THE VITALITY OF SEEDS. The Erenint/Standard has an article on" Seeds and Seed-Sowing." from which we take the follow- Seeds vary very greatly in respect to the tinio for which they retain their vitality. It has been asserted by very respectable authorities that the kidney bean will crow after it has lain by for a century; on theother hand the coffee berry perishes if not sown almost im- mediately after it has ripened. We used to be familiar with extraordinary stories about" mummy wheat," which was said to have germinated after lying in the palms of Egyptian mummies for some forty centuries. Careful investigation, however, proved pretty clearly that it was not the corn taken from sarcophagi that grew, but fresh grains that had been mixed with it. In one case, at least, the phenomenon was accounted for by the old grains having been gathered into a common Alexandrian corn jar in which no doubt a few fresh grains had been overlooked. Belief in 111111,1111V wheat" has been entirely discarded by scientific men, though the vitality of the grain under conditions of temperature, drought, and moisture which would kill most seeds, is allowed to be very great. Something of the same tenacity of life as that formerly ascribed to the catacomb wheat has also been ascribed to other kinds of seeds. The well- known botanist, Dr. Lindley, for instance, in one of his works says I have at this moment three plants of raspberries before me which have been raised in the garden of the Horticultural Society from seeds taken from the stomach of a man whose skeleton was found thirty feet below the surface of the earth, at the bottom of a burrow which was opened near Dor- chester. He had been buried with some coins of the Emperor Hadrian II. It is, therefore, pro- bable that the seeds were sixteen or seventeen hundred years old.' It has been demonstrated however, that the raspberry seed has no such tenacity of life, and we believe those who looked a little more closely into the matter came to the conclusion that Dr. Lindlev's assertion was based on insufficient evi- dence. A series of observations carried out under the auspices of the British Association some years ago afforded good reason to believe that the life of seeds can never be thus protracted. Nearly :300 genera were tried, and the great majority lost their germinating power by the end of ten years; 20 were still alive at the end of 20 years, and only two at the end of 40 years. De Candolle tested 368 varieties of seeds, and only 17 of them grew after lying by for 15 years; and even they produced only one or two plants for every 20 seeds. Experiments seem to show that seeds generally deteriorate by being kept, though now and then that deterioration manifests itself in a manner of which the floriculturist is glad to avail himself. It has been said. for instance, that balsam seeds, if kept a little while, will be more likely to produce double flowers than if sown as soon as taken from the plant or the following spring. There are, however. a great many seeds which inevitably perish if not sown the season following their production. The China aster, for in- stance, must be sown the first spring after gathering, or will be of no use. As a general rule it is, no doubt, best to get a fresh supply of seed from a respectable seedsman every year, and to make some sort of use of all that is obtained. It is a mistake to sow too thickly. It is a waste of seed, and it enfeebles the plants. It is better to sow thinly, and what is not required may be given away or exchanged: or perhaps, better still, may be devoted to the embellishment of waste spaces in the open country. Few persons have any idea of the extent to which our fields and woods have been enriched by foreign flowers since we began to import cargoes from all the ends of the earth; and there is really no reason why that which has been done to so large an extent by the unintentional importation of flower seeds m grain and other cargoes, should not be done on a still larger scale by the intelligent efforts of the lovers of flowers. Every season we have an out-ry that the country round many of our large towns- more particularly London is being denuded of its wild tlowers and ferns. If those who cry out would only take a little pains to counteract the mischief, the OT thing would easily be done. When George the Third was told that the public admitted to one of his gar- dens pulled up his flowers. Oh, well," he said, put some more in." That is the most satisfactory method of preventing woods and fields in the vicinity of towns from being stripped of their primroses and bluebells, violets, and ferns. Let those who deplore it make a point of never going abroad in the haunts of these rural beauties without putting into their pockets a little seed to be sprinkled in suitable places, and if amateur gardeners would only devote their surplus stores to the enrichment of the country lanes, many surprising results might be attained. Of course, a great many of our garden favourities could not be propagated as wildlings, but many of them could by a little perseverance and though, of course, they would degenerate, that is no good reason for not trying to establish them. Numbers of the wild flowers that afford us so much pleasure are garden flowers that have escaped into the woods and have degenerated, some of them out of all recognition.
WEALTH IN ICE. Is there any money in the ice business?" "Yes, sir," he began; "I began at the beginning and worked my way up. Ten years ago I was a spudder at 1 dol. 50c. a day, and now any bank in the city will honour my draft for 100,000dols., and every dollar of it was made in the ice business." 1; So there is money in it. then ? Well, somewhat. I'm feeling pretty good myself, just now, and I don't mind giving you a few figures to prove that an ice-pond is first cousin to the United States mint." "Let me see. We will take my smallest house to figure on." He fished a stub of lead pencil out of his pocket and began figuring on the smooth table top. "My smallest ice-house will hold 11,(X)0 tons of ice. Put that down—11,000. So. Twenty-five ice- cutters will cut and pack that house full to the roof in six days. We pay those men an average of 2 dols. a day, which makes two times twenty-five, which is TlO dols. a day for six days, which is six times 50 dols., which is 300 dols. In addition to those twenty-five men, I have three horses at work, worth, perhaps, 7 dols. per d!iy, together, which is 42 dols. for tho six davs. Add this to the 300 dols., and 342 dols. as the cost of labour for housing 11,000 tons of ice. The interest on the capital invested, taxes, insurance, occasional repairs, topis, etc., will amount to perhaps 300 dols. ixiore-a: very liberal estimate- which we will add to the 342 dols. before found, we have 642 dols. as the. sum total of tins cost of our harvest. I sold the contents of that house, in a lump, at 1-45 dols. a ton, last spring, just as it lay-the buyer to get it out and ship it at his own expense. Eleven thousand tons, at 145 dols. a ton, is-145 times 11,000. One hundred and forty-five times 11,000 gives us 15,930 dols. as the value of our crop. Taking 642 dols. expenses, we have 15,308 dols. clear profit for one season on the contents of one house. Some seasons it is more, some less. But I have yet failed to get a full crop and to sell it at good figures." "What would that ice sell for at retail ? It retailed last summer at thirty cents a hundred w1 I h would bring the value of my 11,000 tons up to 66.000 dols. But in retailing ice there is a great deal of waste, as well as expense in delivery, so that I prefer to sell wholesale at one-fourth retail rates." Even then owning a house and pond is rather better than spudding at 1'50 dols. a day ? A trifle. With me it is, perhaps, 20,000 dols. a season better. -Detroit Free Press.
