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FARM AND GARDEN. RYE-GRASS FOR CATTLE. Some interesting observations on rye-grass have been made by Mr R. E. Turubull, agent to the Earl of Carlisle, at Bramoton, Cumberland. With reference to this much abused valuable grass he r.rites It has a value which I have not seen mentioned, viz., the prevention of scour. In 188t I bought 100 good Shorth< rn yearling bullocks and put them on some rich pastures at Twyerswood Farm, Holderness, which during the three previous years had been grazed by dairy cattle. The cows had a daily allowance of cake or corn, winter and summer, and this had kept the pastures in high condition. Adjoining these pastures were some fields newly-sown down, the herbage of which was chiefly rye-grass. These fields were farmed by the owner. The grass in my fields proved to be too rich for the bullocks, and they suffered severely, in consequence, from scour. It occurred to me that if I could arrange to let them have the run of the rye-grass fields adjoining my own for a portion of each day, the trouble might be overcome, and ac- cordingly I applied for the adjoining grazing land, and secured it. My expectation was fully realised. Immediately the bullocks got into the rye-grass, scouring stopped, and they rapidly recovered their strength, and continued to improve in condition all through the season." THE COCKCHAFER. Great injury is done to the roots of plants of all kinds by the grub or larva of the cockchafer, one of the largest of our native beetles, the noisy flight of which may now be beard in the twilight. The grub, says a contemporary, spends several years in the soil, and, as it is a voracious feeder, it is frequently the unseen cause of much damage to crops, its ravages being nowhere more apparent than in young plantations of forest trees. In the extensive forest areas near Cracow, in Poland, the mischief had progressed to such an extent that the maintenance of nurseries was found to be im- possible, the grubs invariably destroying the seedlings. Dr. Laszezynski now reports, however, that the lupin has proved itself of great value as an insectifuge plant. Last year, after the usual planting of seeds of forest trees, one part of the area WILS sown with seeds of the yellow lupin, and the young forest trees upon this portion were un- touched by the grubs of the cockchafer, whilst on the rest of the area the seedlings were, as usual, destroyed. It would be desirable to test amongst field crops the value of a remedy which has proved so efficacious in the case of forest seedlings, and it is suggested that beetroot and other field crops which suffer from this pest might be protected by the sowing of yellow lupin seed: The lupin is a quick grower, aud there is yet time to give the proposal a trirl during the present season. THINNING ROSE BUDS, WATERING. Large fully developed blooms are by far the most beautiful and generally serviceable. In order to be certain of these, thinning out the buda and feed- ing at the roots must be resorted to at the present time. The timely removal of all small and deformed side buds naturally greatly benefits those retained, and it is far from being tedious work. Small weakly growths, with or without buds attached, might also be removed with advantage, thinly grown vigorous shoots being the easiest to keep in a healthy clean state. Starvation treat- ment at the roots is never attended by fine blooms, and in the case of those trees against walls especially mildew i? invariably in the ascendant. The latter at any rate rarely get enough water and liquid manure, yet they pay better than any for a little attention and labour in that direction. It is quite useless to give driblets to roses wherever located. First form a basin by loosening and lightly forking back the soil from wall trees, and after the ground has been well soaked with clear water apply liquid manure of some kind. Those newly planted ought to be pravented from flower- ing freely, and these this season have already required to be watered frequently. PHOSPHATIC MANURES. The experiments which have been from time to time carried out by Professor Jamieson, in Sussex and Aberdeenshire, have attracted a good deal of attention, and it is of interest to know that those last year were very materially assisted by a grant from the Ministry of Agriculture. The more inte- resting ones were those that had for their object the discovery of the relative effect on plants of different kinds of phosphates, and especially of the natural mineral known as coprolite. The question was somewhat old, but it was important that new trials should take place, as a new phosphate had been introduced into the market, whilbt an im. provement bad been made in most phosphates in regard to the state of their division—a condition which very greatly influences their effect on plants. In 1889, in Sussex, and also at Glasterberry, Aber- deenshire, experiments were commenced. The different phosphate taken as types, were coprolite, slag phosphates, steamed bone flour, precipitated phosphate, and superphosphate. The prices of these are put in the report at about X3 10s., X2, £ (5, 210, and X3 per ton respectively. It is well that the report adds—"These prices are most delusive to those who do not enquire into the composition of the substances, and, as it is feared many do not take into account the composition, those manures sold at the lowest prise per ton are generally regarded as the cheapest." The follow- ing figures will show the fallacy of this idea:—Of coprolite there would be required 709 lb. to provide 75 lb. of phosphorus, which at 3s 6d a cwt. would cost 22s per acre; of slag there would be required 1,196 lb. to provide 75 lb., which at 2 per cwt. would cost 21s 2d per acre; of steam bone flour 604 lb. would be required to provide the same amount, which at 63 per cwt. would cost 32s 5d per acre; of precipitated phosphate the amount would be 381 lb. at 10s per cwt. or 3ts per acre; and of superphosphate to produce 75 lb. of phosphorus 1,300 lb. would be required, which at 3s. per cwt. would cost 34s. 9d. Thus, the report adds, the superphosphate is the dearest form of phosphate of lime for manure. The percentage of phosphorus on which the calculations of the above costs were made are those actually found in the manures experimented with. Former experiments had shown that all these phosphates, except slag, could be made use of directly by the plant, and that the degree of usefulness varied according to (i.) the state of division, (ii.) freedom from injurious weather. Steamed bone flour is generally the best divided, but there is room for improvement to-day in this particular. Super- phosphate, we learn, always, and precipitated phos- phate frequently, contain injurious matter. In regard to rate of action steamed bones aid coprolite gave the best result, the others being too quick or too slow. The new trials had special reference to the action of slag and especially to find it supported or refuted the theory that insoluble mineral phos- phate could be used directly by the plant. The experiments at both stations in 1888 aid 1889 showed that (i.) the phosphate in slag can be assimilated by the plant; (ii.) that this power of the plant is not limited to the natural mineral coprolite, but extends to the artificial or manu- factured form; (iii.) that the insoluble mineral doctrine started in Aberdeenshire fifteen years ago, and since supported by other experiments, is now supported by the action of slag: and (iv.) that the possible prejudical effect of the iron in slag which was apprehended does not take place. As a matter of fact. the experiments show that slag is nothing superior to coprolite in the same state of division and hardly equal to steamed bone flour.