RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION IN THE DIOCESE OF ST. DAVID'S. To the Editor of THE JOURNAL. Sip,-The prominence given to the above subject in the correspondence columns of THE JOURNAL for weeks past makes it necessary that a reply should be made to your article in your issue of January 1st. I You claim to have written it in an impartial spirit, bit (though this may be quite unintentional On your part) it betrays bias almost all through, inasmuch as its arguments are based on the assumption that the complaints contained in the letters of your correspondents (all of them anony- mous except one), are well-grounded. At the same time I fully appreciate the sympathy with me in the performance of my duties to which you kindly give expression. I am glad to find that yon are an advocate of religious instruction in elementary school*. But one paragraph in your article leads me to infer thit you share an erroneous idea, which is not un- common, as to the status of religious teaching in oar National Schools. The paragraph is aB fol- lows :—" We know how searching the Government examinations have become, and we know how doubly hard it must be to work on patiently under trying and insurmountable difficulties preparing young pupils for the extra visit by the Diocesan Inspector." The italics are my own. And you omit to specify the nature of these insarmount- able difficulties. The above paragraph implies that the work of religions instruction is somethipg extra, something outside the legitimate sphere of the school's work, some additional burden imposed upon National School teacners which does not legitimately belong to the school's curriculum. This is a pure fallacy, though a common one. Re- ligious instruction has always formed part of the curriculum. Indeed our National Schools were founded primarily for the purpose of training up oir children in the teaching and principles of our Church, and secular instruction occupied a secondary place. When the State stepped in to aid the cause of elementary education with grants, Her Majesty's Inspectors examined the schools in religious as well as secular knowledge up to 1870. When the Education Act of 1870 came into opera- tion, with its Board School system and the pro- tection of the Conscience Clause (in order to sup- plement the work of the National and other Denominational Schools, not to oust them from their commanding position), H.M. Inspectors ceased to examine in religious knowledge, which none the less continued to form part of the schools' curriculum, one hour being safeguarded to it either at the beginning or at the end of a school "time," and the Church in consequence established her Boards of Education, and appointed her own inspectors to examine in religious knowledge. Some, however, who are ignorant of the history of elementary education in our country imagine that in consequence of the Act of 1870 our National Schools ceased to belong to the Church, and belong to the State, and that our National School teachers are the servants of the State, instead of being, as they are, oiffcers of the Church. (In the case of your correspondent "Magister" the wish is evi- dently father to the thought, for he writes in your issue of December 18th, "It is iiigh time to place every elementary school under direct popular representative control, then and then only will our clerical-managers find their proper level." Is this wish that our National Schools should be converted into Board Schools shared by "Magister's" fellow anonymous correspondents ?) Consequently, there can be no greater hardship in preparing for the visit of the Diocesan Inspector now than there was in preparing for examination in religious subjects I before the Act of 1870-if such a preparation is to be considered a hardship. Further, it should be borne in mind that religious instruction is im- parted primarily, and entirely, for the benefit of the children, and not merely to make a show on the day of the inspection. The inspector visits the school in order to report on the quality of the religious teaching. A syllabus is drawn up in order to ensure a definite course of instruction as in the c&se of secular work. No one-even an inspector—expects the teachers to achieve impossi- bilities. He, as I pointed out in my last letter, makes full allowance for any genuine difficulties that are brought to his notice, but where he has good reason to believe that the religious instruc- tion has been neglected, it is his duty to report accordingly. "Another Teacher" points out, in the Diocesan Report for 1889-90, that out of 228 departments examined during the year, 207 were good, very good, or excellent, and only three were indifferent or bad, and that I remarked If these results are very gratifying, and prove that the teachers have taken special pains with the reli- gious instruction." Again, in my report for 1890- 91 (which will be published shortly) it will be found that out of 238 departments inspected 211 were classed as excellent or very good or good, and three as very poor or bad. These figures show that the Diocesan Inspector is not characterised- as some of your correspondents would have your readers believe-by stringency and severity, On the other hand, they do not imply that every teacher has in every instance given the attentior to the religious instruction that it is his duty to give. Ono of your correspondents, who signs himself shews that he shares the fallacy that religious instruction is something extra imposed upon him, and that it is purely voluntary work, and that he is a servant of the State when he writes in your issue of December 18th—"Does 'Rector' believe that we are a body of men, who will neglect our Government examination, when we know that our living depends upon it ? Would he like to see a master in a poor staffed school get the excellent in Scripture for which he never receives a penny, and get a poor Government examination aad starve himself in the coming year ?" Now, nobody asks D.D." to neglect his secular work. He is only required to give religious instruction during the time devoted to it in his School's Time Table, which he is bound to follow. And is it a fact that he does not receive a penny for his work of religious teaching ? I do not know who D.D-' is, but I presume from his letter that he is a National School teacher, and I do know that National School teachers receive a fixed salary (which is provided by the voluntary contributions of Churchmen), in addition to a portion of the Government grant, just as Board School teachers receive a fixed salary provided by the rates in addition to the Government grant. And I D.D.' has not realised that the Government grant is paid to the managers of the school by the Education Department, and not to him, and that he is