THE PRINCE OF WALES AND ENSILAGE. On Ionclay evening the Prince of Wales presided over a meeting of the Institute of Agriculture, held in the Lecture-hall at the South Kensington Museum, when Mr. Woods delivered a lecture, before a most crowded audience, upon the question of "Ensilage,- its influence on British Agriculture." Among those present were Lord Aberdeen, Lord Denbigh, Lord Wimborne, Lord Aberdare, Lord Monson, Lord ^Sudelev, the Marquis of Huntly, Lord Henniker, Lord Penrhyn, Lord Reay, Lord Harris, and Sir Brandretli Gibbs, the President of the Royal Agricul- tural Society. After referring to the import ant place in British agriculture which the silo system is destined to occupy, Mr. Woods pointed out the modes in which ensilage must revolutionise our husbandry in the breeding ancl grazing of live stock both for the dairy and for the butcher. Our humid climate, although it favours the development of green fodder crops, has hitherto rendered absolutely unavoidable great annual loss in the process of securing them. By the silo this waste may be entirely avoided. Of late years many poor, cold, clay lands have gone out of cultivation, and. as the result of the loose manage- ment to which failing occupiers have had recourse, common couch and other coarse grasses have got the lead, and it would cost a small fortune to clear these soils and render them fit for corn growing or for being properly laid down to pasture. The silo, however, will convert such coarse grasses into useful fodder, and give some return, even though the cultivation be restricted to the stubbing of thistles and obnoxious weeds. Ordinary worthless grasses become in a degree more valuable from the changes which they undergo in the silo. Thus, coarse couch-like grass grown under trees in an open oak wood at Merton have been converted into excellent ensilage. It was given to cows in November, was greatly relished by them, and had a satisfactory influence on their milk. The woody fibre being softened is rendered more easy of assimi- lation. Ensiled herbage is, in fact, more nutritious than fresh; and there being less demand upon an animal's powers of mastication and digestion, there is less waste of food. Mr. Woods stated that for the purpose of ensiling expensive buildings and appliances are unnecessary. An old disused barn is quite sufficient for practical utility. An oblong structure thoroughly air-tight is all that science requires for the success- ful storage of green fodder. At Merton it has been found that a simple mechanical contrivance in the form of a small super-silo obviates the necessity for reopening to fill again and make up the loss arising from shrinkage during a few days after the first fil- ling. Mistakes have been made in the preparation of salt mixed with the grass, —the quantity should be about three-quarters of a pound, and in no case more than one pound to each cwt. of fodder. Bran is the best covering but it should be laid upon, and not under, the which the eiisilage. As to weighting, different opinions are held; but here, a mean is a sound and safe rule. The weight should not exceed 70lb. to the square foot superficial. The portable super-silo is a valuable appliance; for the silo being closed and weighted once for all, the fermentation goes on without a check, and there is formed but one crust or layer of slightly deterior- ated material. After describing the plan of ramming and weighting followed at Merton, the lecturer re- ferred to the ensiling of long grass, stating that he had seen nothing to induce him, on the ground of economy, convenience, or utility, to alter his plan of chaffing all material before putting it into the silo. lie described at length a series of very valuable trials which lie had conducted to ascertain what crops can be most profitably cultivated for ensilage, taking the value of ensilage at the low estimate of £ 1 0s. 8d. per ton, or one-third the value of hay. An acre of heavy meadow grass produced 12 tons of ensilage, and the same quantity made into hay weighed 2 tons 7cwt. Deducting the incidental expenses in both cases, with an allowance on account of rent and tithe, and interest on the first cost of the silo, the balance of profit on the hay came out L.5 19s. lOd.; on the ensilage Elo 15s. 3d.; showing in favour of the ensilage over hay a balance of £ 4 15s. 5d. per acre. Buck-wheat has been tested as an ensilage plant, and its value as such compared with its ordinary value as a seed crop. The weight of ensilage from it was eight tons per acre, and the harvested crop yielded four quarters of grain per acre. In tlio lirst case, the net returns were X4 15s. 9d. in the latter, £ 2 7s. Gd. -giving a balance of £ 2 8s. tl. in favour of ensiled buckwhoat or brank. A similar comparison between ensiled and harvested oats showed a balance of £4 19s. lid. per acre m favour of the ensilage. In siloing oats there is a further advantage gained, as, when cut in a green state, the crop does not exhaust the land to the same extent aa when left to mature. Moreover, the ground is cleared so early, that common turnips can be sown at once to be ready for consumption on the land in the following spring. On light, sandy soils, spurry (■<pcrgula arcensis) may be profitably cultivated; and an experimental crop grown at Merlon, under Lord Walsinghani's direction, yielded a most excellent food for sheep and cattle. On twenty acres of blowing sand, so poor in quality that it had seldom produced either corn or roots, and was for the last two or three years abandoned to a state of nature, spurry gave 5^ tons per acre; the ensilage came out in excellent order, and sheep and cattle fed upon it, mixed with straw chaff, preferred it to grass ensilage. The trial was so satisfactory that arrangements have bet)n made to seed upwards of 120 acres for the present year. A crop of maize grew from 7ft. to 9ft. high, and some of the stems were 5in. in circum- ference, the weight of crop being no less than twenty- eight tons per acre. The changes in constituents due to fermentation in the silo altered the woody fibre so that the stems and knots could be pressed into pieces by the thumb and finger. The maize gave a net return of £:2u 9s. 6d. per acre. and a, crop of swedes grown side by side gave only £4 10s. 9d. per acre, showing the very large balance of £15 18s. 9d. per acre in det.