THE DURATION OF LXFS.—In ancient Rome, during the period between 200 and 300 A.D., the average duration of life among the upper classes was 30 years. In the present century, among the same classes of people, it amounts to 50 years. In the sixteenth century the mean duration of life in Geneva was 20-21 years, between 1814 and 1833 it was 40-68 years, and at the present time as many people live to /0 years of age, as 300 years ago lived to the age of 43. In the year 1693 the British Government borrowed money, the amount borrowed to be paid in annuities, on the basis of the mean duration of life at that time. The State Treasury made thereby a good bargain, and all parties to the transaction were satisfied. Ninety- seven years later Pitt established another tontine or annuity company, based on the presumption that the mortality would remain the same as 100 years before. But in this instance it transpired that the Govern- ment had made a bad bargain, since, while in the first tontine 10,000 persons of each sex died under the age of 28, a hundred years later only 5772 males and 6416 females died under this age. From these facts it appears that life under certain favourable influences has gained in many and probably in all its forms and manifestations, both in figure and duration.
DEATH FROM STARVATION. An inquest was held at the Union Workhouse, Patricroft. on Tuesday, on the body of James Higham, aged 79, who was found starved to death in an old ditch at Monton Green, shortly before ten o'clock on Sun- day morning, by a youth named Moore. The deceased, who has been an inmate of the workhouse for about ten vears, obtained leave of absence on Saturday from 8.30* a.m. to 6.0 p.m. He was seen rambling about the same evening, and it is supposed that he must have obtained some drink, and got into a muddled con- dition, as deceased pulled his clothes off with the in- tention of going to sleep, and when found he had nothing on but his shirt. When discovered he was seen to move his arms, but on being taken to the Union hospital was quite dead.
LORD R, CHURCHILL ON TEMPER ANCE. Lord R. Churchill, writing to a correspondent, says The great temperance movement is the most important popular effort in the direction of a more refined civilisation which his been witnessed sincQthe days of Wesley. At the same time the evil with which it seeks to deal and the reform which it aspires to effect, appear to bo at the present moment environed by obstacles and complications which iiiialit, except under very peculiar circumstances, make it extremely difficult for the Legislature to co- operate with temperance reformers as effectually as we should all wish. I believe that the efflux of time and the developing intelligence of the nation will guide Parliament in a beneficial direction. Those who, like myself, sympathise most heartily with the resolution of people" to free themselves from the evils of a too unrestricted traffic in spirituous liquors, should be careful not to provoke the hostility of powerful interests by a premature and unwarrantable attack on the general demands of commerce and of labour, or legally recognised and established right."
THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. A meeting of the council of the Royal Agricultural Society was held on Wednesday at the society s rooms, Hanover-square. London, Sir Brandreth Gibbs, presi- dent, occupying the chair. Before proceeding with the ordinary business, the president, alluding to the death of her Majesty's youngest son, said that during a long period the Queen and the Prince of Wales had manifested a marked interest in the society, and, therefore, he felt sure the council would desire to offer its sympathy as expressed in the following reso- lution, which he begged to move, viz.: The council desires to express its deep and respectful sympathy with her Majesty the Queen, with their Royal High- nesses the Duchess of Albany, the Prince of Wales, and the rest of the Royal Family at the lamented death of his Royal Highness Prince Leopold Duke of Albany." This was seconded by Mr. Dent and carried unanimously. Subsequently 331 new members were elected. Re- ports of various standing committees were received and adopted, and the Special Sub-Committee on Pro- duction of Meat brought up a preliminary report. o The entries in the implement department of the forth- coming show at Shrewsbury have just closed. The exhibition promises to be large and successful.
