j THE largest gold coin in existence is said to be fhn gold ingot of Annam -a flat, round piece, worth about £ 65, the value being written across it in Indian ink. ON every shilling turned out the Mint makes a profit of nearly threepence. On every ton of pennies produced there is a profit of over £ 300. A PEARL-DIVER counts it a good day's work if ho collects anything over 200 pairs of shells. Some- times as many as 1000 have been found. TELEGRAPH-WIRES will last for 40 years near the seashore. In the manufacturing districts the same j wires last only 10 years, ana sometimes less. THE signalling apparatus of the London and North- Western Railway comprises 1482 signal-cabins, 31,500 ievtrs, and 17,000 signals. j A CURIOUS story comes from Ceylon in connection with the King of Siam's recent visit. His Majesty, with all the devotion of a pious Buddhist, expressed a desire to see the tooth-relic in the Dalada Maligawa Temple, in Kandy. A royal reception was accorded him. The king said his prayers, and the priest went into ecstasies over his presents of robes and jewels. Everything went well until his Majesty asked to be allowed to handle the precious relic. This the high priest politely but firmly declined. Royalty might look, but royalty mightn't touch. Royalty thereupon returned to his carriage in a huff, and his presents with him, to the no little confusion of the over- zealous Unnanse, Considering that the sacred tooth was taken to Ceylon in a lady's hair, surely a king might touch it. IT is said that tbe favourite sport of the Siamese is fish-fighting. So popular is it that, according to the Fish I radei Gazette, the King of Siam derives con- siderable revenue from the license fee exacted for the privilege of keeping fighting fish. The fish are de- scribed as being long and slender, not thicker than a child's finger," and very ferocious. The moment they are placed together in a vessel of water they dart at one another, and the onlookers become so excited over the contest that they wager anything they have at band on the success of their favourite fish.
GOLDEN KTFCORTLI REIGNS. It was boasted of Queen Elizabeth that she was crowned Empress from the Orcade Isles', unto the Mountains Pyrenee," but the unique positión of her Majesty, Queen Victoria, in having surpassed all her predecessors in the length of her reign is an event in every way worthy of the national thanksgiving and rejoicing which will soon markka memorthiM epoch in our history. And when!it is recollected how comparatively short have been the majority of the reigns of this world's rulers when compare.Ij with that of her Majesty, the present occasion Isi rendered all the more remarkable, for; as it imsj been observed, the Queen h^a outlived and out, reigned everyone -and everything save only the! love and fidelity of the nation." Thus, reviel-i ing the monarchy in this country, Henry Lll, Henry II., and Edward 1. held the throne each forj 35 years, whereas Henry VI. reigned 39 yearn, j Edward III. bad a reign of 50 years-& period which j has teen described as "a golden age of prosperity andj glory," owing to the display of national energy, both at home and abroad, in warfare and commerce. It I was Edward III., too, who was given the title of thej King of the Sea," as he apd his family brought 'thej navy to' a state of perfection it had never before at-1 tained; and his revival of King Arthur's Round j Tableland his institution of the Order of the Garter,! added to his fame. The reign of Henry III., which i extended to the long period of 56 years, was in many respects noteworthy, for in the year 1254 a repre- sentative Parliament, composed of two Knights from every shire was convened; and the Cinque ¡ Ports became—although they had possessed charters and privileges—now for the first time a considerable power in' the realm. In this reign Westminster Abbey was enlarged and decorated, and Wells Cat be- dral, after being partly rebuilt, was reopened on October 23, 1239. Salisbury Cathedral also, which: was commenced by Bishop Poore in the year 1220, was finished by Bishop Bridport in the year 1258. And coming down to a late period, George III reigned nearly 60 years, his Jubilee being celebrated throughout the country on October 25, 1809. Apart from the political events of his reign one of the most memorable acts was the abolition of the slave trade on the 23rd of March, 1807, after the question had been brought forward under the auspices of Lord Grenville and Mr. Fox, on the 31st March 1806. The longest reign on record occurs in the history of France—that of Louis XIV.—which lasted 72 years, from 1643 to 1715, a period when the glory of the monarchy was heightened by the administration of Cardinal Mazarin. But, as is well known, its splendour and magnificence made the country bank- rupt, although it is true that Louis XIV. left behind him monuments of unprecedented grandeur in palaces, gardens, and other public works." One of the most famous events of this reign was the revoca- tion of the Edict of Nantes, on October- 22, 1685- which had been issued by Henry IV., on April 13, 1598-an act on the part of Louis which scattered ruin and death among the Protestants. At the end of another long reign 6t' 59 years, Louis XV. bequeathed the throne to the unfortunate Louis XVI., who, within 20 years from his coronation, suffered a violent death in the presence of an exulting people. And then ensued the era of the guillotine, which destroyed its thousands; followed by the period of so-called Imperial glory. Of the early French monarchs, it may be noticed that the renowned Philip Augustus, whose reign lasted 43 years, if he has been held to be the most glorious, was, perhaps, the most ruthless of the Capetian Kings. Louis IX., whose religious fervour drove him into the great Crusade, and into that expedi- tion against Egypt which made him the prisoner of the Saracens, reigned 44 years, while Charles VI. held the throne for 42 yeart-a monarch whose unfortunate imbecility has been attributed not so much to his own fault-as to the trials to which he was subjected by those allied ae well as by those opposed to him." And Louis XII.—the first Duke of Orleans who became King of France-dying without male heir, was succeeded by his cousin, Francis I., son of Charles of Valois, who had the fairly long reign of 32 years., The incidents of hia reign are well known, but his name will always be associated with literature and art, both of which he patronised, having been popularly called the Father of Letters." In the annals of the German Empire, we meet with much diversity, both in the extent and pros- perity of its Sovereigns' reigns, which oftentimes were of a turbulent nature, owing to the struggles tween Crown and people. Thus sadly romantic iras the fate of Henry IV., whose tenure of troubled greatness was curtailed through his being deposed by his son and successor. He ascended the Throne ia the year 1056, and died in 1106. The reign of Frederick 1., which lasted 38 years, from 1152 to 1199, was cut short by his being drowned, his horse throwing him into the River Saleph; and Frederick the Pacific was elected Emperor on the 2nd February, 1440, and reigned for the long term of 53 years. Charles V., who was the 14th indeacent from Rudolph of Hapsburg, niter theposieseion of Imperial greatness for father more than 36 years, astonished the world byabdi- eating and retiring to a monastery. During his reign, which may be said to belong to the general history of Eur6pe, hewasmixed up in mighty enterprises, and achieved some brilliant triumphs, ind, as it has been remarked, "he might have been freater than Charlemagtie, but he preferred to be the; German Diocletian." Ten years after the peace tit' Westphalia, Leopold, the son of Ferdinand III., was elected Emperor, and his long reign of close on 50' fears was for the most part taken up with war' against Louis XIV. of France, the result being that some of the fairest parts of Germany were; wasted by the French. In the year 1740, Frederick II.