FIELD AND FARM. (P-, The Agricultui ■■ RUST IN UIE WHEAT CROP. Judging from observations in one district, feei that a serious attack of rust has just developed in the wheat crop. Nearly all the wheats beiweelt-Londor and Beading as seen from the traiOr.had a rusty ap- pearance at the end of last week, and a close examina- tion of blades, from two or three fields has revealed the spores of true rust, unless our diagnosis is a wrong one. J HAYMAKING. There are various interesting questions in connec- tion with haymaking well deserving of attention. The system of grazing-in preference to" making hay has its advocates, and I have known (remarks Prof. John Wrightson) the question discussed as to whether haymaking is worth the trouble and risk it entails. The general principle may, however, be conceded at once that fodder is valuable in winter, and that a good rick of hay is more valu- able than a -superabundance of grass in summer. Well made hay is- almost equal in feeding value to the grass from which it was" made. It is of greater commercial value, because it is held over to a period when fodder is scarce. The question as to the area which should be retained for summer grazing or devoted to hay must be solved' by the re- quirements of each case, but custom generally indi- cates the fields which are used as meadows and those which are usually grazed. i It may do good to a pasture to occasionally mow, it, but,Cas a rule, pas- tures Are always stocked arid meadows laid up for hay. Of all meadows water meadows -are the most extraordinary, for they are never directly manured, eicegt by water, and they yields, crop (jf. every year without diminution of average yield. A water meadow carries milieep-aird lambs in the spring, and these are always folded at night upon the upland, so that both spring feed and hay crop are removed without apparently interfering with the natural fer- tility of the meadow. W<}ter meadow hay is poor, but it is,useful as cow feed, and the quality of the hay is proved by that of the grass, to which it must be closely related. That hay is inferior to grass is well known. You cannot produce the colour in butter or the flavour in cheese from hay which you can from grass. This seems to prove that more is lost in the process of hay- making than water pure and simple, for water can be supplied from the pump. There is something subtle in the nature of grass which is lost in the pro- cess of haymaking. Something is no doubt due to the age of the grass when cut for hay. Young grass is very superior to old grass, and every day after flowering the grass deteriorates rapidly. It is, how- ever, doubtful if any hay can be equal in quality to the grass from which it came. It is not easy to ex- plain why, but there is no doubt that the combina- tion of water with the materials composing fresh vegetable matter is very intimate. Water in. a living vegetable tissue is a juice or sap, and is not mere crude water. It is vitalised, and possesses proper- ties not retained by the dried tissues, nor yet capable of. being restored by water from a well. COCKISG IJAY. Over whole counties it would be unnecessary to insist upon the importance of cocking. Still, it is equally true that over whole counties it is no use urging the claims of the hayrcock, because no one heeds, and all goes on as before. There are, then, cocking districts and non-cocking districts, artd these are found, the first in the North, and the second in the South. In the North no haymaker is satisfied until the grass is up," that is, off the ground, or in cock. In the South no one thinks of cocking, but everyone looks forward to safety in the rick alone. In all rainy districts, not only is the hay-ccck an in- stitution, but there are also to be seen hay-pikes or summer ricks, that is, an intermediate and larger cock, in which the hay safely rests until finally carted home. Over other whole counties the hay lies abroad, tedded and turned, until waked or "pooked" up ready for the pitchers. It is evidently a matter of elimate, for no one can persuade a South-icoantry farmer to oock his hay-, and no one could persuade a North-country farmer to neglect the operation. Still, in the highly complicated hay-making iescribed as the Middlesex system cocking figures as in important part of the system. It would be Interesting to learn how far this method, first described by Middleton, is still followed. It would take up too much space to fully describe it, but it may be epitomised as follows: First day Tedded, turned, turned, raked into single windrow, and put into grass-cocks. Second day: Shake out grass cocks, turn the staddles, rake into double windrows, and put into bitstard cocks. Third day Bastard cocks spread, turn staddles, and make up into full-sized cocks. Fourth day Cart into rick. The complicated character of the description, which is rather difficult to follow, lies in the fact that the operations described as taking place on four days with any one portion of grass, are also being carried out upon the grass cut each successive day. The third day is thus described: "Gras mown on the second day, and also that, mown in the early part of this day, is first to be tedded in the morning, and then the grass cocks are to be spread into ataddles is before, and the bastard cocks into staddles of larger size. These lesser staddles, though last spread, are first turned, then those which were in grass cocks, ind next the grass, is turned once or twice before twelve or one o'clock, when the people go to. dinner, as usual. In the afternoon there is first raking -into such windrow for grass cocks, .next raking o double windrow for bastard, cocks, next risking staddles of the first day into full-sized .cocks ready for carting on the following day &c. '.All thjg js not easy to follow, because grass at different "stagey Is all treated differently. H seems scarcely likely m Ae'stf days of doing things any how," according; to circumstances, and with a view to saving labour, that a system should meet