Ax EPISCOPAL WIG.The first episcopal effort put forth bv Bishop Blomfield was an attempt to per- suade the King to dispense with wigs on the heads of bit hops. But George IV. was conservative, and would not permit the discontinuance of the episcopal wig, and, in fact, it was not dispensed with until the reign of William IV., when the abolition of the trouble- some clerical environment was brought about by Sir George Sinclair, the intimate friend of William IV. Sir George was staying with the 'King on a visit to Brighton, when he went up to Fulham Palace to visit Doctor Blomfield after his elevation to the bishopric of London. He asked the Bishop whether he could deliver any message from him to the King. The Bishop jocularly replied, You may present my duty to his Majesty, and say at this tropical season I find my episcopal wig a serious incumbrance, and I could wish that he would not consider me guilty of a breach of Court-etiquette if induced to lay it aside." Sir George repeated the message at dinner for the amusement of the King, who, however, took it up seriously, and replied, Tell the Bishop he is not to wear a wig on my account; I dislike it ItS much as he doe3, and should be glad to see the whole bench wear their own hair." Bishop Blomfield took the hint, other bishops followed his example, and so the wig was discontinued. A PIECE OF JUDICIAL ADVIC E.—A Highlctndman was tried for a capital offence, and had rather a narrow escape; but the jury found him Not guilty." Whereupon the judge, in discharging, thought fit to admonish him. Prisoner, before you leave the bar, let me give you a piece of advice. You have got off this time, but if ever you come before me again, I'll be caution (surety) you'll be hanged." Thank you, my lord," answered Donald—"thank you for your good advice and, as I'm na ungratefu' I beg to gie your lordship a piece of advice in return. Never be caution for onybody; for the cautioner has often to pay the penalty I've lost a patient," said a doctor, sitting down to a boarding-house dinner table, with a frown on his face as dark as a gunpowder poultice. I'm sorry to hear it. Man or woman ? asked one of the boarders. Man." When did he die ? Die, hang him, he's not dead. He stopped taking my medicine, got well, and ran away without paying the bill."
THE "WORLD" LIBEL CASE. On Wednesday, in the Court of Queen's Bench, before the Lord Chief Justice, Mr. Justice Watkin Williams, and Mr. Justice Cave, Mr. Edmund Yates, of the World newspaper, came up to receive sentence on a criminal information filed against him for a libel on the Earl of Lonsdale, published in that journal on the 19th of January, 1883. The defendant had pleaded guilty, and judgment was now given with- out their having had any trial. Affidavits of the Earl of Lonsdale and others on the one side, and of Mr. Edmund Yates on the other, were read by Master Mellor in reference to the libel, which was as follows: A strange story is in circulation in certain sporting circles concerning the elopement of a young lady of very high rank and noble birth with a young peer whose marriage was one of affection, but whose wife has unfortunately fallen into a delicate state of health. The elopement is said to have taken place on the hunting-field. The young lady, who is only one or two and twenty, is a very fair rider, and the gentleman a master of hounds." Defendant was sentenced to four months' imprison- ment, but judgment was respited on defendant enter- ing into recognizances, himself in £1000, and two of £ 500, pending an application to the Attorney- General for his fiat on a writ of error.
MR. BRADLAUGH AND THE HOUSE OF COMMONS, On Wednesday at the sitting of the Queen's Bench Division, composed of the Lord Chief Justice and Justices Cave and Manisty, the Attorney-General applied that the prosecution instituted by the Crown against Mr. Bradlaugh for having sat and voted in the House of Commons without having subscribed the oath, should be tried at bar, as it was doubtful in law whether, if tried in the ordinary course before a single judge, there could be any appeal from his judgment. Mr. Bradlaugh, who was in court, did not oppose the application, which was granted.
THE GRAN-OMOTIIEU OF QUEENS.—During the troubles in the reign of Charles the First, a country girl came to London in search of a place as servant- maid, but not succeeding she hired herself to carry out beer from a brew-house, and was one of those called tub-women. The brewer, observing a good- looking girl in this low occupation, took her into his family as a servant, and, after a short time, married her but he died while yet she was a young woman, 'and left her the bulk of his fortune. The business of the brewery was dropped, and to the young woman was recommended Mr. Hyde, as a skilful lawyer, to arrange her husband's affairs. Hyde, who was after- ward the great Earl of Clarendon, finding the widow's fortune very considerable, married her. Of this marriage there was no other issue than a daughter, who was afterward the wife of James II., and mother of Mary and Anne, Queens of England. A MOTHER'S FIRMNESS.—" Come here to me," said a firm mother to her son. Didn't I tell you that I'd whip you if you went down town?" "Yessum," standing on one foot. What made you go ? Say!" 4"cause," standing on the other foot. Didn't you know I'd whip you?" "Yessum," showing by his manner that he didn't. I'm a great mind to wear you out. If you go outside the yard again to-day I'll whip you." About ten minutes afterwards she sees the boy playing in the street and calls him. He comes reluctantly. Didn't I tell you I'd whip you if you went outside the yard?" "Yessum." "Why did you do it ?" Cause." You good good for nothing little rascal, I'm a great mind to wear you out. If you go outside this yard again to-day I'll whip you, if it's the last act of my life. Do you hear me?" "Yessum." After a while she sees him playing in the street again. Calls him and says: Never mind. I'll tell your pa when he comee,Detroit Free Press
GREAT FIRE IN LONDON. In London, on Wednesday night, a most disastrous fire broke out in the premises belonging to Messrs. Pardon and Sons, printers, 1, 2, and 3, Lovell's-court, Paternoster-row. The fire originated in the basement portion of the premises, among the machinery. The first to notice it was the watchman, who at once rushed to the adjacent fire alarm, in communication with the Watling-street station of the Metropolitan Fire Brigade. The alarm was given none too soon, for as the flames came from the basement they were drawn with terrific force up the lift space, thus en- dangering the large body of compositors and other men who were engaged in their different duties on the top floor. These, seeing the risk to which they were exposed, at once made a rush for the street, many of them leaving their hats and coats behind them in their hurry to gain a place of safety. That such promptitude was highly necessary was shown by the amazing rapidity with which the flames spread to every part of the house, soon rendering the whole perfectly impenetrable to the members of the Fire Brigade, who were soon on the spot. As might naturally be expected, enormous crowds shortly collected at every point from which a view of the flaming pile might be obtained, but