—commonly called "The Great"—succeeded to' the throne, and, by taking advantage of the defence- less state of Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary, he added Silesia to his dominions. In 1755 he entered into an alliance with England, which produced the seven years' war; and although in the year 1757 he had to contend with Russia, Austria, Saxony, Sweden, and France, be eventually extricated himself from his difficulties, and by the battle of Torgau repaired all his losses. It was a great reign which, after a duration of just 46 years, terminated in the King's death on August 17, 1786. Russian history records no greater reign than that of Peter the Great, who held the throne for 36 years, from the year 1689 to 1725. He created a navy, added many provinces to the Empire, developed in- dut tries, and, in short, succeeded in creating a power- ful Empire able to make its voice heard in the Councils of Europe. Nor was this all, tor, turning his attention to the social condition of his country, he founded libraries and museums, galleries of painting and sculpture, and furthered in every possible way the intellectual progress of the people. Another remark- able Russian Sovereign was Catherine II., whu also reigned for the lengthened period of 34 years, from 1762 to 1796. The military glories of her reign will ever hold her name in honour, for the gain in terri- tory was immense, and Russia now gained an outlet to the Black Sea, which had been the ambitious desire of Peter, where "thriving ports were created on the, Bites of miserable Turkish villages, which before had only been noted for barbarism and squalor." And, like Peter the Qnat., Catherine encouraged learning;, and the patronage, it has been remarked, which she, extended to genius and the benevolent motives of her Government will always appear as redeeming features, in her character." The mention of Catherine of Russia suggests the: name of another famous Sovereign, Christina, Queen of Sweden, daughter of the great Gustavus Adolphus. She succeeded to the throne in the year 1653, and reigned till 1654, when she resigned in favour of her cousin, Charles Gustavus, and, embracing the Roman Catholic faith, retired to Rome. But upon the death of Charles Gustavus, in the year 1660, she returned to Sweden in order to resume the government, a purpose which was not realised, as by the Constitution of the country Catholics were excluded from the throne. Accordingly, Charles XI. succeeded to the throne, which he held for 37 years, until the year 1697. And here we may incidentally note that the story of the career of Gustavus IV., after he commenced his reign in the year 1792, is as strange a tale as ever issued from the novelist's pen; and the incidents connected with his dethronement are equally strange and pathetic. The golden deeds of Denmark's early heroes have long formed a striking chapter in historical romance; and, as we come to a later period, we find its Sove- reigns in a number of cases upholding the traditional valour of tbe primitive Rulers. It was under Christian III. that tbe Reformation was established in Denmark; and Christian IV., who reigned from 1588 to 1648-a long period of 60 yean-proved himself to be one of the ablest of all the Danish Rulers. But, as it has been often pointed out, his liberal and wise policy was check- mated in every direction by the arrogant nobles, to whose treasonable supineness Denmark owed the re- verses by which she lost her possessions in Sweden, Another Danish Sovereign, whose reign of 20 years earned the well-merited praise of his subjects, was Frederick V. So much, indeed, was his faultlessness of character esteemed by all, that when his son Chris- tiap VII. was crqwned in tbe year 1766, the assembled crowd shouted aloud, May he live as Jong as his father, and may he reign as wisely as he. But this wish was not to be gratified, for Christian VII. turned out -a debauched and worthless Sovereign, and ulti- hnately became insane in the year 1784, remaining so f till his death in 1808. hastv, glance at the Spanish successions will- show that the greatest and most'important reign wasi | that of Ferdinand V^ who had succeeded to Castile in the year 1474. Through him the separate inde- pendencies were united under-one Crown, and at thisi crisis in Spanish history the last remnant of *he! Moors was subdued, and the Jews were expellecli, Hence, when Philip II. ascended the Throne ol; Spain in the year 1556, his dominions Werel -at the of their glory, and Spain! an imposing Power. But with the abdica-j iion of Charles I. that decay commenced y I which became more rapid under the two following] ■Philips. Henceforth there was little or hqthirig tot make any of the succeeding reigns remarkable. But; the most successful, perhaps, was that of Charles HI.J whose leigt* lasted for 28 years, from 1759 to 1788.! He had already been successively Duke of Parma'And! King of Naples and Sicily, and his was the most! flourishing of all the Bourbon reigns. One act of his was the expulsion of the Jesuits, in the year 1757, for reasons which have never been cleatly ex- i plained. His home policy was praiseworthy,! inasmuch as beneficial Commercial Treaties were niade, new manufactures were estab- lisbed, and banks were introduced. In the history of Portugal, one of the most, important reigns was that of Alphoriso Henriquez, who, after he had defeated the Moors on the p'&ins of Ourique, in the year 1139, was exultingly hailed by his soldiers lis "King"—henceforth reigning as the first Sove- ]D reign of independent Portugal. Alphonso III., the great warrior and statesman, reigned 31,years, and was followed by his jBon Denis—scarcely inferior to him in learning and Wiidoin-who held the throne for the long period of 46 years. Don John I. bad a Jreign of 49 years, and Alphonso V. reigned for 45 j years—the Subdu'er of Tangier, and afterwards known as the African." Like, Don John II. abd Emanuel the Fortunate, who, it may be remembered, founded the splendid dominion of the Portuguese in the East,, he was known as one of the exploring "Sove- xp oring -,ove- reigns who reigned in Portugal during the age of dis- covery. Such a're some of the longest and most note- worthy reigns in European history. Had space per- mitted, we might have glanced at the Eastern Empire, and reviewed the Royal roll of Persian and Empire, and reviewed the Royal roll of Persian and Chinese Sovereigns, some of whose reigns were famous, not only for their diiratfon,, but for the famous, not only for their diiratfon,' but for the sagacious wisdom which directed them. But, how- ever extensive the review might be, it must be acknow- ledged that it would be difficult t*> find a rfeign which has eclipsed that of her Majesty Queen Victoria.— has eclipsed that of her Majesty Queen Victoria.— The Standard.
