fmiktt Cflrmjpfontt. (We deem it right to state that we cto not at all times indsntity ourselves with our correspondent's opuxioaa.j There is no other country in the world where the opening of Parliament is looked forward to with such combined anxiety and pleasure an England. Parlia- ment, as a body, doubtless has many faults and .-0- ">p. I do not believe that—to use a Carlylean V an unv*racity; but][ eantama jjJjj (""ouBtrajy [fid opposing 1. tnements, many anomalitjB and antioti^e^absurdidiee but in these very respects, as in others, it fairly represents public opinion. We, too the great public—are afflicted by many anomalies ana wrongs, social and national." The fact that the Parliament what the people are as a whole. If there are not men of all classes in it—and I do not think there ought to be, or rather I do not think there can be-all Lam are represented. Here the poorest and meanest of her Majesty's subjects—for instance, the pauper in the Union-has his defenders,, and the richest and mightiest have their assailants. Our ^Legislature, in fact, is Great Britain in miniature. No wonder, therefore, that such an assembly, the fountain of our laws, is looked forward to with interest* We shall not now have long to wait for its gathering. Already the official note of preparation has been sounded, and the Government Gazette informs us that it is to meet on Thursday, the 4th of February next, for the dispatch of divers urgent and important affairs. There will be no other proroga- tion, and the 4th will be the opening day. I can learn nothing at all reliable as to the probability of n jjlfc her Majesty opening the Houses in person. The only things that are in favour of such result are J that the public generally earnestly desire it, ehich ltd rxu the Queen muat know; and that the two years of Court mourning being over, there is no official etiquette to prevent such a desirable result. On the other hand, hei Majesty keeps so secluded, even now that the two years have expired, that there is not much ground for hoping that the opening ceremony will be otherwise than by Royal commission. I think the coming session is likely to be a very busy one. Many very important foreign topics will necessarily engage the attention of Parliament, and there are already standing on the books of the House of Commons-the remanet of last session—no less than 46 notices of motion. Why, here is half. a session's work cut out already and we all know how rapidly work begins to pour in when the Commons fairly get into harness. There have been many elections during the recess, but the state of parties does not much differ now from what it was last year. In 1863 there were 312 Con- servatives, now there are 314. In 1863 there were 11 Peelites, now there are 13. In 1863 there were 238 Whigs, now there are 233. In 1863 there were 95 Radicals, now there are 96. This estimate is the result of very careful analysis, but I confess I do not place much reliance on it, inasmuch as divisions in the Commons show such curious anomalies. I do not believe that any set of men, whether they number 95 or 238, can be counted on to vote this or that way. It never turns out so, as the division list will show during any session. Whatever the state of parties may be, however, on the meeting of the Houses, it is probable that all boundaries will speedily be levelled by a general dissolution, and politicians will have to do their reckoning all over again. We must be a thoroughly royalty-loving people, for everything connected with the Royal Family excites immediate and intense interest in the public mind. Nothing has been read with such general and pervading interest as the brief announcement of the accouche- ment of the Princess of Wales. Everybody is delighted, and rejoices in the fact that mother and child are doing well. Round our cheery fires these cold nights you could not get any one to take the slightest interest in the Schleswig-Holstein question, even though war may at any moment arise out of it; but everybody talks with pleasure about the last bulletin, which completely knocks on the head even the last telegram of Mr. Reuter. p. YPtl into WJj»tS6vei Lord laliiierston may be in other respects —and, on the whole, he is perhaps as popular a man as has been at the head of affairs during the memory of any one living-he is certainly very fortunate in the matter of ecclesiastical patronage. Archiepiscopal and episcopal mitres have been falling at his feet, and all sorts of posts and preferments have come to him to dispense. Another bishopric now comes to his lot —that of Ely. Besides this, there are two.deaneries vacant-those of Cork and St. Patrick; two arch- deaconries—those of Dublin and Carmarthen and we aM know that there have been lately many rich ecclesi- astical-appointments in his gift. It is quite true that all ecclesiastical preferments are not in the gift of the Prime Minister—far from it; but it is well known, neverthe- less, that the Prime Minister of the day has always considerable indirect power in these matters. There is such a principle in political action as claw me, claw thee," and it is very natural to take advantage of it. On the whole, the ecclesiastical appointments df Lord Palmerston have been popular, and I firmly believe that he sincerely desires to do in thia respect what he considers best for the Church at large. There is very great distress now in London, and although the severity of the weather has considerably modified, and consequently distress has much decreased, still there is plenty of cold and hunger, nakedness and want. What a cheering fact, therefore, it is, that the benevolent institutions and kind-hearted individuals are doing all in their power to alleviate the misery around them! The lists of contributions which you may see any day in the Times does the heart good. The age of chivalry may have departed, but the age of charity has not gone. There are still as much benevolence and true charity amongst us as ever. I speak more particularly of my own little village, London, and I wish to add to my remarks an urgent appeal to any whom it may concern, that we may have more policemen. The two subjects are intimately connected in this way: London is disgracefully de. ficient in its police force robberies and street outrages, these dark nights, are painfully numerous; and