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FARMING NOTES.

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FARMING NOTES. > (From the Sural WorldJ*) A NEW FOOD. We in th-sse islands (writes Prof. Long) are apt to iitider,,altic the maize plant as a food for stock, and jecttaire seems to be never-ending methods of utis- ifg it. as perhaps the most economical of all foods. J airing the past winter the grain has been so cheap ILalit farmers have been enabled to feed their cattle more cheaply than they could possibly do by the employment of food of any other kind. At a price of 13B. and even 12s.^per quarter of 4801b. it is evi- dent that maize has out-distanced cake* meal, and every other cereal, but it has been reserved for the Americans—to whom the maize plant is the national fodder to produce a new food from -it whi4 will still further diminish the cost of feeding, and may, for aught we know at the pre- sent moment, be introduced into this eniintrylas a competitor with hay, bran, and other coarser kinds cf food. It has been found that the pith of the maize stalk Las a special value of its own. Among the pur- poses for which it is to be employed is the packing of vessels cf war; its power of, absorbing water being very considerable. This pt is, therefore, being used by the American Government on a very large scale, and it iL- further being introduced into the manufacture of materials such as Iftiofenm, inasmuch as it is more economical than cork, which it is said to successfully replace. In the preparation of the pith there is a waste material which, being dried and ground, is found to be most suitable as a stock food. The maize etalk as a whole is known to be a rich food, and it is especially rich in sugar, containing 8! per cent. of digestible carbonaceous matter, but the food to which reference is here made contains 11 per cent, more digestible matter than the whole stalk of the maize and two per cent. more digestible nitrogenous matter it further contains more feeding material than hay of moderate quality, and compares very closely with such an admirable material as bran. There are three points to Consider in feeding and in the selection of food. Cattle require a bulky material, and it would not, therefore, answer to provide them with a small ration of concentrated character even though it con- tained more digestible carbo-hydrates and albumi- noids than an ordinary ration, but given a bulk or padding such as hay, straw, roots, or grass provide, it is essential to provide—assuming that it is not contained within the bulky food —a given quantity at least of digestible albuminoids and carbo-hydrates for the purpose of maintaining the heat of the body, of providing for the waste of tissue and of energy of force as well as for the manufacture of meat and milk. How to obtain this digestible material it is highly important to learn, inasmuch as it varies in price in accordance with the different foods employed, and it is the farmer's duty to himself to select that which is the most economical. In the past winter, for ex- ample, the carbo-hydrates of food have been cheapest in waize, excepting, of course, the coarser foods of the farm which the farmer produces for himself, whereas the albuminoids of food, which Jare neces- sarily chieQy purchased in the market, have been cheapest In bran, lentils, and, when bought, well, in beans, peas, and cotton cake. Now, supposing that the new maize product provides digestible carbo- hydrates at a cheaper rate than theygyain pf maize, it is certain to be very largely usea, and, perhaps, to the detriment of the British grower. It is quite conceivable that foods both of a carbonaceous and nitrogeneous character may be introduced in the future at a price out of all proportion to the present price of the usual foods on the market. We have at this moment an example of a cohcen- trated nitrogenous food which contains more than twice as much nitrogenous matter as the richest food in the market, and which can be sold at equally low prices. When we remember that the now maize pro- duct Contains nearly 2! per cent. of oil, nearly 4 per cent. of albuminoids, and nearly 50 per cent. of car- bonaceous matter, we shall Pee-if we take the trouble to compare it with the figures applicable to the foods I we are ordinarily using—that it has a very high cha- racter from a scientific point of view, whereas in practice in America it has been found to answer all that is said of it. OATTLH. The rains that have prevailed all over the country (a breeder remarks) have so freshened up the pas- tures that graziers' prospects have M.UClt I- ippro ed. Towards the latter end of May the swards in many districts were getting rather bare, and what with dry, cold days and frosty nights cattle could not make a start into that thriving state which is ex- pected at this season. -Fattening pastures must give a good, bite, or cattle are sure to disappoint the owner. And it is too common a practice to depas- ture too many sheep and horses among fattening bullocks and heifers, and the result is that they take the sweetest grasses, so that the latter make poor progress in what