I FARMIXO VOTES. (Prom Prof&vr WrigJi (ton's "ScasoJiaMe Xotes" in tin "Agricultural Gazette?) EARLY SPILIIO KEU.I,. The t-ppor unities for providing keep enjol r-y South-country farmers of light land ore superwr to those of North-countrymen. The variety of crops is greater, for in the more genial climate of Southern England wo find rye, winter barley, and winter oars, trifolium, vetches, and late turnips, rape, afnd cabbage all widely cultivated. In the Nori 11, grass and turnips are chiefly relied upon, alld, although vetches and other of the crops named are grown it is not with the view of following them with a root crop. The climatic conditions are different. Thus the latenets cf the spring is a bar to the early feeding of autumn-sown crops, %I) I the requirements of the turnip crop appear to in- volve earlier sowing. So far as catch-cropping is concerned, the Noitfh-country farmer finds himself between these two difficulties-namely, he cannot clear his land in time, and he must sow his turnips before the period when autumn-sown fodder crops are eaten off. It is somewhat strange that, Willi -the evident advantages for constant or catch-crop- ping enjoyed in the South, that agricultural depres- sion is more severe in these regions than in the North, where cropping is simpler. If such is, its seems probable, the case, it might appear that tiie simpler course of solid cropping with corn, roots, and grass, instead of catch-cropping, is the wiser plan. u would, however, be rash to come to any (mh con- elusion, as the circumstanoea are altogether different- A heavy crop of turmips of 30 tons per acre can he Eroduced upon winter-fallowed land in tho higher ttitudes of the country, and such a yield would be interfered with if an attempt were uiade to take a crop of rye or vetches previously. It is not so in the Southern counties; for, in the first placo, su. h heavy crops are not easily grown, even under ihn most favourable circumstances, and the cultivation of catch crops does not interfere with what, is there considered satisfactory crops of turnips. Titkin., the catch crop and the turnip crop together, a.g kvti rr amount of keep is produced than if the root crc p w taken after a winter fallow. I also find that th > rout crop can be grown at a less cost after a catch crop on soils suitable for the double system of cropping. llye, trifolium, and winter vetches need not entail a serious outlay, and after their consumption the land is rich and ready to grow roots without the help of farmyard manure. Take for example the case of well-farmed land of friable character and fairly clean. The wheat; atubble is worked down and sown with rye or trifolium. The young fodder crop soon covers the ground with a mantle of green, and by March or April the rye is ready for sheep. It is probably con- sumed by ewer! and lambs receiving cake, and poa- sibly a few mangels scattered abroad, and the ground is clear for tho root crop in good time. How far ) he catch crop may have paid its way is not now dis- cussed, but it is certain, from the prevalence of tiio practice, that it cannot be dispensed with. TI e system is pursued upon light land, and the subse- quent cultivation for roots will probably be us follows 9 a. d. 1 ploughing 0 8 0 I rolling 0 1 0 2 drsggings 0 2 4 4 harrowings 0 2 4 1 ro-1 0 1 0 1 d/ill with water or ashes 0 3 6 Seed at 8d. per lb 0 2 0 Superphosphate, 2cwt 0 6 0 1 Barrow 0 0 7 2 horse-hoeings m 0 9 0 2 band-boeings 0 2 0 Rent, rates, &e. 0 15 0 X2 13 9 A favourable result would be a crop of from 15 to 'I 18 tons per acre of white turnips grown at 3s. or Us. 7d. per ton, which is not by any means a heavy expense. As I am in the habit of growing a large area of roots every year upon this system, I can vouch for ti e tillages and expenses but it is not asserted that 13 to 18 tons of roots is to be reckoned upon. Taking IOn -acres of rye, winter barley, trifolium, and vetches, each of which is later than the last, the roots will range from eight to 20 tons per acre, and probably average about 12 ton3 and, as the expenses will be at the same rate, it is reasonable to put the cost of produc- tion at 4s. 6d. per ton. The expense of growing root crops on heavier land when the system of dunging and winter fallowing is followed, is much more serious, on account of the cost of dunging, and the higher rent, which may be 30s. instead of 15s. The cost per ton will vary with the crop and the kind of root grown. In the North of England the divisor [tons of roots per acre] should be at least 20, but might in many cases be 30. When wutgel is grown it might be 25 to 40, or even more, j It is therefore clear that, although the cost per acre j Is more, the cost per ton is not necessarily greater, j Take the following as a fair statement: ;g s. d. Twice steam cultivation at 4s. 6d. 0 9 0 Twice steam-dragged at 2s. 3d. 0 4 6 Coal and water 0 2 0 Twice horse-dragged f ") 0 2 4 Once rolled J r | 0 10 Twice harrowed 1 f 0 12 Twice chain-harrowed | J 0 1 2 Twice harrowed f 0 1 2 Twice chain-harrowed ( f 0 1 2 Couched and burnt 0 5 0 Ploughed 0 8 0 Dragged, rolled, harrowed, and n c 0 chained U 5 8 -Co-iched 0 2 6 Ploughed. 0 6 6 Twice harrowed 0 1 2 Rolled 0 1 0 Drilled 0 3 6 Harrowed 0 0 7 Rolled 0 1 0 Seed at 8d. 0 2 0 Superphosphate, 3 cwt 0 9 0 Cost of dunging (labour) 0 10 0 Hoeing 0 10 0 Horse-hoeing 0 2 0 Sent u. 0 10 0 £5 19 1 If the cost of dung were added, at so much per ton, this calculation would be brought into agree- ment, with the higher estimates often produced but I have frequently shown that the cost of dung as a purchased article is scarcely admissible. If it is charged on this principle, the roots ought to bo valued as if sold, because whoever buys dung for his roots should be able to sell them, and this would alter the terms of the calcula- tion considerably. Viewing the roots as for home consumption, the dung may bo also considered as a home production. Again, if dung is charged in any system of internal accounts, the grain crops -should be credited with their straw, although com- sumed at home, for straw is a very important itom in the cost of producing dung. The complications are, in fact, endless if once the principle of charging dung is allowed, and the apparent cost of raising a turnip crop becomes exorbitant. It is better to sink the dung and charge in the