QUEEN AND, PRINCE CONSORT AT FOLKESTONE. On August 4, 1855, occurred an event (remarks the Daily Telegraph) in Folkestone, the memory of which is cherished by those whose recollections take them back to that period. Moreover, the details are of historic interest, for it clearly shows what's in the mind of our beloved Monarch when England was in the throes of the Crimean War. The Royal visit to Folkestone -was looked upon at that time as an event commencing a fresh epoch in the history of this anciently celebrated town. Thurs- day, August 9. 1855, will be a memorable day in its annals, for since the days of Queen Elizabeth- excepting the occasion when the Allied Sovereigns, accompanied by the Prince Regent passed through in 1815—no Royal visit had since been paid;to Folke- stone. A local writer at the time said: We could not but forcibly be impressed with the striking contrast presented with the former visit with all its pomp and parade (the Mayor and Corporation mounted on horseback, with the Lord of the Manor and other nobleman, headed by the Archbishop of Canterbury, going out to meet the Queen and her Court on the Downs), and that of Thursday, with its 11n- obtrusive character and absence of' parade, Queen Victoria being accompanied only by Prince Albert, with two ladies and gentlemen in attendance." The real object of her Majesty's visit was to, inspect the Foreign Legion at, Shorncliffe. This force was employed for home servicel on account of our troops being at the seat of war. The lLegion on this occa- sion mustered, including 1100 of the Swiss Legion Brought by rail from Dover, 3500 men. The majority of the rest were Germans. Her Majesty arrived 'from Osborne at the Folke- stone Harbour Station, where phe was pre- sented with an address. This was taken as read, but her Majesty expressed to the Mayor the pleasure she felt in visiting the locality. The Queen was escorted fo the'camp by the Royal East .Kent Mounted Rifles, under the command of Colonel Deedes, M.P., the Mayorand Corporation following in carriages. The route to the gamp lav along the harbour, part of the Pavilion Hotel, along the Lower Sandgate-road to Sandgate, thence up the Military- road to the camp, which presented a most interesting and picturesque scene. Her Majesty, notwithstanding her journey from Osborne, looked remarkably well, and appeared in, good spirits. She was very plainly attired in a dress of blue and white, with white bonnet and feather. Although the weather had/been wet on the previous ou night, her Majesty was enabled to walk about the camp, and make a minute Inspection of the wooden huts (now replaced by concrete)." After partaking of luncheon, provided by the officers in one of the mess- rooms, her Majesty quitted the camp about half-past two, amidst hearty cheering. The Folkestone Chronicle, in its fourth issue (1855), speaking of the visit to the camp, says: Amongst the various incidents of the day we may note the curious effect produced by the three bands, oil her Majesty arriving at the flagstaff, striking up God ISave the Queen,' pot simultaneously or in the same key, but in different keys and from one to two bars apart, and it required, we ehould say, mor§ than, ordinary musical skin to follow the tune scompletely under sueh circumstances. Another incident we cannot omit to mention, which attracted somewhat more than particular attention to the unfortunate personage who figured in it—we allude to the Mayor of Dover, who, with a chair in one hand and a wand in the other, made an endeavour to rush into the pre&tace of Royalty-we trust with harmless intention—but I for what purpose we are at loss to conceive, except- ing, it might be, to petition her Majesty, to embark at Dover for the Continent. The attempt, howeter, proved abortive, and to an ordinary individual such a signal failure would prove a check fpr life—but the Mayor of Dover is not an ordinary person." (Folke- stone Chronicle, August 12,1855.) Another account says In tbe carriage witjb ber Majesty rode the Prince Consort, the Countess of Desart (Lady-in-Waiting), and the Hon. Mary Sey- mour. The Queen, resting on the arm of the Prince Consort, and accompanied by the Staff, walked from the flagstaff to the huts of .the 1st German Regiment, one of which her Majesty entered, minutely inspect- ing its internal arrangements, and asking several questions of the soldiers in their own language in relation to their comfort. The Queen then proceeded to luncheon provided by Mr. Breach, the famous host of the Royal Pavilion Hotel, Folkestone. Her Majesty honoured Mr. Breach by inspecting his kitchen arrangements."
