, it was 190 per 1000 in 1879, and has since increased to 21'2 in 1880, 23'1 in 1881, and 23'8 in 1882. From the nature of the service, which necessitates a certain selection of men at the commencement of each voyage, and which loses sight of those whose health will not allow of re- engagement. it is patent that no materials exist for the calculation of a death-rate that can be com- pared with the death-rate of landsmen. With regard to the mortality from violence, including drowning and other forms of accidental deaths, the facts given are probably more trustworthy. The return alluded to shows that 3453, or nearly 75 per cent. of the 4659 deaths from all causes in 1882 were the result of violence: the deaths from violent causes were 2945 in 1880 and 3178 in 1881, showing a steady inscrease during these three years. These deaths included 2654 from drowning in 1880, 2905 in 1881, and 31<77 in 1.882. From the Board of Trade statistical abstract it appears that in 1878 one seaman in 150 was lost by wreck or otherwise from vessels belonging to the United Kingdom this ratio of loss increased to one in 134 in 1879, one in 98 in 1880, and further to one in 66 in 1881, and one in 61 in 1882. That this steady increase of the loss of life by drowning in the merchant service calls for investigation, few will venture to deny, and most will agree with the Social Science Associa- tion that the unsatisfactory returns of the causes of death at sea afford dangerous facility for the concealment of gross negligence or worse, which had it occurred on land would almost inevitably be the 1 subject of inquiry before aeoroner. It is not so easy to provide a remedy for the present evil. The satis- factory medical registration of causes of death at sea in the absence both of the body and of any medical evidence, appears to suggest almost insuperable diffi- culties. There does not, however, appear to be the same difficulty in the way of an inquiry into the cir- cumstances attending all deaths occurring during a voyage, to be held before the crew is paid off. There can be no question that some such form of inquiry should be devised with a view to diminish the present high rate of mortality in the British mercantile marine.- Laizeet.

A GEORGIA SNAKE.

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PROPOSED AMENDMENTS IN THE…

GREAT LIBRARIES.

COLD AND HEAT NEAR THE POLES

------THE FISHERMAN IN INDIA.

THE SHIPBUILDING TRADE.

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CHINESE CHEAP LABOUR.

TRIMMING THE FEET OF ELEPHANTS.

—— IAN AID TO LONGEVITY.

THE NEW FRENCH SETTLEMENT.

SPORT IN THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.

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---------AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION…

MINISTERIAL RESPONSIBILITY…

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