with general approval. A great dejvl of hay is made much more simply, and clover and sarifoiri hay almost makes itself. That is, jVfs'cut and left alone for three or four days, turned and left alone until ready. far carting. It is not tedded, and the less it is'touched the better. It is cut with a machine, arid afterwards }ittle labour la expended'upon it until it is fit'tri carry. Tfjiin crops scarcely require turning, in fine weather, and may be raked together for arti11gw11eD sllm.Cletty, dry q y POULTRY NOTES. Objection has frequently been made by farmers (observes Mpna ") to,the adoption of fattening, on the ground that it is,requisite to have a properly iJtted 'shed, and most important of all, that the system of fattening requires considerably experience in the handling of Birds in order lo obtain a desir- able result'. That this is to a large extent true, cannot be questioned. I have known people put up birds for fattening, to find that at the end of three weeks they were thinner than at the beginning. Of course there is an explanation for this, but I do not propose at the present timer to go into that matter, merely saying that last year a lady living in Yorkshire started fattening after hearing a lecture upon the subject, and she found that the birds lost flesh rather than gained it. She naturally condemned the pro- cess, but it was pointed out to her that she was really over-feeding the birds, and had not taken certain precautions which are essential. We beg to remind readers that there is a consider- able demand at Cfertain seasons of the year for what are called half-fatted birds, that is chickens which have been confined in, cales- fed from troughs,-and considerably improved by tfcia process, but have not undergone any cramming. luring the summer months especially, the great; majority èf, the birds which are sent-out from Sussex are-of this kind, and t would be folly at that period to attempt to produce the highly-fed specimens. There is no reason what- ever why in many paYts of the country where lean fowls have hitherto been the only «"-es ava,labk, that the half-fatting system should and it would provide a splendid quantities of poultry, which would certain 7^ for table purposes than the lean specim which we are generally acquainted. These hai birds are known abroad as well as in this country, and the cost for food during the fortnight in which they are fed is comparatively small, tertainly not e needing 3d., whilst they are greatly enhanced in value. It may be here pointed out that in many markets there is no demand whatever for the fully- fatted chickens, and it would be useless placing them there but for birds rather above the average grade 8d. and 9d. more might be obtained, and thus con- sumers would be gradually brought up to the point of paying better prices for this article of food. For those who desire to make the best of their birds, it is essential that these be separated during the time they are being fed off. This applies to all -Ainds. of stock as well as to poultry, and during the, process it is also essential that they be restricted in the jHuounfe^f ^ercUe taken of-t^he jisstie is hardened -And1 lack's that mellowness which would otherwise be found. It will thus be seen that ,the sjsteni. Q.f ^Uo^p £ t fojvls tP kQ runabout as simply feeajijiTj them on different food, is not a wise one, and'further it is wasteful l,y l-easW qf the diflici^ty in restricting the food totW; "birds alone." Under all circumstances t^py slvould be .kept in "confinement: X1!§uss £ X. and elsewhere the usuaf plan .is tQ li^ye pens or,cages made of woo l placed in, op- ir, under the Tea' of .a'nedge-ro-.v qr ttye shelter of an orchard, or jeveri uncter a,simp's shed. In front of each cage ispTaced a trough, and the birds are fed twice a day from this. The food is always, ground oats mixed with soured skim milk,and there can be no question that by means of this system a considerable, imj)royejnent jsmade jn the quality ol thefl^sh. 'J i..
GARDENING GOSSIP. KIDNEY BEANS. The spell of unseasonably cold weather went (as a writer in the Sural World reiparks) against many sowings of kidney beans. The row show gops, and the leaves of such plants as have made a start— at least, many of them—look ragged, which is commonly the case when such slow growth is made. Proper plans to pursue are to fill up gaps from the nursery bed—the wise gardener always has a reserve to fall back on—dress the rows with quicklime, and give support by way of sticks to all the runners. Further, a little mould should be drawn to the rows of both dwarfs and runners, for thus not only are the roots and bottom parts of the stems well covered, but there is extra depth of soil for the plants to feed on. Not a stone should be left unturned to hasten growth, because the quicker the growth the better the quality, and the readier the sale. BUNCHING CARROTS, PARSNIPS, &C. Bunching carrots, parsnips, and turnips for market should be commenced on as socn as the crops are ready, and on the earliest planted beds in the south drawings are now ready. By drawing in the nick of v'e r 5 time over-crowding of the beds is avoided, yet suffi- ciently large roots are taken to sell quite readily. And to consumers who have not tried these first fruits from the garden the tender, nutritious, and toothsome vegetables can be recommended. From half a dozen to half a score carrots or parsnips need to go to a bunch at first, but the quantity may be gradually reduced as the roots get larger. There is considerable labour in this bunching, because the work must be done neatly. Part of the tops re quire taking oS, and all the tap root. Still, whatever, is made of the vegetables may be looked upon as profit when labour is paid for, because if not: mar- keted they.would be pulled out and thrown aside to Tot. "r .