ENGLISH ENTERPRISE IN SBAIN. After a^keen competition at public tender, prin- cipally between an English and a Belgian firm, a con- cession has been granted to the former to lay a net- work of tramways, to be worked by electricity, uniting Barcelona with the surrounding districts. The total length will be about 40 miles, and the capital in- volved about' £ 1,000,000. This is said to be the, first concession granted in Spain for the establishment of a new line of tramways by electric traction. It is to be worked on the overhead system—a rather bold in- novation for a populous city like Barcelona.
THE greatest workshop in the world is that of the famous Krupp at Essen, in Germany. It employs jbetween 20,000 and 25,000 souls, nearly all of whom reside in dwellings belonging to the firm., In the great mill of Essen are 1195 furnaces of various kinds, 286 boilers, 92 steam hammers of from 200 to 100,000 pounds, 370 steam-engines, with a total of 27,000 horse-power, 1724 different machines, ^nd 361 cranes. In 1^3$the works, employed only nine men in 1848, 74;. anfin. July, 1888, 20.960. I- lis'l -I i: ,jjn r
LOVE AND SUICIDE In one of his novels, Dumas' fils points out ifcat it is often no easy matter to commit suicide in the way one wishes. This has just been exemplified at Tioyes, in France, where the farrier sergeant of a Hussar regiment, paving been unable to obtain his parents' consent to marry the girl he loved, induced her to consent to commit suicide with him. The paii- accordingly shut themselves up im the girl's room and drank a quantity of morphia, but in the convulsions that, ensued they overturned some cloth- ing into the fire, with the result that they were both burned to death.
MUHTION was made the other day of Handel's jhurch near Edgware, a fund for the restoration of which has just been started. In this connection re- ference may be made to a new edition of Mr. J. K. Robinson's book entitled The Princely Chandoa." In it is given full particulars of Handel's life at Canons, the magnificent residence of the first Duke of Chandos, which was supposed to have inspired Pope's celebrated description of Timon's Villa. The- vast estate of Canons is now being split Hp fot build- ing purposes, and the only relic of the duke's muni- ficence in the early part of the last century is the church before-mentioned, which is in great need of repair.
CHANTS TO UNIVERSITY COLLEGES. It will be rrtttembered that., in replying to the de* ijufHi ion wlvieti on December 28, 1895, asked for in- c/e»s-d nid fVom public funds for the English Uni- versity coik'pes and for the college at Dundee beyond tire-sum tt £ 15,000 that had been allotted to them. s;r.ce 1880-90, the Chancellor of the Exchequer spoke1 of the necessity for an inquiry as to the quality of the, work dune by each college. Such an inquiry had been' recommended by committees in 1892 and in 1894, and accordingly, in March, 1896, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, with the concurrence of the Lord President of the Council, appointed two gentie-; men, the President of Magdalen College, Oxford, Mr. T. H. Warren, and Professor G. D. Liveing, Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, to make the required investigation. Their visits were con-' eluded by tha end of last year and their repoits are. now published in the Blue-book on the subject just, issued, and which contains also the report drawn up by Mr. Robert Chalmers of the Treasury on the financial side of the question of the grants. Both: the financial report and the others had been by April last considered by the Lords of the Treasury, who expressed a high sense of the eare and ability with which Messrs. Warren and Liveing had con- ducted their inquiries; and, as a result of the' investigation, the Chancellor of the Exchequer recommended that the total grant to the colleges should be increased to E25,000 as from April 1, 1897. He also proposed to refer the question of the apportionment of this total sum to a special com- mittee consisting of Mr. J. W. Mellor, Q.C., M.P., Sir Henry Roscoe, F.R.S., Professor Jebb, M.P., Mr. C. A. Whitmore, M.P., and Professor W. J. Court- hope, C.B., with Mr. Chalmers as secretary. This proposal having been carried out, the Committee, m a report dated May 20, forwarded their recornmenda- tions, which, as will be seen from the following Treasury minute of June 2, have been accepted as they stood: My Lords read the report of the 20th ult. from the Committee appointed by the Treasury Minute of April 5 last to advise this Board in the matter of the apportionment of the increased sum of E25,000 which Parliament has been asked to vote im the current financial year for University colleges in Great Britain. My Lords accept the apportionment which the Committee propose, viz:— THe Owens College, Manchester £3500 University College, London 3000 University College, Liverpool 3000 Mason College, Birmingham. 2700 King's College, London 2200 Yorkshire College, Leeds 2200 Durham College of Science 2200 University College, Nottingham 1500 Firth College, Sheffield 1300 University College, Bristol 1200 Bedford College, London 1200 £ 24,000 University College, Dundee. 1000 Total £ 25,000 In deference to the express recommendation of the Committee, my Lords have consented to grant to the Owens College, Manchester, a sum in excess of the maximum, of E3000 specified in the Board's minute of April 5, 1897. They desire, however, to make it clear that this increase is made solely in recognition of the pre-eminence of the Owens College, and must not be constiued as a precedent for increasing the grant of any other college beyond the normal maxi- mum. My Lords take note of the terms of the Com- mittee's report with regard to the Dundee College. In acceding to the Committee's recommendation that for the present" the college should receive EIODO a year, my Lords are guided, as they understand the Committee to have been guided, by the exceptional position in which the college is now placed with regard to St. Andrews University. My Lords, how- ever, are of opinion that, when the relations between the University and the college are settled, this matter should be subject to reconsideration and they must not be understood to admit the claim of the college to share permanently in the grant to University colleges. The Board accept, so far as they are concerned, the recommendation that, with the exception of Dundee College, the above allocation should be settled for a term of five years from April 1, 1897. They also agree that before the end of such term a further inspection should be made on behalf of the Treasury. My lords will communicate to the colleges con- cerned the Committee's recommendation in para- graph 6 of their report that, in certain cases, three- fourths of the additions to the several grants should I be devoted to staff purposes. The future inspection, as recommended by the Committee, should extend to the University Exten- sion colleges at Beading and Exeter, as also to the Hartley Institute at Southampton, and to any other college which, being located in a populous district, may claim to be treated as a fully-equipped college in arts and science. The Chancellor of the Exchequer invites the Board to consider the qualifications, other than educational, which should be required from a college seeking to share in the grant in future. The Chancellor of the Exchequer submits to the Board that public money should not be contributed to a college which is still in the experimental stage or which has not yet suc- ceeded, though fully equipped, in attracting a con- siderable number of students in arts and science. He therefore recommends that the financial condi- tions of participation should be: (1) A total local income for arts and science of at least 94000 a year; and (2) A receipt from fees in the same subjects of at least E1500 a year. My lords approve. It only remains for them to record their appreciation of the valuable service* which the Committee has been so good as to rende- to this Board in considering the claims of the respec tive colleges.