paid by the managers for performing the full work of a National School teacher (whichjincluded religious instruction), and not merely for teaching the work of the Government Syllabns. Further, as to the difficulties of a poor staffed school. I pointed out in my last letters that the Syllabus allows such a school to be divided into two instead of three groups. Commenting on this statement, your correspondent, Mr Phillips, wrote, How or, as the question has been raised, it may J D" &a waii to note the concession thus afforded I the single handed teacher by quoting the footnote referred to still more fully In schools, where owing to the smallness of the teaching staff, it is found impracticable to divide the school into three groups, the inspector advises that the school be divided into two groups, group I (including Standard III), presenting the highest group sub- jects, and group II (including Standard II), pre- senting lowest group subjects taught as fully as possible, with the addition if possible, of the life of Noah and of our Lord's Passion, Resurrection and Ascension, &c. There he stops short in his quotation and proceeds-" If there ia ground for the complaint that the work of group I ia excessive for children in standards IV.—VII, surely, Sir, this is intensified by expecting children in the third standard to prepare it." The remainder of the footnote, which he omits, is as follows Stan- Cnf' should in this case present the amount of and writing from memory required of the middle group, and standard II should be able to say the ommandments as well as the Creed and Lord's /-vnfrl «n5 r *\e able to write from memory the ?6 anA^°rd> Prayer." One of your correspon- «^ri himself "Disgusted," wrote Rr»hoolR 8ays. 'Q his letter that poorly staff e *e specially prided for. But why j6S o of th" at he does not allow us to take advantage of th,8 provi8.on? Th&t not 1 ass 7 » r, and being a schoolmaster, I oogut to know T call „poa Disgusted" to prove this charge in his proper name. His statement is false. This same correspondent (whose methods vf controversy if ingenious are certainly not ingenuous) further observes—««The rev. gentle- man suggests that it is only lazy teachers who find the syllabus too much then we must all be lazy." How he can distort my remarks on lrho evils and causes of crumming into a generui com-ge of laziness against our f,eaohei-3, pliises my COUlprt. heusion. -==J. To return to your article. You observe—"On the one hand, many schoolmasters, no doubt, of various degrees of professional excellence, agree on the whole in two points. In the first, place they complain of the sjiiabus for the diocese as too extensive. In the second place many of them refer to the examinations as not only excessive in scope, but also as unnecessarily ullsympat hetic in spirit." I submit that the term" many" is some- what indefinite, and these comp'aints would be of greater value if the number were more strictly defined. I find that eight teachers have written on this subject to your paper. At least that is the number whose letters you inserted in yourcoliimns. Of these, only one had the moral courage to append his own name. About 260 departments are open to diocesan inspection in this diocese. Whether the number 8 bears a large proportion to the number 260, I leave your readers to judge. And these complaints would have been more valu- able if your readers knew who these seven anony- mous correspondents are. As to the complaint that the syllabus in use in this Diocese for 1890-91 was excessive I stated in my letter that comparing it with the only 13 syllabuses sontained in the Report of the National Society for 1890-91, I found it was below the average in its requirements. I contented myself with saying it was below the average, whereas I might justly have said that taking it as a whole it was below ev,ry one of the 13 including that in use in Llandaff Diocese. Your correspondent Teacher replying to this, wrote, The Inspector wrote that taking it as a whole it is below that in use in Llandaff Diocese," and then to prove that my statement was inaccurate, he gave you a com- pirison of the requirements of the middle group in each syllabus. But, surely, the work of the middle group cannot claim to represent the whole work of the syllabus, which alone can be considered a fair comparison. And the syllabuses I compared were those of the two Dioceses for 1890-91, inasmuch as the syllabus for 1890-91 was the one of which your correspondents complained. Further, I pointed out that the syllabus which has been in use in this Diocese since last February let, had been curtailed as much as possible consistent with efficiency by the committee of the Diocesan Board of Education in response to a desire expressed by some teachers for the modification of its require- ments. Are we to conclude that the collective wisdom of your correspondents is of more weight than the combined experience of 14 Diocesan Boards of Education, which have directed and regulated the work of religious teaching in our National Schools for about 22 years? I suppose we are to do so, as you, sir, maintain that our Diocesan Board is not competent to draw up a syllabus itself. You ex- press admiration for its members individually, you do allow that they actually do possess certain estimable qualities and powers, butyoudenythat they possess the very qualification which would justify their raisoll d'etre as members of a Board of Education, for you say there is not one who has made the child hia life study, not one who has bad any lengthened experience in elementary teaching." This seems to me a somewhat bold, if not rash, assertion, and hardly borne out by facts. The Board of Education is chiefly composed of clergy- men, and surely if a clergyman is anything he is a teacher, and a teacher of the young. Your corres- pondent "D.D." admits this, for be writes, "I maintain that it is as much of the duty of a clergy- man to teach Scripture in a National School as it is the master's. Whj is there better adapted to teach this subject than the clergy?" (And, yet I have known instances when teachers out of pro- fessional jealousy have placed every obstacle in the way of the clergyman to prevent his giving religious instruction in the school). The clergy are constantly in touch with the young in their parishes. They teach in the Sunday School, they catechise in Church, many of them take part in the daily religious instruction given in their day schools. By virtue of their training, their office, their theological study and preparation for the duty of preaching, and their constant intercourse with all classes and all ages in their parishes, they are specialists in the art of which the schoolmaster is not. But your correspondent Disgusted is evidently of the opinion