CHINESE TORTURES. When they are victorious in battle the Chinese are cruel conquerors. They often inflict horrible tortures, not only upon their prisoners of war, but even upon the unoffending inhabitants of vanquished lands. They carry this love for torture even into civil life, and display a horrible ingenuity in producing the greatest possible suffering with the least apparent means of inflicting it. One of the ordinary punishments in China is the compulsory kneeling, bare-legged, on a coiled chain. This does not sound particularly dread- ful, but the agony it causes is undescribable, especially as two guards are stationed over the sufferer to prevent him from seeking even transitory relief by shifting his posture The most common torture in China is the cangue, a sort of movable pillory. A piece of wood four feet square and nearly four inches thick has a hole in the middle, through which the culprit's head is passed. The machine opens with a hinge, and when closed is locked. A placard designating the supposed offence is passed thereon. So long as the cangue is worn the victim cannot feel himself, and would starve were it not for the casual contributions of friends. The great terror of the cangue lies in the excruciating pains caused by carrying such a weight upon the neck and shoulders. Three months is the legal term of the use of this instrument. Finger squeezing is also quite common. Four pieces of bamboo are tied together loosely at one end a string passes through the other ends, so arranged that by pulling tliey may be drawn closely together. The fingers are introduced between the bomboos, and so by pulling at the string they can be crushed to pieces. This torture is frequently employed by the mandarins, when endeavouring to extort money from those suspected of concealing their wealth. The ankles are squeezed after a similar fashion, only the bamboos used are much larger. Most of the minor tortures-that is, those 1:1 not aimed directly at life-are employed by the mandarins to extort money. These, rnandarilis, who are set as petty governors over districts, have but limited terms of office, and may, indeed, be transferred at any time. As they are required to make up a certain sum of money for their superior officers, and have also to keep up considerable state on a nominal salary, they oppress the people to the utmost of their power, looking upon them merely as tax- producing animals. Beating with the bamboo is very common. There are two kinds of bamboo used for this purpose, the small and the large. The latter is capable of producing death if used with severity. Even the lesser bamboo, if the blows be struck with the edge instead of the flat, bruises the flesh so as to bring on mortification of which the sufferer is sure to die in a few days. A Celestial of forethought, however, does not suffer much from the bamboo. He bribes the executioner, who strikes so as to produce a very effective-sounding blow, but in reality inflicts very little injury. Or he bribes a man to act as a substitute, and, just as the first blow is about to be struck, some of the bribed officers get between the judge and the culprit, while the latter rolls out of the way and the hired substitute takes his place. In China, men care little for their skins, or even for their lives, and it is possible to purchase even a substitute for capital punishment. In this the chief difficulty is not to find the substitute, but toraise enough money to bribe all the officials who must act in concert at the execution. Then there is the snake torture. The victim is made to kneel. Tubes of soft metal fashioned like coiling snakes are wound about his naked arms and body. the snakes have open mouths into which boiling water is poured, producing a most horrible torture. Afavourite"punishineiit is to hang the prisoner head downward by the wrists and ankles from a crossbar several feet high. Again, the victim is hung by one wrist and one ankle from a crossbar. Sometimes he is made to sit in a most uncomfort- able position on a bamboo chair, and is then tied securely in that posture, so that he may not move at all. Capital punishments are inflicted in various ways in the Flowery Kingdom. The mode that is the most desirable to the victim is the command to commit suicide. In this case a method of reaching death may be employed that will not mutilate the body. And this the Chinese set great store by, for it is their great desire to appear in the next world with their bodies intact, This is a privilege, however, only accorded to officers of very high rank. For criminals, of no status, strangulation is preferred. This is accomplished in the same way as the Spanish garrote. Capital punishment is Plso inflicted by decapitation, crucifixion, and what is most dreaded, because most degrading, by a fiendish method of slashing the body to pieces, whilst avoiding the chief blood-vessels, previous to relieving the culprit of his head, so that he may enter the next world, not only headless, but with scarcely any flesh on his bones. The tortures and punishments here described are still common throughout the length and breadth of the Celestial empire.