DURING the present month a Birmingham family has achieved a gratifying degree of success in various directions. Mr. Hubert Coop, a you, painter, was, at the recent election of members of the Royal Society of British Artists, elected at the top of a poll of 140 candidates, being the youngest member of the society. During the fame period his brother, Mr. Fred Coop, has secured the highest award in the shape of a silver medal at the South London Photographic Society. A third brother, Mr. Ernest Coop, has at the same time gained the medical degrees of M.R.C.S. and L.R.C.P.; and a fourth brother, Mr. Charles Coop, has obtained the A.I.A;' of the Institute of Actuaries, being the only holder of that degree in Birmingham. PARIS is threatened with a dreadful visitation in &e shape of pavement advertisements. The appa- ratus, which is already decorating the streets of that city in profusion, is just like an ordinary harmless hanging lamp, and not at all aggressive. But its interior harbours a clockwork iniquity by which lettered or pictorial advertisements are magnified and thrown on to the pavement and floor. Each contains a number of advertisements—26 is the most con- venient-and the works can be set either for half- minute or one minute exhibitions of each adveitise- ment. The reflection on the ground makes a clear and bold picture of from 3ft. to 4ft. 6in. in diameter, ac- cording to the height of the lamp from the ground. MR. HUTCHISON, while British Resident at Coomassie, bad a panther presented to him by the King of Ashantee. This animal he succeeded in taming, and transformed from a forest terror into-a domestic pet. Charles James Fox had a young tiger which showed great affection for him, until one day, while licking his master's hand, it scraped off the skin. At the first taste of blood its dormant instincts returned, and its glaring eyes revealed to Mr. Fox his danger. Without attempting to remove his hand, he led it by gentle words into the next room, where a loaded pistol hung over the mantel- piece. Reaching it down, he shot his now dangerous pet through the head. ONE of the most peculiar bridal or marriage customs known is one that has prevailed for centuries in what is called the cheese regions" of Switzer- land. In that portion of the Alpine country, when a pair join in wedlock, it is the fashion for their inti- mate friends to buy a "register cheese" for the young couple. This cheese is presented to the newly-wedded people on the evening of the wedding-day, and is ever after retained by them and used as a family register. On these heirloom cheeses the whole history of the family is carved such as births, marriages, deaths, and other incidents which it may be desired to make matters of record. Some of these old Swiss family cheese records are taid to date back to the middle of the 17th century.
FOREIGNERS WHO BECOME BRITONS, Ar.m BRITONS WHO BECOME FOREIGNERS. The United Kingdom has always kept "open house" to the whole world in general and all Europe in particular we have '-never (as the Daily Mail re- marks) closed our doors against the alien-more's the pity, say some the exile and the outcast have ever been permitted to make a home within our shotes • the rejected of nations has always found in Great Britain a very earthly paradise after his enforced wanderings. We grant to foreigners such freedom and privileges as can be obtained so easily, if at all, nowhere else in the world; we declare that "real and personal property of every description may be taken, acquired, held, and disposed of by an alien in the same manner in all respects as a British-born subject"; while the law further pro- vides that after the granting of a certificate of naturalisation an alien is entitted to all the political and other rights,, powers, and privileges, and is sub- ject to all obligations of a natural-born British sub- ject. Little wonder,; then,- that thousands of foreigners come to us .anDually-some to become Britons in all but word, some to renounce allegiance, to their own various countries and become Britons in; that alw. Thus, last Jear 737 aliens choose to; become naturalised as British subjects. Of this number the Russians exceeded in proportion every other nationality, heading the list with 318. Germany followed with 287, Austria-Hungary lost 44 subjects, France 15, Turkey 14, Roumania 13, Holland 11, Norway and Sweden 5, Denmark 6, United States- 5, Italy 4, Greece 4, Switzerland 4, the Netherlands 3, Spain 2, and Belgium and China 1 apiece. That Russia should be in the van of this list is not surprising when one remembers the system of espio- nage of every description under which the average Russian of every class lives. As far as the Gorman is concerned, his desire for naturalisation is in a large proportion of cases prompted solely by com- mercial interests. In the case of the Americans, French, Italians, Turks, and others, it would be difficult to assign any particular reason other than the personal conveniences to be derived from citizenship in this country. Some- times the protection of the British flag in a foreign part is infinitely valuable to a man from a commercial point of view, although it must always be remembered that British protection cannot be insured unless the