-iied 0 favour of the maize. Mr. Woods then detailed the highly satisfactory results which lie has found from feeding cows and sheep with ensilage mixture. A valuable suggestion was then thrown out that a large trade may probably be done in supplying town dairy- men and cow-keepers with ensilage in casks, as a sixty gallon cask will hold thirty-one ton weight of the preserved grass. In conclusion, the lecturer expressed the gratitude of agriculturists for the interest which the Prince of Wales manifested in agriculture, and for his presiding at this meeting of the institute. A vote of thanks to the lecturer was carried unani- mously, and Lord Aberdeen, in proposing a vote of thanks to the Prince of Wales, presented him with a volume of Miss Ormerod's book upon agriculture. The vote was carried by acclamation. The Prince of Wiles, who, upon rising was received with loud and prolonged cheering, said:—My Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen, I wish, in the first place, to tender my thanks to Lord Aberdeen for the book upon agriculture which he, as chairman of the Council of the Institute of agriculture, has been kind enough to present to me and, in the second place, to return my hearty and sincere thanks for the cordial reception you have been good enough to give me to-night. The duties you have conferred noon me in making me your chairman to-night, have, in place of being onerous and difficult, been not only very light but have been very pleasant, for I have had the advantage of listening to the most interesting and exhaustive lecture upon ensilage which Mr. Woods has delivered. I cannot claim to hare gone thoroughly into this most important and interesting subject at any depth; I have, however. some acquaintance with it, because some lfi months ago, when on a visit to my friend Lord Walsingliam at Merton, questions in connection with this subject of ensilage were brought under my notice, and my atten- tion was then for the first time drawn to the subject. As to the future, it is. of course, impossible to foresee to what extent ensilage may be carried out, but I am convinced from what we have heard this evening from the lips of Mr. Woods that those who are moving in this subject are dealing with one of very great importance, and I am at all events assured that we ought to be very much in- debted to Mr. Woods and to Lord Walsingliam for giving very careful trial to what may prove in future years the means of rendering very great and valuable ser- vices to agriculturists. Most cordially do I endorse the remarks which fell from Sir Trevor Lawrence, that even now, after the hard times which the farming interests of this country have suffered for some years, there is a prospect of the great interests which are involved in the agricultural question having a brighter future before them, and that a new gleam of light may be thrown upon their fortunes by the successful carrying out of this new experiment in agriculture- this question of ensilage. Most cordially and sincerely do I hope the experiments which have been made, and their results, may be of advantage to the agri- cultural community. 0
THE ABORIGINES OF THE NEIL- GHERRY HILLS. The Todas constitute one of the aboriginal tribes of the Neilgherry Hills of Mysore, and when originally discovered were said to have been clad only in leaves. They are also called Todowas, or Terrawwis, the word for herdsmen in the Tamul language. At one time they were held in considerable respect, owing to their being regarded as the first invaders of the N eilgherry, and on this account the other tribes, who now share the hill country with them, used to pay them tribute. They are tall and well proportioned, and are, espe- pecially the women, rather good-looking, with robust, though not classical figures. Their limited dress need not be described. In habits and person they are woefully filthy. All of them have an antipathy to bathing, and as they anoint their bodies with ghee, which soon becomes rancid, the odoriferous nature of the Toda's person may be imagined. The women are fond of ornaments. In their habits the Todas are very simple. They carry no weapons except a staff and a small axe, from which it may be inferred that they lead peaceable lives, and, indeed, chiefly occupy themselves in feeding cattle. Tobacco-smoking and the use of opium and arrack are getting very common amongst them; and their constitutions have become injured by diseases and vices which have followed in the train of partial civilisation. But of all the customs which prevail amongst the Todas the most remarkable is that of polyandry, which means literally :i many husbands," all the brothers of a family having one wife in common. We have indicated the existence of the custom amongst various nations, but it may be said to have its centre amongst the tribes of which we are speaking. Their government is patriarchal; their only occupation is cattle tending, and their language the Tamul. When a native of the Toda tribe dies, the body is gaily decked wij. orna- ments, and wrapped in new clothes, and afterwards exposed on a bier, decorated with green boughs and herbs, for several days. It is then, amid wailings, borne by the relatives to the funeral pile. One of the relatives then cuts off a lock of the deceased's hai-, after which the body, with all its ornaments,burned amid the wailing of the kinsfolk, who pile on freeh faggots. After the corpse is almost compi- -Jy con- sumed the fire is quenched by water thrown on it. In former times, on the death of a Toda, his ent ire herd was sacrificed. Men leaped into the pen with their clubs, and the animals were beaten to death at much per- sonal risk, for the Toda buffaloes are strong and fierce, even attacking strangers in their walks if they incau- tiously approach too near them. The British Govern- ment put a stop to this cruel practice of wholesale slaughter and at the present time no more than one or two animals are sacrificed at the annual ceremony (for the propitiation of the deity and the peace of the souls of the dead). They have many deities, one of of the chief of these being the "bell god." which is hung round the neck of the best buffalo in their herd, and to it they offer prayers and libations of milk. The hunting god" follows next in rank; to him they pray for success in the chase. The sun is also worshipped as a deity. On religious matters they have no very explicit ideas. The transmigration of souls they believe in; but how the soul transmigrates they cannot exactly say. Perhaps the strangest features of religious life among the Todas are the sacred groves, few of which now exist. In each the presiding genii are a kind of monks, who are attended by kavilah, or "watchmen." These watchmen tend the sacred herd, which is kept in the grove for the use of the holy men. The bell-bearing buffalo of this herd is not allowed to be milked the calf consumes its milk only. Some of these monks, or palals," are married men, to whom even the limited share of mar- ried life which falls to the lot of the Toda benedict has become distasteful. After his choice of a monkish life has been made, the candidate throws off his gar- ments in token of having for ever renounced the world and all its joys and snares. After this he resorts to a sacred place and undergoes a certain amount of bath- ing and other such austerities, in Toda eyes, until lie becomes fitted for taking the place in the religious world to which his assumed piety entitles him. These sacred places are looked upon with great awe no female is allowed to approach them, nor can even any male member of the tribe hold any converse with the monk or his" watchman until special permission has been first obtained. The Toda women be.) i- as many as from four to twelve children, and the scarcity of children is owing to the hill climate being inimical to infantile life. It is said that (polyandry and vice not- withstanding) the tribe is rather on the increase. They number less than 800.Peoples of the World.
