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FARMING NOTES. (From the Agricultural Gazette!") SEASONABLE JSOTKS. fl'lio FE'M?ON is (observes Prof. Wrightson) lika a •pencithrifr, for it squanders warmth and sunshine, and i- ;>rod:gal of its balmy breezes. Farming events follow i »juii:k succession, and render it difficult to be seasonable, for we are almost out of season in tho matter of earliness. As a matter of observation, lhsro is a monotony in weekly chronicles of mild weather, uninterrupted tillages, growing crops unchecked by frost, ar.d winter forage rapidly coming on weeks before it is due. One feature is undoubtedly the sm>'ll amount of rain, for since tho autumn of li-91 weh-ivo had a continuance of s;>meMiing like drought. W itii the excoptic-n of a feiv heavy showers, accompanied with thunder, we have had an exceptionally dry "winter following a droughty summer, while last winter, although particularly severe, was not characterised by much fitli of either snow or rain. The effect upon the land must be highly conducive to the storage of nitrogen, while tho high temperature must have favoured the production of nitrates within the soil. I, therefore, hope for a fruitful season, unless we fire destined to encounter unfavourable changes, which need not be anticipated. Some fears are expressed that slugs and insects will appear in overwhelming numbers, but experience teaches that these pests are able to come out in force even after very severe and protracted frosts. In any case, there 13 no advantage in tormenting ourselves before the time, and at present there is nothing but what may be considered as favourable conditions so far as Nature is concerned. Wo are the slaves of circum- stances, and when Mr. Gilbert Murray congratu- lates us farmers for returning to the traditions of early sowing, he apparently forgets that this course is forced upon us, although not unwillingly. Lust year we could not even make a start by the present date, and were destined to jump from tha frying-pan of dismal winter and arctic frost into the lire of summer drought. The yields of corn were very bad in consequence, nnd had need be improved upon. Even well-farmed lands rendered the miserable re- turn of six and seven sack;, of wheat, and 10 sad:" of oats, which at present prices were bound to spell loss. What wo require is a double yield, and certainly pre- sent appearances may be considered as hopeful of such a result. Barley and oats will soon be above ground, and we must hope for the sai: p bulk as characterised 189-1, with Letter quality of torn. One feature of the season appears to b.) the com- parative sluggishness of trees and hedgerows, which are not particularly forward, considering the long continuance of mild weather. It is not often that charlock abounds at this time of the year, but, owing to the absence of frost, wheat fields and winter vetches, as well as fodder crops, are in many cases infested. As a rule, ivinler-sown wheat is free from thig. scourge, yhile saving corn crops are victim'scd. A sbufcd old-fashioned pracllCt coiistjteu til blow- ing barley and oat land in good time, so as to allow charlock to germinate before sowing the coin. This plan is not consistent with the earliest sowing, and is not looked upon with much favour. When, how- ever, we reflect upon the virulence of charlock, and its prejudicial effect upon crops affected by it, it, is worth while waiting to kill a crop of seedlings before sowing barley. CLOVER AND GRASS SEEDS. Samples are bright and plump, and prices rallier easier than last year. Now that barley is being sown, the grass seeds will not be long in following. At tho risk of being thought old-fashioned, I prefer the old j standard grasses and clovers to the new. In spite of all that has been said on the subject, Pacey's rye- grass and Devonshire Evergreen stand their ground for short-lived pastures. When it is intended to sow down for one, two, or even three years, there is no necessity for travelling out of the well-known course of ryegrass and clovers. It is questionable if there is any benefit in incorporating cocksfoot and dogstai!, catotail and foxtail, poas and fescues, ,.