naturalised subject has legally fulfilled all his obliga- tions to the country of his birth." As regards naturalisation in other countries, it is interesting to note that if English people take up their residence in France, although they may hot have become naturalised French subjects, any sons born to them on French soil are liable to conscrip- tion unless, in the year of their majority or that following it, they take out papers repudiating their allegiance to the French flag. In the same way Italy claims the sons of aliens who have resided there un- interruptedly for 10 years. In France, Austria, Russia, Belgium, and Greece no foreigners are allowed to act as advocates, notaries, attorneys, or arbitrators, while in France, Switzerland, and Austria the armies are closed against unnaturalized foreigners, although Bavaria and Sweden admit them. In Sweden, further, an alien can neither acquire real nor personal property with- out permission from the Crown, unless he belongs to a country where Swedes have an equal privilege. In Austria a foreigner wishing to set up in business must not only give notice to the Board of Trade, but obtain a special concession from the Home Depart- ment. As regards legislative restriction in English- speaking countries, it occurs in some of our colonies and in the United States in the case of the Chinese, whom it has been found desirable to keep out. In the United States there is no poll-tax on Chinamen such as exists in Australia, from the simple fact that during the last four years a law has been in opera- tion which prohibits the landing of any Chinamen in the United States unless they can prove that they in- tend to leave the country within a certain length of time. The only exception is made in the case of duly accredited representatives of the Chinese Em- pire to the United States Government. In New South Wales, by a law that came into operation in 1888, the poll-tax levied on Chinamen amounts to £100 per head. No Chinaman may engage in mining operations without the express consent of the Minister of the Mines, neither can he ever become naturalised. The penalty for breaking these regula- tions is X500. As the captains of ships are only allowed to carry one Chinamen to every 300 tons, it will be seen that the country ia no longer liable to be overrun by these undesirable settlers. These condi- tions obtain in most of the other Australian colonies, except in West Australia, where the poll-tax is but £ 10. In South Australia there is no poll-tax, but only one Chinaman is allowed to every 500 tons burthen on board emigrant ships. The length of domicile necessary to render naturali- sation obtainable varies in different countries. Thug the Briton desiring to become a Frenchman must prove a 10 years' residence in France; Spain will grant him a certificate when he has resided three years within her territories, and can show that he either possesses property or a business Portugal only requires one year's residence and a proof of his j. ability to support himself in the Netherlands the State requires six years' residence, Prussia and Austria ten years, although in the latter country a Govern- ment situation carries along with it naturalisation without the usual formalities. Of the JJritons who renounce the land of their birth, more swear allegi- ance to the United States than to any other country, though altogether their number is not great. The alien desirous of becoming a British subject must present to one of her Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State a memorial praying for the grant of a naturalisation certificate, which memorial must state: (1) Of what foreign State the applicant is a sub- ject, his place of birth and the name and nationality of his parents. (2) His name, address, age, profession, trade, or j other occupation. (3) Whether he is married, and has any children under age residing with him, and, if so, to state their names aud ages. (4) That during the period of eight years imme- diately preceding the application, the applicant has for are years resided within the United Kingdom. All these statements are, of course, independently verified by inquiries directed by the Secretary of State, and should all prove satisfactory, the applicant is granted papers of naturalisation on the payment of a fee of £5. Then he is only to take the oath of allegiance, and he is a subject of her Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria like the rest of us.
THE ANTHROPOMETRIC SYSTEM. The value of the anthropometric system has once more been proved. Two Paris detectives On duty at thcrSt. Lazare Railway Station had captured two well-dressed men in the act of practising what is known in Paris as vol it VAmirioaine—obtaining money by false pretences from unsuspecting provin- ciala by means of the confidence trick. At the police- station the prisoners gave the names of Joseph Baraldi and Pietro Filipponi, and stated that they had just arrived from Italy. On the following day they were taken to the anthropometric station, where Dr. Bertillon speedily discovered that the so- called Baraldi bad been convicted no fewer than 36 times. His real name is Rodolfo, and he is a Maltese, who is-wanted by the Italian, German, Spanish, and English police.
