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FIELD AND FARM. (From the Anricxd'ural Gazette.") SEASONABLE NOTES. 2 1 The season still (writes Professor Johw Wright son) Continues favourable, and all crops loolt wonderfully well. After so many years in whirh I must have become a chronic grumbler, it is pleasant to be able to write in good spirits. Every one is talking about the season almost more than the price of wheat, As to this-last item, it has, of course, taken us all by surprise. We knew stocks were short, and that prices were on the upward gradient, but this we had known for long. Ever since the enormous differences between wheat in sight" in 1897-8, and wheat in sight" in 1895-G had been perceived a general feeling has prevailed that wheat must go up. But when it would go up, or to what degree, were secrets which no one could attempt to I-) solve. Had we known we should not have threshed, and had it been known in the trade prices would have gone up sooner than they did. The great cause was no doubt deficiency, and this has been helped by war. If thore were peace to-morrow the deficiency would still be there, and, how can it be met but by a bounteous harvest ? Bu1; harvests are not confined to one or two months of the year, but are due now, and as the world is round they may be said to never -Cease. A world's deficiency must take many months to replenish, and [1, high average yield throughout the world is not particularly probable. It is true that we must fix our attention upon Europe and North America, but even then a great departure from a general average is not likely to occur. There is more timidity than sound judgment in the doleful utter- ance of your correspondent B." from Durham that wheat may possibly be making below 30s. when next harvest comes round. Durham is not so favourably placed as most counties, and there the farmers will not have the opportunity of sending new wheat into market quite so early as Southern farmers. The fact that wheat is scarce is reassuring, and it is not likely that we shall see 30s. a qr. for wheat until 40s. stimulates to greater production. WHEAT PRODUCTION IN ENGLAND. It is strange that our average production per acre of wheat should range from 26 to 30 bushels per acre, or about the same as was recorded 50 years ago Our worst land has gone. out of wheat cultivation, for we can presume nothing else, and artificial manures have come into general use, Still the average yield has not increased. This is matter which is rather puzzling, and shows how difficult it must be to raise the standard,of production throughout the country. If this is the case in England, how unlikely it seems that America can raise her annual produce per acre by the use of artificial manures. Her wheat area has long been at a standstill and there is reason to think cannot be greatly extended. Not so Canada; and it is in the great North-west that a permanent rise in price might stimulate wheat cultivation on a great scale. High prices have, however, been too short- lived, and are evidently too precarious at present to produce an immediate effect. PIG DOCTORING. Although it is a fact that the administration of medicine in the form of a drench to a pjgjs attended with considerable risk, and a lot of patience is often required to avoid choking the patient, yet, in my experience (writes Mr. A. H. Archer) no animal responds more rapidly to medicine, judiciously and carefully administered, than a pig, and the idea "that it is no use dortoritvg a pig when it won't take the physic itself is far too common, consequently the precept that the best doctor for a pig is the butcher," is often unnecessarily acted upon. There are four common ways of administering medicine to pigs-viz., (1) in the form of a drench, which is poured into the animal's mouth (2) in the form of an electuary, that is a stiff paste, which is placed on the back of the patient's tongue with a flat stick (3) by mixing it with food or-drink, (4) by injecting it into the bowel from behind. The following is a simple, easy, and comparatively safe way of giving a drench. Take an ordinary pig- r, catching cord-that is, a cord having either a loop or a ring at one end, put the other end through the loop or ring and so form a noose; slip this noose into the pig's mouth, taking care to get it well over I the tusks put the free end over a beam or through a ring, and pull up the pig's nose sufficiently high to allow the fluid '-to rup towards the throat, but be very careful not to pull the pig off its fore-legs, for if this be done it is almost sure to choke. Then take an ordinary cow's horn, such as is used for drenching horses and cows; pour the medicine into this, force just the edge of it into the mouth between the teeth, then slightly tilt the horn so that the fluid gradually runs into the pig's mouth, and as it is swallowed pour in morei. Never pour a large quantity