• MULCHING ni SUMMER. Mulching should never (a contributor to Goitagt Gardening advises) be neglected during dry summers, as not only does it save aiy immense, amount of mount :of labour, but it acts most beneficially on the roots and helps the crop. When trees get a check from want of moisture in the soil, the fruit is almost sure to crack after a heavy rainfall, and especially is this the case with Pears and Cherries. In the case of Pyramid Pears or Apple-trees, it is a good plan to draw the earth away from the stem with a hoe, so as to make a basin-like receptacle for the water or sewage to be poured in, as then, though filled again with the mulching (which should be of half-rotten manure), there is no waste, for the liquid cannot escape, but soaks down to the roots. With regard to Peaches and Nectarines and other wall- trees, the way to, manage them is to break up. the border by pricking through the cruet with a fork, when the manure should be spread on and a watering given, but the thing to bear in mind is to see that each pl^nt has a thorough soaking,#8 that does far more good than the little-and-often "systew, which entices the roots up near the surface, where, if neglected, for only a short time, they are apt to perish. To grow fine Roses without a. mulching is quite out of the question, but as fresh manure is objectionable on beds in certain positions, that which is more decayed and less unsightly should be chosen instead. Horse-drippings, free from straw, are as good as anything that can be bad, as they soon go to pieces and are light, and if they have beeni used for a Mushroom-bed.so much the better, as they become disintegrated and form, a capital mulch, through which water or sewage passes quickly, and does not again escape in the form of evaporationCoooanut refuse is also valuable as a mulching, liftedJeaf- mould is useful for the saqie purpose, and it has this advantage—that it may be mixed .with the soil with- put danger, whereas Cocoanutrfibre is almost sure to generate fungus., and should never, be dug in whep done with, but cleaned off and carried away tabo burned. Not only fruit-trees and plants in, or corping into, bloom may be vastly assisted by mulchings, but vegetables of most kinds are equally benefited by being cared for in the same way; indeed, for, Peas and Scarlet Runners mulching is most essential. Without it the Runners drop their, ^blooms wholesale without setting, and Peas get mildewed, and are un- able to go on bearing and filling their pods. (With a mulching and a soaking of sewage now and then, it is surprising what vigor may be thrown into them, and how indifferent they seem to heat or drought, which under such conditions do not appear to affect them. STOPPING CURRANT SHOOTS. The shoots on currant trees have made extra strong growth this season, the heavy canopy of foliage robbing the fruit of light and air, especially that growing towards the centre of the bushes. The partial removal of this will tend to improve'the size of the currants, and also their. quality. All the side shoots of red and white currants may be cut back to the third leaf, and cause fruit spurs to form at their base. Some of the leading shoots may be allowed to extend somewhat. Aphides often infest the points at this season, and taking the tops off the shoots and turning them is a sure way of getting rid of the pest. ROSE W. A, RICHARDSON. The popularity of this Rose was ensured from the time of its first appearance at the shows, now many years back, when Rose-lovers were astonished and charmed with its richly-coloured flowers. Now it is much grown, and, still remaining without a rival in its colour, has also proved one of the very best Roses for walls, fences, arches, or any situation suited to- a rose of vigorous climbing growth, while it is second to none in profuse and con- tinuous blooming. Some years back complaints were made of its erratic behaviour, and we have had some experience of the same ourselves. Of two plants growing several yards apart, appa- rently under exactly the same conditions, one refusnd to grow at all, but just lived, while the other covered the entire space allotted to the two plants, and mm*' annually hides the wall and its own leaves in a marvel- lous profusion of flowers. The first display is always a great one, but it does not exhaust the energies of the plant, as after a short rest it commences flowtlring again, and blooms throughout the autumn. The flowers are also disposed to vary in colour, the blooms of some plants having their outer petals almost white, and only the rich apricot tint in the centre. These are disappointing, but, happily, they can be avoided. W. A. Richardson grows and flowers as well upon its own roots as on any stock; therefore, propagation by cuttings from plants that bear the brightest and best flowers will give plants free from any defects of this sort. Plant own-root plants in light, rich soil, and they will soon show that they have abundant natural vigour, which is riot increased but often diminished, and the plant's life shortened, by condemning it to grow on any other- roots but its own. This Rose is quite as important me- the best Dijon Teas, and surpasses these last 7n colour, effect, and lavish profusion of flowers. GOOSEBERRIES. These are generally well thinned as soon a¡;.w berries are large enough for cooking purposes. Fu e large fruit is always appreciated when ripe for dessert, therefore certain bushes should be reserved for this purpose, and properly protected with nets later on.
ArA7ouwaster of the house ?" inquired the man at; the door. No, I'm only the master's under-, study, 'A3? t "(" much-married man's answer A GOOD report has just been published of the busi- r ness done by lite insurance companies on the Conti- nent in 1?97, which shows that in all countries insurance increases steadily. The insurances effected in the German Empire during 1897 amounted to the total sum of 586,500,000, marks, being 29 millions more than in 1895 I-ra nee's amounted to 270,800,000 marks, or 17J millions more; thosfe in Austria to 239 700.000 marks, or 25i millions more and those in Russia to 135,800,006 marks, or nearly 23 mil- 1. lions more than in 1895.