THE ALLEGED MURDER ON THE HIGH SEAS. In London, on Tuesday, at the ThamesPohee-eourt, Domingo Velasquez, captain of the Alice Ilolden, lying in the West India Dock, was charged on remand before Mr. Saunders, with carrying on a system of cruelty to Louis Bonaparte, a cook on board,"during a voyage from Surinam to London, and finally causing his death by throwing him overboard into the sea. It was stated by Richard Wildey, a plain clothes in- spector of the II division, who had charge of the case, that since the prisoner had been under remand a lad named Coker, who had been engaged on the Alice Ilolden during her voyage from Surinam to London, and wa3 the only witness to speak to the fact of seeing the prisoner seize hold of the cook by his feet and throw him overboard into the sea, had died, and an inquest will be held on his body. The last time Coker appeared in court lie seemed to be in good health and spirits, and apparently had nothing whatever the mar fer with him. The lad cfied in the London Hospital, not having re- covered consciousness after he was admitted. The doctors are said to be still of opinion that his death is due to poison, all the symptoms pointing to that conclusion. It is now stated that lie was found insensible in his berth in the Sailors' Home, and not in the street, as first reported. Charles Coulson, an able seaman on board the Alice Ilolden was called, and lie stated that on one occasion he saw the cook bleeding from the face from the effects of a blow delivered by the prisoner. After leaving Tobago lie saw the prisoner beating the cook with bamboo sticks every day between that time and Christmas Day. At seven o'clock on Christmas morn- ing witnes" went to the galley to fetch his coffee, when lie saw the prisoner beating the cook with a stick, and heard him say I will kill you before much longer." The cook afterwards went on to the bowsprit, ap- parently to commit suicide, when lie was dragged back by order of the captain and fastened to the rigging by witness and the mate. The prisoner then took a rope's end and thrashed him with it. On the day the cook was supposed to have fallen overboard, witness was at the wheel when the cook came to the pantry for some water, and the prisoner asked him where the cork of the bottle was. While the cook was stooping to look for it the prisoner kicked him in the face, back, and shoulders with his heavy sea boots, and he continued his ill-usage for three or four minutes. The cook went to the pantry, followed by the prisoner, who seized hold of him by the hair of his head, and said. "This is the way you waste my stores." At that time they were wearing the ship round, and the prisoner took the wheel from witness, who went to the main-brace on the starboard side. He then saw the cook coming aft on the port side, and shortly afterwards heard a screaming aft. Witness took the wheel, and in about twenty minutes ho saw the prisoner go to the lazaretto and call out, but got no answer. The prisoner asked him if lie had seen the cook, and he replied he had while wearing the ship round. Between one and two o'clock in the afternoon the prisoner came to witness and said "Come and sign this statement;" but it was put off until four o'clock, He then saw the captain had made an entry in the official log-book, and read it over to him and asked him to sign it. Witness said "I don't want to sign it," and the pri- soner then said, "Do you want to get me into trouble when I get to London. Do you want to knock some nails into my coffin ? I have more trouble with you than all the other hands in the ship." Seeing all the other hands had signed the log to the effect that the cook had fallen overboard, lie signed it. Several other witnesses were called, and the prisonerwas committed for trial.
A FACT. During an examination, a medical student being asked, "When does mortification ensue?" lie replied, "When you pop the question, and are answered, No. SINGULAR FATALITY.—An extraordinary fatality was the subject of investigation by the coroner for Portsmouth on Saturday. On the previous afternoon William Green, a shopman, in the employ of Mr. E. Body, butcher, of High-street, was separating a hind quarter of mutton, which was held on the block by an assistant, and as Green was cutting between the bones the knife went through suddenly and entered his groin. Death ensued in about seven minutes before the arrival of a medical man, who attributed death to hemorrhage • The jury returned a verdict of Acci- dental death." f
THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL AND MR. BRADLAUGH. The citation which has been served on Mr. C. Bradlaugh, M.P., at the suit of the Attorney-General, acting on behalf of her Majesty, is dated March 6, and contains five separate counts or charges. In the first it is cited that the Attorney-General demands from the defendant the sum of "for that whereas lie, the said Charles Bradlaugh, having been heretofore elected to serve as a member of Parliament for the borough of Northampton, and being a member of the House of Commons, did afterwards, to wit, on the 11th day of February, in the year of our Lord, 1884, vote as such member in the said House without having made and subscribed the oath," and that he had thereby rendered himself liable to a penalty of the amount named. The second charge against the defendant is that on the same date lie sat in the House during a debate after the Speaker had q been chosen, and a similar penalty is demanded. The third charge is that on the same date he voted as a member without having in this present Parliament and since his said election solemnly and publicly made and subscribed the oath by the Parliamentary Oaths Act, ISGG, as amended by the Promissory Oaths Acts, 1868, appointed, at the table in the middle of the said House, and whilst the full House of Commons was there duly sitting with their Speaker in his chair, against the form of the first-mentioned statute as amended as aforesaid." The defendant is further charged with having subsequently voted on the same day against the form of the statute; and lastly, that he being a person upon whose conscience an oath as an oath has no binding force (all of whom said matters the said House then had full cognisance and notice by means of the avowal of the said Charles Bradlaugh), did afterwards, to wit, upon the lltli day of February, in the year aforesaid, go through the form of making and subscribing the oath appointed by the 'Parliamentary Oaths Act, 1866, as amended by the Promissory Oaths Act, 1868,' and did there- after, to wit, on the 11th day of February, in the year aforesaid, vote as such member in the said House and without having made and subscribed any oath save as aforesaid," against the form of the Act mentioned as amended. On each charge a penalty of £ 500 is demanded, and the venue of the action is laid in the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court of Justice.