ordinary valuation, which is usually made ODOO a year for purposes of balancing the farm accounts, a fair amount for compensation for cake fed. It may also be urged in support of this vioiv that it is not convenient to charge cattle for straw and credit them with their dung, but to sink both, and let the cattle pay their way, if possible, without referenco either to the straw they consume or the dung they leave. Anyone who embarks in a system in which dung is charged for at a fixed price must land himself in endless difficulties. He will find it necessary to appor- tion the cost of the dung between succcssive crops, w no one crop exhausts its full benefit. Next he will find it necessary to credit corn crops with straw, to debit cattle with straw, and to credit them .'vith dung. Ihe simplest plan is to sink the whole matter and took upon the farmyard manure as something belong- ing to the holding, unsaleable, and therefore not to ,reS«ded as purchased; but, as above stated, the to be Valued as an asset to the exterzt to which it is allowed for by compensation on a kiicwn and accepted prineiple. The cost of produoiog root crops oa farms cnnn S, be solved without taking this matter into serious consideration, and it would eeem that the eost has been extiggerated, and tiA 7 question greatiy compli- cated by insisting upon eucfe an item as, say," 21 tons of dung at 4s. per ton." Tue cost of maintaining iheep bas recently been digouised, and it is nectary w a basis, to coma to a conclusion as to th6 wst of producing roots and gtnen foddzr liefore any valid I iecisioa can be arrived at. l — 'i
QARDE51NG GOSSIP. (From II Gardening Itlutra¡,d."} CONSERVATORY*. I Atore ventilation aiid more water vrlli (Mr. E. Hob- ciay writes) be required, and le.»< artificial heat. But iti ventilating as far as possible admit tbe fresh nir whore it falls most under the influence of the sun- I shine. On t.he southern side of the house, if the sun is very bright, it may be advisable to use a little had over Azaleas and other plants in bloom to preserve the flowers as long as possible. Give liquid-manure to plants coritiDg inte bloom to give size to the L[<.>.<onis, but it is bast not to use one chss of iii mires too exclusively, as plants like a change I ot (itet. Sow ses of the Blue Gums. EII- !.i'<phis globulus is the variety grown for green- and outdoor work. Strong plants make strifc- backgrounds in the conservatory, and may be j pi.-MIred outside in the summer. They are easily l « i^ed from seeds sown now. Ivalosanthes COC-c1\I-ea I is a useful plant for summer blooming in thB conser- vjiiorv, and it comes in well when grown for the *ut;iiner shows. Must be grown in. a light position i'ear the glas3 to ripen the growth. Cuttings o-f the vi, of the young shoots strike freely iia sandy soil. < 'ar'uses are coming into fashion again. I have a vivid recollection of the grand plants we tif.-d to hnve many years ago of Cereus speciosissnnus i'lanted out in the conservatory border, and of I; horrid work it was to attend to them, in oon- w^nKice of the long, sharp spines. Those w^o have collections of Cacti should now overhaul them, 11!Õ(,j give water occasionally to cause the plants to p<isli out lfower-buds. All the Cereus familv are easi-ly propagated from cuttings. Let the cuttings ory up the wound a little before potting them. I l.'O'e had them lie on ashelf for a week or two with- < Mt hurm. and in some instances roots have pushed j out whilst the cuttings have been Inidtrp to dry. Tf/ev form a very interesting family, and are worth i« >king up again. Climbers will-require lookingorer frequently now to regulate the growth. Where there rs plenty of room MandeviMa suaveolens may be panted; the flowers are freely produced in summer, and are pure white and very fragrant. I once had a large plant that used to ramble outside through the .open lights (which were always left. open in summer), and flower outside with great freedom, and tilled the ,g:trden with fragrance. NORTH HOUSE. This will be invaluable now to keep plants back and prolong the blooming season. A north house is one of the essentials to successful exhibiting, and after the Azaleas and hard-wooded plants are over, this house is just as useful f(,r Fu,i,-iias and other -summer-blooming plants. The usuai place for such a structure is at the back of the vineries or other fruit-houses. It is difficult to keep plants back bv shading alone. STOVE. The remainder of the Gloxinias and Achimenes may be started now. The latter may either be shaken out and put in fresh soil, which should be light and sundy, or startedJn the potg and pans as they,are, and when the shoots are just breaking up divide carefully and repot. Seedling Gloxinias and Eegonias prick off into pans or boxes. let me once more 8;ty a word in favour of the pretty blue-flowered African plant named Saintpaulia. Everbody with a warm greenhouse should grow it, as it will become a favourite plant for the drawing-room table, being so bright and neat in habit. Caladiums are all smarting now, and should be kept at the warm end of the house for tho present. The pretty little species argvrites is a charming little table plant in summer and autumn. Nice little tufts of elegant foliage may he had in 5in. pots. As soon as the Allamandas get fairly on the move, strings must be led to tbe roof for the support of the young shoots, so that the growths may ripen up at the point and produce flowers. WI.NTIOV,- GARDENING. A sunnv window may now be devoted to raising seedlings of tender annuals to (lower in summer. I need not enumerate them. Just sow the thing you want to, and treat them in a commonsense way. OUTDOOR GARDEN. When the Roses are pruned, loosen up the surface and mulch liberally with manure before the moisture has all evaporated. This mulch will save a lot of labour in watering, and will nourish the plants, nnd so lead to the production of fine blossoms. The dis- advantage of so much watering of porous soils is the loss of nutriment caused by the frequent washing. Thia is by far the best season for propagating the ing Herbaceous Phloxes by division. Pyrethrums, also, divide well now, nnd, if mulched, soon get estab- lished. Both of these families should be divided and transplanted every two years if good spikes of Phloxes and fine blooms of Pyrethrums are required. We have