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MISCELLANEOUS. AWKWARD SITUATIONS. Some triflng mishap may put a man into an unpleasant position, where, without any fault of his own, he may be exposed to the gravest suspicion. Mr Horstman, in his Consular Reminiscences," says that once, by putting a letter into a post-office box at a Munich street- corner, he placed himself in a very unpleasant situation. The box was so well stuffed that an edge of his letter stuck out of the slit. He pushed it in witti his fingers, and found, on drawing his hand back, that his ring had caught against the brass teeth of the inside opening, so that the harder he pulled the tighter he was held. At last, by pushing his hand a little farther in and by raising the teeth with his other hand, he managed to free himself. Then it flashed through his mind the predica- ment he would have been in had a stupid police- man happened tocome alozio, and arrest him for try- ing to steal letters from a street-box. Such a thing might easily have happened-indeed a misfortune of this kind once occurred at Nuremberg. A gentleman was leaving that city at night, and being late at the station, paid silver for his ticket in a flurried manner, and darted toward the waiting room to pass through it to the train. Suddenly he was tapped on the shoulder upon turning he saw a policeman who told him that he was arrested for passing counterfeit money. At the police office, the silver the gentleman had paid at the station was produced. It had a peculiar whitish lustre and a queer feel to the lingers. He was asked to show what money he had, and all the silver in his purse looked and felt the same way. But on examination the silver was found to be genuine. His purse was also examined, and he was asked where he had bought it. He said he had purchased it from a street vendor two hours before, for a very small sum. Then the secret came out. The purse was made from the cast-off sheep-skin bags in which quicksilver is exported from Spain. The skin of the purse being strongly impregnated with quick- silver had given to the silver coin its whitish lustre and greasy feel to the touch. The gentleman was at once liberated, but he had to remain that night in the quaint old town. WHIPPING AS A PUNISHMENT. The first mention of whipping as a punishment occurs in the 5th Chapter of Exodus, where we find that Pharaoh whipped the officers of the- Israelites when they did not furnish the required number of bricks which they were compelled to make every day. In ancient times the Romans carried whipping as a punishment farther than any other nation, and their judges were surrounded with an array of divers kinds of whips well calculated to affright the offender who might be brought before them. The mildest form of whip was a flat leather strap called the ferula, and one of the most severe was the flagellum, which was made of plaited ox-hide, and almost as hard as iron. Not only was flagellation in various forms used as a judicial punishment, but it was also a common practice to punish slaves by the same means. The Roman ladies were greater offenders, and even more given to the practice of whipping their slaves than the men, for in the reign of the Emperor Adrian a Roman lady was banished for five years for undue cruelty to her slaves. The practice of whipping was, in fact, so prevalent that it furnished Plautus, in several cases, with incidents for his plots. Thus, in his, Epicidus," a slave, who is the principal character in the play, concludes that his master has discovered all his schemes since he saw him in the morning purchasing a new scourge at the shop where they were sold. From ancient times the use of whipping can be traced through the Middle Ages down to, comparatively speaking, more modern times, when it is easier to find records of the use of the rod. In Queen Elizabeth's time the whipping-post was an established institution in almost every village in England, the municipal records of the time informing us that the usual fee to the executioner for administering the punishment was four-pence-a-head." In addition to whipping being thought an excellent corrective for crime, the authorities of a certain town in Huntingdonshire must have considered the use of the lash as a sort of universal specific as well, for the corporation records of this town mention that they paid eight-pence to Thomas Hawkins for whipping two people yt had the small-pox." In France and Holland whipping does not seem to have been so generally practised. The last woman who was publicly whipped in France by judicial decree was Jeanne St. Remi de Valois, Comtesse de la Motte, for her share in the abstraction of that diamond necklace which has given point to so many stories. In connection with the history of flagellation in France may be mentioned the custom which prevailed there (and also in Italy) in olden times of ladies visiting their acquaintances while still in bed on the morning of the "Festival of the Innocents," and whipping them for any injuries, either real or fancied, which the victims may have done to the fair flagellants during the past year. One of the explanations given for the rise of this practice is as follows: —On that day it was the custom to whip up children in the morning, that the memory of Herod's murder of the innocents might stick the closer, and in a moderate proportion to act the crueltie again in kinde." There is a story based upon this practice in the tales of the Queen of Navarre. Among the Eastern nations the rod in various forms played a prominent part, and from what we read, China might be said to be almost governed by it. Japan is singularly free from the practice of whipping, but makes up for it by having a remarkably sanguinary criminal code. Russia is, however, par excellence a home of the whip and the rod, the Russians having been governed from time immemorial by the use of the lash. Many of the Russian monarchs were adepts in the use of the whip, and were also particularly ingenious in making things unpleasant for those a r5 around them. Catherine II. was so particularly fond of this variety of