their eagerness was held in proper check by the admirable arrange- ments of the police, who, to the number of nearly 400, kept a clear space for some distance round the scene of the fire. Had it not been for the prompt attendance and strategic positions taken up by the police, by means of which every court and street leading to the fire was guarded, theie can be little doubt that the disaster would have been a much more serious one to record. Even under the favourable circumstances mentioned the firemen had no light task in throwing the vater into the burning buildings or in getting adequate room for their operations in the narrow precincts of Paternoster-row. Once getting a fair hold on the premises of Messrs. Pardon the fire spread with the utmost rapidity over the whole building, and soon afterwards, in spite of the un- tiring exertions of the brigade, attacked the neigh- bouring edifices and gutted many of them. Among those which suffered most were several shops in Ivy-lane those of Mr. Dowsby, tailor, Mr. Poole, a second-hand bookseller, and Messrs. Smith, bookbinders. A notable instance of the utility of keeping fire-extinguishing machines on the premises was afforded by the Religious Tract Society, which has its offices exactly opposite Messrs. Pardon's offices. From the moment the fire began to make headway and to show itself, those living in the house made excellent play on the burning building with the hose attached to their private hydrant, a-ld no doubt helped in a very great measure to get the flames under The fancy goods warehouses of Messrs. Phillips which face on Newgate-street had a narrow escape from destruction, but although some part of them was burnt out, the greater portion of the premises was saved by the iron doors which have been placed throughout the estab- lishment, and which as far as resistance to fire is con- cerned are equal to a party-wall. Like the Tract Society, Messrs. Phillips also keep a hydrant and hose, which proved to be of the greatest service during the time the fire was ragmg. While this was going on considerable apprehension was felt that an accident might occur from the fall of a telephone wire attached to a post resting on the roof of Messrs. Pardon's pre- mises, and which it was quite impossible to gain access to, from the moment of the outbreak of the fire it being wrapped in flames; but, as luck would have it, the flames were eventually extinguished without the dreaded mischance happening. The conflagration took place in a sort of square of narrow courts, bounded on the north by Newgate- street and the General Post-office, on the south by St. Paul's Churchyard, on the west by Paternoster- square, and on the east by Cheapside. The fire was one of the most alarming in its appearance witnessed in London for several years. The dome of St. Paul's Cathedral and the towers of the churches in the neighbourhood were brilliantly illuminated by the flames, and sparks and burning splinters of wood were floating and falling in every direction, to the danger of spectators and the adjacent buildings. Soon after 11 o'clock the flames had been virtually extinguished.
THE CENTRAL CHAMBER OF AGRI CULTURE. The usual meeting of the Central Chamber of Agri- culture was held in London on Tuesday at the Society of Arts. Adelphi, Lord Suffolk, as vice-chairman, presiding at first. Mr. Chaplin, M.P., the chairman, took his usual position after the disposal of the formal business. On the motion of Mr. Chaplin, seconded by Lord Suffolk, a resolution of condolence was passed on the doath of the Duke of Albany. Mr. Long drew attention to the "local taxation victory" won in the House of Commons on the motion of Mr. Pell, and moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Pell. Admiral Duncombe seconded the motion, and made severe comments upon those agricultural members who had not voted in the House for the motion, or had absented themselves from the division. The motion was carried unanimously, and Mr. Pell, who came in shortly afterwards, was received with warm cheers. He briefly acknowledged the vote. The subject of the Contagious Diseases (Animals) Bill was introduced by Mr. Rigby, of Cheshire, who moved—" That this meeting most strongly objects to any alteration of the bill now before the House of Commons to reduce the safeguards against the im- portation of disease;" and having objected to the proposed clause limiting the action of the measure to two years, said that 90 per cent. of the meat con- sumed in this country was raised at home, and that the production could be easily increased by the other 10 per cent. There need be no fear of insufficient supply of animal food if the bill were passed. Mr. C. Smith seconded the motion,^which was adopted. Mr. Priday, of Gloucester, on the subject of internal regulations and tho enforcement of slaughter in out- breaks of foot-and-mouth disease, moved a resolution that the Council would favour the slaughter of dis- eased animals at home when considered expedient, provided the contemplated legislation to prevent the importation of foot-and-mouth disease was sufficiently stringent to effect that object. Mr. Pell, M.P., seconded the motion, and said its adoption would show that the agriculturists were ready to submit to regulations to prevent the spread of the disease at home, Mr. Stratton moved that the local authorities should decide in what cases there should be slaughter. Mr. Lipscombe urged that there should be uniform action and uniform regulations, which he contended could only be carried out by the central authority. Several members argued that the proposed regula- tions should remain in the hands of the local authorities. Mr. Pell was of opinion that to press that the whole of this matter should be placed in the hands of the local authorities would jeopardise the position taken up by the agriculturists in Parliament. Major Harding, of Somersetshire, thought the Con- solidated Fund should bear the cost of the internal slaughter of animals. Mr. Jabez Turner said the Privy Council should be left to make its own regulations, and that the meeting should not give the Government a weapon with which to beat the stock-rearers of the country. He held that the Government should have the task of extirpating the disease, and should pay for the loss caused by stamping it out. After further discussion, in the course of which strong objection was made to the counties being charged with the cost of stamping out disease at home. The Chairman remarked that for the Chamber to adopt the proposal to leave it to the local authorities to decide when there should be slaughter and when there should be no slaughter, would be to adopt a course utterly subversive of the principle of general regulations. He suggested that the resolution should run, This council would view with favour proposals for compulsory isolation and disinfection, and propo- sals for compulsory slaughter, with adequate compen- sation." The amendment by Mr. Stratton was withdrawn, and the resolution, as amended on the suggestion of C,9 the chairman, was adopted nem. con. Major Harding proposed, and Mr. Stratton seconded, that the costs of stamping out the disease should be borno by the Imperial funds, but the reso- lution was afterwards withdrawn, and the chamber adjourned.