THE HOOP SNAKE. The Hoop Snake is marvellous enough to have come out of a fairy story, but he lives on the earth and is one of its real dangers in some parts-that is, if you live where there are deep swamps or thick woods or wild, rough hillsides. That is his choice of a world to live in, and there he is peaceable enough. If you happen to in- vade it he will rnu away if possible, and fight only as a last resort. He will even lie so quietly that you may step over him scatliless a d,,zeii times—if only you do not step on to him. You may see him sometimes basking on a log or bare rock, blinking at the sun and looking inert and harmless as a fallen twig. He is long and slim, rarely under 4 feet or over 6. His back is dull dark brown, his belly reddish ochre with brown lights. He has a mouthful of sharp teeth, but no fangs. At the top of his tail you see a horny spur, for all the world like a cock's spur, but something sharper. So he creeps and blinks away the spring and early summer, feeding on frogs, mice, berries, and small birds and their eggs. Nobody sees him unless they go hunting him, and then only by rare good luck. By and by midsummer dries up the marshes and the woodland pools the hill streams run low or fall altogether. Sportsmen and foresters begin to say apprehensively "Better be careful time for heop snakes to come whirling out of the water crazy mad." In this midsummer madness the creature curves itself till the horned tail rests just on the back of its head, and whirls out alonw country roads or open woodland. betide whatsoever may cross its path. Vision is im- possible, yet in some way the .reature scents a living creature and strikes madly at it, flinging its barbed tail almost its own length in front of its head. There is a poison gland at the root of the spur full of venom so swift, so subtle, that it has no known antidote. A horse struck'by it falls shivering and groaning, bathed in cold sweat and dies within the hour. Cattle either run bellowing for the nearest thicket in foaminw fienzy or deep in their tracks as though shot if struck. A dog dies with the quick rigors of strychnine poisoning, human beings grow blind and faint, then fall into a merciful insensibility that runs rapidly into death. Luckily thejsnakes misses as often as it strikes. In that case it makes no second attempt, but whirls away in search of new victims. It can not strike sideways, but it is so full of fight it will turn squarely on its course to deliver a straight- out blow. Few things are more awesome than on a lonesome moonlit country road to encounter one of these wheels of vengeance. The name hoopsnake or cartwheel snake comes from its locomotion on these midsummer forages. The full moon of August is their usual sea»on some- times, though, the snake runs amuck by dav- j light. Once a group in front of a roadside smithy were horror-stricken at the si'^ht of a tremendous fellow rolling down-hill at them with the speed and force of a thunderbolt. There were three men, with a tethered horse in the midst of them. It struck madly at the animal, which reared, plunged backward, and broke the rein just in time. Instead of it the snake struck the sapling to which it had been tied, and with such force that the horn penetrated the bark, and held the reptile prisoner. The smith smashed it with a blow of his hammer. Whenever a tree sud- denly and accountably dies where the hoopsnake is known, the country folks will tell you that it has been stung by a hoopsnake.
"BESS OF HARDWICK." Dealing with the annals of the Cavendish family, a writer in the Yorkshire Post says of the redoubtable "Bess of Hardwick that she stamped the impress of her strenuous individ- uality on the history of her time. Her marriage with Sir William Cavendish, a Suffolk squire, founded the great family, and established the State ascendency of the House. She was the daughter of John Hardwick, of Hardwick, of Derbyshire, and, when an artless child, married Richard Barley, a wealthy Derbyshire landowner. He died in 1533, leaving his widow not yet twelve years old. Her next capture was Sir William Cavendish, who, as one of bluff Hal's" officials, had taken a prominent part in the dis- solution of the monasteries, and had thus acquired abbey lands in at least seven counties. They were married in 1547, at two o'clock after mid- night. "Bess" persuaded him to live in her native county, and the erection of Chatsworth House (not the present structure) was commenced. The mansion cost E80,000 in the coin of that day, representing six times the currency of ours. It was unfinished when he died, after ten years' servitude with this inexorable lady. The friend of Queen Elizabeth, she was not unlike her Sovereign in certain qualities, and their friend- ship was an intimate one, for the Queen com- mitted her beautiful rival, Mary Stuart, to her friend's custody, when Cavendish's widow had become the Countess of Shrewsbury. Bess of Hardwick married four times, and many for- tunes. She built three great houses Chats- worth, Hardwick, and Oldcotes. Hardwick remains as she left it, more glass than wall." Of the modern Chatsworth more anon. Her character is thus described She was proud, furious, selfish, and unfeeling. She was s builder, a buyer and seller of estates, a money-lender, a farmer, and a merchant of coals and timber, She lived to a great old age, continually flattered, but seldom deceived, and died immensely rich, but without a friend."
AN ACTRESS WHO REFUSED TO WE-IR TIGHTS. A curious action has just been decided in America against Miss Lilian Russell, a lady well known in London as a clever singer and actress. it appears according to a cable message just received here, that Miss Russells's manager, Mr John C. Duff, raised an action against her for refusing to appear in tights, as she was bound to do according to contract. Miss Russell pleaded that the wearing of such articles of attire was prejudicial to health, but the United States Supreme Court confirmed the judgment pre- viously given by the Lower Court, and Miss Russell was condemned in 2,000 dollars damages.
RUSSIAN GAOLS FULL. A gentleman, an authority on the subject, with whom I (Daily Chronicle correspondent) have just had a conversation on crime and criminals in Russia, informs me there can be, no doubt, thct if the congested state of the prisons is any test crime in Russia is alarmingly on the increase. He attributes this to the present demoralised state of the peasantry, who in large areas of the country have been driven by want and mal-ad- ministration to criminal practices. Incidentally this gentleman mentioned that there were some- thing like 4,000 prisoners in the gaol at Tomsk. Many of these are there simply because they have no passports, but will doubtless soon become criminals by admixture with the other prisoners.
IRREVERENCE FOR THE DEAD. In Berlin there appears to be little reverence for the dead. The old cholera churchyard of 1831, which afterwards became a cemetery for the poor, has long been neglected, though there have been funerals there during the last ten years. The place is now to be changed. In the lower part of the churchyard, where a new church is to be built, the graves have been opened, and the skeletons and remains of coffins taken out, to be buried in a general grave higher up, where it is intended to make a public garden. On the upper part of the churchyard two schools are being built. Other portions of the ground will be sold for building, though it does not seem a very healthy site for human abodes.