into the mouth at one time, nor tie the loose end of the cord that is over the beam or through the ring, but let an assistant hold it, so that the patient's ..head can be depressed, which it is instantly necessary to do if the animal begins to cough or make a"gur-,bng noise in the throat. Some pigs are very '"reluctant to swallow. Others, especially when the air pa8sages.are diseased, can onlj swallow. with considerable di^pulty, ^nd it is these cases which require a lot of time and, patience besf^fved on them,■ n)^.i:, ,31jfhflufd harp igentjpn that in tie.where thore',fcs b\pekage.,o| -$*ei nostrils .through fuelling, &c., causing, difficult breathing, hei^d; should be raised by placing a string underneath the bottom jaw, and not put in the impuili in the usually. 1" Electuaries are made 14 mixing the medicine with treacle or some such simple and harmless material with í1o,ur or fine mejl" or sometimes both treacle and meal- in suffiqient quantities to make the whole into a stiff paste, and in such, bulk that a piece about as large as a small walnut forms a single dose, which can be placed on the tongue with a flat stick. Electuaries are very useful when the throat is very •ore, or it is impossible to,give» dreqche^ £ rom, ^her causes. In giving medicines in food or drink care should be taken that it is evenly distributed throughout the whole, especially 'when several pigs are being so dosed at one time, and this is best done by mixing the medicine with a portion of the food or drink, and well stirring it together before adding it to the bulk. A proper enema syringe is required idr the administration of medicine by injection into the rectum or posterior bowel. WORK OF THE MICROBES. Slowly, but surely, the way to success in the making of cheese and butter is being cleared of ignorance and misconception, and we are all coming to know that the service of the infinitely little is needed in a sense supplementary to that of cleanliness and order, and that temperature has much to do with the result. Of the different species of microbes which abound, useful ones have been successfully isolated and propagated apart from interference with the rest, to be subsequently employed in creating the slow and beneficent fermen- tation which is necessary to develop flavour in cheese or butter; or, in other phrase, to ripen these products of the dairy in the manner desired. And these "puije Cultures of bacteria are now a marketable cont- modify to be used in an artificial manner in milk and cream, just a8 the brewer of ale, or the baker of bread, uses yeast as a ferment, to produce the effect be desires. In an unscientific and unintelligent way, though successfully all the same, the butter-n\aker of scores of years ago had, in certain limited districts qf the country, used sour buttermilk in' the cream qt churning time, because the result had been found beneacial, though no intelligent explanation of the why and wherefore of it was forthcoming until recerlt 7i9' u- ln way, in one marked instance well withm my ken, it was discovered (observes Mi. J. P. Sheldon) in a purely accidental way that aci curd kept for a day and mixed with fresh curd produced cheese much superior m character to what had beeh previously made in that particular dairy, at the farm where first I saw the light. Of cleanness and order in the daiiry I am distinctly in favour, but I recog- nise the fact that these qualities in themselves— excellent though they are, and within limits indis- pensable-are not to be considered all-sufficient in themselves for plenary success. And I have an im- pression that, in many dairies which turn out inferidr butter or cheese, it is the misfortune rather than the fault of the dairymaid. On the one hand she is handicapped by ignorance of first principles, and, on the other, she has to contend with prodigious num- bers of microbes which she cannot see, and of whose tactics she knows absolutely nothing. Let it be understood by all concerned that the presence of particular bacteria which produce the slow ferment known as lactic acid in milk or cream is in- dispensable from first-rato cheese and butter dairies, as we term them in this country. Let it also he un- derstood that the wrong sorts of microbes may alj»o he present in too great abundance, in which event the useful work of the right sort of microbes is commonly Interfered with. And perhaps utterly destroyed. Titio. indeed, is more or less the case when ws have stringy milk, or "frothy" cream, or "floating' curds, when butter or cheese is ill-flavoured rwad goes to the bad before ,t ought to do, or when milk or cream behaves itself in an extraordinary manner, and is difficult or impossible to do any good with. These nefarious microbes come from some foul and evil source, and they are seldom to be 'found incon- veniently plentiful in well-ordered dairies.


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