THE MYSTERY OF ADELAIDE VYNNE. Lady Judd, the amiable and widowed mistress of Maple Lodge—a mansion in a northern suburb of London—and Rupert Barringtori looked at eaph other with blank faces. He was the I rector of a neighbouring parish, and yesterday was the happiest of men, for Adelaide Vynne, the governess at Maple Lodge, a young woman of great attraction bot h of mind and body, stood pledged to be his wife. Now. this morning he sat there, after threo days' unalloyed bliss, with a blotted little epistle in his trembling hands, in which Miss Vynne absolutely recalled her promise, and vowed that marriage between them was an impossibility." 1. This letter the lover had received the night pre- vious, and had now come post-haste to tell his friend, Lady Judd, of his trouble, and beg to be tllowed to see her go-verness The young lady had refused to meet him, however, and there the two sat, Poking at each Qtber. You went out driving yesterday afternoon, pou say. Was she quite herself then?" asked the rector. Yes. I left her reading m the schoolroom," Lady Judd explained. "The children, according to a promise given, went with me. On our return they came running to me to say that Miss Yynne looked just like a ghost.4 And fin# did, too. I was quite shocked when I saw her." And she hkd a visitor, you say?" V'" Yes; some lady called/ the schoolroom-maid told me. It is a most mysterious affair. I can get nothing in the way of an explanation beyond that it is quite a family matter,' and that she is compelled to act as she is doing. .But I must see her," declared the rector vehe- iiently. Of course you must, my dear Rupert. Still, it ion't be this morning. Come to dinner this evening, ind I'll see what I can do. There will be no need to write to Lady Katherine now," his hostess observed, after a little silence. è "I wrote her the day before yesterday," answered Rupert with a grim smile. Lady Katherine was the rector's mother, and the very incarnation of family pride and prejudice. Years ago, dashing Captain Vynne-Adelaide's ne'er-do-well father-had been desperately in love with her, but though she forgot her noble birth so far as to eventually marry rugged Rupert Barring- ton, the City merchant, the haughty Katherine had turned a deaf ear to the poor soldier's passionate suit. Then some years ago she was known to have received a dying communication from her former tover, the result of which was that Lady Katherine has caused his twelve-year-old daughter to be brought from America and educated in an English school at her own expense, and had finally used her influence ro get her placed as governess at Maple Lodge. L Katherine had seen the girl only twice during the past ten years, and it was not without trepidation that Rupert had written to advise his haughty mother omis intention to make Adelaide Vynne his wife. When, at the time, stipulated, the rector arrived at the Lodge he found hjs hostess standing at the library table with an open letter, in her hands, and her servants gathered, pale and crestfallen, about her. Adelaide Vynne had vanished. A. of farewell, which Lady Judd handed to the rector, with a. few hurried words of explanation, was aU that re- mained of the mysterious governess. Gone!" said he hoarsely. Yes, and my ivory casket, with money and jewels in it, is gone, top, unfortunately. I was just making inquiries about, it among the servants." I see Miss Vynne in your ladyship's dressing- room," said one of the maids, "as I went across. the lawn this afternoon." • "No doubt!" sharply answered the mistress. "i Did she not go there to leave this very letter ?" » Well, what do you make of it?" asked Lady Judd presently. You look as if you have some bright idea." I've been thinking of a cousin of mine," answered the rector. He has a private inquiry concern, and I was wondering whether you would like me to con- sult him." "It would be just the thing," said she. "Send hini a wiite wit!h ariswer prepaid." The reply was that M>. Lonsdale would come by the next train. Almost before he was expected, George- Lonsdale, a grave and gentlemanly man, was ushered into the drawhig-rodm:' He listened in silence to the particulars as Lady Judd gaVe them, and then inquired about tfie visitor Miss Vynne had the day before she left. Who admitted her?" Eln, the schoolroom maid." Let me see -Ellerf, pleaad." > Ellen dwelt affectionately on the account of the lady. who- had snow-white hair and walked like a Queen, and had on the loveliest 'brown cloak and mauve satin bonnet." Did anybody else see this lady ?" Yes, sir, cook did only we can't agree about what she had on." I should like to have a word with cooi," observed Mr. Lonsdale., 1 Cook speedily appeared. Yes, sir, I noticed Miss Vynne's visitor," said ahe, "but as for her walking like a queen-and all that, why, she looked a very or'nary sort o' person, and she had on a rusty black jacket and a hat with a red feather." Ellen indignantly opened her mouth, but her mis- tress held up a warning hand. "When did you see the lady who walked like a queen ?" asked Mr. Lonsdale. At four o'clock, sir." "And you, cook, when did you see the person you described?" It was a quarter to three, sir, asr I was taking in the milk. The footman says when he comes into the kitchen,' That's a seedy-looking party Miss Vynnes got upstairs. "Is the footman to be seen?" inquired the agent. It N ó he has' started this afternoon for his holi- day," said Lady Judd. So sorry, M-r. Lonsdale. Well, what do you think of it ?" continued she, when the maids had been dismissed. "Miss Vynne had two visitors," said Mr. Lons- dale, equably," but I think there will be little difficulty ingetting on the track of the casket." Lady Judd was expecting the rector the next day, when she received a letter instead.: He was just starting for Brighton to see his mother. Would call at Maple Lodge on hig return thence. He came in the afternoon, just as her ladyship had gat down tQ a solitary cup of tea. "What is the matter? 