ALLEGED TORTURING OF AN ITALIAN PRISONER. Writing from Rome on Monday the correspondent of the Daily News says This afternoon in the Chamber of Deputies, Signor Cavalotti, the poet and Republican agitator, addressed an interrogation to the Minister of Grace and Justice on the alleged torturing of a prisoner at Baronissi. This man, Barone by name, had, lie said, been put in prison by the Carabineers and tortured to make him confess the crime he was charged with. The chain used for the purpose had evidently not been placed in the prison for that special case. Hence one might suppose that the Carabineers of that station were in the habit of torturing their prisoners. The Minister replied that according to the prison officials' account they had had to put Barone in irons because he tried to commit suicide, and that lie had injured himself in struggling against this restraint. It was difficult to ascertain the truth. The Government were much concerned, and should the judicial investigation now on foot prove the officials to have maltreated the prisoner severe measures would be adopted.
THE AGRICULTURAL LABOURERS' UNION. At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the National Agricultural Labourers' Union, held in London on Tuesday, under the presidency of Mr. Joseph Arch, the following resolutions were unani- mously carried: 1. That the Executive Committee of the National Agricultural Labourers' Union witness with deep regret the efforls which are being made to relegate Mr. Chamberlain's Shipping Bill to a Select Committee, and earnestly entreats the Government to persevere with the measure, which is absolutely necessary to prevent the appalling loss of life amongst our sailors. In the interests of our common humanity the committee calls upon every member of the House of Commons to heartily support the Government in their efforts to pass the bill into law." 2. That whilst rejoicing in the proposed ex- tension of the franchise to householders in the coun- ties, the Committee of the National Agricultural Labourers' Union earnestly ask the Government to insist upon the samo privilege being accorded to Ire- land." 3. The Committee of the National Agricul- tural Labourers' Union would impress upon the Go- vernment the supreme importance, when the franchise is bestowed upon labourers, of extending the hours during which the polling shall be carried on in rural districts, as provided in the bill introduced by the Right Hon. Sir Charles Dilke."
PRINCE NAPOLEON. The Paris correspondent of the Morning Post writes v The delegates of the Presse Departementale for the appeal to the people resolved to transmit to Prince Napoleon the order of the day voted unani- mously affirming the unity of its devotion to the principle of national sovereignty." The meeting de- clared that it will energetically pursue the revision of the Constitution by an Assembly invested with full powers." The Prince on receiving the declaration said I thank you for your work. The declaration which you have presented to me fully corresponds by its clearness and pre- cision with my well-known sentiments. It is the policy I pursue and which I advise-a loyal, patriotic, and democratic policy. As things stand the final decision must rest with the people who have the last word. It is the people who are our only masters and have the only right to make a choice. I am not pur- suing a policy of resistance. I am first of all an cmancipator. I have not the gold of the Princes of Orleans. I am poor, and I am proud to be so. But I have what is better than riches—the absolute respect for the people's sovereignty, and the firm resolution to fight with all my energies against those who would be inclined to usurp once more our rights."
THE SLAVE TRADE IN THE SOUDAN The Under Secretary of the French Ministry of Marine and the Colonies has written a letter, dated the 8th inst., in reply to a communication from M. Guillot, Deputy for the Department of Isere, on the position taken up by General Gordon's recent proclamation in regard to slavery in the Soudan and its possible effect in causing a recrudescence of the slave trade on the eastern coast of Africa. After stating that M. Guillot's letter had been transmitted to the Minister, the Under Secretary declares that the instructions given to the French war-vessels expressly require the commanders to maintain an active supervision over ships sailing under the French flag or placed under French pro- tection. The right of search exists and has always been exercised for this class of vessels. Ships dis- playing no flags and having no regular papers are regarded as pirates, in which case no special instruc- tions are necessary. There only remain therefore vessels sailing under a foreign flag, but the Under- Secretary points out that these necessarily escape the supervision of the French war-vessels, which cannot search them without violating international law. The letter concludes by declaring that the French aHl1 Department will scrupulously fulfil its mission within the limits of international law and existing conventions.
INCLUDING HER IN THE CAT-ALOGUE.—Mrs. Narler: That nasty warmint of a dawg o' yourn owt to be pisoned, Miss Mary. He's the terror of all the cats in the willage." Miss Mary It's very silly of you to be afraid of him, Mrs. Narler. He won't hurt you!" —Fun. Too UTTERLY UTTERLY SWEKT !—Algernon (look- ing down into Alice's "celestial blue orbs"): "My darling, I—I—I've heard a widdle I should like to ask you. Alice (an innocent lovey-dovey with long eyelashes): Yes, Algy, dear ?" Algy Er-er- oh, yes. What is the bwightest idea in life ?" Alice (pondering deeply): In life ?—hum !-the brightest ? —hum !in life ?—hum !-I don't know, dear. I'll give it up." Algy (triumphantly): Why, your eye, dear, of courso (pause of ten minutes.) Alice: (sud- denly, with a little scream of delight): "Oh, yes I see—my idea-oh, yes. That, is good!—of course." —[And then they wonder that men are not more humorous than they are! — Judy.
