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CHINESE TORTURES.

THE HOOP SNAKE.

"BESS OF HARDWICK."

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"BESS OF HARDWICK." Dealing with the annals of the Cavendish family, a writer in the Yorkshire Post says of the redoubtable "Bess of Hardwick that she stamped the impress of her strenuous individ- uality on the history of her time. Her marriage with Sir William Cavendish, a Suffolk squire, founded the great family, and established the State ascendency of the House. She was the daughter of John Hardwick, of Hardwick, of Derbyshire, and, when an artless child, married Richard Barley, a wealthy Derbyshire landowner. He died in 1533, leaving his widow not yet twelve years old. Her next capture was Sir William Cavendish, who, as one of bluff Hal's" officials, had taken a prominent part in the dis- solution of the monasteries, and had thus acquired abbey lands in at least seven counties. They were married in 1547, at two o'clock after mid- night. "Bess" persuaded him to live in her native county, and the erection of Chatsworth House (not the present structure) was commenced. The mansion cost E80,000 in the coin of that day, representing six times the currency of ours. It was unfinished when he died, after ten years' servitude with this inexorable lady. The friend of Queen Elizabeth, she was not unlike her Sovereign in certain qualities, and their friend- ship was an intimate one, for the Queen com- mitted her beautiful rival, Mary Stuart, to her friend's custody, when Cavendish's widow had become the Countess of Shrewsbury. Bess of Hardwick married four times, and many for- tunes. She built three great houses Chats- worth, Hardwick, and Oldcotes. Hardwick remains as she left it, more glass than wall." Of the modern Chatsworth more anon. Her character is thus described She was proud, furious, selfish, and unfeeling. She was s builder, a buyer and seller of estates, a money-lender, a farmer, and a merchant of coals and timber, She lived to a great old age, continually flattered, but seldom deceived, and died immensely rich, but without a friend."

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