should be the flush of grass, therefore have to be finished off with expensive trough food at back-end. Again, it is desirable to get as much beef off in July and August as possible, not only to save a cake bill by-and-by, but to get the best price for it. It is always reckoned by old graziers that after the first unhappy partridge falls beef sinks halfpenny or penny per pound. But to get the animals ripe for the butcher before that time they must have a luxuriant pasture pretty well all to them-. selves, and they should be only ru'n thinly on-the ground. One sheep to two acres and one' horse to 10 acres will not materially rob the herd, but they ought not to run more thickly. SHEEP. The fat lamb season is just now (a flockmastei observes) approaching—that is the season when grass- fattened lambs are brought out in great numbers. Butchers begin to joint the carcase in June, so that the public are served with just such InØQ1 bits ae they require. Moreover, instead' of a shilling per lb., the retailer finds lOd. answers, and even 3d. later on, so that most housekeepers can afford it. Aad this is as it should be, because when hot weather sets in lamb is found the most inviting mo4t to put on the table. Graziers can well afford to sell at mode- rate pricey because the expense of fattening is not nearly so much as earlier in the year, when both Iambs and ewes have to subsist largely on trough food. For years this fattening lambs at grass has been a profitable occupation on land suited to the purpose. The ewes often pay the worth of their lambe, and that is very good considering that a portion bear twins. There is then left the fleece to make up for losses and what the ewe deteriorates in value. A difficulty to contend against is dry seasons. Seeing, however, that we have had several xjf late, there ought not to be another due just yet, and, as regards the present summer, it now bids fair to be more than averagelv fruitful. Prices of lambs have fallen a good deal within the last week, as is usually the case when grass-fattened ones begin to come to market. At present they make little more per lb. to the butcher than mutton, yet he charges from 10d,,to Is. per lb. -at least, has been doing fIG until the: beginning of June. Such high retail prices ought not to prevail, and are altogether out of harmony with what the grefzjer, gets. J. [ nO*E BUTTER-MAKING. •, f p •; • • When, as a stage in the making operations, the buttermilk is thoroughly drained off, water (Mr. C. C. Macdonald directs) at 54 degrees Fahr. should be added to the churn, equal in quantity to the buttermilk just run off, the churn lid fastened on, and the churn revolved rapidly for about a dozen revolutions. Then the water removed and the same quantity of cold water at about 45 degrees Fahr. should he placed into the churn and the rapid revolving repeated as before. Two washings are sufficient to remove all the butter- milk frorrrthe-buttei.7 After the water is thoroughly drained off, the butter should be removed to the baiter vrorkpr for salting. In Denmark, the butter is dfpped frbin the butter-milk, white it is in the churn, "by using a horsehair sieve, dipping the batter on to the butter worker, and pouring water on to,.the butter, and washing the buttermilk out of it. This is a Very good method, and may be adopted in cases 01 scarcity of pure cold water, as it only requires about one-third of the amount of water as by the former method. When the butter is removed from the churn, it should be accurately weighed before placing it on the butter-worker for salting, so that the proper amount of salt may be ascertained. The quantity of salt to be used depends altogether on the require- ments of the market on which the product is to be offered-for Bale. The consumers who buy butter on any market must have their taste in tfeiB satisfied as in all other respects; therefore, it is absolutely necessary for the farmers wlio^ make butter to become thoroughly acquainted with the needs of their customers, in order to please them, and thereby secure a ready and regular market at paying prices. The requirement oi many jnarkets is about iju-M- tfuartete to onnce of salt to aach pound ot butter '8ken from the churn. The butter is now in the granular stage, and the granules must be preserved. This is best done by little working. After weighing the butter, it is placed on the butter-worker, and the salt should be sprinkled on it in such manner as to distribute it evenly over the mass of butter, after which the preliminary working may be commenced. This working should be very slight, just enough to thoroughly distribute the salt through the butter. Turning the butter over on the butter-worker two or three times is sufficient to get the salt properly mixed through it. Then the butter should be put in a tub or tray and put into a cool place, having a tempera- ture of at least as low as 50deg. Fahr., and left for four or five hours. This is done to allow the salt to dissolve thoroughly in the butter. Pure salt will all dissolve, but it is impossible to force it into butter by working the butter.

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