that all theological virtues are confined to members of his own profession, who, he writes, "are doing more to spread the Gospel and enlighten the work than even the members of 'Rector's calling." Now, since, Sir, you maintain that the members of the Diocesan Board of Education do not possess the necessary knowledge and experience as teachers of the young which would justify them in regulating the work of religious intruction :in our National Schools, you ought in consistency to go one step further than to suggest that the teachers should be represented on the Board and propose that the Board should dissolve and hand over its functions to the teachers entirely. And your suggestion that the Inspectors should be appointed from among the teachers-and pre- sumably eventually by them—is but the natural conseqoence of your ruling that the clergy know very little about elementary teaching. But if on the other hand, D.D's assertion, that no one is better adapted to teach religious knowledge than the clergy, is true, then it is reasonable to sup- pose that no one is better adapted to examine in this subject than a clergyman. Even supposing it were true, which it is not, that I personally had had no lengthened experience of elementary teaching, the fact that I have since my appoint- ment to my presenct office held not far short of a thousand viva voce examinations in elementary day schools justifies me in claiming to know and to be competent to perform my work, as well as you, Sir, can perform your editorial duties, or a National School teacher knows and can perform his. Some of your correspondents have given instances of questions they say I have put to children. One of these I deny having put, the rest I admit having asked, though whether they have been put in the exact form given by your correspondent or uot I cannot positively say. But this is immaterial ,for these writers know, though they have carefully omitted to state it, that if the children do not understand the question in one form I put it in another and sometimes in five or six different forms, and that the question is not passed over until I am convinced that the children do not know the answer. My questions are adapted to the capacities of the children, and it may surprise you to learn that I have frequently been able to olicit answers from children when their own teachers had tried and failed in my presence. And now I come to your second main point. Niany of them refer to the examinations as not only excessive in scope, but also as unnecessarily unsympathetic in spirit." You add that to this complaint I have answered nothing, and that such grave charges ought not to be left unanswered. I gave you in my last letter my reasons for not replying to the charges of "harshness," discourtesy," II rudeness," and offensiveness," contained in the letters of your correspondents. No man possessed of an atom of self-respect would condescend to reply to such personal charges con- tained in anonymous letters. I note with the greatest satisfaction the concluding sentences in your article in which you suggest that the com- plaints should be submitted to the Diocesan Board of Education for investigation. Permit me to say that it would have been more reasonable and seemly if you had advised your correspondents to take this-the proper course, at first before you undertook the responsibility of inserting in the columns of your papei anonymous letters contain- ing reflections and chargee of a personal character. And now, Sir, I have a right to demand that these correspondents should without delay-each one in his own name-lay the complaints contained in his letter before the Diocesan Board of Education and substantiate them. If they fail to do so, I submit that you owe it to me as a duty to brand these accusations in your paper as frivolous and malicious. In conclusion, let me say that I am in full sympathy with the teachers in their difficulties, that I respect and admire the large majority of them for their valuable work, that it is and has been my wish throughout to be regarded as their r friend and not as a taskmaster, that I have endeavoured ever since my appointment to make the work of Religious Instruction a reality in the schools of the diocese, and that I shall continue to do so so long as I hold my present office. I am, Your obedient servant, C. H. DAVIES. St. David's Diocesan Inspector of Schools.
GLANRHYD BRIDGE, LLANGELER. To tlw Editor of THE JOURNAL. SIR,—Permit me to draw attention through the medium of your columns to a sore grievance that exists on the way loading from the Blackhorse, Llangeler, to Llandyssil, viz., the necessity of ensuring the safety of pedestrians when crossing the river Shedi by way of the above bridge. It has been in a dilapidated state for a period of more than 20 years, and is now rust approaching a suite of ruination, and has no .arapet to either ot it- ,ide, greatly to the dtiu^er of lite and prop.-rty. The fact of a person wituin the last j 3 wwts having falien over the bridge with fatal 0- results should prove ample warning to tliofe who have these matters under their control, but as yet no stir has been made towards its restoration aud safety. The bridge is only five feet wide, and the danger attending those crossing on dark and stormy nights is at once apparent. Hoping that this communication will bring about the desired effect, and that further fatalities will therefore be averted. A NATIVE. Ystalyfera, January, 1892.
LLANDYSSUL LIBERAL SPLIT. To the Editor of THE JOURNAL. Sip.Finding your columns are open to both Conservatives and Liberals without distinction, I hope you will spare some ot your space for the insertion of this letter in your next issue if possible. I much regret that thg Liberal cause in the parish of Llandyssul does not look very healthy just now, but I do not expect you will sympathize with me in this matter—perhapssome of your readers will. The unanimity that used to prevail among all Liberals in matters political in this parish is gone —for some time at least. Two or three persons of factious spirit and at the same time disappointed because their importance is not duly recognised as they think it ought, have succeeded in effecting a split in the Liberal party, hitherto united as one man. They have formed a new society of thorough- bred Radicals, as they call themselves, which scores of working people have already joined. So they say. At the forthcoming triennial county council election we shall see, it is said, what they can do They have fixed upon Messrs T. C. Davies and Benjamin Davies to come out to contest the seats now occupied by Dr. Enoch Davies and Rev Thomas Thomas, and to which, no doubt, they hope to be re-elected. Mr T. C. Davies will be a formidable antagonist in the opinion of his party to Dr Enoch Davies. One of his many recommendations, as we are often enough reminded in the public press, is, that he had a seat on Llandyssul School Board last year unopposed. Well, one might be tempted to say, perhaps Mr Davies could not get in any other way. Mr B. Davies will be a lucky man if allowed by Rev Thomas Thomas to have a seat on the next county council unopposed, It would enhance the value of his other recommendations as a public man. It may not be amiss to name some of the lehders of this new party, the most prominent of them are Capt. W. Davies, the chairman, Messrs T. C. Davies, Edward Thomas, and Thomas Lewis. There are others who are very active. Will not the Conservatives in this parish, now that the Liberals are at loggerheads, take advantage of the opportunity to secure a seat or two on the next Cardiganshire county council? Yours truly, January llth, 1892. A LIBERAL.