lately been buying Prconies somewhat largely, and shall try to work up stock enough to have some broad masses of distinct colours. A pmss of white rieonies when in flower would be very effective. The new dwarf Canna is another distinct ptsnt that will be more heard of in the future. If well done they are very effective, either in masses or planted tliinlv, or as a groundwork of some low, contrasting plant. Divide new sorts now for stock, and help on in heat. This is the very best season for planting hardy l/erns. FHUIT (IAltriKS. To give flavour to ripening Strawberries, they must have a free ventilation, especially when the suu shines. It is a good plan to dip Strawberries on their introduction to the forcing-house in Gishurst com- pound, or something of a similar nature that will destroy the eggs of insects and the spores of fungi. Liquid-manure may be given to plants swelling un their crop. Especially is this necessary where plants fire forced in smaller pots than Gill. in diameter. We have grown Strawberries in 5in. pots, but not lately. They cost so much in watering. We always make it a rule to go through all vineries onee a week to regulate growth. There is then no great amount of growth to take out, and the finger and thumb wilt do all the work. When a knife has to be used the work has been neglected, and to cut out long shoots must give too much check. The same rule, though in a less degree, applies to Peaches and Figs. There arc always some shoots t<+ remove and others to regulate and tie in. Young trees should be got into training in good time, as when a tree is permitted to run wild for a season it is diilicult to get the shoots to assume the right position. Keep a close watch upon Peaches on south wills, and if a green or black fly appears use Tobacco- powder at once-not in large quantities, but just a light puff here and there from the distributor. YRGeTATlLE GARDEN. I Prepare the ground for planting Asparagus, or, J rather, I ought to say, give the finishing touches to prepare for the planting early in April, as the land should have been trenched and manured some time ago to let the atmosphere into it. Charred garden refuse forms a good dressing for placing over the roots in planting. It is not necessary to t,tk-e beds in the old way for the production of good Asparagus. If planted in shallow trenches, three feet apart, I and the roots covered with light, rich compost, the plants soon get established and make rapid progress. We have Ill; fine Asparagus grown on this trench plan as any other, and the most is made of the land, for these crowded beds soon got -ih-in«ed out by deaths. One or two-year-old plants are best, or seed may be sowii." We ehould not recomtTvewti nnybne to s £ hd Ion distances for plants the thick fleshy roots eoon sutler. Onion and LeeL--a raised in tkef-ramo to gc-t early plante rnut not be permitted to get drawn. Move to cold-frame, a-nd get them hardy, and then plant out iu weii-prepared land. Plant a good Marrow Pea now to succeed earlies and second earlies. "Walter's Perpetual, Daniel's Matchless Marrow, and many others are suitable for now and fortnightly tiH the end of June. Plant, Broad Windsor Beans. If a pit can be spared plant it with Canadian Wonder French Beans. They will come in useful between those forced in warm iiovuae lnd the early border.
JDRIVISG Cheese—A trader calUd at a house in -.sstor to buy a cheese but when he came to look a lot he concluded he would not take it, it was so full of skippers. As he going off, the arnwr sai o him, Look here, mister; how can I get n;y cheese to London the cheapest ?" The trader took another look at the cheese, and seeing more and more evidence of its being alive, replied ''Well let it bo for a day or two longer, and I should think sou can dt-v-e PATHETfO" .4- Norwich authority tells a pathetic little story abov-t a pigeon which became fastened byii long string lii.'iging from its leg to a telegraph ivire. To or three ruel boys wanted to throw stones it it; but a kind geaOman, teliing them not to hurt the poor bird, got t\ J.¡dder and carefully ur sound :h& string and put the frightened, fluttering little 1 Jroaturc tenderly into his bssrOW while he descended, Che next evening he remarked ijiat it had made a Atir.11 nic'¡!-f pie than he expgcte<i
AMERICAN HUMOUR. Do yer IItudy grammar?" "Naw; 1 done go t'rough gmilinier." HILAND: The temperature got down to wero last night." tralket: "That's nothing." MUGGINS "Do you think the north pole will ever be found ?" Buggins: "I didn't know it waa lost," U THESE problems in arithmetic Are harrowing, I vow. Last leap year she was thirty Ani she's twenty-seven now." PASSENGER Is that Chicago we are coming to?" Conductor: 1,4 Certainly. Can't you make out the eaow-capped buildings ?" I ENVY Bings when'er he sings, So much does he deserve *3.'is not his voice makes me rejoice- I envy him his nerve. SHE: You know you would be just as happy if you didn't kiss me." He: ,But do you suppose I am sdlfish enough to think only of myself?" WATTS: "That is a pretty good story you tell, but it won't work." Weary Watkins: Course it won't. D'you 'spose I'd be travellin' around with it if it did." MA£Y, I'll follow you to the utmost ends of the earth." "No, you won't,"said she, calmly, "Why won't I ?" Because I'm not going there," she replied. MARIE, your father must like me;, Ji-e lent me 20 dollars." No. Charlie; he told me he expected it would cost him something to keep you from coming here so often." MAMMA, honest, it wasn't me et up all that cake- rt was Bobby." "Well, Dick, loring me the cathodal kodak and I'll see at ouce which one of you is guilty." "I ACKNOWLEDGE I lose my temper when You make things too hot for me," said the red-haired man to his wife, but that only shows I ana made of good material." FIRST REPORTER: "I tried to interview a milk man yesterday." Second Reporter: What did he talk about?" First Reporter: "Nothing. lIe refused to be pumped." MAY I take this seat, madam?" said the travelling man to a lady in the railroad car. "No, sir," said the female, witheringly; "1 have been keeping it for a gentleman." MRS. GTOMMEY (with deep curiosity): Oh, Mrs. Glander.31 do tell me about Mrs. Tenspot's scandal, won't you P" Mrs. Glanders My dear, it is not nearly so dreadful as you hope." HERE'S a motto that's as certain As that two pints make a quart: Time and tide will wait for no man, Little, big, or long or short. AGITATED young bridegroom (immediately after the ceremony): Serana, shall—shall I—shall we- shall we kiss?" Self-possessed bride (it being her third experience): It is my usual custom, William." JOHN POTTS: Are you the medium who advertises to unite the separated?" Medium (proudly): I never fail." John Potts I wish you would con- nect me with the 100 dols. I got separated from last night." BROWN: "Sou look as if you had the blues?