7 A GREAT TELESCOPE MAKER. Mr. Alvin G. Clark, whose sudden death is just re- corded, was the man who made the construction of giant telescopes like those of the Lick and Yerkes Observatories possible. Engineers who have devised machinery for moving the cumbersome tubes, already extending 50 uid 60 feet in length, are doutless cap- able of satisfactorily dealing with still greater masses but it is the optician's work which always puts a limit on the size of a telescope. Mr. Alvin Clark increased that limit to an extent which would have seemed fabulous half a century ago, when an 11-inch refracting telescope was the largest in the world. Big letises have been turned out by Sir Howard Grubb, from his workshops near Dublin, and by Messrs. Cooke, of York but the only man who had figured such enormous lenses as the 36-inch glass of the Lick telescope, or the still greater 40-inch glass of tbe Yerkes telescope, was Mr. Alvin Cla>k, and in these two he held a world's record which no other competitor has approached. A big lens such as that of the Yerkes telescope, when lying on the optician's work-table, does not strike the onlooker as anything very remarkable. It is merely two discs of very clear optical glass, one of crown glass and the other flint glass, the former double-convex and latter concave on one side and nearly flat on the other-nicely curved it is true. This nicety of curvature is, however, a thing almost appalling when the optician comes to explain the work he has had to do. When Mr. Alvin Clark re- ceived in his workshpps at Cambridgeport, Massa- chusetts, the rough slabs of glass for the Yerkes lens from Paris, where they were caat, the problem set before him was to grind them into shape with such skill that every ray of light passing through the great circle of glass, 40 inches in diameter—rather larger than an ordinary card table—should be bent and brought to focus at a point 61 feet distant no larger than the dot on an i of this type. Thip he successfully accomplished. Although he has not lived to see the great telescope in use, he had the satisfaction of participating in the test observations, made only last week, when the lens was for the first time placed in the tube—tests which fully bore striking evidence of the excellence of his work- manship. In the grinding of a telescope lens, a fault so gross as a single thousandth of an inch would absolutely spoil the glass. There is no instrument fine! enough to measure the infinitely small quantities with which the optician has to deal. A spherometer which will show an error of 1-50,00,0th of an inch is much too coarse for the purpose. A fault of 1-100,000th of an inch would be serious, and an error of 4-l,000,OOOtfis of an inch could not be overlooked. To test he accuracy of a lens during manufacture it is removed to a special testing room, where the air is kept at an even temperature. It is there set on edge, a light from a lamp shining through a small hole is sent' through the lens, and impinges on a mirror, which reflects it back again through the glass to the-eye of the optician. The entire lens will seem to he inflame with light, but in parts dark places may appear. These show that the curvature is not perfect. Where dark places Occur the glass is eithet too high or too low; if too high the projection must be rubbed down, if too low, the whole surface must be brought down to its level. Often the amount to be removed is so infinitesimal i Chat a little rubbing with the finger on the hard glass will do what is necessary. Mr. AMo dark was in London three or four years ago, when he attended a meeting of the Royal Astro- nomical Society, and explained the method pursued in the figuring of these great lenses. The glass is first trteated with sand, to remove the roughest pro- jections, which at the next stage is replaced by emery, coarse at first, and grading down to the Very finest. Rouge is used in polishing. The local corrections," as the finer treatment in the last stages is termed, often take the optician two or three years. The Yerkes lens was in and out of Mr. Alvin Clark's workshops- for nearly five years before its present perfection was attained. h An incident in the earlier years of Mr. Alvin Clark. gave him rank among the original discoverers in as- tronomy. His father, a famous optician before him, the founder of. the firm of which he was the last sur- vivor, was testing a new lens he had just figured for the Chicago observatory, and turned it upon the great star Sirius, the- brightest in all the heavens, when ji the practised eye of the younger Clark soon detected something unusual. "Why, father, the star has a companion!" he exclaimed. The companion, thus acoidently lighted upon, has since been followed in its motions: year by year, and. has proved the Sirian system to be one of the most interesting in the ekies. —
A NATURAtiST- of eminence finds that land-bird? make theif journeys fn the daytime, the water-birds by night. A MEETING of 2000 persons over 70 years of age is annually held at Leicester, and of these over 400 die before the next anniversary. A DOCTOR says that probably half the deafness pre- valent at the present time is the result of children having their ears boxed. IT has been calculated that the quantity of sweets ooneumed in England every year is betweerr 100,000 aiid 150,000 tons. ',t1IV, apiount of gold actually in circulation in this country is estimated to be £ 110,000,000 sterling, or about 865 tons. TjIE crop report of the Manitoba- Department of Agriculture shows that the area under wheat in Manitoba amounts to 1,290,882 acres. The total area of all crops is 1,950,000 acres-an of 30 per cent. over lot year. AN actress in Stockholm lost her power of speech end memory through sudden grief, and could not take her part. She was accordingly hypnotised, aud the operator having suggested that she should pro- ceed to the theatre and go through her part, she did so quite unconsciously. and in such a natural manner that the audience remained injignorance of what had taken place. TUB figure nine has a peculiar connection with the career of the Emperor of Germany. His Majesty is the ninth King of Prussia, he was born in the 59th year of the century, entered the Army in 1869, and completed his university career in 1879. The dates of his birth and marriage, January 27 and February 27, both make nine if the figures, two and stlten, are added toMthpf. ACCORDING to Professor Schmiederterg, of Stras- burg, dogs need iron in their food. He relates the case of a strong dog that was nearly starved by being fed for a long time with pure milk. Just as he seemed on the point of death, a gramme of ferratin was added to his daily allowance of milk, which, in- stead of refusing as heretofore, he devoured raven- ously, and in the space of two weeks recovered his normal health and strength. MAXWELL GREY," the author of "The Silence of Dean Maitland," now lives with her widowed mother on Mount Ararat-road, Richmond. The house looks over Richmond-park, and the varying scenes on the river are a constant source of amusement to the novelist in her invalid state. Miss Tuttiet, until the quite recent death of her father, a well-known debtor in the vicinity, used to live in the Isle of Wight. She is quite an invalid, and can scarcely more from the L v' # (