LIBERAL MEETING AT LAMPETER. SPEECHES BY MR. BOWEN ROWLANDS, M.P., AND MR. T. E. ELLIS, M.P. On Monday evening Mr Bowen Rowlands, M.P. for Cardiganshire, addressed his constituents at the Town Hall, Lampeter. The body of the hall was crowded, and admission to certain parts of it was by tickets. Mr T E Ellis, M.P. for Merioneth, also addressed the meeting in Welsh. The chair was taken shortly after six o'clock by Mr T H R Hughes, Neuaddfawr. The Chairman, in opening the meeting, said he hoped the gentlemen in the background would not create any disturbance, and that if there was any- thing said which they did not approve of, let them do as he did himself—let it in through the one ear and out through the other. Mr Wm. Davies, solicitor, Aberystwyth, then rose to propose the first resolution, and. in doing so, said he honestly believed there never were two men who had done more for the Principality than the two gentlemen who were to be the principal speakers that evening. The resolution read as follows: That this meeting declares its unabated confidence in Mr Gladstone, as leader of the Liberal party, and trusts that at the coming general election the Liberals will be returned to power by an overwhelming majority to grant self- government to Ireland, religious eqaality to Wales and other measures to promote the progress and freedom of the people." Mr Jones, Teify coal-yard, seconded. Mr W Bowen Rowlands, M.P., rose to support the resolution, amid cheers. He said he was sure that what the chairman had requested of them would be amply and fully carried out, and that the fairest hearing would be given to every speaker, Those who disagreed with anything that might be said would, he daresay, be so conscious of their own superiority as to be able to refrain from inter- rupting anyone in his observances (hear, hear). There was only one drawback in the pleasure it always gave him of addressing audiences in Cardiganshire (and that was through no fault of his own), and it was that in his earlier days he was not sufficiently taught his native tongue to enable him to address, in Welsh, those with whom he acted politically. But his failing on that ac- count and the lessening of his pleasure was more than compensated for that evening, because he had been successful in inducing his esteemed fiiend and colleague, Mr Tom Ellis (than whom no better member of Parliament who had devoted more at- tention to the wants of Wales had ever been elected by the Principality) to address them in Welsh up. on the subjects that were so near and dear to the hearts of Welshmen. Mr Ellis had been placed as last speaker in order that he may not be interrupted when addressing them. He (the speaker) had intended dealing with only one or two particular questions that night, not because they were more important than other questions he might mention, nor because he might not be interested in the re- mainder, but because he deemed it desirable, as their representative, to deal with certain topics, leaving other questions to his friend, Mr Ellis. Now, five and a half years had passed away since they fought the battle and vindicated the great cause of Liberalism and Welsh independence in that county, and they had tasted the blessings of a Tory Government for that protracted period. If it was not for the Septennial Act they would have to enjoy them for a long time more, as the Tories tried to stretch out their period of office to as late a date as they possibly could. The path of the present Government was strewn with broken and violated pledges with regard to Ireland, which they had governed with the most stringent law of coercion, whilst as to Wales they had tried, by bringing in an easier system of collecting tithes, to quiet the existing friction, and the demands of the Welsh people for their abolition. Those mat- ters he did not propose to dwell upon, as they were questions patent to them all. He would pass on to the topic of the hour, which Lord Salisbury bad said would decide the issue of the next general election. He meant the question which was before the electorate at that time when Wales from one end to the other upheld the justice of Home Rule for Ireland, but which the English electors, misled by misrepresentations and so-called faets, refused to accept. They in Wales accepted Home Rule because they believed that the nation itself knew what was best fitted for its internal government. and, moreover, they supported the measure for Ireland because they desired a better and wider Bill for Wales itself (cheers). It would be an act of justice; it was an act of necessity because the Imperial Government had now too much work on its hands with Imperial measures. The grounds of the position since 1886 had been shifted. A few years ago the people rolled themselves in the Union Jack. He remembered going to an election at Winchester where some of the canvassers of the Unionist candidate wrapped themselves in the Union Jack. It was separation they were told to fear, as if there could he greater separation than had already grown between the two countries owing to centuries of English misrule in Ireland. But the country had seen through that monstrously false device. The Tories had been beaten out of that defence, and they now again told them that Home Rule ought not to be granted mi two other grounds-it was a pity they had not brought on these objections before-first, because the granting of Home Rule would be injurious to the Protestant religion. He could hardly credit that any person who had read history aright could admit of such < nonsense as that; but men of repute had been going through the country using tbat argument, and repeating that statement, and writing letters to papers and magazines to the same effect, nonsense as that; but men of repute had been going through the country using that argument, and repeating that statement, and writing letters to papers