'5 OSMAN DIGMA. Some information which is of interest is published in the new Egyptian Blue-book with regard to Osman Digma and his antecedents. It appears that the Digma family were previously rich and influential, but on the abolition of the slave trade they suffered severe losses, and some of them were imprisoned for being implicated in dealing with slaves, so that the family gradually became poor and in debt. In 1877 Ali Digma, one of the brothers, was caught by her Majesty's ship Wild Swan, with 96 slaves, off Sheek Beragoot, a small harbour about 30 miles north of Souakim, and in consequence Osman's family suffered a loss of at least EIOOO. Osman Digma, the head of the family, then became a broker in the town of Berber, and occasionally went to Souakim to sell merchandise of various kinds. Last year lie brought ostrich feathers and shipped them to Jeddah, remaining there himself, and staying about six months. He then left for Khartoum, afterwards going to Ivordofan, where he remained some months, and then returned to Erkowit about the 23rd Rama- dan, or the 28th of July, 1883, bringing letters from the Mahdi to Tewflk Bey, the Governor of Souakim, the Prefect of Sinkatand Tokar, Mohamed-el-Amien, Sheikh of the Erkowit tribes, and Said Ahmed-el- Shingety, the Mufti of the Council at Souakim, Megliss." At the beginning of August last news was received of his being at Erkowit, and an attempt was made to arrest him. Later in the month he collected a force for the purpose of attacking Sinkat. He was, how- ever, repulsed with a loss of eighty men, including Ahmed Digma and his son, the brother and nephew of Osman Digma, and he himself was wounded in two places. After this defeat most of th tribes left him, and he could only muster about, 150 men in all. In Sep- tember his followers were reduced to about 75, and lie then went from place to place trying to obtain the confidence of the tribes a second time. In October Major Mohammed Khilil, in command of two companies of infantry, were defeated in a mountain pass on the Abeint road to Sinkat, about 30 miles from Souakim, and only 25 men escaped. Since then, and until the recent battle at Fort Baker, Osman Digma's prestige continued to increase, and on four separate occasions his forces were victorious under his command. How far recent events have alienated from him the support of the tribes has yet to be shown, but of one fact there can be little doubt— namely, that he is a man of exceptional energy and determination, and little likely quietly to accept defeat.
THE RABBIT IN AUSTRALIA. In this country the rabbit has ceased to be an object of interest (remarks the Morning Post). The Ground Game Act, at the cost of a good many disagreements between landlords and tenants, has been making short work of him, and probably the time will come when he will take rank with the Swanage crocodile and the Blean wolf among the extinct fauna of Great Britain. Lord Granville once described his worst fault as that of being several inches too short, and probably a good many other sportsmen have thought the same thing as the white tail has disappeared down a burrow unharmed by the contents of a couple of barrels. In truth, the rabbit has afforded excellent sport to successive generations of English men and boys; and although Pall-mall despises him as food, Wliitechapel is of a different opinion, and lie is so largely consumed in all the poorer quarters that the existing scarcity, and con- sequent rise in price, have been the means of depriv- ing a good many people of almost their only luxury. It is curious to contrast the condition of the rabbit in England and in Australia. Here, as we have said, he is being very rapidly extinguished by advancing civili- sation. There, he has things all his own way, and is constantly taking possession of fresh territory. His ad- vances were the subject of earnest consideration by the Convention of Representatives of Australian Colonies, who recently met at Sydney, and the figures given as to the extent of his depredations are astounding. In New South WTalcs alone, it is calculated that from six to eight million acres are infested with rabbits to such an extent as in some cases to lessen by more than one half the pasturage, and, consequently, the production of wool, and though the Colonial Government have a staff of four hundred men constantly em" ployed in making war on the" feeble folk' in every possible fashion, including suffocation underground by bi-sulphide of carbon, the rabbits are constantly on the increase. In one district four proprietors of stations are stated to be spending, between them, no less than £ 20,000 a year on the work of destruction, but even this expenditure only suffices to keep the plague within reasonable bounds without extirprtting it, and if the outlay were reduced the runs would have to be abandoned to the rabbit. In the last eighteen' months they have spread more than 200 miles up the east bank of the Darling River, and this extension is becoming ruinous to many stoekowners. It seems that traps, poison, dogs, and guns are unable to cope with the evil, and ferrets and mongooses are being imported and turned down. But it is doubtful whether the rabbits will not multiply and spread so much faster than the carnivora as to make this remedy of little avail, while it is by no means certain that the latter might not develop a taste for poultry and young lambs instead. The rather horrible notion which seems to afford most prospect of success is the in- troduction of some epidemic disease which would affect only rabbits. It is stated that on one par- ticular estate they have been largely reduced by the prevalence of a special form of tuberculosis, and it is suggested as possible that some such infection might possibly be cultivated and spread. It is proposed, therefore, that the Australian Colonies should conjointly offer some large reward, say of X50,000, for the discovery of any means that, at a reasonable cost, shall within three or five years clear from rabbits some given district of wide area now infested. As it is computed that the five Colonies lost in the course of last year no less than £ 2,800,000 from rabbits, it is evident that even the large sum mentioned would be a very small price to pay for an effectual remedy for the pest, and the amount of reward would probably have the effect of setting a large number of the wisest brains in the world to pit themselves against the rabbits. We are, however, by no means certain that the rabbits would not beat the experimental philosophers.