PRINCE BISMARCK ON MUSIC. Bismarck confesses that he has neither an ear nor a sense of music. He never could learn the piano like his schoolmates, and as for reading music, the effort generally resulted in tears. He learnt the Greek alphabet in half an hour but when it came to crochets and quavers, minims and semi-breves,his naturally good memory failed him, and he found it impossible to carry the dis- tinctions in his head. A good Barbary organ is his favourite instrument as for concerts or operas, they were always a weariness of the flesh to him.
HOW AUTHORS DIFFER. When literary men undertake to give prescrip- tions they differ quite as much as the ordinary doctors. Mr Walter Besant has been writing on literary hygiene. He recommends a walk of seven or eight miles a day, with frequent change of scene. This horrifies Mr James Payn, who is well known to detest exercise. He says that if he were to walk eight miles he would certainly be driven home, and in a hearse. As to frequent changes, when he wants a "scene he goes and looks at it, but he would as soon think of taking a railway journey anywhere as of undergoing a surgical operation when there is nothing the matter.
THE WORLD'S FAIR AT CHICAGO. The remarkable run of 436} miles in 425 minutes on the New York Central and Hudson River Railway Company has put other American railway managers on their mettle, and they are now preparing for the expected large traffic to the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. This railway which, like our own London and North-Western and Midland, has always been the pioneer of im- provement, is making strong efforts to provide further accommodation throughout their system, which is the natural route to Chicago and the West. This is the only line out of New York which daily runs five great trains to the West, at an average speed of 50 miles an hour, with all the luxurious appointments which can add to the comfort and convenience of passengers. The im- provement in the permanent way, and the development of speed have done much to increase the traffic between this country and the great West, whilst the danger of fast running has diminished, the gradients being easy and the route nearly level. Passengers can now break- fast at New York and dine at Niagara Falls. Chicago is reached in 24 hours, St. Louis in 32, Cincinnati in 24, and Montreal in 12. The com- pany also runs daily throughout the year the Empire State Express," which is vestibuled" all through, and is heated by steam and lighted by gas. The company is represented in Europe by Messrs Thomas Moadows and Co., Liver- pool, London, Manchester, Glasgow, and Paris.
I HORRIBLE DEATH IN A FURNACE. John M Allister, employed at the works of the North Lonsdale Iron and Steel Company, Ulverston, fell into one of the large blast furnaces. His body was instantly consumed. The Rev Father Allen read the burial services afterwards on the gangway at the top of the line of furnaces.
THE SCORPION AND THE VIOLIN. A correspondent writes to the Spectator to con- firm %i hat that journal has recently said about the scorpion's very sensitive ear for the violin." "I have," says the correspondent, "studied the habits of the scorpion for many years, and have often noticed how every sensi- tive scorpions are to the most delicate sound, musical or otherwise. Under the thorax the scorpion has two comb-like appendages, which are the antenne (pectinate). It is pretty well settled by physiologists and entomologists that in insects the antenme represent the organs of hearing. These delicate structures are easily affected by the vibrations of sound, and there can be no doubt whatever that they are also affected by sounds quite inaudible to the human ear. The slightest vibration of'the'atinosphere, from any cause whatever, at once puts in motion the delicate structures which compose the an- tennae, to which organs insects owe the power of protecting themselves against danger, as well as the means of recognising the approach of one another. Spiders have wonderful eyesight, but I am quite sure that the scorpion's vision, not- withstanding his six eyes, is far from being acute. It is very difficult to catch a spider with a pair of forceps, but a scorpion can be easily captured, if no noise is made. Spiders see their prey before they are caught in the web but the scorpion makes no movement whatever to seize flies or cockroaches until they indicate their whereabouts by movements. This being the case, it can readily be understood how easily a scorpion may be roused into motion by the vibrations of music, as described in the article alluded to. If a tuning-fork be sounded on the table on which I keep my caged scorpion, he at once becomes agitated, and strikes out viciously with his s ing. On touching him with the vibrating tuning-fork, he stings it, and then coils himself up, as scor- pions do when hedged in. In Jamaica, the negroes believe that scorpions know their name; so they never call out, See, a scorpion," when they meet with one on the ground or wall, for fear of his escaping. They thus indirectly rec- ognize the scorpion's appreciation of sound but if you wish to stop a scorpion in his flight, blow air on him from the mouth, and he at once coils himself up. I have repeatedly done this but with a spider it has a contrary effect. Music charms a snake into silence, as the experiments at the Zoo and elsewhere prove but the agitated contortions and withings of the scorpion when roused by the sound of the violin only prove that they are roused by the vibrations of sound caused by music, and this would happen if they were disturbed by the discordant sounds of a penny trumpet or any other unmusical instru- ment.
THE ARCHDUKE AND THE GIPSIES. On being appealed to some time ago by the Archduke Joseph, the Austrian Emperor gave him permission to act with regard to the gipsies in Hungary as he thought best. The Archduke, who is the friend of these wild people, founded the colony of Tsigan, in the neighbourhood of his estate of Alosuth. He built them sixty small houses for sixty families, and made them apply their energies to agriculture and the trades. He named a youth of twenty, strong, tall, and hand- some, as their woiwode," and selected a pretty girl for his wife. After a course of religious instruction the pair were christened, and a few days ago their marriage took place in the Church of Alosuth. The Archduke and his managers were the witnesses. The Archduke wore the dress of a gipsy "woiwode," and, according to Romany custom, carried a tall bamboo staff, with an enormous nosegay and some brilliant drapery.