and magazines to the same effect, so that for that reason alone and not for any intrinsic merit in the argument, it was necessary he 1 should notice it. According to Lord Salisbury, in his speech at Birmingham on the 24th October, when undoubtedly his utterances were well weighed, the objection did not lie against the Roman Catholic ecclesiastical asceniancy alone, but against ecclesiastical ascendancy of an- other kind, such as that ot- the Nonconformist ministers in Wales (haar, hear). Now there was a lesson he wished them to draw from that, that th Roman Catholic clergy in Ireland had no political power other than was given them because they were iu sympathy with the ma<M6i4 of Ireland. The position was precisely the *arne in Wales, and ] were it. sympathy with the of Ireland. The position was precisely the itaine in Wales, and | thay had buen told o""r and over again that i Wales would be happy and quiet were it net for the preaching of the Nonconformist ministers, but such political power as the ministers had was derived from the fact that they went amongst the people, heard their grievances, aad sympithised with them. On that ground the Roman 0 itholic priesthood and the laity and the Nonconformist ministers of Wales were similarly situated-both were trying to divert the tide of affairs in favour of the m isses. That argument against Home Rule came with very bad grace from a Government which had sent, or permitted, or allowed, an em- bassy to the Pope to obtain aid in putting down the Plan of Campaign, and had sent Dr Virtue to Rome, according to the Pall Mall Gazette of No- vember, 1890, to negotiate for the establishment of tho Roman Catholic hierarchy in Egypt. Then came the second argument urged against Home Kule, viz., that it would not do tor the .Noncon- formists of Wales and the Radicals and Liberals to return Mr Gladstone to power, and thus favour the success of the Home Rule movement, because, as said a certain notod orator at Highmead, it would delay disestablishment. Now he would advise that extremely able politician before he came to Wales next time to try and gauge the brain power of the Welsh people, for that may prevent him from thinking that they could be so easily misled (hear, hear). He had no wish to impute anything dishonourable to Mr Chamberlain, but the argu- ments which that gentleman bad advanced were a proof of how far a man's intellectual powers might be clouded when he is endeavouring to secure the success of:the party to which he was joined. What was the arguinent ?-"If you will support Mr Gladstone you will not have dises- tablishment for sometime, because be must p-tas Home Rule first, and that will delay it." Well, what became of that? Was that any reason for them going over to the Tories, who would never give disestablishment at all ? (Laughter). His (th3 speaker's) opinion was better late than never, bnt Mr Chamberlain's doctrine seemed to be better never than late (laughter). They could not shun Home Rule if they wished to. They never took up the question for any factious purpose, and they could not relinquish their principles and convictions for any fancied advantage. But there was nothing to be gained by the Nonconformists of Wales giving up Home Rule. Disestablishment was already written in large letters upon the banners of the Liberal party as second only to Home Rule; on the contrary, the Unionist party were plodged to oppose it, and was it likely, therefore, a man would abandon the party who had been his friends for the flimsy promises of the other. Supposing they could be guilty of the incredible baseness of giving up their principles, as wanted of them, what would become of the ninety odd Irish mem- bers in Parliament? Did they think those mem- bers would look upon the Welsh people's baseness and treachery with favourable eyes? Would they then assist the Welsh in procuring disestablish- ment and Home Rule? Rather, they (the Welsh) would find a larger number arrayed against them than at present, and would be confronted wit.h a stronger opposition still. Mr Chamberlain did not deem it sufficient to advance that argument at Highmead; he bad written a letter of i similar effect to the Tories of Ruabon, but he diresay they had all read Sir William Harcourt's scathing reply to that letter, and he need not dwell on it further. The result of recent Liberal conferences bad been to put Welsh disestablishment in the forefront of their programme, and it would not be wrenched from there except by treachery and desertion among the Liberals themselves. Desertion did not always pay; treachery did not pay; therefore why join the ranks of the Unionist party from whom they were told to expect so many things. Almost every bye-election had gone against them, and the next general election, unless he was very much mistaken, would mean a more emphatical con- demnation of those who had deserted their past convictions than anything that man could have before imagined. A great deal had been said about Ulster-of course, it was a petted place. He was reminded with regard to Ulster that that province would fight-of course, in reality, when the time came, it would not fight at all. The total Tory vote in Ulster was calculated to be 109,000 and some odd, and the Nationalist vote I 101,000, giving a majority of 8,000 or an average of 200 voters, so that the majority was not so very great after all. He believed also that there were more Nationalist members returned for Ulster than there were anti-Home Rulers. He had spoken upon the above two subjects because he could not very pro- perly pass them by. There was only one other question he wished to speak upon. It was said that the Conservatives were very anxious to do all they could for the people in Wales, and they said they had given the country the Intermediate Education Act, but his friend, Mr Ellis, would tell them by what process that measuro had been dragged out of the Government. The Govern- ment had been urged to do something to stem the tide of agricultural migration to the towns, and had been asked to begin with the unit of the es- tablishment of parish councils, but the Govern- ment had opposed it, and the movement was de- feated. Lord Salisbury had said that the parish system of England and Wales was very strange and irregular some parishes were large and some small. He had objected to the argument that they should establish parish councils which would awaken rural life, and make it more interesting by giving the people an interest in the government of their country, by saying that it was not the object of the legislature to amuse the electors, and that if it was amongst the duties of the State to amuse the people he should rather recommend the es- tablishment of circuses. That, was the answer which a responsible statesman had