punishment (which she often administered in person), that it amounted almost to a passion with her. It is related that she carried this craze so far that one time the ladies of the court had to come to the Winter Palace with their dresses so adjusted that the Empress could whip them at once if she should feel so inclined. While the instruments of torture used in Russia were of great variety, the most formidable "punisher" was the knout, an instrument of Tartar origin, and of which descriptions differ. In its ordinary form it appears to be a heavy leather thong, about eight feet in length, attached to a handle two feet long, the lash being concave, thus making two sharp edges along its entire length, and when it fell on the criminal's back it would cut him like a flexible double-edged sword. Running the gantlet" was also employed, but principally in the army In this the offender had to pass through a long lane of soldiers, each of whom gave the offender a stroke with a pliant switch. Peter the Great limited the number of blows to be given to 12,000, but unless it were intended to kill the victim, they seldom gave more than 2,000 at a time. When the offender was sentenced to a greater number of strokes than this, the punishment was extended over several days, for the reason above stated. Whipping, after dropping out of sight for a time in England, was re-introduced in England in 1867, in order to put a check on crimes of violence. The law was so framed that the judges might add flogging at discretion to the imprisonment to which the offenders were also sentenced. The first instance of this punishment being used was at Leeds, where two men received twenty-five lashes each before entering their five and ten years' penal servitude for garrotting. The whip used in this instance was the cat-o'nine- tails. The whipping-post is also still used in some parts of the United States, notably at New Castle, Del., where the "cat" is still administered for minor offences. THE COMING OF DEATH. The signs of impending death are many and variable. No two instances are precisely identical, yet several signs are common to many cases. Shakespeare, who observed everything else, observed and recorded some of the premonitory signs of death also. In the account of the death ot ralstan, the sharpness of the nose, the cold- ness of the feet, gradually extending upward, the picking at the bed-clothes are accurately described. For some time before death indications of its approach become apparent. Speech grows thick and laboured, the hands, if raised fall instantly, the respiration is difficult, the heart loses its power to propel the blood to the extremities, which consequently become cold, a clammy moisture oozes through the pores of the skin, the voice grows weak and husky or piping, the eyes begin to lose their lustre. In death at old age there is a gradual dulling of all the bodily senses, and of many of the mental faculties memory fails, judgment wavers, imagin- ation goes out like a candle. The muscles and tendons get stiff, the voice breaks, the chords of the tabernacle are loosening. Small noises irritate, sight becomes dim, nutrition goes on feebly, digestion is impaired, the secretions are insufficient, or vitiated, or cease, capillary circu- lation is clogged. Finally the central organ of the circulation comes to a stop, a full stop, and this stoppage means a dissolution. This is the death of old age, which few attain to. Many people have the idea that death is necessarily painful, even agonising, but there is no reason whatever to suppolle that death is a more painful process than birth. It is because in a certain proportion of cases dissolution is accompanied by a visible spasm and distortion of the countenance that this idea exists, but it is as nearly certain as anything can be that these distortions of the facial muscles are not only painless, but take place unconsciously. In many instances, too, a comatose or semi-comatose state supervenes and it is altogether probable that more or less complete unconsciousness then prevails. We have, too, abundance of evidence of people who have been nearly drowned and resuscitated, and they all agree in the state- ment that, after a few moments of painful struggling, fear and anxiety pass away and a state of tranquillity succeeds. They see visions of green fields, and in some cases hear pleasing music and, so far from being miserable, their sensations are delightful. But where attempts at resuscitation are successful the resuscitated persons almost invariably protest against being brought back to life, and declare that resuscita- tion is accompanied by physical pain and acute mental misery. HISTORICAL SHOE NOTES. The account of Moses and the burning bush gives an antiquity of over 3,000 years to the shoe. Among the ancient Hebrews, shoes were made of leather, rush or wool, those of soldiers being of brass or iron. C, Sir Walter Raleigh wore the most gorgeous pair of shoes ever made They were covered with precious stones, of a value of about £ 10,000. In Denmark, elder unmarried sisters dance at a younger sister's wedding without shoes, to counteract, their ill luck and procure them husbands. Royalty has not escaped the custom of throw- ing the old shoe. It was practised on Queen Victoria when she entered the new castle of Balmoral in 1855. Chinese women, to secure the blessings of children, get a shoe at the temple of the goddess of children, and return it to the temple if the object is accomplished On St. Nicholas' day in Italy persons hide presents in the shoes and slippers of those whom they wish to honour. This festival is called "Zapata," which means shoe. In 1281 a Chinese embassy of ten nobles and 1,000 horsemen were put to death by order of the king of Siam, because they insisted on appearing in the royal presence with their shoes on. A TOOTH THAT COST R730. The hat worn by Napoleon at Eylau was sold in Paris is 1835 for E80. The coat worn by Charles XII, at the battle of Pultowa brought over 220,000. A wig that once belonged to Sterne, the great English writer, was sold at public auction in London a few years ago for