"TUE AGRICULTURAL OUT-LOOK." Early-rising Hodge peering through his cottage window, to see what sort of temper the weather has got up in.- Moonshine, j
THE CATTLE DISEASES BILL. On Tuesday Lord Carlingford and Mr. Dodson received at the Privy Council-office a large and influential deputation, who desired to urge upon tha Government "the strong and unanimous feeling of the agricultural interest as to the danger of the amend- ments by which it is proposed to make the Contagious Diseases (Animals) Bill a purely temporary measure, and to weaken the security against the importation of foot-and-mouth disease which is conferred by the terms of the first clause of the bill as it has come down from the House of Lords." Mr. Chaplin, M.P., introduced the deputation, which lie said was not only numerous but representa- tive of forty or fifty counties of the United Kingdom, and every Chamber of Agriculture in the country, as well as agriculturists of all classes and shades of politics. Several members of the deputation having spoken, Lord Carlingford, in reply, said there had been nothing in the shape of a compromise or an arrange- ment between the House of Lords and the Govern- ment with those who succeeded in altering the pro- visions of the bill. He had nothing to complain of as to the peculiar character of the deputation in ask- ing him, on the part of the Government, to give up a certain important amendment given notice of by the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster upon the part of the Government. But that was a question to be decided in the House of Commons. He was thoroughly convinced that even from an agricultural point of view the bill as originally introduced in the House of Lords was sufficient for protection. The bill would give them all necessary protection. With the amendment he believed that it would protect them from foreign disease beyond the point of necessity- (no, no) and to a degree which would un- necessarily interfere with other and great interests. Everything now depended upon the intelligence and energy and vigour of local authorities, and the co- operation of those interested in the matter to prevent ly the disease spreading from the few infected places. The Government were not half-hearted. He did not expect to be contradicted upon that point in that room. The Government were not half-hearted upon the principle of the bill, no matter how much they might differ as to its details. The interview then terminated. A meeting was held on Tuesday night at Prince's Hall, to consider the question raised by the intended amendments to the Government bill. The chair was occupied by Mr. Chaplin, M.P., and amongst those on the platform were the Earl of Suffolk, Lord Moreton, M.P., Colonel Kingscote, M.P., Colonel Stanley. M.P., Sir James Gibson Craig, Mr. C. S. Read, M.P., and Mr. Hastings, M.P. The Chairman, in opening the proceedings, said that the object of the meeting was to provide an opportunity for replying to, and thoroughly refuting the arguments of those who supported the amend- ments to the Government bill. The regulations for the importations of foreign cattle was a matter of such national importance that it should be left to the dis- cretion of no Government at all, but compulsory pro- hibition ought to be dealt with by law. With regard to the exaggerated statements made to the effect that restriction of the importation of cattle would lead to a rise of prices equivalent to 2s. 6d. per lb., he main- tained that never were more untrue or misleading statements made. With regard to the attitude taken by Mr. Forster in this matter, never had that gentleman taken a position upon such weak and hopeless grounds. No one ever yet denied or controverted that even at the very outside interference might cause a difference of more than about 61 per cent. upon the total consump- tion of meat in this country. The main position of the opponents of the proposed legislation was based upon the manner in which it would affect the metro- polis. It had, however, been proved by experience that London did not depend for its supply of meat upon live animals brought from abroad. Within the last twenty years the metropolis had increased in population by upwards of a million people, but, never- theless, the number of live animals imported was smaller than was the case twenty years ago, when the people were a million less in number than at present. How, then, had they been adequately supplied with meat during the last twenty years ? It was evidently upon the supply of dead meat and not live meat that the people of this metropolis depended. Mr Chaplin then read a letter from Mr. Cowen, M.P. expressing his firm conviction, based upon considerable experience, that English stock could never be safe from disease if animals were allowed to be imported direct from infected countries, and in his opinion the entire population were interested in making common cause with the farmer in taking energetic measures to prevent the importation of diseased cattle. Mr. Chaplin pointed out that the opinion of the writer of this letter was that of one who, above all others, could claim to represent the interests of the commoners of this country, and that opinion was one which he (Mr. Chaplin) was prepared to endorse. The Privy Council possessed the power to adopt measures suffi- ciently stringent to meet the case, but they had failed to use the power with which they were invested, and it became, therefore, necessary that we should insist upon having the bill in its entirety as it had come down from the House of Lords. Colonel Kingscote, M.P., moved the first resolution, That in view of the disastrous losses suffered by agriculturists through repeated importation of foot- and-mouth disease, the thanks of the meeting were due to the Government for proposing legislation on the subject, but nevertheless the meeting declares that no measure would be sufficient or effective which possessed merely a temporary character or which failed to impose less definite statutory obligations upon the Privy Council with reference to the impor- tation of live animals from foreign countries than was provided by the bill now before the House of Commons." The hon. member remarked that what was wanted was not, as had been stated in some quarters, protection for meat coming into the country, but protection from disease. Amongst other gentlemen who spoke in support of the resolution were Colonel Stanley, M.P., the Earl of Suffolk, and Mr. C. S. Read. The resolution having been unanimously carried, 11 Mr. Hastings, M.P., moved That in view of the increased home produce both of meat and milk, and of the rapid development of the dead meat trade which must be expected from such legislation, this meeting regards as altogether unfounded any apprehension of restricted supply to the consumer." The resolution having been also carried unani- mously, a vote of thanks to the chairman closed the proceedings.