given to such an important question. His mind must have been full at the time of Primrose Leagne meetings, where circuses, fireworks, learned donkeys, and such buffooneries formed the staple of instruction (laughter). He (the speaker) had called attention to this in order to show in what sort of way their wishes were interpreted by the Tories. The hon. member then spoke of the coming election, and said he was unable to giye them the precisemoment which the Tories would pick as the most inconvenient time for the rural population to vote, but it must happen within the next oompar&tively few months. It would then be seen in which way things would turn. There was no fear for Wales in spite of all the film of sophistry with which it was sought to blind the eyes of his countrymen. There was no fear for Ireland, notwithstanding the enticing leisure which the Government had taken and the quarrels of of the Irish party after the death of their late leader. There was no fear for Scotland, nor was there any doubt how the mass of the electorate in England would vote if they desired the abolition of the privilege of class, if they desired that free edu- cation should enlighten the minds of men and make them climb to positions now monopolised by men simply because they were born in those positions. He would not say much of the House of Lords, it was far too august an institution to criticise (laughter). The members of it were all born legislators, but if they desired that every man should be armed with a fair field and no favour, and if they desired the advancement of religion as opposed to denominationalism, they would restore to power not the Government which bad so grossly misused the powers and chances lavishly poured on them, but the other party which would confide the the reins once more to him who had used his political power for no personal, mean or family ad- vantage, but who had employed his intellectual powers to the advancement and interest of his fellow-men (applause). Mr T. E. Ellis, M.P., in rising to address the meeting in Welsh, was received with continued cheering. After expressing his pleasure at having the opportunity of addressing a Cardiganshire audience and thanking Mr Bowen Rowlands for having dealt so ably with the Irish question, he at once proceeded to denounce what he believed to be the principle of the Conservative party the elevation of the few to the disadvantage of the many. They all asked every morning that "Thy will be done on earth," but this could not be fulfilled unless they had a different policy to that of the Tory party and put the rich and poor equal before the law. Laws ought to be framed for the advantage of the titled lord and the working man alike. Already a change had taken place in that direction, for were not working men and sons of working men -like hilnself representina the country within the very walla of the House of Commons. In Wales especially, the seats had been wrung out of the bands of the squire, who now had to make way for those whom he had not long ago looked upon as mere nobodies. But he (the speaker) was not satisfied with that. Although the good people of Merioneth had given him their vote he had no vote at all himself, but he wanted to have one, and he asked for it because he was a man who could think for himself. Votes ought not to be governed by the amount of money a man possessed nor by the number of acres of land he can boast of, but every man who had brains and who could form his own opinions should be entitled to a vote. Then rich and poor would surely have the same privileges in educational matters. He need not tell the people of Cardiganshire the worth of education as the county had always been a noted seminary. He was extremely g ad that they 1 were also advancing in this direction. They not Ionly had a school in every village, but they had been able to wring the Intermediate Education Act from the Tories, thanks to Mr Stuart liendel and the other Welsh members. On the 30th of May, 1890, when the Bill was read the secon i time, Sir Wrn. Hart Dyke had come to the House OL, behalf of the Government, to oppose it, with n speech prepared, but Mr Gladstone and a strong muster had gathered to carry it through, and the Government found it was useless to offer any seiious opposition and it was carried, though aftei being mauled a great deal. Wales again wanted an university supported by handsome endowments and they would persist in clamouring for it' because, if they did not look after themselves, the Tories would do nothing for them as they were always doddling and wasting their time over foreign affairs and relations instead of listening to home needs. They also asked for fair play for the Welsh language. At present, it there was any public office vacant be it ever so s-all-the authorities must bring a Scotchman or Englishman to fill it, and the Welshman was compelled to pa\ his respects and money to creatures who had not brain power enough to even learn his language The whole thing was monstrous; and more than that, if two Welshmen happened to have a quarrel or dispute, the issue would have to be decided by an Englishman. The Principality was now getting tired of this state affairs, and in future they would demand thattheGovernment should send down men whom Welshmen could understand to fill public offices. They had been told that if Wales cried "Wales for the Welsh," England would follow with "England for the English," which it had been said would be a serious matter. But had not England taken great care from the commence- ment that England should be kept for the English. Supposing there was a County Court judgeship vacant in Essex, and a Welshman, who knew a dozen different languages, but not English, was appointed to it. What would become of him ? Why, he would be treated with ten times greater contempt, than a tithe collector or bailiff ever was in Wales. They did not object to an Englishman been sent to Wales as long as he was clever enough to learn to be understood in the Welsh language. The speaker followad up his remarks by referring to Mr Cecil Beresford's appointment, and said that MrMatthewsortheGovernment would have nopeaee with the Welsh members until Judge Beresford was removed to a County Court Circuit, wbere bis language would be clearly understood. The speaker then made a tirade on landlords and landlordism generally, and said he wished the farmers to have proper security for their wheat. Laws ought also to be made to encourage the small farmers, and to enable as many families as possible to live on the land of Wales, instead of its being in the hands of a few landed proprietors. At present under the existing rotten system of landlordism, the poor honest working man had nothing to do but to emi- grate to the towns and foreign countries