CHILIAN CUSTOMS. The greater part of the land in Chili is owned by large holders, who lived in Santiago or Valparaiso, and there spend the money received from their farms, which are managed by over- seers. The mass of the people may be divided into tenant farmers and labourers, the former having small holdings, for which they render personal service in payment, while the latter, as a rule, have no home, and travel from place to place in search of work. But they do not wander on foot, for in Chili everybody rides. The poorest farmer has his horse, and the traditional beggar on horseback is no novelty in Chili, for more than one traveller has noted the curious spectacle of being pursued by two or three mounted beggars, who were earnest in their supplications for charity, "for the love of G)d." In Chili, however, nobody starves, no matter how poor. Nature is too bountiful and the people are too hospitable. In this highly favoured country hospitality is the most sacred of virtues. In travelling to and fro no inns are to be found the traveller, on reaching a village or country town, presents himself at the house of the Governor, or, if the latter be absent, at the best house in the village, walks in, as a matter of course, and equally of course is at once made welcome wine is set before him, and while dinner is prepared he is questioned as to the news.
THE BISHOP OF ADELAIDE AND THE SEA SERPENT. A short time ago the Australian mail brought news of the finding by the Bishop of Adelaide of the carcass of a sea serpent at Avoid Point, near Coffin Bay, South Australia. The Bishop, in writing to an Adelaide friend, states that while riding along the sea beach he came across a dead sea serpent about 60 feet in length. It had a head 5 feet long. like that of an immense snake, with two blow holes on the top. There were no teeth in the jaws. The body was round, and the tail resembled that of a whale. The Bishop describes his find as the most peculiar animal he has ever seen.
AN AUSTRIAN TRAGEDY. In a village in the Wieselburg County the son )f a poor peasant who emigrated to America sixteen years ago came back to his parents' house without saying who he was, and showed his savings, six hundred golden sovereigns, in a aag. The father recognised him, but did not wish to betray him, so he said nothing, and ooked forward to his wife's surprise when the ion should reveal his name. In the night the woman, seized with the wish to obtain the Granger's money, cut his throat, in his sleep. ivilcii the father, on discovering the deed, 9 old her she had murdered her own son, she ell dead to the ground.
THE LATEST STRONG MAN. Some extraordinary feats of strength have, it is stated, been displayed in London by a young Sicilian named Romulus. He is a pupil of Attila, and but nineteen years old. He stands 5ft. 3Ain., scales 12st. 71b., and measures 50in. across the chest. Both right and left arm muscles measure exactly Win., his thighs 24in., and the calf 16in. Round the shoulder his arm measurement totalled 49in. The bar weighed 2601b, the right dumb-bell 1291b., and the left dumb-bell 1261b. So soon as Romulus had divested himself of his coat and vest he com- menced operations with the big bar. Grasping it with both hands, he raised it from the floor to his waist. Next brought it level with his shoulders, and then with a gentle push raised it above his head. Following this he lowered and raised the bar three times in succession, and appeared to be but little the worse for his exertions. In the space of a few seconds Romulus was fit for his next essay. This con- sisted of lifting the bar—-which had been reduced to 2451b. with hi3 right hand, after he had raised it to his shoulders with both. Nov.7 for the dumb-bells. As mentioned before, the riht-hand one scaled the 1291bs. and the left 1261bs., making in all 2551b. Romulus corn- mencend by raising the bells to his thighs. With but little exertion he next hoisted them to his shoulders, and, after raising them above his head, lowered and raised them twice in succession. This great performance was concluded by Romulus raising the right and left dumb-bell alternately. c. #'I
AMMANFORD AMUSEMENTS. A Happy New Year to you all "—The Jester once more dons his eap and bells, and in- augurates (a good word that) the New Year by sending you in some news. The Llandilo folks came down to Ammanford the other day to show us how football should be played. We did not like their mode of play, more especially one or two of Ned Roberts' little tricks, so our boys showed them a different plan altogether. Its a better plan than the Llandilo plan. About a try better, at least, so the referee said. IvorDavies played for us again, and although he was watched incessantly, he utilised the one chance he had to the utmost. Jocko can't under- stand how Davies is not good enough for Swansea. He is a rare three-quarter, sure at catching'quick and strong, and never losses his head. If Percy Lloyd played for Ammanford, he, Ivor Davies, Albert Jenkins, and Jonah Williams, would make a quartette equal to most clubs. It is no great disparagement to David Lloyd to leave him out of this quartette, he is a really good three- quarter, but he would give way cheerfully to Percy Lloyd. :II< The Ammanford forwards are improving, Edwards is a tower of strength. He is one of the fastest in Wales, and when he learns to use his feet a little more would be an acquisition to any team. D Rees, D Elias, Ll. Williams, J Jones and Louder, help to make up a useful pack. Where we are weak is at half. The Llandilo pair were smarter than ours, and even when ours got the ball there was an absence of that accurate passing, that shows the good half back. Llan- dilo Willie was the best on the field, but the un- fair way in which he put the ball in the scrum- mages should have attracted the referee's atten- tion more than it did. Jocko advices other teams to watch this. # # Mate says that he is glad he is not mayor this y 11 year. He would have had an awful row with the people about the new bridge if lie had been in office. The state of affairs there is awful. One little girl was nearly drowned some time back by being blown off the ricketty structure, which the contractors imagine is good enough for Bettws folks. It is high time they finished their job, in the interregnum between the old and new bridges, people have to go round over Pontam- man bridge to save