FATALITIES AT SEA. Captain Henry Coward, of the steam-tug Rosetta of Falmouth, lost his life on Wednesday morning while endeavouring to take in tow the dismasted brigantine Vine, off the Manacles. A rope which was thrown from the Vine to the steamer coiled round the captain's leg and threw him overboard, and although lie was a good swimmer lie sank before assistance could reach him. On Wednesday after- noon a boat containing five persons, including two marines from her Majesty's ship Ganges, named John Hooper and Simeon Lawrence, was capsized by a sudden squall in Falmouth Harbour, and all its occu- pants thrown into the sea. A cutter from the Ganges saved three of the men, but the two marines sank almost immediately and were drowned.
THE CATTLE DISEASES BILL. On Wednesday Lord Carlingford and Mr. Dodson received, at the Privy Council Office, a deputation from the borough and county authorities in Scotland in favour of the Cattle Diseases Bill as originally introduced, and also concerning the present adminis- tration of Privy Council orders, especially objecting to the disinfecting of wharves and markets at the expense of the local rates. The Lord President said the claim of the deputa- tion, that owners should be at the expense of cleansing and disinfecting their premises to the satisfaction of the local authority was being reconsidered by the Privy Council, and lie thought they would have power to deal with it without further legislation. As to the Cattle Diseases Bill, the Government agreed with the deputation in desiring that that measure, if passed at all, should be passed as originally introduced, and not as amended in the House of Lords. They had come to the conclusion that it would be necessary under existing circumstances, where there was danger to bo apprehended, to apply the rule of prohibition against foreign cattle or cattle coming from a particular foreign country, even in the case of foot-and-mouth disease but they were very anxious not to carry that beyond the necessities of the case, as t hey felt sure the Lords' amendments would carry it. He only hoped that the Government would succeed in resisting the amendments introduced in the House of Lords.
THE HEIGHT OF IMPUDENCE.—Taking shelter from the rain in an umbrella SIMP,
DEATH OF MR. BLANCHARD JERROLD. The death is announced of Mr. William Blanchard Jerrold, as having taken place on Monday at his residence in Victoria-street, London. The Times, in an obituary notice, says Up to the last Mr. Jerrold co, ued the work of a journalist, which he had begun "IV a mere boy. As the eldest son of the late I las Jerrold, he succeeded to the editorship of ¡d's Weekly News, a post which he held for t\Jft Hi-sis. years. Mr. Jerrold was born in 1826, an, studied as an artist, and was able to illustrato some of his father's articles. In 1849 he married the daughter of Douglas Jerrold's most intimate friend, the late Laman Blanchard, who had been his godfather, and after whom ho was named. As far back as 1847 we find him writing a series of papers on emigration, and at the same time lie produced a story ent itied The Disgrace of the Family." Douglas Jerrold was only 19 years old when lie wrote Black Eyed Susan," and Blanchard Jerrold was little older when he produced Cool as a Cucumber," and both these plays were certainly the most popular, though not the best, works of their respective authors. In 1855 Mr. Jerrold went over to Paris to describe the Universal Exhibition for a London paper, and ever since then he has shown a keen appreciation of the French character. His observations are condensed in the volumes entitled "The Children of Lutetia," "At Home in Paris," On the Boulevards," The Gavrocho Party," and others. Under the name of "Fin Bee," he wrote the Cupboard Papers," The Epicure's Year Book," The Dinner Bell," and edited a weekly paper entitled Knife and Fork. It was in France that he became the intimate co-worker of Gustate Dore, whose biography he was completing at the time of his death. "London—a Pilgrimage," illustrated by Gus- tave Dore, was one of Mr. Jerrold's best known works, but his most important literary undertaking has been the Lifo of Napoleon III. an able apology of the Imperial In politics, Mr. Jerrold was at first an ardent Liberal, and took great interest in questions affecting the interest of the working classes. On several occasions, also, he showed great political fore- sight. When nearly all England was in favour of the Southern States at the beginning of the great Ameri- can war of Secession, Mr. Jerrold from the first adopted the cause of the North, and the American Government ordered some of liisarticles to be placarded on the walls at New York, in order to encourage the drooping spirits of the Federals. In the Franco-German war he at once took the French side. Among the various honours that have been conferred on Mr. Jerrold may be mentioned his appointment as officer of the Order of the Saviour of Greece, an acknowledg- ment for the services he rendered to that country. In the cause of literature, Mr. Jerrold founded the English branch of the International Literary Associa- tion (for the assimilation of the copyright laws), of which he was president. This led to his obtaining the Palmes Acaclfmiques, with rank of Officer of Public Instruction, from the French Government, and the Knighthood of the Order of Christ from the Go- vernment of Portugal. Besides the works already mentioned, Mr. Jerrold was the author of several plays, such a3 "Cupid in Waiting" and "Beau Brummcl also of "Two Lives," "The Story of Madge," and numerous works on Egypt—" Egypt for the Egyptians," "Egypt under Ismail," &c. Mr. Jer- Ily rold leaves behind him an example of untiring in- dustry ilid kindliness.
THE MURDER of a POLICE-SERGEANT Mr. Dean, coroner, concluded an inquiry at Butter- knowle, near Durham, on Saturday, on Sergeant Smith, of the Durham County Police, who was mur- dered on the night of February 23, whilst, passing Pit Ileape. He was set upon by a number of men on the night mentioned and stoned to death. Three men, named Joseph Lowson, William Liddle, and Joseph Hodgson, were subsequently arrested and charged with the crime. On Saturday, Mr. Stock, the county analyst, stated that he found blood-stains on Lowson's trousers, and that when apprehended a spot of blood was noticed on his face. The police also found a button of a peculiar pattern on the ground where the murdered man lay, and this corre- sponded with one missing from Lowson's shirt. Several witnesses spoke to seeing the prisoners near the scone of the murder shortly before it occurred, and the two doctors who found the body stated that the accused were similar in stature to the men who ran away. Annio Hopper, daughter of the sergeant at Staindrop Police-station, where Liddle and Lowson were lodged in custody, said that she heard one of them say Don't tell them anything say we went straight home. The jury returned a verdict of wilful murder against all three prisoners.