far away from all he held dear. The reason the Tories dis- liked Mr Gladstone so much was because be had reformed the land laws in Ireland, and passed so many measures for the benefit of the masses, and was now advocating disestablishment. What did they ask for in regards to disestablishment ? But why argue the question-the people of Wales, and Cardiganshire especially, had made up their minds that the question was ripe, and it needed only to put the sickle thr)uah it, in order to reap the harvest. He wanted to show why Wales had so emphatically condemned the Establishment. The Church in Wales was a Church dependent and founded on English laws and principles, instead of on the goodwill of the Welsh people themselves. The Tithe Act was only another Bill tended to con- nect her with English forms and customs. Was it not ridiculous that the four Welsh Bishops—the four fathers in God-should be appointed in Eng. land, by a man who had been made Prime Minister, not to look after the interests of religion, but to p lSS or oppose such and such a Bill con- nected with social matters ? They ought to be nominated by the Bible-loving people of Wales. The chief reason for the Reformation was that Eng- land had made up her mind that she would no longer be ruled by the Pope, and Wales was now determined that she would no longer be governed by men, in whose appointment they had no voice. The clergymen of Wales were mostly sons of farmers andworking-men—(Voice Yes, and sons of Methodists)—and in Ireland the Roman Catholic priesthood was also drawn from among the people. In that respect they agreed. The Irish clergy were in touch with the people, because they sympathised with the people, but the Welsh clergy were almost taught to uphold Eng- lish customs, and the people did not take them into their confidences. Reverting to what he called the cruelty of landlords, the speaker said that in 1S68, many Wehh landlords had turned away their tenants off their land, simply because they were Nonconformists. But Providence worked in wondrous ways, aud now, in instances which be could enumerate, the Nonconformists who had been turned away had usurped their former landlords, and were owners of the estates from which they had been turned. He knew of an estate in Merionethshire, the landlord of whieh had been advised by a neighbouring clergyman to turn away one of his best tenants, simply because he was a Nonconformist. This he did, and in the old tenant's place came a Churchman, recommended by the clergyman as a good tenant. But in a short time the parlour of the farmhouse (which until lately had been cosy, and where good will had always reigned), was made a shelter for the pigs and fowls. Moreover, when rent day came, no money was foitlicoming. The landlord thought more of his rent than anything else, and was glad to get rid of his Church tenant, and put up again with the honest, perservcring Nonconformist. Since landlords had to pay the tithes they looked at things in a different light, and did not cast such favourable eyes on the Ctiurch establishment. Luck and prosperity had never followed the Church to the rural parts of Wales luck would never follow the Church Schools, wh,ch had been established toteacb children the Church Catechism-a mild way of pro- selytising. The speaker, in conclusiop, referred to what he said was a fact, that there was no squire in the county, who would have the courage to oppose Mr B Rowlands at the next general election, and the Tories were driven to such a corner that they had to condescend to ask a Methodist to contest the seat, in the hopes of thus splitting the Noncon- formist votes. The resolution was then carried. A vote of con- fidence in Mr Bowen Rowlands, proposed by Mr Lewis Davies, Gelly, and seconded by Mr J W Evans, Medical Hall, was carried, as also was a vote of thanks to Mr Tom Ellis, proposed by Mr Rowlands, and seconded by Mr John Morris. The singing of "Hen wlad fy Nhadau," sulo by Mrs Davies, Earfaen Hall, terminated the meeting.
ABERYSTWYTH. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF WALES.—Invitations are being issued on behalf of past students of the University College of Wales, to meet in a re-union which is to form part of the coming celebration of St. David's Day at the college. A large gathering is anticipated. After the re- union, a meeting of the past students will be held at which Mr T. E. Ellis, M.P. for Merioneth, has consented to preside for promotion of certiiii objects connected with the development of the college. INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODDFELLOWS DIS- TRICT MEETING.—The 88th grand annual com- mittee of the Aberystwyth District of Inde- pendent Order of Oddfellows was held at the Town Hall on Thursday the 7th, when there were present:—John D. Jones, G.M. presiding, P.PG.M. David Pugh, St. David's Lodge, acting as deputy G.M. in the absence of D.G.M. James Griffiths through illness (and which was much regretted), J. J. Griffiths, Prov. C.S., E. P. Wynne, district treasurer, Thomas Davies and David Davies auditors, and the following delegates, viz., St. Davids, David Pugh, Rheidol John Watkin Cowley, Temple of Love William Hughes, Earl of Lisburne Lodge William Ball, Druid John Sayer Nicholls, Cambrian John Ellis, St. Johns; C. 1. Ivory, St. Padarn: Edward E. Jones, Llynlleoed Richard Jones, Dovey John Edwards, Gogerddan Isaac Jones, Iologoch David Edwards. Brother Edward Evans, lernple of Lote, was appointed inside 1 guardian. The grand master delivered the usual inaugural address which gave some interesting details regarding the present position of the unity and of the district. He stated that the numeral strength of the unity on the 1st January 1891, was 67o,073 members with a capital exceeding £ 7,600,000, the increase during the previous year being £ 248,173 in capital and ol-) ANN 1- • I 44,uw in Kiieinuers. uurmg the last l'i years the Society had paid in sick and funeral expenses 29,556,229. The increase of funds during the same period being E3,602,227 and the increase of members 176,000. The grand masters address was ordered to be printed in the district report. The agenda of the business was then proceeded with. A long discussion took place on the advisability of the treasurers and secretaries giving the security of the guarantee society in such sums as the lodges tnijht deem adequate in accordance with the Friendly Societies' Acts. Several lodges were fined for not sending their annual returns to the registrar, I and one of the lodges for not paying its proportion )f levies in time to the district treasurer. After disposing of several confidential matters con- nected with the lodges the sum of £15G was voted towards the decent interment of 22 deceased members and wives during the last six months and the sum of 1:37 