* Robinson So I have. I've lost my beautiful new silk umbrella." "Where did you leave it?" "I didn't leave it anywhere. The owner met me and took it away from me." 11 JOIIN," she said, rather sternly, the coal bin is empty." "Yes," was the disconsolate reply, "it's that way the most of the time. It's never of use in an immediate emergency. I'm going to change its name and call it a coal-has-bean." WITHERBY (to ticket seller): Say, that woman ahead of me has such a big hat that I can't see the play. Won't you give me another seat?" Ticket seller: Why don't you ask her to take it off?" Witherby Not much She's- my wife." THIS weather is very trying for everybody," said the physician. Yes," replied Mr. Meekton, I don't see how my wife is going to bear up under it. When the sun doesn't shine it giyes her the blues, and when it does she says it's fading the carpet." I DON'T know," muttered Rivers, picking himself up from the sidewalk and moving on with a per- ceptible limp, "whether there is any such thing as a fcicyele face or not, but I am thoroughly convinced, of the existence of the phenomenon inown as the banana skin." THE Musician's Wife: Have you thoroughly practised tho accompaniments you are to play for Miss Arratoor to-night ?" The Musician: "No, but it doesn't matter, you know. It's a society musicale and nobody ever listens." W AITE-R," said the guest, I'm a little, afraid of this milk. Haven't you any boiled water ?" We can boil you some, sah," replied the waiter, but the milk is all right. WTe use nothing but artesian well water here, sah." MR. MrciiMONEY I love you for all that I am worth, darling." Miss Budd: "That's just what Hove you for." "BI.YKiNShas his own way in his house." "Yes. But his wife always tells him what it is going to be beforehand." MRS. FOGG: "You should be careful about that cold, David?" Mr. Fogg: "Careful about it? Just as lief lose it as not." "WHAT'S the difference between notoriety and fame ?" Well, if a man is notorious he's still alive; if he's famous, he's dead." SIIE: "Do you think we are going to have a war ?" He Yes, I do." What do you think we are going to make war on ?" On paper." WHERE were you yesterday ?' Pupil (whimper- ing: It was all Billy Smith's fault, he hipnertised me an' made me go skatin' with him." I'M not here for my health ? remarked the legislator, with a grin. Nor for the health of the community," replied the private citizen. WIGGLES (in love): Why, man, her very feet are a poem." Giggies (a cynical friend): No doubt; but isn't a poem of only two feet rather short?" CAN'T I interest you in accident insurance to- day ?" "No, sir; I'm in no need of it." Excuse me; I understood you were learning to play the violin!" LET dogs delight to bark and bite; To do so is their fate. They can't be turned they never learned, You see, to arbitrate. MUGGINS "I went to two parties last night, and lost my umbrella." Buggins: I went to three balls yesterday, and I haven't seen my watch since." BEVERLY, did you make that match between Jack and Kitty Not much 1 never encourage young people to marry they always expect me to give them a present." HOAX Jagley claims to have written a play that will make everybody talk." Joax: Iff e;iveni; I What's he done that for? The box parties alone ato bad enough no w." IN leap year every youth a new And jovial ditty sings. Perhaps he'll now get back a few Of those engagement rings. "WHAT de doctor says is de matter wiv Tot, ?" Rastus lie say I got what he call a torpedo 1'ibb.ih." Mandy (in evident trepidation): It ain't liable to 'splode, is it?"' LNCI.K George, was Diogenes a tramp?" That's what we would call him in this enlightened age, my Eon." "Then the tub he lived in couldn't have been a washtub, could it ?" TIII glorious charge of the light brigade, By Tennyson famously sung. Is nothing to that which my doctor made For taking a look at my tongue. MRS. SN.VCCS (reading from a newspaper); "Gas meter manufacturers have formed a truat." Mr. Snagg? I can't believe it. No trust is to be placed in gas meters." LUCY The wretch And so he has been proposing to both of us? I wish we could think of some fearful way of punishing him." Jennie I have an idea. You marry him, dear." GADZOOKS You don't mean to say that so homely a girl as Miss Plainface is able to get engagements as an artist's model ?" Zounds; Certainly; sho poses for the designers of posters." 011, how can I leave thee, my jewel, My precious one ?" Sadiy he spoke, But thre case was an urgent one, very; So tilojiamoind was put into soak. YorNG GCSHINGTOS MY means are not large, sir, but I think that, with prudence, your daughter and myself- old Carhly.. -Afy dear boy, don't be in idiot! I can hardly supl),rt that girl myself ;1 OJ
HOME HINTS. í EXERCISI iror ADULT LiviL-Tbe sports of youth may with the. majority of men be safely pursued up to the age of 40. At that age the period of middle life is entered upon, and changes begin to take place in the body which render it desirable that all exercises which throws great strain upon the heart and great vessels should be abandoned. Employments which require violent exertion for a short space of time should be exchanged for more prolonged and slower work. Although violent exercise might be given up, still at no time during life is the necessity for exercise so im- perative as between 40 and 50. It is generally at this period that in previously healthy men dyspeptic troubles begin to appear. The toils, cares and anxieties of life have commenced to tell on the vital power of the most robust. The circulation is not so vigorous, and as a consequence there is a tendency to passive congestion, especially in the organs of the abdominal viscera. The assimilation of food is not thoroughly performed, and there is a tendency toward functional derangement," especially of the liver. VEGETABLE Sour.