FIGHTING ON THE CONGO. The correspondent of the Standard,, writing under date Banana, February 18, says After five months' absence, Mr. Stanley returned to Stanley Pool, on the 21st of January, having successfully established stations along the Congo up to Stanley Falls. He was everywhere well received. He explored the River Aruwimi until the further progress of the steamers was stopped by cataracts, which could not be passed. During this journey Stanley ascertained that the Ourounga, hitherto erroneously called the Ikelemba, the most important confluent of the Aruwimi, is navigable. According to statements of the natives, for the pre- vious two months the Arabs from Nyangwe had been sending caravans, collecting ivory and slaves, and ravaging the whole country up to the Aruwimi. The principal caravan, consisting of nine hunded mea, with twice that number of captured children, was met with below the falls. Hostilities have broken out between the natives and the French, Dutch, and Portuguese traders at Nokki, on the Lower Congo. The Trade Caravans had been plundered, and the carriers killed. An expe- dition of traders to punish the marauding chiefs was repulsed. All the factories were attacked in turn and invested; and the Europeans besought the protection of the International Expedition. Accordingly, a mixed force of white and blacks, together with arms and ammunition, was despatched from Yivi, the nearest International station. After a week's fighting, the Sagittaire, a French gun boat, and two Portuguese gun boats proceeded to render aid. At the departure of he mail the factories were still being attacked; and M. Barbier, the agent of a French house, had been killed, and three whites and twenty blacks had been wounded. The natives hare suffered severely.
MAKING IllS Wife," said a wag to his better half, one day, who was holding a squalling kicking youngster, that child is bound to make a noise in the world. Yes and his mark, too," said the wife, who had just received a deep scratch upon the face from the juvenile's digits.
THE INDIAN BUDGET. Sir Auckland Colvin's financial statement has just been publshecl in Calcutta. In a minute accompany- ing the statement it is explained that, owing to the change in the direction of the finances during the year, and r new of the short estimates of the revenue from opium consequent upon the failure of the crops of the financial year 1883-1884, it has been thought necessary to leave such questions as those of the license tax and court fees untouched for the present. No change is, therefore, contemplated during the ensuing year. The accounts of 1882-1883 show a surplus of £ 706,033. The surplus on the Budget estimates for that year was £ 285,0<X> only, and as the Indian Government was called upon during the year to bear heavy expenditure on account of the war in Egypt, and as the item of exchange exceeded the estimate by this result is very satisfactory. In the revised Budget estimate for 1883-1884 the revenue is set down at £ 70,569,900, and the expendi- ture at £7U.:2nS,300, leaving a surplus of £ 271.500. Sir Auckland Colvin explains that although the sur- plus in the revised estimates is less than the surplus in the original Budget estimates—namely, £ 457,000 t'i the deterioration is only apparent, being due to the loss of exchange on remittances to the Secretary of State for India to the amount of £1,>00,000, in ad- dition to the drawings originally estimated, and to the payment of to the War Office on account of arrears of the non-effective charges connected with her Majesty's forces in India. But for these causes the surplus would have been ill,617.400. The cause of the arrears of non-effective charges is explained to due to the intricacy of certain actuarial calculations necessary to give effect to the system adopted in 1870 of capitalising the value of the share of pensions chargeable to the Indian revenues and payable by the Indian to the English Treasury. Passing from this abnormal expenditure, the minute proceeds to draw attention to the general increase over the Budget estimates of 1883-4 under the principal heads of revenue other than productive publ; works amounting to about £ 800,000, the net in- crease of public works being £:.390,900. The con- I sumption of salt increased 10 per cent. during the eeven months from March 1, 1883, to Jan. 31, 1884, as compared with the corresponding period of 1881- 82, and represents, at two rupees per maund, an in- crease cf revenue of rather more than fifty-one lakhs of rupees. The increase under this head is described as steady and progressive. The financial results of the railways since 1880-81 are dwelt upon at some length, the net gain on the five years being shown to be Figures are given illustrating the increase in the exports to England of Indian wheat, which have risen from 8.477,479 cwt. in 1882 to 11.243.497 C'wt. in 1883, and to 19,500,000 cwt. in the first ten months of the current financial year. The exports in general have increased from in 1878-79 to £ 83.48.>, 122 in 1882 83, and the imports from £ 37.800,>94 in 1878-79 to £ 52.095.711 in IS,<2-83. The Post Office Savings' Bank is said to he most successful, but the demand for stock notes is small. In the Budget for 1884-85, the revenue is estimated at £ 70,500.400, and the expenditure at £70,:2.1,1,100, leaving a surplus of £ 319,300. The number of chests of opium to be sold in 1885 will be announced hereafter, but it will in any case not exceed ,-)0.000. The estimated out- turn of the present crop is 52,000 chests. The pro- spects of the crop now on the ground are very good. The average price of Bengal opium has been taken at 1250 rupees per chest against 1200 rupees in the esti- mates fur 1883-84. The minute then analyses the various figures under the estimates of 1884-85," and with regard'to the land revenue estimates it states that important correspon- dence has recently been exchanged between the Indian Government and the Secretary of State for India having for its object to give to the temporary settlements of the land revenue a decree of per- manency in the more populous and advanced f)arts of the country which they have hitherto ticked. The rate of exchange for 1884-8 5 b~?n taken at Is. 7!d. Provision has been made for the remittance of £ 10,500,000 to the Secre- tary of State for India in 1884-85. The mili- tary charges for the same neriod have been burdened with an additional amount of £184.300, owing to the decision that the pay and allowances of English soldiers in India shall in future and from Jan. 1, 1884, when expressed in sterling, be converted at the I rate of exchange fixed annually for the payment of troops in the Colonies. Money remitted to and from India by or for soldiers will be dealt with in the same way. but with effect from April 1. The increased cost of this charge will depend upon the variations in the rates of exchange, but at the exchange of Is. 8d., the present rate, soldiers' pay is increased 12.1, per cent. The cash balances on March, 31. 1884, are estimated at £ 12 440,000. and on March 31,1885, at £ 11,010,850. Sir Auckland Colvin states that it will bo necessarv to issue the usual loan of £ 2,500,000 for productive public works, but that he is not at present empowered to say whether the loan will be issued in India or at home. Finally, the minute enters at some length mto an examination of the accuracy of the state- ments made last year regarding the increase of expenditure in India, and points out that the causes which led to such an increase were not of a nature to lead to charges of extrava- gance. being either largely covered by increased receipts in the departments in which the expenditure took place, or being due to the expenditure by provin- cial Governments of large balances which had accu- mulated during the Afghan war, and of which at the time the provincial Governments could not avail them- selves, or finally to misapprehension on the part of thop by whom the complaints of extravagance have been brought.