E210. In 1816 a tooth of Sir Isaac Newton was purchased by a nobleman for E730. The buyer had a costly diamond removed from his favourite ring and the tooth set in its place. HOISTING A MOUSE. A s'ory showing the strength and intelligence of the spider has been revived. Following is the original account clipped from the Lebanon (Kentucky) Standard of 1882 A tolerable tall desk stands against the wall in P. C. Cleaver's livery stable. A small spider had fastened to the bottom of the desk a conical web reaching nearly to the floor. About half- past eleven o'clock, Monday forenoon, it was observed that the spider had ensnared a young mouse by passing filaments of her web around its tail. When first seen the mouse had its fore feet on the floor and could barely touch the floor with its hind feet. The spider was full of business running up and down the line and occasionally biting the mouse's tail, making it struggle desperately. Its efforts to escape were all unavailing, as the slender filaments about its tail were too strong for it to break. In a short time it was seen that the spider was slowly hoisting its victim into the air. By two o'clock in the after- noon the mouse could barely touch the floor with its fore feet by dark the point of its nose was an inch above the floor. At nine o'clock at night the mouse was still alive, but made no sign except when the spider descended and bit its tail. At this time it was an inch and a half from the floor. The following morning the mouse was dead, and hung three inches from the floor. TOO QUICK. Prince Peter of Oldenburg is chief of the Imperial Colleges for Girls, and excercises the duties of his office with diligence. Lately he decided to investigate for himself whether there were grounds for the numerous complaints which had reached him of the food at the Smolnidg Convent, where 800 girls were educated. Going to the institute just before the dinner hour he walked straight to the kitchen. At its door he met two soldiers carrying a huge steaming cauldron. "Halt!" he cried out; "put that kettle down." The soldiers obeyed. Bring me a spoon." The spoon was produced, but one of the soldiers ventured to begin a stammering remonstrance. Hold your tongue," cried the Prince take off the lid. I insist upon tasting it." No further objection was raised, and His Highness took a large spoonful. You call this soup he exclaimed, why it is dirty water." It is, your Highness," replied the soldier, we have just been cleaning out the laundry." I NEW COINAGE. Mr Goschen was announced that, subject to the advice of certain persons unspecified, he would for the future cause the value of each silver coin to be impressed upon it. This will be a distinct gain foreigners in England are often cheated through the similarity of half-crowns and florins, while even the natives of these isles are puzzled to know the difference between a double florin and a crown. It is amazing that in what boats itself to be a practical country so absurd a state of things should have been tolerated so long. NO WONDER HE'S BUSY. How doth the little busy bee Improve the passing hours In gathering up the sweets of life And dodging all the sours. REMARKABLE STORY OF THE WIRES. The most curious fact that I ever heard of in the early days of the telegraph was told to me by a cashier of the Bank of England. On a certain Saturday night the folks at the bank could not make the balance come right by £100, This is a serious matter in that establish- ment—I do not mean the cash, but the mistake in arithmetic for it occasions a world of scrutiny. An error in balancing has been known, I am told, to keep a delegation of clerks from each office at work sometimes through the whole night. A hue and cry was, of course, made after this £100, as if the old lady in Threadneedle Street would be bankrupt for want of it. Luckily, on the Sunday a clerk felt a suspicion of the truth dart through his mind quicker than any flash of the telegraph itself. He told the chief cashier on Monday morning that perhaps the mistake might have occurred in packing some boxes of speaie for the West Indies, which had been sent to Southampton for shipment. The suggestion was immediately acted upon. Here was a race—lightning against steam and steam with forty-eight hours' start given. Instantly the wires asked whether such and such a vessel had left the harbour ? Just weighing anchor," was the answer. Stop her frantically shouted the telegraph. It was done. Have on deck certain boxes marked so and so weigh them carefully." They were weighed and one-the delinquent -was found heavier by just one packet of a hundred sovereigns than it ought to be. Let her go," said the telegraph. The West India folks were debited with just R100 more, and the error was corrected without ever looking into the boxes or delaying the voy- 11 oge by an hour. Now, that is what may be called doing business." UNIFORMITY IN BUTTER. In the preparation for butter for market one thing we are apt to overlook, and that is what pleases the consumer. Difficulties arise in pleasing the consumer with our own country's butter, there being no regularity in either the quality or quantity. If a buyer—I mean a factor, or the middleman—goes into any market and takes the first ten baskets of butter he come to, he will find the first two of probably very choice quality, the next two not quite so fine, the next two passable, and the other four of inferior quality, although the makers of the last four baskets consider their butter very good. And it is the same with tubs of cured butter. You will find three tub out of ten of very inferior quality. But this is not the case with the Normandy and especially the Danish butter, which are the finest imported into the country. When you go into a foreign butter merchant's saleroom you can take one firkin or case of these butters and can rely on 50 cwt. being exactly the same as the sample. The butter is always of the same colours, texture, and flavour all the year round, and that is what the consumer want. Uniformity in butter-making is an item which the dairymaid should reckon of first importance. No excuse