THE ALLEGED MURDER AT BRIXTON. In London on Wednesday, at the Lambeth Police- court, before Mr. Biron, Q.C., the young man Seymour Boyor Relton was charged on remand with wilfully murdering his mother at 35, Spencer-road, Brixton. Dr. Helsham, of Brixton-road, stated that he saw the body of the deceased on March 18, and he con- sidered the cuts in the throat could not have been self-inflicted. Inspector Barnes, of the W division, said that he went to tho house and told the prisoner he was an inspector of police, and he should take him into custody for the murder of his mother. He replied, I was lying on my mother's bed when my hands went up. I got out of bed, and I think my mother was standing. I looked round and saw her cutting her throat. I took the razor out of her hand, and put a towel over the wound to stop the bleeding." The prisoner was in bed when lie said that, and he told him to get up, which he did. At the desire of Mr. Lewis two or three of the witnesses, who had been already examined, were re- called and questioned by him with a view of showing that the conduct of the prisoner some days prior to alleged murder was such as to justify the opinion that he was of unsound mind, particularly at the time of the tragedy. Harriett Reffin was re-called, and having repeated that the prisoner and his mother were always on the most affectionate terms, said she remembered that in the autumn of last year the prisoner had a fit in church. On one occasion she noticed blood on the prisoner's pillow. He was always exceedingly reserved. Mrs. Boyer was also re-called, and said, in reply to Mr. Lewis, that she had known the deceased for about 30 years, Ho was the only surviving child of the deceased, out of a family of seven. Had heard that the mind of the prisoner in infancy was so weak that it was deemed advisable not to attempt to edu- cate him. At the ago of 13 lie had to be carried up and down stairs. The prisoner's father was dead. He was the brother of the vicar of Ealing, whose son, she believed, was in an asylum. The prisoner was devotedly attached to his mother. She was called by a telegram to the house, which was sent by the prisoner. When sho saw him he seemed very strange, and muttered to himself, There it goes; the blood, the blood." The deceased told witness that the prisoner had fainted. Wit- ness sat up with the prisoner, and throughout the night he muttered strange things, and frequently grasped at his throat. The deceased also told her that the prisoner had said his head was on fire, and that he rushed at her throat and she became insensible. The deceased said she thought the prisoner was mad. She made her promise not to speak of it, but witness, thinking the matter very serious, made the deceased inform the doctor. Witness was fully convinced at that time that the prisoner was not in his right mind. The witness added that the prisoner told her the de- ceased had done it herself. He afterwards said be had got nothing but his dog to love him now, and cried over the dog. The prisoner was a man of consider- able education, and took his first degree at the London University. Dr. Barraclougli, re-called, said that between the Saturday and the day of the tragedy the prisoner was evidently not in his right mind. He had come to the conclusion thatboth the deceased and the prisoner were much upset in mind and body, The evidence having been read over, Mr. Biron gave the prisoner the usual caution, and asked him whether he had anything to say in answer to the charge. Mr. Lewis said he reserved his defence, but was anxious that it should be stated that the prisoner at the time of tho alleged offence, and for some days pre- viously, was in an unsound state of mind. He had several medical gentlemen to call on the point; but as the case was one bound to go for trial, he had decided to defer the evidence until then. The prisoner was then committed for trial.
PRINCE BISMARCKS BIRTHDAY. On Tuesday Prince Bismarck celebrated his 69th birthday amid manifold tokens of esteem and devotion. In the morning he was, as usual, serenaded by two mili- tary bands, and in the course of the day he received thousands of gifts and congratulatory messages from high and low in all parts of Germany, and, indeed, all parts of the world. Princes William and Henry of Prussia, who are both very warm admirers of the Chancellor, personally called to present their felicita- tions, and the number of visitors and card leavers was legion. A slight shadow was thrown over the occa- sion by the illness of Princess Bismarck, who has been confined to bed for some time back. Among the birthday presents received by the Chancellor were the usual 101 plovers' eggs annually sent to him by the Faithful ones of Iver, a village in Lauenburg, At Magdeburg the day was celebrated by the unveiling of a bronze statue of the Chancellor, executed at the cost of a private admirer, and a copy of the one erected at Kissingen, to commemorate his escape from the bullet of Kullinann. This is at least the third statue of the Prince already set up.