'asked Lady Judd, seeing that something had upset him. "I have had a bit of a shock," he answered. "The mystery of Adelaide's second visitor id cleared up. If was my mother." Your mother: tl ,v Yes. When I heard Ellen's account of the lady who 'bad snow-white haik and walked like a queen. I experienced a certain uneasiness, and I made up ray mind to run down a^d see my mother unexpectedly. On entering her dressing-room I noticed a browil. cloak and mauve bonnet on one of the chairs, and had these not been there, mother's looks would have condemned her. What it was passed between her and Adelaide I do not quite know, but I am sure that'sdme liarih measure was used beside the threat to disinherit me. Mother, as you doubtless are aware, has a large for- tune at her disposal; and- And looks upon her only son 1..811 very desirable match in consequence Ill cried Lady Judd. Still, it is somewhat of a shock to finct a woman like your mother carrying her class prejudice to the point of persecution. Though she married the ^ty mer- chant in the end, everybody said dare-devil 0-uy Vynne had her first and only love. 14 1 believe he did. As for Adelaide's father, ho went to the dogs, and was inveigled into some dreadful marriage out in America." Well, that clears up the mystery of one of Miss Vynne's visitors," said Lady Judd after a pause. Lnsdale, I hope,. will make short work of the Dther." Per ladyship had hardly said the words when a maid entered with a telegram. From the man himself," said the mistress, passing it to her visitor. tr Loasdale had- wired from an address in Hoxton; "sking if the rector could come to him there with- out delay. 'Rupert's answer to this was to take tip hat and telegram, a hasty leave of his hostess, and depart. In due time he found himself ,at the door of a anml1 home poor hut respectable street off a ». f- r '1 ;l" main road in tioxton. Lonsdaie, getting on hat And ooat, himself opened the door. Come alongj" said Ee, "hurrying the rector down the street. "I happen to have a chum living tyere, so I wired from this place and waited there for fou." You've found her "Found 'em both. fiurry ii 0 1. Hfcre we are, old man." Surely, said Rupert, halting involuntarily at the I': top of the alley which his cousin had entered, surely Miss* Vynne is not in this vile place ?" She surely is. Come along. Number-Witie. That's it" u Mrs. Wynne ?" said the woman who opened tho door in answer to Lonsdale's knock. No, you can't «ee her nohow. She was took with delirrum tremuns l-ill the night and went and cut her throat." Miss Vynne-is she here ?" asked the rector, after a moment's involuntary silence. ''Yuas, ehe's here, but I couldn't arsk her to come down, seeing aa 'ow the poor soul's at her last galp," answered the woman. "Not thà.t ahej, been much of a mother to the gal, neither." I", I I Mother Igasped Rupert Barrington. "Great Heavens!" At this moment Adelaide Vynne. appeared sud- denly and looked down the staircase, "Rupert! Oh, Rupert I" she cried, stretching out appealing arms,. Come to me. It js jpy ,mother who lies dying hpre. Oh, cqiji £ and comfort her." Thus it was that wicked lEleIVn Vynne, the pro- digal, but contrite wife and mother, went out of this world with Rupert Barrington's fervent prayers I easiog her passage to the next. Late in the evening of that day, Adelaide Vynne sat beside her grave lover, with her ladyship on the other side of the library table at Maple Lodge. "You poor child," said Lady Judd. "And this dreadful woman was your mother. Wo all thought you were an orphan." So did I until a week ago, when I found that my mother hot only lived, but had been working out a sentence of twenty years' penal servitude. That sen- tence expired three months before she discovered me here at Maple Lod^e. I certainly cannot remember that my fatner tola me'in so many words that she was dead, but I never had any doubt on the subject." Why was she sent to prison ?" asked the rector, gently. She beat a woman, of whom she was jealous, nearly to death. I was only a year old, it appears, when it happened." Did my mother come to tell you this ?" said Rupert, with a flash of his dark eye. She did. My father had told her the truth on his death bed." "But how," inquired Lady J add, came this dreadful woman to get my casket ?" It happened in this wise. I thought I would go but with her to make sure that she left the place alto- gether, and in leaving my bedroom, I discovered that I had only slippers on. I ran back to put on my boots, and my mother went into the corridor. She noticed the casket on your dressing-table and in- stantly seized it." One of the maids said she saw you in my dress- ing-room," observed Lady Judd. "No, it was -wlY mother who was there; I gave her a hat and- mantle from my wardrobe, and she was wearing these when she left me." And Lady Katherine came after your mother had ,peen, of course ? Did you tell her about it?" "No, I merely acquiesced in her demand that I should break off the engagement. The fact of the theft I only- discovered when my mother lay dying. She gave me the casket with the emeralds and asked me to return them to you with the money that was left." "Well, now," said Lady Judd cheerfully, "the sooner we order the wedding-cake the better." Oh, no, nocried Adelaide, covering her pale face "I could not! indeed I could never——" "Ah, my dear," said her patroness, with a knowing sidelook at the rector e.s he drew his sobbing love into his arms, "when you've had a few doses of chicken broth, and a drive or two you'll pipe a dif- ferent tune. Sunshine and chicken broth work wonders, my dear Adelaide t"
¡.¡f¡ THE umpire in the boundary dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela has received 22 large printed volumes. They are the first instalment of testimony on the British side: Therer -will be much more on that side, and no one dares guess how much on the other. Assuredly, international arbitration is- no ninecure. Tma city of Como, the birthplace of Alexander Volta, is preparing to worthily celebrate in 1899 the 100th anniversary of the invention of the Voltaic or electric pile. To commemorate this important event, yrhich has led to some of the greatest discoveries of the present oentury, there will be held at Como, from May 15 to October 15, an International Electrical i Exhibition, to which will be annexed a national exhi- bition of the manufacture of silk—a branch trade much developed in Como-and an international ex- hibition of the machinery, preparation, and process of working the same. SOME of the Lords of the Admiralty have notified their intention of being present at the launch of the battleship.Ocean, in Devonport Dockyard, on July 5, knd the Admiral, Superintendent is in communicaf tion with the Admiralty to secure the presence a lady of distinction to name the ship.