can be advanced for the time of the year the butter is made, or for the use of turnips in feeding, or any other excuse, which in the winter time is frequently tendered to the purchaser. But now things have changed. The foreigners are brought close to our doors, and willingly supply the British public with butter of beautiful colour, good texture, and delicate flavour even in the depths of winter. What is of secondary quality is so classed that the public are prepared for it, and know what they are buying. Until the passing of the English Margarine Act, the produce of pure butter met with most unfair competition, and it seemed as if nothing could prevent the adulteration of butter. Mixtures con- taining 20 to 25 per cent. of margarine were con- stantly being sold as pure butter. Margarine will in future do much to improve the quality of butter in the country. It is now taken in the place of secondary butter, and is pre- ferred. In fact, now-a-days it'is almost impossible to sell inferior butter. The public won't have it for love or money and the confectioners, who it for love or money and the confectioners, who were generally considered the last resort, now prefer margarine, which they can procure at a very low price, and it suits their purpose better. Therefore, unless butter is of good quality, it might as well be thrown away or used as cart grease. LIQUID MANURE. A capital series of experiments with liquid manure were recently carried out by the well- known chemist, M. E. Heiden. The objects of the experiments were to determine what changes take place when the liquid manure is kept alone, when treated with sulphuric acid containing phosphoric acid, and when kept covered with a layer of oil. The manure was well mixed, and three lots of 100 kilogrammes put into barrels and treated as des- cribed. Nitrogen as ammonia nitrogen was deter- mined in the manure at the beginning and at the end of the experiment, which lasted six months. The manure kept without any preservative lost 11.9 per cent, of the nitrogen as ammonia, and 18.5 per cent, of its organic nitrogen, correspond- ing with 12.9 per cent. of the total nitrogen. The sample treated with acid lost 13.8 per cent. of the ammoniaca! nitrogen, but the amount of organic nitrogen was almost doubled, so that the loss of total nitrogen was only 1.5 per cent. The manure kept under oil lost 6.8 per cent. of the total nitrogen, or 5 per cent. of the ammonical nitrogen, and 18 per cent. of the organic nitrogen. RUST IN WHEAT. Mr T. L. Thompson, of Arthur Street, Surry Hills, Sydney, writes to the Bureau of Agri- culture of that colony that his practical ex- perience of over twenty years in the western dis- trict of New South Wales had proved that rust in wheat can be prevented by adhering strictly to the following system :-The land must be well worked during the hot summer months. After the crop has been reaped the stubble must be burned or quickly got rid of, and the ground at once ploughed and well worked, up to sowing time for the next crop, in order to secure a clean bed for the seed. Plough deep, pulverise well, consolidate by rolling, sow early (from February till middle of A pril- hut not later, the nearer February the better). The seed must be steeped for twelve hours iir a strong solution of four-fifths bluestone and one-fifth arsenic, and well dried with wood ashes before sowing, and care must be taken that the seed is not cracked and damaged by machine threshing. Sow lightly on good, rich, well-worked land. About half a bushel to the acre of good sound seed is ample. He had realized the best results off very rich land by using only a peck to the acre. If manure is required, sheep manure is best any other must be well rooted and pulverised before using, if for present crop. Avoid ploughing in stubble or any rubbish, unless the land is to be fallowed for a season. Avoid eating off; but if absolutely necessary, do so with sheep only. Keep all large stock out of cultivated land, particularly cattle. Avoid working land wet. By strictly adhering to the foregoing simple rules rust in wheat can be prevented, and will be a thing of the past,
An extraordinary case of hydrophobia has jist occurred at St. Paul, Minnesota. About a week since a cow was badly bitten by a dog suffering from rabies. The animal subsequently went into convulsions, and on Thursday the members of a family to whom milk from her had been supplied were, on drinking some of it, affected in a similar manner. An experiment with the milk was tried upon a dog, with the result that the animal went mad on the spot. As the Pope is not satisfied with the hygienic conditions of his summer residence, a palace is to be built for him upon an eminence in the Vatican gardens, near a 14th century tower. The cost is estimated at £ 12,000; but it will probably entail the expenditure of a much larger sum. Such lavish expenditure is considered at the Vatican to be ill- advised ai the present juncture. j
THE VACANCY IN EAST- CARMARTHENSHIRE. UNOPPOSED RETURN OF MR ABEL THOMAS. On Friday Mr Abel Thomas, barrister-at-law, was elected unopposed in the Liberal interest for East Carmarthenshire in place of the late Mr David Pugh. Mr D. Long Price, under-sheriff, who acted as returning officer, sat at the Shire-hall, Llandilo, between 11 and one o'clock on Friday morning to receive nominations. The High Sheriff (Mr Herbert Peel) was absent. At twenty-five minutes past eleven, Mr J. W. Gwynne Hughes, Tregib, Llandilo, entered the hall in company with Mr Rixon Morgan (brother to Mr J. Lloyd Morgan, M. P.), solicitor, Car- marthen. The former gentleman proceeded to hand in a nomination paper which was the first received. The gentleman nominated was Mr Abel Thomas, barrister-at-law, Langland Bay, Hotel, Swansea. The proposers were Mr J. W. Gwynne Hughes, Tregib, Llandilo, and the Rev. William Davies, Independent Minister, Llandilo. Before half-past twelve four additional papers were handed in all in favour of Mr Abel Thomas. In due course Mr D. Long Price rose and declared to the half-dozen gentleman who were present as follows I declare that Mr Abel Thomas is