-Boil two or three carrots, a turnip, half a lettuce, a couple or so of potatoes, a small onion, and a quarter or a peck of green peas, with pepper and salt to taste, in some stock when done pass the whole through a sieve. Heat the puree again, then stir in off the fire a couple of yolks of eggs. Serve with croutons. Should the puree be too thin it can be thickened in the usual way with flour and butter. INDIAN MEAL GRUEL.—To one quart of boiling water, salted a little, use two tablespoonfuls of Indian meal-either white or yellow as preferred. Wet the meal with a little cold water, so that il shall be free from lumps, and stir it into the hot water, cooking at least one half-hour, or longer. It c.n be used in this form, or one spoonful of meal can tie given with one tablespoonful of wheat flour, a few raisins, or a beaten egg with a little sugar. COMMON FRUIT CAKE.—One cup of butter, fesvo cups of sugar, one cup of treacle, two eggs, two tea- spoonfuls of cream of tartar, one heaped teaspoonful each of cinnamon, cloves, and allspice, one nutmeg, one pound of raisins, stoned, and chopped a little, and rolled in flour; half a pound of currants, two ounces of citron, one teaspoonful of soda dissolved in one cup of milk. Add flour to make a stiff dongh. Bake in a sharp oven one and a-lialf hours. SNOWBALLS. -Wash a pint of rice, and boil in new milk until tender add a little salt: put into small cups and set in a cool place. When cold, turn out on a deep dish and pour boiled custard around. Have very cold and serve. MUTTON TIE is very good made from Australian meat. Take a tin of mutton, cut it. into slices, removing all fat and jelly. Cover the bottom of the pie- dish with slices of boiled potatoes, then a layer of mutton sprinkled with pepper and salt, and a little chopped onion. Continue thus until the dish is full, lastly, of course, putting in potato. Cook in a quick oven for half an hour, when the pie should be nicely browned. BAKED POTATO CAKES.—Bail some potatoes and drain them very carefully. When cold, mash them, season with pepper and salt, and add a small quantity of butter. Then press them down into a square tin Cut them into squares or small designs, brush over with beaten egg, and bake in a quick oven. RICE MOULD.-Wash carefully in two or three waters a teacupful of rice. Add to it a pint and a half of new milk, sweeten to taste, and add a strip of lemon rind or a bay-leaf to flavour it. Let it boil gently, stirring it frequently till the rice is quite soft, and all the mitk is absorbed. Then place in a wet mould, and leave till cold. Turn out and serve. This should be made in a double saucepan so that there is no chance of the milk burning. How COLDS ARE CAUGHT.—A person in good health, with fair play, easily resists cold. But when the health flags a little, and liberties are taken with the stomach or the nervous system, a chill is easily taken, and according to the weak spot of the indi- vidual, assumes the form of a cold, or pneumonia, or it may be jaundice. Of all causes of "cold" pro- bably fatigue is one of the most efficient. A jaded man coming home at night from a long day's work, a growing youth losing two hours' sleep over evening parties two or three times a week, a young lady heavily doing the season," and young children at the festive season overfed, and with a short allowanoe of sleep, are common instances of the victims of cold." Luxury is favourable to chill- taking. Very hot rooms, soft chairs and feather- beds create a sensitiveness that leads to catarrhs. It ie not, after all, the "cold" that is so much to be feareel as the antecedent conditions that give the attack a chance of doing harm. Some of the worst colds happen to those who do not leave the house, or even their bed while those who are most exposed to changes of temperature, and who, by good sleep, cold bathing and regular habits, preserve the tone of their nervous system and circulation, escape them. APPLE-SAucic.-Take six good-sized baking tppleF, peel them, and cut in four take out the seeds, put the apples in a copper or enamelled saucepan, with about half a teacupful of water, put on the lid close, and let them stew until soft: then turn, them out on to a sieve; press them through with a wooden spoon. Put them back into the sauce- pan with oz. of butter Œoz. of butter is an ordinary teaspoonful not heaped up), loz. of sugar, a I few drops of lemon-juice the latter to be added according to the sharpness you may desire. Stir until quite hot, and serve at once in a sauce tureen. This apple sauce is always served with goose the same as with roasted pork. A simple way of cooking the apples, after they are peeled and cored, is to put them in a jar, put on the lid, and place it in a saucepan with water to reach half-way up the jar; put the lid on the saucepan, and steam them until s6ft, or you can place the jar in the oven and cook till soft. Proceed as above, mashing the apples with a wooden spoon, instead of pressing through the sieve. The sauce can bo made hours before it is required, but the butter and lemon' juice must not be added until the sauce is wanted. CORN-FLOUR MOULD.—Mix five dessert-spoonfuls ot corn-flour in a basin with cold milfe until quite smooth. Put on a pint of milk to boil; just as the milk is beginning to boil, pour in the corn-flour, stirring briskly; let it boil for five minutes, stirring I all the time to prevent its sticking to the saucepan. Wet a mould or a pudding-basin with cold water, pour in the corn-flour, let it stand until cold, turn it out on to a glass dish, put any nice jam round it, I and serve. APPLFS AND SNOWBALLS.—Wash 4 oz. of whole rice, put it in a small stew-pan with a pint of sweet milk, etir till it boils, and let it stand at the side of the fire to swell until quite soft, then turn it out on to a dish to cool. Have six apples all the same size, peel them, and take out the core carefully with an apple-corer mix up 2oz. sugar, the grated rind of one lemon, a sahspoonful of powered cinnampn with this fill the holes of the apples where the cores were taken out. Have six ttmall pieces of clean calico,' butter each piece, cover each apple with the rice, dip your hands in flour, and press the rice ou id the apples closely; tie them np tightly into the pieces of cotton. Have a good large saucepan filled with boiling water—must be quite boiling- plunge in your snow-balls, and boil them quickly balf-an-botir. After they are cooked do not allow them to stand in the water, dish them up, dip them one by one in cold water for a second only, remove the cloths, and lay them on a napkin folded on to a hot dish. You can dish them on to a crystal dish, and pour a custard round them. This makes a nice sweet for children. A PI'LE Ricia.