"— J :'it A N A CE HO N No oc* Cheapest and Best HØuso in the World for all Sporting Requisites. Write or Call for Comprehensive Catalogue (Illustrated) Post Free anywhere. An a Opinion ef QAMAGE'S "OSOEZI" SADDLE. i Hunts. Poar have not ridden on the 4'OM>EZin Sa< <I*e ill-s If. bat hava iM eu tr) i: it for.a Udr fkUwit. to wl,o:u vibnvii in mean dreautul pain. She js <viu- fortuble ou it. and'expresses her pleasure tverj- time I j-ee her. Ilmve shown the drawing to eeveml pe<«pl<>, and the p iti-'nt, who came some distance to see pie, ordered a^saddlo of this rattern Irom one of the agents here. Ap:;ii 3. Yours faithfully, M n »» ASK YOUR DOCTOR WHimi IS THE BEST SADDLE FOR CYCMVGF HE WILL AT OJNiUE REPLY-THE "OSOJEZI." AND WHY? It is at once hygienic, anatomically cprreot, and pressure upon the perine im is avoided No s(1,d<iI i, even after I ;• ,th*. A« -lit-t and wtiat continuous ri ixng. | Oi post free. Suitable for L,udie.s pr Gentltin >n. Easily I udapte l to any'machine. | Our Cycloa "STAND THE RACKET," and are Marvellous VAIAJE FOK IttQNEY. 0- The "rLIXTTM." (Kent's, £ 8 10. Lady's. £ 9 10s. The "CtAMSPEDE." Gent's," £ 10 10s. Lady's, £ 11 Ss. 'flie "GfAMAixE." Gent's. £ 12 12s. Lady's, £ 13 13s. The SPECIAL GrA MASE." Lady's or Gent's, £ 1# 16a. (Best of everything). A -in of rhe above o n be had by Monthly Payments. I The Parcel Post affords a rare opportunity for country residents to deal with a first- class house. We despatch hundreds of par* eels daily to the remotest parts of the United Kingdom and abroad. The lUCISSIME .1. Cycle L a, m p GOOD LIGHT.; Won't Blow Out. All Parts RivettedL No Solder Used. Richly Nickelled. PRICE 816; Postage -4d. u The SPRINGFIELD Wrench, a sure gripper, nickel plated* very strong. Postne RdL n TP THE "NEW ERA" CYCLOMETER, Made by the 301. STANDARD WATCH CO., N.Y. The Smallest and Most Accurate. MAPE LIKE A WATCIJ. DUST AND RAIN PROOF. Graceful in design. Beautiful in finish." Registers 10,000 miles, and fractions: Guprantpeti, and weighs ontyloz. Price 3/1L neW GUO 4/11. Postage 2d. Carriage Paid on all Orders over lOa. Unltss otherwite stated. :< \1- l NOTE THE ADD hESS- 1 N; OR IISIN^ A. W. GAMAGE, Ltd., Holborn, LONDON, E.C.
SOCIETY LADY ABDUCTED. A telegram from Palermo says the Via Padre noettb was the scene of a desperate attempt to abduct » young lady well known in society who was driving home with her mother', the Baroness Nicosia. Two men forced open the door of the vehicle, and despite the screams and struggles of the ladies, dragged forth the younger, and compelled her to enter a closed carriage held in readiness by two other men, who at once drove off with their victim, their two accom- plices seeking safety in flight. The men told the frightened girl that upon the payment of a heavy ransoiri she would be restored to her parents. They then took her to some gardens situated outside the old fortifications. Here the cries of the young lady attracted the attention of the people in the scattered houses, who, arming themselves, came to her assist- ance. Her captors took alarm, and sought safety in night, The pplice have not succeeded in tracing them. The affair has caused a great sensation. The young lady, who Vs the daughter of a well-known financier, is singularly beautiful, and but IS years of ige.