duly electee member for the Eastern Division of Carmarthenshire. (Applause.) SPEECH By MR ABEL THOMAS M. P. A meeting of Liberals was held on Friday night at the Memorial Hall, Llandilo. Mr Abel Thomas, M.P., on entering the hall was received with loud cheers. The chairman was the Rev. William Davies, Llandilo, who, in a spirited Welsh address, said they had gathered together like a few select friends h congratulate the bride- groom after the wedding. About 18 sweethearts had tried to steal away their hearts, b it they had tendered their love to one who was fully worthy of it, and in whom they had every confidence. (Applause.) There was not a bet'er constituency in the kingdom than theirs. It consisted of men with warm hearts and clear heads. They had no weak people amongst them. (Applause.) He was sorry they had not had a contest, for they had unsheathed their swords in readiness to fight the Tories, who, however, had fought shy of battle. (Laughter.) But they would keep their armour bright till the next general election. (Applause.) Mr Abel Thomas, M.P., was, on rising, greeted with tremendous enthusiasm and prolonged cheers. In the course of an eloquent and telling address, he said that the chairman did not probably know how bad it was sometimes to praise a man too much. (Laughter.) He had come among them a comparative stranger, and found friends all round' (Cheers.) He expressed his regret at being unable to be present at the nomination that day. His duty to those who had sent him to Parliament was always to be on the right side of the House, and he would always be on the same side, that was to say the Liberal side.-(applause)-and if he ever found they had all become Conservative, and he was left alone as a Radical, then he would come down and give up his seat. (Laughter and applause.) He had been bred in the Liberal faith, he had grown up and lived in that faith, and he would go on in it until he died. (Loud applause.) He had been congratulated all the way from Swansea that day, In fact, he had had nothing but congratulations. (Cheers). He wanted to be heart and soul with the agriculturists and workmen throughout the division, and he would do his best to get what they wanted from the House of Commons. (Applause.) He hoped he was as good a Radical as anyone before him-(laughter)-and sound upon every subject from the beginning to the end of the Liberal programme. (Loud applause.) The chairman had said that constituency was one which they should be proud of. He agreed with him, and was proud of it. (Applause.) He knew that as long as his opinions remained as they were, and he did his duty manfully, they would keep him where he ought to be that day, in the House of Commons. (Loud applause and cries of Yes.") He would tell them honestly that he had learnt more from their knowledge of politics in general than he could have believed. They would not find such audiences at London, Liver- pool, Cardiff, or Swansea. They did not know politics at those places as well as they did at Cwmamman, Pontardulais, Llandilo, and other places in that division. Well, he was proud to represent such a constituency, and he would keep on the safe side because he believed in it. He thanked them very heartily for their kindness. (Cheers.) The proceedings shortly afterward J terminated.
WHATELEY'S "WHAT NOTS." WHITLAND. MR. BEYNON, OF TREWERN. Whitland is all aglow with subdued enthusiasm and quiet rejoicings at the remarkably good turn Dame Fortune has lately done the kind and good natured Esquire of Trewern, and now of Manor- avon also. Whateley," as the mouth-piece of his fellow-Whitlandites, wishes him well, and trusts he may long live to enjoy his substantial windfall, and turn it to good account. Whate- ley knows better than to presume to lecture on the good use we all ought to turn our talents to, as our genial J.P. is not backward in acknowledg- ing the responsibility attaching to wealth and our mutual duties as stewards under the good giver of all gifts in this world of want and woe. HENLLAN. Whateley's colleague says he is somewhat in arrears of local news this time, and must crave the indulgence of the readers of THE JOURNAL when he states that the second Sunday in this month—3rd day of August-was set apart as a special preaehing" day amongst the Indepen- dents of the district. Not less than six eminent visiting divines, hailing from different parts, held forth in the various chapels on the day. They arranged in batches of two, and in such a way that each chapel is served three times on the Sunday in question. Of the number this year was Dr. Thomas (Lladmerydd), of Liverpool. Waiving his opinion as regards the spiritual edification and the ultimate good to souls arising from this annual match preaching exhibition, Whateley" must acknowledge that the attrac- tion is great, and crowded audiences are the rule on the day named. "Preaching" should not be neglected, and yet the House of devotion should be pal" excellence a House of Prayer. THE GREAT STRIKE. Matters look gloomy in the extreme to-day, as negotiations between the employers and their employes have hitherto failed. However, it is to be hoped that better counsels may prevail before the end of the week, or else the result cannot fail to be most disastrous to all alike. Already the men from the hills are down upon us here in con- siderable numbers, and will stay on visiting their friends till a settlement summonses them to work again. BANK HOLIDAY. The 4th of August, or the last Bank Holiday for the year, was a delightful day, and most people (with the exception of the farmers and their de- pendents busy at haymaking) managed to go away somewhere on that day. Net a few from our neighbourhood visited Pendine and the adjoining watering-places, and enjoyed themselves immensely. A good number though reserved their holiday till the following Thursday, when an Eisteddfod was held at Pendine. Whate- ley is told that a stage was erected behind the Beach House Hotel, and that the conductor was Mr Scourfield, C.C., of Whitland. He has not yet learnt whether the game this time was worth the candle or not. LLANSTEPHAN. On