-Boil four ounces of rice in milk until it is tender. Peel and core six good apples, and put them into a small saucepan with water sufficient to cover them add as much sugar to the water as you think will sweeten the apples, and stew gently until quite tender, but not broken; then lift them out care- fully and let them drain take other three good apples, pare, core, and cut in quarters, put them in the liquid in which the apples were stewed, and boil down to a pulp or marmalade. If you think there is too much liquid, take some out before you put in the cut apples. Beat up the yolks of three eggs for ten minutes, mix with the rice, then add the marma- lade of apples; spread this mixture on to a baking-disb. Take the bottom of a teacup and make six holes in the rice, and into each hollow put an apple, having the rice level with the tops of the apples; bake in a moderate oven about half-an-hour lerve hot. After you take the dish from the oven, and just before dishing up, put a teaspoonful of apricot jam, or any other you may prefer, on the top of each apple, and serve quickly or if jam is not wished for, sprinkle some pink sugar over the top of the apples, and serve up before it melts. The rice after being boiled must be soft like a pudding; it will not be nice if at all dry. The juice of a lemon added to the water before putting in the apples is a great improvement; if lewou-juice is added more sugar is required, I
THE WOMAN'S WORLD, A GOOD method of cleaning kid gloves is to put on the gloves aid wash them well in spirits of turpentine, exactly as if washing the hands. The fingers and soiled parts must be well rubbed, and when the golorel1 are taken off they must be stretched and allowed to diy, hanging in a strong current of air. 'POWDER for perfuming clothes packed away, which, it is said, will keep out moths, is made as foi- loWs: Put in a mortar one ounce each of cloves, nut- meg; mace, cinnamon, caraway seeds, and Tonquin beans. Pound them to a powder with six ounces of orris root, and fill little bags made of muslin with this poweftr-and lay them among the clothing. LEATHER furniture Has a way of fading an becoming rusty much too quickly to suit the economical housekeeper, but it can be brightened by means of a very simple treatment. Wash the leather with a sponge that has been wrung out of hot soap- i suds then rub as dry as possible; now place the furniture in the sun and wind, that it may get thoroughly dry next, rub hard with a cloth that has been wet with kerosene, and then let the furniture stand in the air until all the odour of the oil has passed oft. SHOULD fire break out in a chimney, a blanket wttted should be nailed to the upper ends of the mantelpiece, so as to quite cover the opening. The fire will then go out by itself. Be careful not to leave window or door open, as the current of air increases the force of the fire. NEVER allow servants to leave brooms, brushes, pails, or watercans on the stairs or landings when engaged in housework, as this is a most dangerous practice. Many an accident will be avoided if this rule be strictly enforced. WmcH scrubbing floors and tables do not use soda, for it makes the boards a bad colour and does not clean better than soap and plenty of cold water. The boards should be scrubbed the way of the grain, and not round and round. If cleaned in this manner they will soon be a good colour. Should they be greased at all, then a little soda and hot water will be needed first of all to remove it. A HEART-SHAPED head-rest is very prutty. Have a covering of pink China silk on both sides. All round i the edge put a double ruffle of the silk, about three inches wide. Covering the entire top, have silk Bolton doth, embroidered with pink forget-me-nots, solidly, with Asiatic filo. On each of the upper corners have n bow of pink satin ribbon of the exact shade of the mlk, and from these bows extend a strip of ribbon by .neans of which the rest" is fastened to the chair. WHATEVER economy a woman practises on other parts of her dreas, she should be lavish in the matter of her boots and petticoats. These are items which women too often neglect for the sake of an extra feather in their hat. Good walking shoes save tliie feet as well as the pocket, for they last a very lonfe while and make pedestrian exercise a pleasure instead of a hardship. People with gouty feet should shu t patent leather and wear nothing but the softest glovie kid with tbin flexible soles. MANY women do hot wish 'the contour of their limbs spoiled. by a tight-fitting strap about tlieni, tinf the garter, therefore, is now worn merely as an orna- ment, the stocking being secured in its place by a sus- pender hanging from the waist. Nothing could bje daintier than the satin waistbands, in pink, bluf, white, yellow, or bladk. Don't wear suspenders with- out a waistband. Some are arranged without, to fasten on the corset, but what a demoralising effect they have on it. Two ragged spots appeal* very shortlt. due to the dragging-down tendency, and the cdrset M ruined. The suspender itself ehould be of silk elastic to match the waistband; a silver buckfe where the double strap joins the upper part., an loops of baby ribbon falling beneath it, add beautify- y- ing touches. The garters are made of silk elastic, through which gold threads are run, until it looks like cloth of gold more than aught else. Such a garter wns lined with white satin, and on one side loops of white ribbon hung from a paste clasp. Immense rosettes of lace mingle with lace of knickers on some litnbs, and large medallions form the centre pieces. Many are made of ribbon. One garter has, instead of a buckle or clasp, a tiny change pum, where its wearer carries her money. THE day of the buttonhole is apparently past. Time was when it was looked upon as an accomplish- ment in which every woman should be proficient. Its gradual extinction is, however, entirely natural and to be accounted