10s 6d towards the incidental and management expensec of the dis- In trict during the same period. On the election of officers being proceeded with, D.G.M. James Griffiths was unanimously elected G M. P.G. David James of St. John's Lodge was elected D.G.M. Provo C.S. J.I. Griffiths and E. P. Wynne, D. Treasurer were both unanimously -u_- 1. -1_1 re-elected. John Williams, ot the nneiuoi Lodge, was elected district auditor. Brother Thomas Griffiths, 1. P. of St. David's Lodge, was appointed district trustee in the room of late brother Dr Morris Jones deceased. Prov. C.S. J.I. Griffiths was unanimously appointed deputy at the next A.M.C. at Derby, and he was ordered to support the nomination of P.P.G.M., brother C. Grayham of the Burton on Trent district to be D.G.M. of the Lenity. P.P.G.M. John Hughes, of the Temple of Love, was appointed examining relief officer. Brother D. Edwards, of the Iologoch Lodge, was pro- moted to the purple degree. After the con- clusion of the official business the delegates officers and friends adjourned to the Talbot Hotel, where an excellent dinner was provided by Mr and Mrs Jones. Mr Thomas Griffiths, J.P., the newly elected trustee presided, and D.G.M. David James, ably sustained the vice chair. The usual toasts were drank heartily, several speeches were made, and capital songs gi ven by David Edwards, Iologoch, J. S. Nicholls, Druid Isaac Jones, Gogerdan John Ellis, Cambrian David James, St. Johns, and others, and a most heartily pleasant and enjoy- able evening was spent. PRIMROSE LEAOUE.—A public meeting in con- nection with the Aberystwyth Habitation was held At the Assembly Rooms on Thursday last, Mr Thomas Griffiths, J.P., in the chair. Ad- dresses were given on the current topics of the day by Mr W. R. Anthony, special delegate from the Grand Council of the League Mr G. W. Bobbins, Provincial Secretary and others. There was a large attendance, and the addresses were encouraging and most interesting. DEATH AND FUNERAL OF MR EDWARD JONES, HEAD MASTER OF THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL. -When we state that the announcement of the death of Mr Edward Jones, head master of the Aberyst- wyth Grammar School, has been received with the deepest regret and sorrow here, it is not amiss but when the fact becomes more known there are a great number of his disciples occupy- ing the highest position in all parts of the world who will receive the intelligence and mourn the demise of their teacher with unfeigned grief. The dsceased was the son of the late Mr Wm. Jones, cabinet-maker, of this town, being thus descended from, and connected with the oldest, most influential and respected families in Aber- ystwyth. He was born on the 6th June, 1826, and was therefore in his 66th year. He received his early education at the well-known private academy of Mr John Evans, whose mathematical acquirements and bias in teaching embued his pupil with an early taste for the study of that science in numerous branches. The deceased studied the classics at Ystradmeurig, and by the private tuition of the Chaplain of the Earl cf Lisburne. In July, 1863, he was one of twoonly who succeeded in ottaining honours in mathema- tics and natural philosophy at the University of London examination, Mr Wright being the other one. He had previously obtained the highest honours of the Royal College of Preceptors, and declined to accept a high position in that. College, as he did also a mathematical professorship in one of the Colleges of the University of Cam- bridge. He assisted in editing and correcting a new text book upon the higher mathematics in the latter University. The deceased early evinced his great qualities as a teacher, and established and conducted the most successful Grammar School that was ever located in the country, which eventually became so celebrated that he had at the same time three pupils from Australia, two from India, and two from the United States. The school was generally known as "the Grammar School," otherwise "Y sgol Edward Jones," and to be certified as having been educated there was quite sufficient guarantee of the pupil's mental and moral status and fitness for any position. There are clergy, solicitors, banking, medical, commercial, military, and Civil Service men occupying the highest stations in their respective professions and in all parts of the world, who owe their position to the educa- tion imparted, and the encouragement given to them at the Aberystwyth Grammar School. After the University College of Wales was opened the school in 1872 became vested in trustees when the deceased was appointed head master] which position he maintained until June, 1890^ when, while giving private lessons to Mr Edward Powell, Nanteos, Mr Jones was struck with par- tial paralysis to such an extent that he had to relinquish the arduous duties of head master. He maintained his geniality with moderate health and capacities until the 29th ult., when he was seized with bronchitis, and Drs. Davies and Turner administered to him with oreat assiduity, but congestion of the lungs intervened, and on Wednesday and Thursday last the symp- toms assumed so aggravated a nature that all hopes of recovery were relinquished, and he succumbed on Friday morning at his residence in Laura-place. The deceased leaves a bereaved widow and a beloved daughter, Mrs Davies, wife of Mr Joseph Davies, Registrar of the Aberyst- wyth County Court. The funeral, which was private, took place on Wednesday evening, the remains being interred in the family vault in the Cemetery.—In closing our obituary, it is due to add that Mr Jones was most generous and liberal towards all who evinced superior intellectual capacities, whose circumstances desired them the means of pursuing their studies. When he detected one in such a position he would teach him gratuitously until he obtained scholarships or honours at Cambridge and other Colleges or institutions sufficiently lucrative to maintain himself. He was one of the gentleman in con- nection with Dr. Bell, the Rev John Williams, and others, who founded the old Literary, Scien- tific and Mechanics' Institution in this town at the old Town Hall, where the Clock Tower now stands, and which obtained its location in the premises now occupied as the offices of Messrs Koberts and Evans, solicitors. Mr Jones taught mathematical and grammar classes at this insti- tution gratuitously for years, and delivered lectures in conjunction with Dr. Bell, Rev Basil Jones (now Lord Bishop), Sir Thomas Lloyd, Rev Mr Kilner, and many others. The pupils are spread throughout world, and many gone before. Those who are alive will learn of his death with the warmest and most dutiful recol- lections and with feelings of deep mourning.
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