ATTEMPTED MURDER AND SUICIDE. A shocking crime was perpetrated by a Swansea tradesman, named Josiah Padley, on Wednesday morning. Padley carried on the business of a fish- monger, and occupied premises Nos. 171 and 172, High-street, Swansea. At an early hour he attempted to murder his wife by cutting her throat. He then committed suicide by hanging. The couple, who were of advanced age, had for some years led a very un- happy life through over-indulgence in drinking. The house had been a constant, scene of turmoil, and the presence of the police had been frequently required. Mrs. Padley was not expected to survive her injuries
ARRESTS OF FENIANS IN IRELAND. The Sligo police made a raid on Tuesday night on Tobercurrv, and arrested eleven men, who are charged with beinc members of a Fenian and Invincible Society. They were taken to Sligo on Wednesday morning, closely guarded, and remanded for eight days. Many outrages recently committed in the locality can, it is said, be traced to them, and several of the band have turned informers. The prisoners are all shopkeepers and small farmers.
EXHIBITIONS AT VIENNA. Two Exhibitions have just been opened at Vienna the Ornithological Exhibition, in the grounds of the Horticultural Society, and the Fat Cattle Show, in St. Mark's Market. Soon after the opening of the former the Crown Prince and Princess, wearing mourninf for the Duke of Albany, arrived to inspect it. They examined the entire exhibition, including the singing and migratory birds, those for sport, and the domestic and aquatic species. The stuffed birds, the hatching apparatus, &c., and the Polar section, with sitting birds from Jan Mayen, collected during the North Polar expedition of Count Wilczek, excited special interest.
CHILD MURDER AND SUICIDE. At an early hour on Tuesday morning a young married woman, named Sarah Blinkho, living in Summer-row, Birmingham, left her home with her infant child nine months old in her arms, and pro- ceeded in the direction of the canal at Spring-hill, where the bodies of mother and child m ere found an hour or two afterwards. The woman was the wife of a coffee-house keeper, and for some weeks past had been in a depressed state of mind owing to business matters. It is alleged that on the previous evening here had been an altercation between Blinkho and his wife in reference to the management of the shop, and it is supposed that she took her husband's words very much to heart. When he awoke between 3 and 4 o'clock he missed his wife from his side and found that she had left the house. A policeman informed him that he had seen Mrs. Blinkho walking in the direction of Spring-hill about half an hour previously, and some one was at once sent after her, but too late. She had seven children, and was known as a steady, sober, and indus- trious woman.
A FEMALE FOOTPAD. The Evening Standard says: Women across the Atlantic are trespassing upon what has hitherto been considered the field of action exclusively reserved for the other sex in a variety of ways. They have taken to the medical profession, the legal profession—even, it seems, to the footpad's profession. It is related that a young German gentleman, travelling in America, arrived lately at Philadelphia, where he remained a few days. He dined one evening with a party of friends, and some hours after midnight started for his hotel in a slightly exhilarated condition. At the corner of a street, just as the young German was pass- ing in front of a church door, a slender figure, wrapped in a long man's overcoat, stepped across his path, and a feminine voice demanded his money, a request which was enforced by the appearance of a pistol the young woman pointed at him. The foreigner, believ- ing she was simply a masquerader, laughed, and replied jestingly to the lady; but he quickly discovered his mistake. The manner of the female highwayman was resolute, her tone of voice determined, and- the pistol was no ornamental weapon, as she speedily con- vinced him. Happily he had but a few dollars about him, which he surrendered, and in return was allowed to go on his way unmolested. The German shortly afterwards met with some policemen; but he con- fessed, when relating his adventure on the following day, that he was ashamed to give an alarm, since, had he not been taken somewhat by surprise, he ought to have been a match for a female foot-pad.
A DAFFODIL CONFERENCE. On Tuesday, Professor Michael Foster presided at a conference held in the conservatory of the Royal Horticultural Society, South Kensington, to discuss the nature and culture of species and varieties of the narcissus. Mr. W. F. Burbridge, illustrating his remarks by reference to enlarged diagrams and draw- ings of the flowers, &c., lent by Mr. J. G. Baker, gave a highly interesting, account of the habits of the tribe, describing the stages by which with artificial and natural hybridization the several types and great num- ber of varieties now known had been obtained. The following resolution was adopted That in the opinion of this conference uniformity and simplicity of nomenclature is most important, and that garden varieties of the narcissus, whether garden varieties or natural seedlings, should be named or numbered in the manner adopted by florists and not in the manner adopted by botanists." In closing the conference Professor Michael Foster said they had spent a very profitable afternoon, and had arrived at one practical result in agreeing that henceforth garden daffodils were not to be called by Latin names. He feared, however, that next autumn they would find daffodil catalogues by no means con- fined entirely to trivial names, and he would suggest that the matter should be considered by a small com- mittee of those most learned in the subject, who should form a jury for the naming of new plants as they came up. The chairman, in concluding, moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Walker, Mr. Barr, Mr. Yeitch, and other growers who, without any offer of awards or prizes, had sent large collections of beautiful flowers to assist the purpose of this conference. The flowers were exhibited in the conservatory. The examples of daffodils, jonquils, and other kinds of narcissuses contributed by Mr. Walker from his gardens at Whit- ton, Middlesex, set out with novel and admirable effect in bunches filling over 200 glasses and number- ing upwards of ninety garden varieties, were remark- able for symmetry of form and delicacy of texture and colour, and Mr. Barr, of Coventgarden, sent a collec- ion including more than 130 varieties of these frag- ant spring flowers.