the risk of breaking their necks. This poor Bettwa bridge has been a sense of muddles from the beginning. Jocko only hopes it will stand when it is really finished. V One of the features of Christmas in this neigh- bourhood was a very charming service of song at Ammanford Church. The choir rendered it very well indeed, and it was a success in every way. It was entitled The desire of all Nations," and lasted an hour and a half. The curate, the Rev Charles F. Owen (M. A. of Balliol College, Oxon), is to be congratulated on having aroused the musical talent of his congregation, and Messrs John Thomas (conductor), and Evan Williams (deputy-organist) may well be proud that their hard work is crowned with success. # # At B-attws Church, the Christmas services were simple but very well done. The anthem was a familiar one and was well sung. The decorations were as usual done by the Davidson family. # # J # A very nice concert was given here last week in aid of John Isaac, an invalid. Mr Griffith Elias took the chair, and the hall was crowded. Madame Martha Harries sang most beautifully, and Miss M. Morris, and Messrs Daniel Jonei, Tom Williams, William Walters, and Joseph Morse, contributed songs. Miss Pritchard and Mr Ivor Morris accompanied, and a charming piano duett was rendered by the Misses Pritchard. Want of space prevents a longer account, but the whole affair was a great success. All the elite of the neighbourhood, including Alderman Richards and Councillor Jones with their respective families, were present. # ## The Dynevor male voice party patrolled the neighbourhood on Christmas eve and discoursed some very sweet music. The singing of this party is a real treat to listen to, and they have some first class voices among them. Tom Williams, a young tenor, is likely to make his mark as a singer, he has a robust pure tenor voice and sings with taste. Jocko hopes to hear him often. JOCKO THE JESTER.
A CARMARTHENSHIRE NOVEL. I Early in the new year will be published by Messrs Trischler & Co. a new novel from the pen of Mr Terrell, entitled The city of the just. We have had the opportunity of perusing the proof sheets, and we think readers of THE JOURNAL will be interested to hear about it. It may be remembered that last year Mr Terrell published in book form a novel called Lady Delmar," which had previously appeared in weekly instalments in a paper crculating in North Paddington, a constituency which °Mr Terrell is assiduously wooing in view of the next general election. Lady Delmar is unmistake- ably a political address, and, as such, would not commend itself to conservative readers, but its marked cleverness caused many who hated its pohtics to regard it as a work of genius. The success of this novel which has been dramatised and played in America, emboldened Mr Terrell to write another novel, and this time he has laid the scene in a neighbourhood where he spent some years of his youth and early manhood—close to Carregcennen castle. The caves of the Loughor (or more properly Llwchr) figure essentially in the plot, which is original, well-sustained, and neatly finished oft'. We doubt if there are many inhabitants of the county who are unacquainted with the western- most peak of the Biack mountains, locally known as Twrcau (a corruption oftri-carn), on which the story opens. The scene viewed from this spot is one of great beauty, in spite of the disfigure- ments of busy industry which, however, at that distance hardly mar the scenery, and the reading of The City of the Just should tempt many who have not contemplated this beautiful panor- ama to make the ascent for the express purpose of doing so. The title, "The City of the Just," naturally leads one to London; but although an important portion of the plot is the exposure of the outside stockbroker, still the home of the novel is under the shadow of frowning Carregcennen, and all the incidents take place there. The interest of the novel is heightened by the beautiful illus- trations from the pencil of Everard Hopkins, one of the cleverest illustrators of the day. There are 36 full-page illustrations, each a gem, which rival those in the Atalauta Annual of 1890 (the Wehr wolf), and which surpass, to our mind, those in this year's annual. The chief interest of the novel centres in two characters, which we have no hesitation in saying are grand conceptions. The one, the heroine, is a deformed girl, whose self-sacrifice is sublime, and who is certain to cause all the readers of the sterner sex, who have a warm corner in their hearts, to take her to it. The other, Ben o'r Cae, gives a sufficient indication to Welshmen by his name of what sort of a man he is, but the delineations of his character is masterly, and interest in him is commanded throughout the book. it must not be supposed that because these two stand out in such bold relief the rest of the characters are colourless—far from it. The old rector, Dr Eccles, Mr Cain, Effingham Win- stanley, and Winnie Stepney are all well drawn, and here and there in the book occur characters just sketched in a line or two of reference or conversation which mark the ability of the nov- elist. We will not spoil the novel to our readers by giving them an outline of the plot. We hope we shall '=' have interested them just sufficiently to read it for themselves, and we can gurtrantee they will not be disappointed, but will be sorry, as we were, when the end of the novel is reached that we cannot take the characters with us into every-day life. Stay though, perhaps we can take one or two, since unless we are much mistaken, we have met more than one in the flesh already.
HENLLAN AMGOED AND EGLWYS-FAIR- A-CHERIG. ON Christmas day, services were held at Henllan Amgoed Church at 10.30 a.m. Several appropriate hymns were sung, Miss Georgina Thomas presiding at the harmonium. The rector, Rev T. Thomas, preached from the 2nd chapter of St. Luke, 14 verse, "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will towards men." The church was very nicely decorated by the Misses Thomas, Parke. The collections made will be given towards the National Society, Board of Education, and Home Missions in the Diocese. At 6,30 p. m. services were held at Eglwys-Fair-a-Cherig; the rector preached from Luke ii, 11th verse, For unto you is born this day, in the city of David, a Saviour which is Christ the Lord." The congre- gations at both churches were large.