PARISH COUNCILS: -c, (Interesting Questions and Answers from the Council Gazette") I*; Remuneration for Making Out Valuation List. Jur Assistant Overseer made application to oHI Parish Council for remuneration for making -out valuation list in duplicate form, and they adjournefll it until the new Council was formed, consequently, it; was not paid during last year. The new Council would like to know whether if they now vote two Overseer a sum for making out the said valuation tiB the Auditor would surcharge the same, considiaM ing it was a debt which the old Council should baD paid, and, further, they would be glad to know if tfidjp ought to pay any sum at all for this work ? Answer Unless the Assistant Overseer's salary was fixed ad.. to cover the work of making out a new valuation lid (which is not very likely), there appears to us to be BO objection to a proper allowance being made by t new Parish Council, and in our opinion theAud could not disallow the payment. Infringement of Building Bye-laws.—The Urbfil District Council of H. has recently sanctioned sMd approved plans for the erection of a house and shflfR in direct contravention of Bye-law 54. The premiaflP are now nearly completed, and the owner of t he MP; joining property at the rear of the new building fli, objecting to the erection, which, it is stated, will seriously depreciate the property. (1) Can compeBf sation be claimed for the alleged depreciation; if 4* from whom—the Council, or the person who halt erected the building ? (2) Has the Council power to approve plans which are known to be contrary W the Bye laws, and what is the liabilitj.1 Answer: (1) Clearly no action could be brougyg against the Urban District Council. Them are not sufficient materials to say whether aD action would lie against the building owner. The mere fact of depreciation of adjoining property is not enough. The erection of a public house or at unsightly cottages would seriously depreciate an adjoining mansion, but it would give of itself no cause of action. (2) It is very difficult to say what is the effect ot an approval of sucB plans. THe. Council appear to be liable to no action for datnagm The cnly effective remedy is for the electors to IJ. more careful in electing the District Council. Repair of Footpaths.—There is a public fbotwaft- through a field, and it is also a private riglat-of-caft road for sundry owners, who have the right of usidg it. There is a gate at each end. I do not think that the footway has ever been repaired, or that ailS person has at uny time put gravel on it. "'Can Parish Council repair and put on gravel without tbb landowner's consentp Answer: If putting gravel oti the footpath would interfere with the cultivation ot the field, in the manner in which it has hitherto been cultivated, then we do not think the Parish Council could put the gravel on the land without the con-sent of the landowner. Casual Vacancy on Parish Council-—We have vacancy on our Parish Council, owing to one of tiMi newly-elected members being absent at the first meet* ing on account of illness, consequently not signing the declaration, and no resolution being passed thvs be should sign at a later meeting. There were flftf defeated candidates at the election. What is tlW legal course for the Parish Council to pursue ill order to fill the vacant seat. Answer It is cleer that the member who failed to make the decla-tim, has lost his seat, and that none of the defeated can- didates (as such) are entitled to -it but beyoIHI this nothing is clear. The Local Government Actlï 1894, gives two alternative methods in s. 47, eitheiS of which may apply. By sub-section (4) a vacancy among Parish Councillors shall be filled by the Parish Council," and by Eub-sectiom (1) If at the annual election of Parish Councillor* any vacancies are not filled by election, such number of the retiring Councillors as are not re-elected, ana are required to fill the. vacancies, shall, if willing* continue to hold office. The Councillors net to continue shall be those; who were highere on the poll at the previous election, or if th's- number were equal, or there was no poll, as niap be determined by the Parish Meeting, OR if not so determined, by the-Chairman of the Parisw Council." We despair of finding out which sub- section applies to your case, but you will be safe If you treat the vacancy as a casual vacancy, and Parish Council elect a member to fill it, provided that they elect that one of the retiring Parish Cotincillorw who would be entitled to the seat under sub-secttoi* (1), assuming that section applied. If this cannot bfI managed, then apply to the County Council for M* order dealing with the difficulty, calling the attention to s. 48 (5) of the Act of 1894, and also s. I of the Local Government (Elections) Act, 1896. Liability for Rates.-A. leases a house and Eubletlt- it to B. with an agreement to pay rates. A. has gone* but B. remains as,tenant. To whom am I to lookfoiT payment ? Answer: If B. is the occupier be cannofe get rid of his liability to bo rated by agreeing with Ai: that A. should pay it. You must proceed against- the occupier, and leave him to recover from his land- lord. We have assumed that the house does not comf- within the limited rateable value (£8 in most placfm)- fixed by the Poor Rate Assessment and Collection Acfci 1869, and that no order of the Vestry is in force for compulsory rating of owners instead of occupiers, OB that the house does not come under the order. EYeD, if it does, you can still recover the rate from t occupier, subject to the limitations created by 8.12 of- tbatact. —; Guardian Residing Outside Union:-Can a Guar- 1 dian who has removed into another Union since hi. election still remain in that position of Guardian for the Union district he has left ? Clause 20 of the Local Government Act seems to say no. Answer: If the Guardian continues to be a parochial elector of some parish within the Union, or if during the wholo of the 12 months preceding tbe election he residedin the Union, hiB removal out of the Union does not disqualify him. Election of Parish Council Committees.—At the annual meeting of the Parish Council the V ice- Chairman was elected by show of hands an ordinary member of a committee (he already being, as 'Vice-- Ghairman, ex-officio member of any or all committees of the, Council, as per standing orders), and was elected, so that, be might, as be had already done, take his share of routine work of the committee. The minutes of the meeting at which the election took- place having been passed and signed, would it be out of order to move the election of another ordinary; member on the ground of him (the Vice-Chairman) being an member? Answer? Your proposal appears to be quite in order. Erection of Stile.The footpath in question i* across a meadow adjoining the highway. This foot- path has- been traversed for a great number of years. There is no stile or gate at one end of the footpath at which persons can enter thei;mendow, but they have to climb over. or through some railings, which are the property of a railway company. The meadow ie the property of a large landowner in the parish. At the other end- of, the meadow is a substantial stile, erected by: another railway company. Application has been made to the railway company to put a stile, but they say the owner of the land states that it is not a foot- path. The owner of the land has also been applied to, to allow a stile to be made, but be says be cannot ac- knowledge any right of way, but takes no action against any person for climbing therailinp or going along the path. Individuals in ths neighbourhood state that, to their knowledge,, people have crossed the meadow for more than 30 years. Answer: Assuming that the footpath is a public one, neither the Parish Council nor any other authority can enforce the erection of a stile, instead of a fence, if no stile has ever been there. On the other band, neither the railway company nor the landowner can substitute a fence which is very diffi- cult to get over for a stile which is easy. The facts you mention seem to show that the footpath is < public one, but they are not conclusive.