OUR COFFEE SUPPLY. The staple crop of Costa Rica, the source of its wealth, and that which has been the means of making it, in a commercial point of view, one of the most in- dependent of the Cenral American Republics, is its coffee crop. The first of the plantations are after you have passed the plains of Carmen, eleven miles from Sail Jose. From that out they occupy the entire valley, being the upper portion of the bed of an ancient lake. They extend right and left all along the road from San Jose to Cart ago, a distance of twelve miles, and are met with at the base of the Can- delaria and in the valleys of the mountains and on the plateaus twenty, thirty, forty miles beyond. The crop is gathered in January. The average crop is about 12,000.000 pounds. In 1877 Costa Rica sent 62,300 bags of coffee to San Francisco, and in 1880 38,027. The crop is hauled from the interior to the principal shipping port of San Jose, Punta Arenas, in clumsy ox-carts. These cost about 825 or 830. A pole projects from an oblong frame, to which an axle is bolted underneath. The ends of the axle pro- trude through solid wheels of cedar, the latter being four inches across the tire, and from four to five feet in diameter. The wheels contain oj5en cane work, and there is an awning of untanned ox-hide. These carts will carry from 800 to 1000 bags of coffee, and the freight is about seventy-five cenis per 100 pounds. The wives and children of the carreteros generally attend the coffee to the port, and carry -along on the cart the cooking utensils needed for the journey, which takes a week. They grind the corn for the oxen, broil the frijoles, slice and fry the plantains, which grow in luxuriance by the roadside. They give the oxen water and sacate, and prove themselves useful as well as companionable to their husbands, who merrily trudge along barefooted and in draggled linen, at the mercv of the shifting weather, at one time sweltering and bendin<* in the full blaze of the sun, at another soaking in rain, or shuddering with the dense dampness. They are a tough and hardy set of men, polite, and always salute with Adois, Senor, as you pass them. They all carry the machete in their sash, which is a long knife, capable of felling a tree or making a toothpick, and become very expert in their use. There are over 10.01)0 ox-carts in Costa Rico, and it takes 20,000 oxen to haul them. Each team is worth about $120. These cartmen are generally well off; that is, they own a homestead, and work when they choose. Dressed in trousers, a short jacket and fancy-coloured sash around their waist, in which the ever-present machete hangs, they trip over the muddy or dusty road, brandishing their chuzos, a long stick mounted with a spike, with the air of drum-majors, and are about as happy and independent as any class of people I ever saw. Detroit Frer Pre
PARADOXICAL. -It is a paradox that hard money is a pleasant thing to fall back upon. zrl A SERIOUS POSITION.—" What would our wives say if they knew where we were ?'' said the captain of a schooner, when they were beating about in a thick fog, fearful of going on shore. "Humph 1 should not mind that," replied the mate, "if we only knew were we were ourselves."
AMUSING HOAX AT A LONDON THEATRE. On Tuesday night a cleverly-executed scheme deceiving a large number of gentlemen was, an even- ing paper says, consummated at the Haymarket Theatre. About ten days back, it appears, each received a missive, in a lady's handwriting, which ran as follows The writ or of tin's is anxious to have the pleasure of meeting you. She will be at the Hay- market Theatre on Tuesday, 11th March next. If you will be in the stalls you will not fail to recognise her but, to show that this meeting is agreeable, will you wear a button-hole of violets and lilies of the valley, and she will wear scarlet geraniums." So successful was this letter, that two advertisements in the "agony "column of the Tiíiæs requested the lady to send her address in confidence. About eight o'clock in the evening the first victim appeared on the scene. Gallantly, yet cautiously, lie looked round for the fair unknown, when to his dismay he noticed other men dropping in, one by one, all bearing the floral sign. Men came from Aldershot, from Brighton, and from the country, many of them wearing scarlet geraniums in place of the Parma violets, which made them the more conspicuous. It was not long before the Ban- croft exchequer was enriched by the appearance of at least, sixty v etims, many of whom were acute enough to hide their flowers in their hats, to be assumed if the fair wearer of scarlet should be discerned. Before the end of the first act it was very patent that a sell of the first water had been perpetrated. The dress circle was full of men who, having received letti r3 themselves, had compared notes, and detecting the joke, secured this coign of vantage to enjoy the scene. A certain stage-box was graced by the presence of a voll-known form, and the party took the keenest interest in the successive entries of the lady killers.