BIGGEST DINNER ON RECORD. What was the biggest banquet ever given i» London ? There are ancient legends of thousands seated before a single repast, but that was before the era of chefs," of'daily papers, and ""of wholesale caterers. Probably the biggest public devergived in this- kingdom occurred recently (says the1 5)aih/ Mail, at the Albert Hall, at Kensington. Three, thousand persons, including H.R.H. the Prince Of Wales, down to this record feast. An enquiry into the subject elicited the following interesting statistics In connection with this feast. A representative of the cOntemporaiy above quoted was told of the countless wounded, dismembered, and vanished, the resulf being, however, a glorious victory. It reads like a page out of Harrison Ainsworth. Eight hundred," begins the record, surrounded the 8000 guests-as they tooktheir seats, following the Royal chairman's example, at the tables glitteringand glowing with the weapons of defence. 11201b. oi salmon and 1200 lobsters were put before the guests to test their mettle and appetites. Two whole calves and one pig in cooked and edible form disappeared under the stubborn attack, and with them went 8C large sirloins .of England's Boast Beef. The hecks oi 300 tender lambs fell before the flashing blades, but 2241b. of pressed beef made a very fair 1,1dc. zop. sidering one volunteer beef is Xvortb 10 pressed beetsy. as the saying goes. Of 50 glistening, powdered hams little more Mi*? the bones were left, while 450 pullets, 800 pigeons, and 2500 quails were consigned to the oblivion ol hearty digestion, preceded or accompanied by 156 ox-tongues in fragrant slices. These huge avalanc hec of edibles went. to their doom with detachments of 2501b. of mixed vegetables and 1300 crisp, freeB lettuces, bearing in their hearts the crystal tears ol the heavens. But the end was not yet, for the contend- ing army fought on, and I brought up my reéèneE and preserves. The puff pastry -sto8d and faced death with their jam to the foe, but 600 jellies and blanc-manges quivered and oscillated like craven* though they never retreated from their glass vases The attack was chilled by 350 ice puddings, but the foe went eatingjon, and the next minute was in tbt orchards doing cruel execution. from theil armoured coats and green crests 100 pineapples were cut out and sacrificed, 400 cool melons gave up theil luscious crimson interioro, and 1000 bananas wert skinned a-ripe and demolished. Sun-tinted apriootl to the number of 750, with 750 greengages and It bushels of cherries, proved their everlasting grit tn the indisputable fact that each left a stone to his on memory as he died. Gone with all these are 700 apples-that will nevfel see the cider vat, 750 oranges that narrowly escaped the marmalade-jar, 3001b. of grapes that died io teetotal innocence, and were saved from the suffocar ting hug of the wine-press, and 7001b. of strawberries just from their beds of green leaves they will nevea rest in again. When the missing were counted it was found that 200.solid, honest loaves and-4001 crust-plated rolls were among those that were not left but had gone before. I do not wish to detract," continued the infor- mant of our contemporary, from the deeds of the diners, but it must be remembered they had magnifi- cent-supports. The proper spirit of unimpeachable excellence was supplied in 72 bottles of whisky and 12 of brandy. The sparkling champagne from 2450 quart bottles invigorated them, 600 bottles of hock gave assistance early in the combat, 500 bottles ol sherry aroused a glow of martial ardour, 500 bottles of claret poured out a life-blood-coloured streaha before them, 400 bottles of port prevented them from going to starboard' by mistake, and 200 dozen ol mineral waters kept them cool and collected. The basis of attack were laid on 3000 yards ef tablecloth, and occupied 18,000 pieces of glass ware, 29,500 pieces of crockery, 2500 plated dishes, 1000 less- powerful china dishes, and 1000 compo and fruit dishes. As arms, the enemy were supplied witti, 16,000 knives and 16,000 forks, 12,000 spoons, and 1500 serviettes.
AT ATBA.R,&. Tommy Atkins can fight, and Tommy Atkins can write. No more stirring account of the battle of Atbara has been penned than the Evening News has been enabled to publish, written by one of the Cameron Highlanders who rushed Mahmoud's stockade.. Debr Brothers and Sisters," he writes from Demarlie Camp, in the Soudan, "I received your very welcome letter and paper just as the last post was sounding on Saturday night. Of course I nad to read them to tho follows in my hut, and nearly got choked from the brimstone of the matches wbpch .they kept lighted for me tq see. We were a;bit down in the jaw, but it cheered us very much to think the people at home were thinking of us. I shall never forget that morning as we advanced in line and how calmly we halted, giving such beauti- ful volleysi telling one another 'Ease off or Come up,' the very same as if we were on parade. Showers of bullets we whistling round, our ears, and men dropping—some with a curse, and others giving you such a-heartrending look. This put the very devil into us, and we kept advaffcing, Then weoame to their stockade. Our firing would not shift them. Then all at once the pipers began to play 'The Cameron Men,' and the bugles rang out. A-We were at fixed bayonets; we did ',not want any orders to charge, but went for them for all we were worth- like devils*- No man thongbtof anything for the first few minutes.. Only the Sirdac's last words rang in our ears, Remember Gordon.' The officers were shouting out Give it to them, my lads- and each man had a-little fight on his own. > The &rst man- T-bayoneted, it was a rather weak thrust, for he stood and took another leap-at me. I thought it-was All up with little Johnny, when a young officer behind me said, quite calm, 'Now, then, Jtry again", and send it well home this time. That made me firm. AN he leaped I gave him the firsit point, with a laugh, sending my bayonet right through his throat up to the hilt, and then on again into the trenches. Talk about hand-to-hand fighting, officers said tre stood there thrust and parry like old veterans till ote drove them right across the river, and the place was taken. • The other regiments cheered us as we. came. back, and then we were formed up and the .Sirdar addressed us, saying, 'Nobly..dQne, Camerons. In the whole of my experience I have never seen any- thing done betterand, turning to our- colonel, 9 You ought to-be proud of such a regiment.' He answered,I ain right proud of them, and knew per- fectly well they could do anything that waa put before them. o OuP-cot»p»Ayto look bf«f th» place- for thii,miiis'ing, and some térrible sights we saw. Mahmoud getting brought out by the Soudanese troops, the Sirdar and staff had to ride in amongst them, for they had started to tear him up. It was a bit off, I can tell you, when we started fo bury those gallant fellows of ours who fell, and when we dug trench and laid them side by side in their blood-stained regimentals. The chaplains gave the service, and tbe Sirdar whispered, Braye Kilties!' ana we covered them over without firing the. farewell Shots, but the pipers played a lament. Then we'pulled thick hedge over their graves to keep the jackals from them and- the British Brigade slowly rnarched away from the scene of the greatest battlv that was ever fought in the Soudan."