Bank Holiday, Whateley" hears, a bazaar, under very distinguished patronage, was held at the above popular watering-place in aid of funds which the Rev. D. S. Davies, vicar of Llanybri, is busy and successfully gathering with a view to restore his Church. As the day offered so many counter attractions everywhere, the vicar may well congratulate himself on the amount of the needful "bagged" at the bazaar. As is C, generally the case, he may have to -I open again elsewhere (say, Carmarthen) and dispose of the remainder of the beautiful fancy wares contri- buted by the good friends of his Church from various quarters. On a second thought, it has occurred to "Whateley" that, after all, another day at Llanstephan may result in a big draw," and answer the same purpose best. What do the Llanstephanites say on the subject ? WEATHER. Last Sunday morning was quite a wet blan- ket here. Country churches and chapels were literally empty in the morning, owing to the deluge of rain which poured down. This year's changeable hay harvest is now fast drawing to a close, and without any hay spoilt, too, which ought to suggest feelings of gratitude and thanks- giving.
INTERMEDIATE EDUCATION. The following letter has been addressed to the chairman of the Carmarthenshire Joint Educa- tionCommitteebyMrW. J. Evans,M. A., Principal of the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen :— SIF.When the Joint Education Committee visited Carmarthen in July, there were many points connected with our proposed Intermediate School, which were either not entered into or insufficiently brought out. I venture to put before you a few considerations that have presented them- selves to me, in the hope that they may be of use to the Joint Committee. 1. There are at Carmarthen an Art School, with an admirable building in prospect, and two Science Schoolit-all in connection with South Kensington. Having in view the most economical utilization of our teaching power, I suggest that there would be an advantage in bringing the Art, Science and Grammar School work into one comDrehen&ive scheme for the purpose of the Intermediate Educa- tion Act. If the Joint Committee are convinced of the expediency of this, the difficulties in the way of it ought not to be insuperable. 2. The Grammar School at the present moment has between 50 and 60 boys, paying eight guineas per annum. The private adventure schools of the eown have between them about 100 boys, paying four guineas per annum. It is reasonable to sup- pose that if the Carmarthen Intermediate School prove the chtap, efficient, popular institution it ought to be, these 150 boys will all go there. Further, 1 believe that under the impetus now given to education boys will seek higher iuatruc tion in increasing numbers; and if I postulate 50 boys only as the additional contribution of the Carmarthen district, I shall be well within the limits of the 10 per 1,000 marked out by the Com- mittee of 1880-1. I therefore suggest that in pre- paring a scheme for Carmarthen, your Committee should proceed on the assumption that when things have had time to develope the normal strength of the school will be at least 200 boys. 3. As above indicated, the lowest fee at present paid is about X.I. per annum-the traditional school fee, I may almost call it, in Wales. I suggest that unless ampler assistance is accorded than I assume below, it should be the fee to start with. The fee should certainly not be higher. If the school prospers, it will be an easy matter to reduce it. The lower it is, so efficiency be secured, the better. I offer the following computation of working expenses on the basis of 120 boys and five masters -the numbers on which the Joint Committee seemed to proceed at the C,, iiildhill :-Boys' fees, £ 480; endowment, £100; Kensington grant, £ 60 • county rate £ 250; (?) Treasury, £ 250; total, ■ £ 1,140. Headmaster's salary, X350 and house; 2 senior masters (non-resident), £ 350; 2 junior masters (resident), £ 1*20; 20 scholarships, £ 80; sundries, £ 100; total, £ 1,000. I have left a con- siderable margin; and it is worth reinstrkin" that the working expenses of a school do not grow pari passu with the numbers, but, on the contrary, diminish rapidly in proportion. I should be inclined to think that (given the accommodation) if 120 pnpils could be educated for £ 1,000, 210 could I)., d ited for £ 1,500or thereabouts. How- ever, I h-ive had no experience as a headmaster, and may be overstating this part of the case. 4. I have not taken boarders into account in the above calculatiou. Rut they are an important item; for while it is probable that other inter- mediate schools in the county will be merely uay schools, it is certain that those at Carmarthen and Llanelly will be boarding schools also. I think it would work well if the senior masters were encouraged to take boarders, as well as the head- master. I have represented them above as non- resident with that object. They would often be married men and the chances are that there would be some variety in their religious complexions; each, too, would have his separate scale of charges according to his standard of living or expectation of profit; so that the different views of parents on these questions would be approximately met. Unless the governing body could maintain a hostel very economically, I should be in favour of the principle that boarders should be entirely a master's affair, and that the masters should be left to settle the details with parents in the way that would be most satisfactory to both parties; but the head- master should have a boarding house provided for him worthy of the school. 