for. Although buttons have never been more popular than at present, they are purely ornamental, not utilitarian. This means the absenco of the buttonhole. Not one gown in a hundred nowa- days fastens by means of the once inevitable row of buttons 'down the bodice front. The up-to-date bodice is held together by 'hooks and eyes, and indeed many of the most artistic costiimers put I their faith in the common pin. All skirt bands now fasten with a big hook and eye instead of the one time button and buttonhole. Many a fashion- able dressmaker, one who can cut a godet skirt to perfection and inflate a pair of balloon sleeves to the biggest believable proportions, knows nothing of the art of making buttonholes. There's no demand for them, hence the scanty supply. Even underclothing doesn't make use of half so many buttonholes as it did in former years, and with so much ready-made underwear in the market there is little excuse for a woman to learn the art for that reason. There is no doubt about it'; the passing of the buttonhole is a present and very apparent fact. -7. "WH would like to sound a note of warning to mothers and nurses," says the Nursing Ycicq, espe- cially as to the great need, for cafe in children's underclothing in early spring, for although, the tem- perature may be relatively, higher than in winter, the amount of moisture usually present in the air makes it far colder, and many children who have gone through winter with little or no trouble are always catohing cold in spring; and it is a well-known fact that sickness of a catarrha origin always increases in the early months of the year. Many of the severe and often fatal colds caught by children in spring are due to defects in under- clothing from this cause. At the beginning of winter new woollen underclothing is procured; this, by con- tinual washing, becomes closer in texture, and tightly fitting, so when the trying period of spring, with its sudden variations in temperature, is reached, the child's underclothing has lost quite half its protec- tive value. A loosely-fitting woollen garment of loose textuie is far warmer than a thicker one of close- texture and tightly-fitting, beoause with- the former there is always a layer of warm air between the. skin and the garment, which is a matter of the greatest importance, as air is one of our best non-conductors, and also in the meshes of the loose textured garment a good deal of air is contained. No false economy in this respect should be allowed, especially. with delicate children, and one of the worst forms of economy is the transferring last year's thickened and shrunken Undergarments to a younger child. Good covering for the feet is also a matter of the greatest importance at this period of the year." "MANY contrasts are seen in trimmings and materials. For instance, the plainest materials are associated with the most elaborate trimmings. Many transparent woollen stuffs, of a thick, uneven aspect, resembling sack-cloth, will be worn in the ensuing season. It is soft and supple, and is shown in every shade of brown, from the palest biege downwards. It is lined with a shade of satin to match, or a contrasting shape, but is always in the same tone. Here -is a rpecimen toilette in this material, which is called toile tt sac. It is lined with white satin. The Princesse dress is wide at the bottom and tight-fitting on the hips. It touches the ground all round, and is slightly longer at the back. The bottom of the skirt is trimmed with a white satin ribbon put on flat and cut out in vandykes at the end. Over this is placed applications of Marguerites in cuipure half on the satm and half over the vandvke« A largo pleat m toile de w ,■ f white satin, covers half of the corsage crossAval-S, passing round the bust and under the arm. A de'e empICcemcnt of antique guiptire, over white with two chest Rihhrm L 6 r^'Don> is placed on the the rffl- j18*! 831110 material are placed at the neck, and the very long sleeves are tight-fitting witW^ ?ni ni0,?eratelv larSe on the shoulder, wunoit any stiffness.. » V .1 f1' J Hire* ■ f .> 1 !->» „
ART AND LITERATURE THE annual report of the directors of the V, Gallery for last year has been issued as a £ '°nal mentary paper. The pictures purchased duri*1" year, out of a Parliamentary grant in aid the »pecial vote, were: "The Vision of St, EUsN A Vittore Pisano; "The Descent of the 61" b by Barnaba da Modena The Hunting Pan 08^" Adam F. van der Meulen "TheHoly Famif' Sebaetiano del Piombo "Interior of a Chi Holland, by Gerrit A. Berck-Heyde; "Lani 14 with Portra4t of a Gentleman holding a ho^^l George Stubbs, R.A.; Corent-gardert \j > hi with St. Paul's Church," by B. Nebot; dola," by Francesco Guardi; "A Galiot Gale," by John S. Cotman; "Portrait C. by G. van den Eeckhout; St. Sebastian roUP by Angels," by Matteo di Giovanni; Christ ed from the Tomb," by Gaudenzio Ferrari; Tbe to Emraaus," by Lelio Orsi; StnuggWa J a~i Irish Coast,, by Julius CccsarIbbetson "Land with a View of Oxford," by Robert Ladbroke Head of St. John the Baptist," Milanese 16th century. The following are the bequest oot, donations to the Gallery: Bequeathed by Mrs. L and Stephens-" The Mystic Marriage of St. Cat.b,ri7ae 1. by Gheeraert David; "Portrait of a T Flemish School, 15th century. Beqn^»j by General Sir Montagu McM'urdo, n Portrait of Lieutenant Colonel R McMurdo, by Sir Henry liaeburn, £ ..v. sentedbythe Bight Honourable Lord Sayile o p/6" — A Betrothal, by Don Diego de Silva y Velas Presented ^by Mrs. E. Edwards—" A Tillage r$Uez* in France," by Francois S. Bonvin. Presented b reem Charles Butler-" Portrait of Cardinal de Riche1; by Philippe de Champaigne. Presented by thp, ^U', of Carlisle — "The Circumcision," bv Giov#4*^ Bellini. Presented by Mr. John P. HeseltiT111* The Yitgin and Child, with Angels," Italian Sch6 w 15th century. Presented by Si» J. C. Jiobinson Pal* Christ Drivin out the Traders from the TetIp,t. Domenico The*tocopuli. Presented by Mr. Arthnr lr —" Sea-piece, with ShiDping," by Hendrik DUKM7 Presented by Lady Weston—" A Street in Cairo ft*1 W illiam J. Miiller. Presented by the Duke of W 7 minster, K.G.