FOR THE DESERVING TRAMP. How to deal with tramps- is a"difficult social ques- tion, as provision has to be made not only with a view to claim those who travel about the country with no inteittion iof, working, but to succour the poor wretches who, losinr employment, wander from village to village, seeking honest work. Not long ago one tramp, arrested for begging, was found to have upon him £O in gold, 14s. 6d. in silver, and 4s. 8d. in copper, while another was observed to bury 16s. before entering the casual ward. At Brighton an old man and woman were offered a pension if they would cease begging, but they declined it. On the other hand there are really deserving cases. The Church Army are endeavouring to cope with the problem as & whole by establishing throughout the country, a chain of lodging-houses under the direct supervision of local committees. Labour sheds will be erected. and the master will receive any applicant who goes with a Church Army work ticket,, which is equivalent to fourpence- in food and lodging. It is of no value until stamped by the labour master, who undertakes his duties free of charge, as hegets the labour of the tramps gratis. For each work ticket, value fourpence, but. sold to the publiq at one penny each, one and a p quarter to one and a half-hour's work is done, according to. the length of the tramp's last walk. If the tramp does two additional hour") work he gets a way bill; which, with the stamped work ticket, he presenti it a lodging-house. The way bill is in turn stamped, and the: more marks upon it the more im- portant it becomes as a> certificate of bhe owner's general good conduct. For serious misbehaviour it is retained: I-t is intended to have the lodging- houses ten miles apart. Provision will also be made by the Church Army for women who may have been obliged to tramp for a' period. The object of the scheme is to prevent genuine work-seekers mixing with tramps in low-class lodging-houses, and from having to resort to the casual ward. The system has been eminently successful in Germany, where there are now 2000 local centres,
i — ) DIVORCE AND MA RRIAGE. A compilation. has been presented to Parliament by Dr. John Macdonnell, Master of the Supreme Court of Judicature, giving particulars of divorce and marriage ia this country and others, It is satisfactory to see Great JBritain figuring so low in. the percen- tages of unhappy marriages-so far as divorce is a test of unhappipesg. In. EJugland and Wales there are only 1*6 divorces in a-thousand marriages while in Austria there in,weden IjOC. in Belgium 11, Holland 12, Denmark, 13, the German Empire 17 (in Prussia, alone 18), Eoumanla 20, France 21, and Switzerland as high as 40. Master Macdonnell gives some striking figures, however, of the rise in separa- tions among the poor, due to the new Act of 1895. They went up at once from 1035 to 5399. And these figures are none the less significant, though they represent a law somewhat one-sided in its operation for the relief of wives from bad husbands; for in each case they involve a magistrate's view of the absolute necessity for the wife's protection.
BOY MERCHANTS. In Genoa there-is a commercial school of consider- able importance, says one of the Consular reports re- cently issued. ItJs governed bv a committee repre- senting; (1) The Ministry of Agriculture, Industry and Commerce; (2) the Province; (3) the Munici- pality; and (4) the Chamber of Commerce of Genoa, each of which contributes 20,000 lire a year, or 80,000, lire (E3200) together, to its support. The complete course of instruction covers three years, and pro- motion from each annual class to a higher is by examination. On the completion of the whole course a final examination has to be passed tq en- title candidates to a diploma or commercial degree, qualifying them to hold the highest posts of employ- ment in banking and commercial establishments, or in expeditions and voyages on account of the Govern- ment, public companies, or others. One interesting feature in its instruction may be mentioned. This is tJre." banco modello," or tnoclel olkoe. Students-in this department represent different firms in various parts of the world, and go through all the most minute operations of trading with each other, includ- ing transit of goods by sea and by land. Connected with these commercial houses are a deposit and dis- count bank, a bank of issue, and a clearing-house, all being furnished with a complete supply of ledgers, forms, &c., such as are actually used in each departr ment of trade. The results have been excellent, and successful graduates find immediate employment Bit high salaries.
CONSUMERS of Normandy butter will do well in future to satisfy themselves of the genuineness of the artiole. For, according to Mr. Wallace Hedger, an examination and ehemieal analysis of some hundreds of samples of Normandy butter has revealed the fact that in something like TO Out of every 100 samples adulteration had been resorted to. In a few cases as Qjneh so 40. per cent. of margarine was found, but generally adulteration consisted in working tip" inferior butters from Belgium, Italy, and Australia with the eenuine- product. SINCE tne agitation in 1887, wnicn resulted in our present powerful navy, some tremendous sums bave been spent on warships. In the. 11 financial years ending March 31 last, nearly f-49,500,000 sterling has beeen spent on ships, machinery, and gun- mountings only, in addition to the enormous sums which guns and ammunition must have swallowed up, and which bring the total up to somewing like £ 80,000,000 sterling. During this time 190 battle- ships, cruisers, sloops, and aunboats have-been added to the British Navy. This does not include torpedo- boat destroyers, of which we have fourand arhalf million pounds' worth. We possess 96 of these boats, each one equal in cost to a line-of-battleship of the days of-Nelson, vessels which were m constant use for 50 years and sometimes longer, while each new torpedo-boat destroyer is improved upon out of sight," as our American cousins would say, almost before she has left the builders, hajids.