PENBRYN (CARD.). 1^1 vr^ )> Chu* °dmri'a8 afc J°^n'8 Mission on Christmas morning, at 6 o'clock, and ter the service the Holy Communion was ad- ministered, the Rev T. Jones, Vicar, officiating. The parish shurch was tastefully decorated for the season by the good friends of the church, the service commenced at 11 o'clock, when the Vicar again preached, and administered the Sacrament. j11 e 81nging throughout was very good. Mrs Jones, the Vicarage, presiding at the harmonium at both places. CHRISTMAS GIFTS TO THE POOR. Miss Jenkins, Dyffrynwern, with her usual kindness ana generosity, has this year again given to the ^°jri° parish a large quantity of tea, sugar, and bread. Miss Davies, Closeglas has also dis- tributed a number of seasonable gifts. CFrL"T rNqIEED Cough Lozenges, post free 7 d. v Chemists. Pirnted and Published by the "The Journal" Co., liimited, at 3. Guildhall-square, in the County of the Borough of Carmarthen.—Friday, Jan. 1,1892.
LLAN WINIO. ON Christmas evening a sacred concert was held at the Schoolroom, Cwmbach, Llanwinio under the auspices of Mr E. Jeffreys, the school- master. The concert consisted of two parts, the first being miscellaneous, while the second part consisted of the sacred cantata Christiana," by Hugh Davies. The whole evening was a com- plete success, and the rendering of the cantata by over 100 voices mainly composed of school children, throws very great lustre on its able con- ductor, Mr Jeffreys, to whose indefatigable efforts and characteristic zeal, warmly seconded by his colleague, Mr D. Thomas, is wholly due to the training of the school children, and almost entirely the getting up of the concert. Mr D. Thomas (the assistant master), ably acted as accompanist, while Mr H. W. Thomas, Llanwinio Farm, was a model conductor. The chair was taken by the vicar (Rev. D. Howell). The pro- gramme was as follows :-Part I-Tenor solo Mr J. A. Howell part song, Mr E. Jeffreys and party solo (bass) Mr E Richards; part song, Mr L Evans and party quartett, Mr D Thomas and party Christmas Carol, Mr J. A. Howell and party. Part IT.-Stered cantata, Christiana," conducted by Mr E. Jeffreys. In the afternoon a sumptuous tea had been provided for the school children, :at which several lady friends presided, amongst whom we noticed the Misses Lewis, Cil- sant the Misses Evans, Fron Miss Evans, Penhenrhiw Miss Thomas, Llanwinio Miss Jones, Cwmcoch; Mrs Lewis Davies, Sarnau and others.
WHITLAND. FUNERAL OF DR. PHILLIPS. Dr. Phillips's funeral, which took place on Thursday afternoon (24th ult.), was one of the largest ever held in the district. Amongst those present we noticed Dr. Lawrence, Waungron, Whitland Dr. Rowland Thomas, Park, Whitland Dr. Jones, Llanboidy; Dr. Morgan and Dr. Price, Narberth and Dr. Williams, Whitland, assistant to Dr. Phillips; Mr Beynon, J.P., Trewern, Whitland; Mr F. Thomas, Smithfield, Whitland Mr H. G. Carver, J.P., Blaencorse, St. Clears; Mr J. Lewis, Blaencilfoed, Narberth; the Revs. E. Rowland, St. Mary's Church, Whitland; T. Davies, Llangan Vicarage, Whitland T. Thomas, Henllan Amgoed, Whitland; 0. J. Thomas, Cyffig Vicarage, Whitland T. David, Llanddewy Vicarage, Whitland J. E. Jones' Amroth Vicarage, Begelly J. Jones, W. Thomas, C.C. and F.G.L. (London), Whitland- L. James, Brynbank, Whitland; Chairman of the Pembrokeshire Education Committee, W. Thomas, Llanboidy, and D. E. Williams Henllan Amgoed, Whitland Messrs Walters' chemist, Llanboidy Owens, chemist, Whit land J. Rees, Lamb Inn, Llanboidy James, Board School, Llanboidy; Scourfield, Board School Whitland Howell Davies, Willow Bank' Whitland Stephen Owens, Havod, Llanboidy; Thomas, sanitary inspector, Narberth, &c., &c., and the leading tradesmen of the town of Whitland. The Rev. E. Rowland, Whitland, having most appropriately conducted the services at the house, the procession was formed, and ex- tended for about a quarter of a mile from the house. The chief mourners were Mrs Phillips and her four children; Mrs Thomas, Forest, Whitiand, and Mrs Thomas, Northampton, sisters of the deceased Mr Thomas, Miss Thomas, and Master Thomas, Forest, nephews and niece of the deceased Mr Phillips, Caerlleon, Whitland, and Mr Phillips, 13' Picton-place, Carmarthen, cousins of the' deceased and Dr. Price, Narberth, and sons, brother-in-law to Mrs Phillips Mr Phillips, Tavernspite, Whitland, &c. The coffin, which was of polished cak, with massive brass fittings bore the following inscription John Phillips; died December 20th, 1891 aged 45 years." The undertaker was Mr David Thomas, cabinet- maker, Whitland. The interment took place at the Old Independent Chapel, Zoar. The services at the chapel were conducted by the minister, the Rev W. Thomas, F.G.L. (Lond.) Whitland, and at the grave by the Rev L. James, Brynbank, Whitland.