5. As to the subjects of instruction, there is no doubt a general feeling that they should be adapted to the requirements of the district, and I cordially share it. But there will be differences of opinion as to what the real requirements are, and I am afraid that in consequence of the low educa- tional standard current among us there may be a preponderating voice in favour of a curriculum exclusively commercial. Public opinion will no doubt disentangle itself from this snare by-and. bye. In the meantime I would earnestly represent to the Joint Committee that, just as in the teaching of morals, one would endeavour to maintain a hitrh level, and not preach down to popular feeling, so here the ideal education should be steadily kept in view, and provision made for the gradual realisa- tion of it. Commercial education is, of course, part and parcel of any ideal scheme practicable at Carmarthen; but the other part should not be forgotten. At our schools there have always been a fe* aspirants to the higher walks of classics, mathematics, and science; and it is to be expected that when increased numbers come under the stimulating influences of Grammar School life, these few aspirants will become many. If we are to take the analogy of a gardener turning up the soil and thereby starting into vigorous growth germs previously unsuspected, we may argue that the more thoroughly the educational field is worked in Wales, the more constantly shall we find ability and ambition declaring themselves and I strongly urge that at a centre of population like Carmarthen every facility and encouragement should be afforded in these cases, in the very interests of the com- munity itself that will ultimately have all the benefit. I suggest accordingly that while ample provision should be made for the boys whose circumstances do not allow them to pursue any but the most direct route to success in commercial life, account should also be taken of the boys who may aim at University learning, and that the scheme of the Joint Committee should favour the employment at Carmarthen of thoroughly equipped masters in the several departments of classics, mathematics, and science. 6. In regard to minor details connected with the staff, I would suggest (1) that the senior masters should be appointed by the governing body, but that the headmaster should have power to dismiss subject to appeal; (2) that the junior masters should be appointed by the headmaster, and mi»ht with advantage be resident; (3) that the salaries in the case of the head and senior masters should depend partly on the number of boys and on i grants; (4) that travelling instructors might be employed in certain cases, but with caution, discipline being difficult to maintain where the discipline being difficult to maintain where the master is not in constant touch with his pupils, This applies specially to foreigners; f5) that the assistant masters should usually be laymen, head- masters always. 7. The religious question demands a word. The susceptibilities of parents are abundantly protected by the Act, and I suggeit that it should be at the option of the headmaster (1) to include Scripture history in the school curriculum; (2) to preface the work of each day with a short religious obser- vance, followed by a few remarks on some practical duty. It is desirable that a collection of Prayers should be compiled for the latter purpose. 8. As often suggested, there should be a common educational council for Wales, and connected with it an educational museum and library. The question of text books for school use is an impor- tant one. Co-operation would ensure a maximum of economy and efficiency. I conclude with the observation that I regard Llanelly as of equal importance with Carmarthen for the purposes of the Act. Nor am I hostile to any other centre that can support an efficient school. I am not sanguiua, however, that any high degree of efficiency can he looked for at these other centres under existing circumstances. Lar^e numbers and prolonged continuance at school are indispensable to sustained excellence, and in a sparsely populated district the conditions are not favourable to either. As commercial nurseries and feeders to the upper forms of more ambitious institutions, they may do very useful work. Such, I should say, would be their natural function. I am, Sir, Your very obedient servant, WALTER J. EVANS. Aug. 4tL, 1890.
LLANDILO CHRONICLE. OPERATIC. The Welsh National Opera Company performed Dr. Parry's successful opera Arianwen," at the Drill Hall on Friday even- ing, when the edifice was filled to its utmost capacity by an appreciative and respectable audience. The production was really excellent, and great regret was felt that the company did 11 11 not give another performance on the following evening as had been originally announced. lIsT V.B. THE WELSH REGIMENT. — G. COMPANY. Orders for the week ending Saturday, August 23rd, 1890; officer on duty, Lieut. T. G. Wil- liams company orderlies, Colour Sergeant Pritchard Davies and Corporal Fred. Smith orderly buglers, L. Thomas and J. P. Griffiths band practice on Tuesday, at 8 p.m. The Com- pany will parade in full dress at the Drill Hall on Monday morning, the 18th inst. The exact time will be hereafter stated. For the purpose of at- tending the inspection at Haverfordwest. Every member attending the inspection must have new badges on his clothing. The rifle range will be closed on Saturday, the lGth inst. No rifles will be issued from the Armoury on that date. No parade3 on Wednesday evenings till further notice.—By order, JOHN THOMES, Major. SHOOTING MATCH. A match between two teams—married and siii-le-of the Llandilo Company of Volunteers, took place at the Dynevor Range on Saturday. The distances were 200 and 500 yards; seven shots at each ranye. Conditions, Bisley 1890. The result proved that the married men were victorious by 18 points. The following are the scores — Married Lance-Sergeant J. Lewis, 54; Sergeant J. Tomkins, 52; Quarter-master Sergeant O. Richards, 52; Private John Davies (3), 52 Lieutenant G. Williams, 51 Sergeant J. Woodron, 49; Private D. Richards (1), 46 Sergeant Instructor Lafferty, 43 total, 399. Single Sergeant George Jenkins, 59 Sergeant E. Evans, 55 Private Owen Thomas, 51 Hon. Mem. J. L. Thomas, 50 Hon. Mem. R. S. Lewis, 48 Private Sam Phillips, 41 Private H. F. Tomkins, 39 Hon. Mem. J. Hughes, 38 total, 381. ° ECCLESIASTICAL. We find that the Rev W. Morgan Jones, B.A., son of the late Mr Thomas Jones, New-road, whom we announced a few weeks ago had been appointed to the minor Canonry of Bangor, has earned encomiums