[From Punch.] IN MEMORIAM. H.R.H PRINCE LEOPOLD, DUKE OF ALBANY. Born April 7, 1853. Lied March 28, 1884. With what a shock of sorrow, what arrest Of a whole Nation's pulse, the tidings fell Like mid-day darkness Young and loved so well A Prince whose ripening promise bore the test, All-searching, of comparison with him Whose passing moved a people to true tears; Whose memory not the fame-defeating years, Nor cold detraction's breath can ever dim. Good Albert's son, in him there seemed again. To live the cultured grace, the golden speech, That won the English heart, and seemed to teach The life of Courts a higher, prouder strain. The golden bough is broken, in mid-Spring The glad leaves fall She who might fondly trace The well-loved father in the son's calm face, Is doubly stricken. Might affection bring, On a great Nation's sorrow-stricken lips, Some comfort to the mother, the young wife Mourning untimely that much-treasured life, Some lessening of the darkness of eclipse, How vocal were our offering! But the gold Of sympathetic silence now seems best, Though many tongues hereafter shall attest Love for the memory of Leopold!
AN ARK-EOLOGICAL QUERY.—" John writes to know how the ark was propelled." We would say to John that the ark was a row-boat, and was propelled by a Noah. FISIl CULTURE.—Professor Cossar Ewart, in the last of a series of lectures on Fishes for Food," in the Hall of the Museum of Science and Art, at Edin- burgh, referred more particularly to salmon. The lecturer described Howieton hatcheries and breeding ponds, near Stirling, where provision was made for hatching 2,400,000 eggs, and where 90 per cent, sur- vived the process. The fish in the ponds eat three horses in a week. The lecturer strongly deprecated I having the hundreds of acres of water lying barren when they might be made to yield an abundance of fish, the stock being kept up from artificial hatcheries.
THE CONDITION OF THE LONDON POOR. In London, on Wednesday, a conference of religious bodies upon the condition of the London poor was opened at the Memorial Hall, Farringdon-street. Sir W. M'Arthur, M.P., who presided, in the pro- ceedings, said that he looked upon the Conference of 's religious bodies upon the condition of the London poor as an exceedingly happy thought. The attention of the public had been called to the state of London in a way in which it had never been called before, and for this he thought they were greatly indebted to a pamphlet which had been published under the title of "Outcast London," various organisa- tions had been commenced in relation to the matter, but bad all London was it would have been infinitely worse if it had not been for the efforts of the religious bodies, and that must be taken into account in considering the present condition of the poor. Too much praise could not be given to the London City Missions, whose missionaries visited from house to house, and exercised a beneficial in- fluence upon the London poor. The churches, so far as they could, had been doing good, but they had but very little opportunity, and he there- fore thought it wise that the religious bodies should meet, in order to organise some concerted action which would have a retlex influence which would tell powerfully upon other organisations. They could not 11 y conceal from themselves the fact that in this Christian London there were upwards of a million people who never entered a place of worship. Then as to the social condition of the poor, a gentleman writing to the press said that there were 10,490 families in the Fins- bury division of the London School Board who occupied only one room each. They had therefore to take into account the best means of meeting the low social condition of the masses, as well as of improving their religious condition. One thing was greatly in their favour, and that was the facility for approaching the people. He believed there was a disposition on the part of the poor to receive the Gospel if it was offered to them. One thought must impress every thinking mind, and that was, Z, what was to be the condition of England ? They were about to have an extension of the franchise, and it was right that their fellow countrymen should have it, but with it came the great problem for the Church to solve—how best to bring the poor under the influence and power of the Gospel. That was the only means of effectually accomplishing the object they had in view. It was a melancholy fact, lie thought, that during the last year no less a sum than E125,477,275 had been ex- pended in this country in intoxicating drink. That was one of the great evils they had to encounter. The Rev. A. Mearns maintained that there was no exaggeration in the statement put forward in The Bitter Cry." Ho said that there were half a million people in London living in single rooms, in some of which there were as many as seven, eight, or ten people. A great many people, particularly in the west and north-west of London, still live in cellars- a state of things which ought not be permitted. While admitting that common lodging-houses had. 'Tiproved, he said that there was still much room for improvement, particularly in the living rooms. He thought that the kitchens for the women should be separated from those of the men, as the association of men, women, and children under all circumstances led to in1 morality.
THE CREMATION QUESTION. In London, on Tuesday, a meeting of the City Commission of Sewers was held at Guildhall, Mr. Rose Innes presiding.. Mr. Tickell, pursuant to notice, moved That it be referred to the Sanitary Committee to consider whether it was not advisable that a proper crematorium should be erected at the Ilford Cemetery in order that the public might adopt that mode of sepulture should they so wish, and that they report on the same at an early meeting of the Commission." He pointed out that in the metropolis there were 100,000 deaths annually, and these bodies were all buried in surface soil around London; so that in a generation of thirty years 3,000,000 of bodies were interred near to the dwellings of the living. Sir Spencer Wells had said that it took twenty years for a body to resolve itself into its original elements, and they had therefore always 2,000,000 of bodies beneath their feet under- going harmful decay and occasioning danger to the living by the pollution of the water supply and the atmospheric germination of disease. Mr. Malthouse seconded the resolution, as being well worthy of con- sideration and investigation, and it was carried with- out opposition.*
"Joseph," said an uncle to his nephew, don't you feer leave the old farm." "I won't," answered Joseph; "when I go to the city I'll take the old varm with me—or, at least, all that's left of its pro* ceeds." j. t