—" Calais Gate," by William Ho^u Presented by Miss Mary Hervey—A 17th cent manuscript description of Hans Holbein's Dict.,JUr^ "The Ambassadors," numbered 1314 in the Natl °t Gallery collection. The following picture, offered a gift to the nation by Colonel Knight Prescott u88 Seen accepted for the National Gallery of Modern British Art—" Sacking of a Church in the Titne of. John Knox,by J. Prescott-Knight, R..4.. Cassell's Magazine for April contains a special article upon "Where Mr. Chamberlain Lives," illus- trated by sketches and photographs of the exterior and interior of the Colonial Secretary's residence just outside the range of Birmingham smoke. Thi, famous orchid-houses at Highbury form the subjeg of two of the illustrations. To the same number JdrJ Henniker Heaton, M.P., contributes a paper upon Cablegrams for the Million," advocating a reduo- tion in the present rates for cabled messages. THE spring season, as usual, offers a plentiful stock of new novels. Among well-known novelists who will be represented just before or after Easter are Mr. William Black with a story entitled Briseis Mrs. Oliphant with a tale, not historical as its title, The Two Marys," might, suggest; Guy Boothby, who has written a sensational romance- styled The Beautiful White Devil the pseudoayl mous author, X. L. who follows, "Ant Diabolus aut ISilnl," with a tragic picture of Russian society grimly named The Limb and Mr. John David- son, who will recount Mrs. Armstrong's and Other Circumstances." Rita and Mrs. Alexander should also be added to this list. MR. SOLOMON J. SOLOMON, who was recently elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, commenced his career about 20 years ago at Heatherley's, where' among others, Bume-Jones, Du Maurier, Frank Holl, Maurice Greiffenhagen, Macbeth, and Mr Jopling have also studied. From Newman-streefc Mr. Solomon passed to the Academy schoolai thence to the Beaux Arts, Paris, later to Munich,, and then back again to the Beaux Arts for close study under Cabanel. Mr. Solomon first sprang into notice through his picture of "Cassandra at tho Altar of Athene," in the Academy Exhibition of ,1886. The next year came "Samson," bought by the Liverpool Corporation, and the year after "Niobe." In 1889 theaftists's Academy picture was Hippeljta and Hercules," and since then we may recall "The Judgment of Paris," Sacred and Profane Love," "Orpheus," and the "Echo and Narcissus'* of last year. Mr. Solomon's scare of portraits includ4 Mrs. Patrick Campbell as Mrs. Tanqucraji, painted from 15 sittings;. Mr. Zangwill, the famous novelist, a compatriot and friend, of the artist; Mr. Arthur Hacker, a fellow Associate and, latest of all, Miss Lucy Ingram. The author of The Master," it ia interesting to note, consulted Mr. Solomon on all the many points that relate to art matters in his rather tedious novel, and actually wrote a portion of the book in his friend's studio. Mr. Solomon is about 36 years of age. VEEESTCI/AGIN, the famous Russian artist, at his house near Paris, has a large studio which revolves on wheels just as a locomotive engine is turned on the turn-table. The movement is effected by means of a windlass conveniently placed beside the painter's easel, and by this ingenious contrivance he is, able to paint the whole day with the sunlight falling in one direction on models or drapery. THE April number of the Quiver contains the open- ing chapters of a new serial story under the title of "An Unprotected Female," by Sydney C. Grier, author of Richard Jenkins, Master." TnAT distinguished critic, Mr. Edmund Goose, to whom we owe—thanks to his visit to Scandinavia more than 20 years ago-the introduction of Ibsen to Efiglish readers and playgoers, has a new volutno of essays in the Press. This book, which is entitled "Critical Kit-Kats," discusses Keats,Walt Whitman, Tolstoi, Christina Rossetti, Walter Pater, B- L- Stevenson, and other recent writers. Mr. Goose, who is a Londoner, born in 18-19, is, of course, n0*L so much a poet, though "Ferdausi in Exile," On "Viol and Flute are favourite volumes of ? verse as a prose writer who affects poetry. His DP8 essays are Gossip in a Library," and Seventeent Century Studies." DIRECTLY after Easter an exhibition of some studies by Sir Edward Burne-Jones will be h^e ,heBO the galleries of the Fine Art Society. A mops will be- preliminary drawings for most of his tant paintings, studies from life made with care, andobseved with themostadmirable inteliigen • All stages of his career will be represented,and his man- ner of using various mediums will be well illnstrateai Among the more important things in the show be five large tempera studies for the "Briar .Roe, and similar examples of his preparation for painting the Days of Creation," the Golden Stairs," Laus Veneris, II Venns's Mirror," and PersetfS- About the same time the Fine Art I Society will 61g0 show Mr. Fulleylove's drawings of Gre<k subjec and scenery, the results of a long stay which tb artist has made in that country.
COALFIELDS OF THE WEST. T The Crow's Nest Pass in the East Kootenay Distrl Df British Columbia will probably be traversed tn fear, or at most next, by the Canadian Pacific ivay, and when that occurs the best undeveloped fields of America will be opened, one which e Famous for its quality, as well as its quantity> coal. The western outcrop is on a mouDta'^ side in the valley of the Elk Kiver, a tri^' tary of the Ilootenay, and the coal *eeV\ to have been traced for 40 miles. The lowest af fei fThflT' 150(Jft. above the drainage Xtt [hpr« ia e^'i18 One hundred feet big i^ff *1 .a.no^ler seam 30ft. thick, then comes 15ft. thick, then a small 3ft. one, then a 71*'°?% en another 30ft. seam, and above these five 1X1 rom 4ft. to lOffc. in the thickness—in all, 11 sea> with a total of 148ft. thickness of coal exposed.
MR. ROBERT GANTHONY, the entertainer, once f^iO' a performance at the Prestwich Lunatic AsV jj The inmates took his diverting monologue very „ at first, but when he came to that portion of the P formance in which he impersonates a testy magistrate of 90 summers, a woman rose with menee and shouted: Fancy me being kept while that man is left to run loose." of THE difficulties which threatened the holdiog 0.1" the Triennial Musical Festival at Bristol this f L* have happily been dispersed. Gounod's Jtequie11^ posthumous work, which has never been J'erfor(IJe ØO this country, will be one of the novelties, ao<J fewer than eleven living British composers V represented by their works; while the telections vrill probablv he from Paraif-I