from far and near for having recently compiled a clerical directory and church calendar for the diocese of Bangor, published by Messrs Jarvis and Foster, of that city. The North JVales Chronicle speaks of the book as a marvel of patient care on the part of the Editor (the Rev W. M. Jones). The arrangement (it says) of the whole work, which consists of over 400 pages, is admirable the type employed in its composition bold and clear, and the whole presents a marvellous mass of valuable in- formation. It is one of the best diocesan clerical directories and church calendars we have seen, and some scores have passed our hands during our journalistic experience." With infinite pleasure we congratulate Mr Jones upon the rapid and distinguished progress he continues to make in the Church circles of North Wales by his own talents and industry. PETTY SESSIONS. These sessions were held on Saturday last, before Messrs J. C. Richardson, G. H. Strick and .L Lewes Thomas. Jury Lists: Saturday, the 27th September, was appointed for revising these lists. Assaulting a mother: Rachel Prosser, of Ammanford, summoned her son, Mr Prosser living in the same place for sureties of Peace. Defendant appeared in custody. The complainant said she was a widow, and had an adopted daughter, aged 22 years, living with her. Defend- ant was her son. She buried her husband last Wednesday week. Her husband had made his will. On the night of the funeral, defendant came to her house as usual, and denied that a will had been made, and she and her adopted daughter said there had been one made Complainant went out of the house to attend to the cattle, leaving defendant there. Defendant said when she returned that she should not enter the house, Complainant afterwards entered the house and slept there. On the day after the funeral the defendant said that complainant should live in the house, but under his authority. He scratched her in his temper.—The defendant was bound over in the sum of 210 to he of good behaviour towards his mother for six months. P.S. Henry Evans, Cwmamman, charged William Davies, of Bryncwmllyufell, Llanguicke, and William Williams, of the same place, colliers, with being of disorderly conduct at the Tregib Arms. Brynamman, and refusing to quit when requested by the constable. Both defendants appeared and pleaded guilty, and were fined respectively 17s. 8d. and 15s. 2d. Superintendant Pioton Philipps charged John Parry, watchmaker, Llandilo, with being drunk and disorderly on the 4th inst, in Rhosmaen-street. Defendant pleaded guilty of drunkenness, but not of disorderly conduct. —The complainant said that on the day named, about 7.30. p.m., the defendant came up to him in Rhosmaen-street and wanted him to send a man to keep boys off his house. He was in a very drunken state. Complainant told him he could not do so, whereupon he commenced usinw very foul language. Complainant took hold of him. and said he would take him into custody unless. he went away. Defendant defied him to do so, and persisted in foul language, whereupon complain- ant put handcuffs on him and locked him up. He was bailed out the following morning. Fined 21 and 6s. 4d. costs, or in default 14 days. Defendant was cautioned that he would be committed next time if brought up again for a similar offencc-. David Parry, his brother, was also charged for being drunk and disorderly by P.C. Thos Davies. In consequence of several previous convictions, the defendant was sent to gaol for one month's hard labour without the option of a firie.P.S. Henry Evans charged John Hughes, Cwmamman, with drunkenness. Fined 10s.—The same com- plainant charged Thomas Jones, of near Salutation, Cwmamman, with a similar offence. Fined 10s.—P.C. George Mitchelmore charged Evan Johnson, of Rhosmaen-street, Llandilo, with a like offence. Defendant pleaded guilty, and was fined 9s. 6d.—William Jenkins, of GilfaohBettws, was charged by P.C. Evan Davies with bein" drunk and disorderly. Mr Brodie defended. Case adjourned.—P.S. Henry Evans charged William Roberts, of Church Row, Cwmamman, with bein., drunk on licensed premises, the Raven Inn, and refusing to quit it. Fined 14s.—John Powell, South Bank, Llandilo, was charged with the same offence by P.S. Harries. Defendant was bound over in £5 to appear that day fortnight, soas tohave evidence from the Depot.—The Dynevor Tinplate Company brought charges of breach of contract against Catherine Rees, Anne Thomas, and Anne Richards, their employes. Mr Brodie defended. The cases against the two latter were dismissed while an order of £1, including costs, was made against the former. E, Parry, watchmaker, Llandilo, summoned his son, DaviJ Parry, for sureties of the Peace. The complainant said his son (the defendant) lived with him. On the 6tht inst. witness was afraid of him, as he threatened to knock him. Witness advised him several times to be quiet. It was after tea the witness gave him into custody. He was not afraid of him that day. He did not touch him, he did not threaten to kill him. Mr William Philipps, Chief Constable that at about eight p.m. on W ednesday last (the 6th inst.), he saw complainant ccming down the road very excited. In consequence of what he told him witness went to his house and found defendant in bed. Witliess saw a looking glass broken, and turned round to complainant, who said he was really afraid to stop in the house. Witness then apprehended defendantandlocked him up. Case dis- missed.—Assault Mary Ann Jones, Bank Build- ings, charged William Jones, her brother, with assaulting her. From her evidence it appeared the defendant knocked her down senseless and had one of her teeth out. Defendant pleaded guilty, and was bound over in £0 to keep the- peace for six months.
LACTINA" for calves prevents scour, needs no boiling, and costs one-half the price of milk. It is easily digested, and highly relished by the young animal. Apply Lactina & Co., Suffolk House, Canon-street, London, E.C. The potato blight in Mayo is very disastrous, and if there is not a speedy intervention on behalf of the tenantry, a partial, if not general, famine will, ensue during the winter.