NEWCASTLE-EMLYN. METHODIST CHAPEL.—The usual entertainment given by the Sunday school children of the above Chapel was held on Christmas night, and proved a decided success, Great credit is due to the several ladies and gentlemen, among whom may be mentioned the Misses Davies (Sycamore-street), Phillips, George, Jones (Salutation), Judith James, Rees (Adpar), and Harry Jones, who were indefatigable in training the young children in their respective parts. The songs, duets, quartettes, choruses, and recitations were, without exception, well rendered and given, and bore evidence of the careful training the young- sters had undergone. The harmonium solos of the Misses H. E. and Getta Davies and Maggie S. Evans, and the singing of the Misses Agnes Jones, Anne Phillips, Maggie Jones, Margaret Hannah Jones, Kate Morgan, Myfanwy Davies, M J. Jones, and May George, also J. R. Davies (junior), Wynne Mathias, and Willie Lloyd were much appreciated. Mr J. R. Davies, Sycamore-street, one of the deacons, who acted as chairman, gave a short introductory address, explaining the purport of these meetings, and advised the children, not only of the above de- nomination, but of all denominations, to make much of their Sunday school training. Mr Phillips (minister) questioned the children upon the life of Joseph, and the ready answers given, especially by Wynne Mathias, David Hughes Jones, and Barret Owen, were highfy credit- able. The programme was a lengthy one, and after the children had gone through their res- pective pares, prizes in suitable books were dis- tributed among them. The entertainment terminated with a vote of thanks to those who had taken part. Special thanks are due to Mr Harry Jones, who conducted the musical portion of the programme very ably, also to the Misses Jones (Salutation) and George for presiding at the harmonium, and Mr Elias Thomas, who super- intended the distribution of the prizes.
LLANARTH. SCHOOL BOARD. — A special meeting of this board was held on Saturday, the 26th inst. There were present—Messrs Evan Evans (in the chair), H. Tobit Evans, J.P., J. W. Davies, ,James Evans, J. Thomas, D. Evans. D. H. Jones, D, Thomas, and Capt. Lloyd. After the minutes of the last meeting had been read and confirmed, Capt Lloyd read the report of the committee appointed at the last meeting of the board to examine the applications for the master- ship of the Llanarth Board school. He said that out of the 36 applications, the committee had unanimously selected six, all of whem wex% Welshmen, and some of whom possessed oceL lent qualifications. After Capt. Lloyd had enumerated them, Mr Tobit Evans proposed That Mr Richard E. Bevan, of the PQni"- poeth Board school, Swansea, be and is >• appointed head-master of the Llanar*' upon the terms mentioned in the of the Board, which appeared fT t??en, master." This was seconded "b^Mr Evan Ew and earned unanimously.^ propo8ed That in case Mr Bevan fails to comply with the said terms, Mr T. Jenkins, a student at Borough Road College, be appointed." This was seconded by Mr D. Evans, and carried unani- mously.—Mr J, W. Davies proposed That in case both Mr Bevan and Mr T. Jenkins decline, the appointment be offered to Mr L, Brooks, of the Athenreum school, Llanelly." Mr J. Thomas seconded, and tho motion was carried unani- mously.—The Clerk was instructed to communi- cate at once by telegraph to Mr Bevan, and also to call a special meeting of the Board, on Satur- day, January 2nd, 1892, at 2 p.m. ) I
ABERYSTWYTH. THE HOSPITAL.-Miss Chandler, of Durham, has ben appointed matron of the Infirmary and Hospital, in the room of Mrs Ankers, who has resigned. THE BRITON BAND.—This band contests in the chief brass band contest at the Dolgelly Eistedd- fod this (New Year's) Day. SEASONABLE BENEVOLENCE.—The Right Hon. the Earl of Lisburne has made presents of game and rabbits to the railway employees. THE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH.-On Christmas night a highly popular entertainment was given in the English Congregational Church, Portland- street. The chapel was crowded. THE HOLIDAYS.-The banks, offices, and shops in the town were closed on Saturday (Boxing Day). ° COALS.-The Mayor, with great liberality, has distributed large quantities of coal among the poor people of the town. THE CHURCH ARMY.—On Christmas Day the Church Army held a tea in the afternoon, and a magic lantern entertainment was given in the evening. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF WALES.—The usual Christmas dramatic entertainment this year was the performance of A Scrap of Paper," the well known comedy of Mr J. Palgrave Simpson, which was given at the Hall on Tuesday night, the day of breaking up. THE WAITS. On Christmas morning, between 2 and o o clock, two parties of waits carried en the old practice of singing carols through the town. One party belonged to the Church Choir, and the other to the English Wesleyans, under Mr Peake. The singing of both were novel and effective. S.S. MICHAEL AND ALL SAINT.S.