(' in mixtures of strictly temporary character. The number of grasses and forage plants which go to form a mixture steadily increases with the time the pasture is intended to lie. For one year's lair, red clover 141b. and Italian ryegrass one bushel is enough. For two years', white, yellow, and alsike may be added, and the ryegrass be equally divided between Italian and perennial. For three years', a few pounds of cocksfoot, timothy grass, and tall or other fescues may be added. When a pasture of several years' duration, or, still more, if a permanent turf is re- quired, the complex charaeterof the mixture increases to a somewhat puzzling degree. EXPENSES. For two or three years' lay there seems to be no object in complicated and expensive mixtures. Baccy's ryegrass or Devonshire Evergreen are so certain and productive th t it seems more a mutter of fashion than rezil iiei-it which gives other grasses a look in. Good Pacey can be bought now for 3s. od. to 4". per bushel, and as :Fiib. WQuld be a fair weight, the price stands at a trifle over Hd. per lb. One bushel is ample seeding with clovers, and, therefore, :.k Gd. to 4s. represents the cost per acre. Referiing to an ex- cellent catalogue, I find the following: 0 Per ib. s. d. Sweet vernal grass 1 I Tall fescue Oil GolJen oat grass 2 10 Crested dcgslail 1 2 Hard fescue 0 7 Shee,D,s fescuo 1 0 Cocksfoot 0 1 Meadow fescne. 0 8 Foxtail 1 4 Pacey's ryegrass 0 H The addition of a few pounds of grasses at Is. a lb. is rather serious, especially as the luxuriance of pastures so produced is not always eqllal to tInl of ryegrass and ordinary clover. The matter is worthy of attent ion and of criticism, as circumstances differ very widely. Not having always found the grasK-a supposed to be sown in the subsequent crop, I am slightly sceptical as to the advisability of going to so much extra expense. QUANTITY OF CLOVER. Twelve to fifteen pounds of mixed clover ought to suffice, and this I apportion as follows mh. of red "J 21b. of white for two or three Jears ^lb. alsike f duration. 41b. of yellow J .I- 1 bushel of Pacey"s ryegrass. 'The cost will be IDs. 6d. per acre, which ij about 7s. cheaper than mixtures containing cocksfoot, catstail, meadow grass, and fescues. When temporary pastures for several ypars' dura- tion are required, it is ad visable to add grosses, as well as forage plants, as yarrow, birdsfoot trefoil, Anthyllis or kidney vetch and for permanent pas- tures complicated mixtures are indispensable. LAVING DOWN LAM). This is the great panacea for agricultural depres- sion, but it is an edge tool to play with. If it hia been successful, it has also exhibited gigantic fai'tiros, which time Illune can rectify. In the meantim;», while tho grass is growing the" horse is starving. Tha general complaint; gives nlundant Oil ttiefii;lii,.eofl;kndtot.I,e to gr:i-oz!, and it is I)retty certain that unless naturally adopted for the p u p .S J it cannot be forced into The tide still con- tinues to flow, for want of tiny better alterant-ire, i:i the direction of l uing down land to gr;:ss, and this spring will probtbly sec an extended are > of abandoned tillage land. Even here the doctors differ; for while some with good reason urge the importance of land being clean and in good condition for down, others pin their faith to the established fact that many of our best pastures resulted in tho fust instance in a sort of tumble down to a state of natural herbage. For my own part, I prefer iho p!ough, except it be as a sort of policy of de-pair. Light lands often deteriorate under pasture, although they will yield large crops of grass for one or t wt) years. We lose interest in tillage lands because farm- ing ig depressed, and are glad to take refuge in a sort, of agricultural suicide. Agriculture lies buried and 7 grinning at the daisy roots. Still, in spite of all, wa see vast areas under the plough, and the innss of farmers go on their way not rejoicing, but, with truo British stolidity, refusing to allow that they are beaten. ° J Those who arc led to believe that they will do better if they lay their land away to grass will be less guided by newspapers and agrieultural journals than bv their own and their neighbours' experience. The difficulty of making good pasturip is not in sawing grass seeds, for that is an easy task nor in selecting good mixtures, for the whole scientific seed trade stands ready to teach and supply the l'ight article nor in mamvLng jroung grass, for, with plenty of dung, and dirt U htsd and a moderate expenditure in slog and superoboa- phate, tins may btl donti according to tilql best KI.DWII rules. But the difficulty is in making the grasses take and forni a sole. Given a light-land fieid ready to seed with grass, it Leeiia wise to sow a cheap mix- ture of ryegrass and clover upon young corn, and take a good crop of hay. If it is good for a second or third year, it may be allowed to lie; but after that I think I had rather try my luck with a crop of oats than allow the ground to become bare or filled with lop and water-grass.






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