-An organ recital was given on Wednesday evening last, at 8 p.m., by Mr A. W. Parsons, Mus. Bac., F.C.O. when carols and sacred songs were sung by mem- bers of the Church choir. A capital programme was gone through. Liberal collections in aid of the Organ Fund were niade. Tlio Rev. J. H. Protheroe, M.A., vicar, gave an address to a large and appreciative congregation. SKATING. During the prevalence of the re- cent seasonable frosty days Pwll Simon, the Nant Eos ponds, the Llanbadarn Common, and all available places teemed with enthusiastic skaters, and it is very gratifying that no accident occurred, as is reported from numerous places elsewhere. The frost began to thaw towards Christmas Day afternoon, to the great disappoint- ment of the lovers of the sport. THE EXCELSIOR BAND CONC.ERT.-Tliis band, under the able conductorship of Mr Jack Edwards, gave its concert on Christmas night, at the Old Assembly Rooms, and the room was crowded. Miss Rae acted as accompanist. The programme was varied, and several songs were encored. The vocalists were Misses C. J. Jenkins, Miss E. Pryce, and M. E. Morgan (late Dyson s Choir) Messrs. H. W. Gilbert Williams, H. H. Evans, J. D.Stephens, andJ. Edwards CHRISTMAS SHOW OF BEEF.—The butchers of this town displayed a splendid show of beef, pork, and mutton. Mr Richard Edwards, in Little Darkgate-street, deserves special notice for the splendid quality and fine show exhibited by him, and Mr Hugh Edwards and Mr Rowlands, in Dark Gate, had also catered with more than their ordinary success, and no town in the king- dom could have shown a better supply. The shops were beautifully illuminated with gas jets and attracted crowds of spectators and customers. CHRISTMAS DAY.-There were morning and evening services on Christmas Day in all the Churches and, and at six in the morning a "Plygain" service was held, as usual, in St.Mary's Church. All the Churches had been tastefully decorated by the ladies of the different congrega- tions, and especial music had been prepared for the occasion by diligent practice. It was gratify- ing to find that there was a marked improvement in the attendance upon the services in every Church, especially in the morning. By the even- ing the frosty weather had changed to a very unpleasant thaw, and prevented the presence of many at very attractive services of carol singing and anthems. Celebrations of the Holy Com- munion were held twice in the morning, and the participants showed marked increase. There was a service in the morning with sermon at the Presbyterian Church. We are not aware of any other religious services amongst the Nonconfor- mists. HOLY TRINITY CHuRcH.-There was an early celebration at 8.30 on Christmas morning, and a choral celebration after the 11 o'clock service. The preachers were, in the morning, the Rev. Prebendary Williams, vicar, and in the evening the Rev. W. Thomas, M.A., curate. The ser- vices were fully choral. Mr Sargeant ably acted as organist, and Mr Richard James had taken great pains to practise the choir in new anthems and services and numerous carols, all of which were repeated on Sunday. The ChuJch was beautifully decorated by the following ladies The Chancel, Miss Williams (Vicarage), Miss Watkins, Misses Thompson, Miss Biddulph, Mra Rice Williams, Miss Griffiths pulpit, Mrs Wil- liams (Vicarage), Mrs W. Williams (solicitor); lectern, Miss Williams (Vicarage), Misses Jones (Troedybryn); font, Mrs Jones (Brongof), Miss Roberts (Green); gas brackets, Miss Sylvanius Williams and Miss Watkins. THE BRITON BAND COMPLIMENTARY CONCERT. --This concert, which was held on Wednesday night at the Old Assembly Rooms, was deservedly well patronised, and the room was crowded. Mr A. J. Hughes, town clerk, occupied the chair, and Miss Rea, with her usual ability, acted as accompanist. The programme opened with a grand rendering of The Heavens are Telling by the band, under the conductorship of Mr W. R. Jones. Then followed songs, duetts, and pianoforte solo. The following elicited hearty encores Remember me," by Miss Jenkins; Arm, arm, ye Brave," by Mr W. Edwards, lalybont "The little market girl," by Miss Pryce comic song, Up to date, never to return again, by Mr T. Amsleigh Jones; "Better Land, by Miss M. E. James. All the other songs were very enthusiastically received as was the pianoforte solo, which introduced the second part by Miss Rae. The proceedings concluded with God save the Queen by the band.
HAVERFORDWEST, SHOCKING FATALITY. -The dead body of a man, named W. George, alias Capt. George, was discovered at an early hour on Sunday morning on one of the Cartlett limekilns, Haverfordwest. The remains were considerably qurnt. It is sup- posed that the deceased went to sleep on top of the kiln shortly after fresh limestones had been put on, that he was firat overpowered by the gaseous vapour thrown off, and then burnt to death. This makes the sixth death that has occurred on this kiln.
LONDON. M THE WELSH. Among the gentlemen, who constitute the managing committee for the Welsh ^lvf' whlch is to take place St. Paul" be attend SI S\ ^avid's Eve> and which will nded by the Lord Mayor in state, are th'_ following Chairman, Sir John Puleaton, M p vice-chairman, Rev Evan Jones, vi^ qV Bennett's; treasurers, Mr Dan J- ot7 Cowle Ellis, St. Davids °ne9» Rev J. Roberts, All Saint's, QRev E* j^in Williams. They have jOC Sinner and Dr- Morris Roberts -nosen as hon. sec., Rev st eet, S. W, -Bennett's, of 65, Claveston-