all this while there are thousands of men unemployed- dock labourers especially, though they are but one class—who, with a little training, would make very fair average policemen. Apropos of the police, just let me add a fact and a recommendation. The fact is, that the City police have just had added to their new uniforms those very comfortable and even necessary appendages, leggings. The recommendation is that policemen should be allowed to grow beards. For men who are exposed to alLweathers, day and night, the beard is the natural protection, which only a stupid martinet policy would forbid.. Have you ever noticed how, of late, there has sprung up a system of ecclesiastical puffery which, in my humble judgment, is very much out of place ? I do not think it right that we should be told, amongst theatrical and entertainment advertisements, that "the services at the Foundling Chapel commence," &c., when we know full well that there is a collection strictly exacted at the said Foundling, and that if a gentleman takes his wife and offers sixpence, he will be told that "sixpence is not usually considered enough for two persons." Nor do I consider it seemly that there should appear every now and then such an advertisement as this St. Paul's, Charlotte-street, Buckingham-gate, Pimlico.—Sundays, 11, 3.-30, 7; daily evensong, 8. All services choraL Seats free to all. Offerings for clergy and service expenses re- questedateach attendance in lieu of pew-rents." When I read such notices as this, evidently put forward to attract visitors, and consequently money, I half expect-at least, it is only another step-to see added, No half-price. Children in arms not admitted. Vivat Regina." Do not let me be accused- of ridi- culing sacred things. Ce n'est pas man metier, it ist a natural deduction. The friends of the total abolition of capital punish- ment could desire no better argument in their favour than a recapitulation of the criminal history of the last assizes. The anomalies of pardon and hanging, reprieve and perpetual imprisonment, have been so great, that I have not been at all surprised to hear some of the most staunch supporters of capital punish. ment say that they think the juries, judges, and' Home Secretary have of late created so many anomalies between them, that it would be far better that in future the severest penalty- for any crime should be perpetual incarceration. Certainly a more dreadful punishment is not easily to be conceived. The case of the wretched man Wright will not soon fade from the public mind. Never were there more efforts made to rescue a man from the scaffold. Public meetings of two or three thousand people, successive deputations to the Home Office and to the Queen, and t$>e tijress,, raising jfe voice in the same CgjerytJuiyj tei:aed to the hope that Wright repmvuved but his execution is -now one ofl "Jhe blood-stained episodes in our criminal I anualBt; and whenever his dreadful story is told, it t will be connected with that of Townley, while "one law for the rich and another for the poor "—whether rightly or wrongly—now pervades the public mind.
WELCOME, LITTLE PRINCELY STRANGER! Long before this paper shall reach our reader, the news of the accouchement of the Princess of Wales on the 8th inst. will have travelled to the extreme end of the kingdom; nevertheless, the following seasonable words on the subject from the leading journal will be read with interest The announcement that the Princess of Wales has been safely delivered of a fine boy, and that both mother and child are going on perfectly well, will be received throughout the country with the greatest delight. No news is ever so welcome among all classes of the people as that of the happiness and prosperity of the Royal Family. Her Majesty centres the affec- tion and sympathy of her people in herself and her children so entirely, that every joy and every grief that affects them brightens or saddens the hearts at each fireside in the kingdom. In this case the spontaneous feeling of loyal satisfaction is enhanced by the universal goodwill which the Prince and Princess of Wales have 'T'on. Like all the n^embei"-of Her Majesty'* family, tb»jy are regarded, if Wfe mayTpe allowed the expression, Vith that personal regard which adds the keen sense of a private pleasure to the enthusiasm of a public delight. We have mixed ourselves up with their happiness from the moment their marriage was first spoken of. We have followed them with all our con- gratulations, sympathies, and hopes; and it will be felt as the completion of a most cherished wish that the happiness of their marriage has been perfected by the birth of an heir. ENGLAND FREE FROM DYNASTIC TROUBLES. For the moment this loyal congratulation will be the first feeling in the heart of every Englishman, but the impulse will be supported by the solid reflection of the addition made by this happy event to the stability of the Royal succession. Her Majesty, indeed, is happy in a numerous and healthy family, and her dynasty seems to all human anticipation established beyond all the usual chances of mortality. We are happily, free, too, in England from the dynastic trou- bles which seem now on the verge of plunging Europe into war, and have been one source of the distraction of our immediate neighbours. But it is impossible to be too secure. The mere mention of the confusion which disputed successions still produce on the Con- tinent is sufficient to make us thankful for any addi- tional pledge of the permanence of our Royal House; and the existence of two heirs to the Throne in a direct line is a visible earnest of stability which will be as welcome to the nation as to the Royal Family itself. ENGLAND HAS MUCH TO BE THANKFUL FOR Providence seems, indeed, while permitting confu- sion and gloom to settle on almost every other country in the world, to have chosen to shower upon us every blessing that a people can receive. In whatever di- rection we look, we find nothing but subjects for gra- titude, and the only shadows of gloom or anxiety on our prospect are cast by the quarrels and confusion of others. A firm and equal administration of the law, a freedom unknown in any country either of ancient ormodern times, a security for life and pro- perty which appears incompatible with any other form of government, and unparalleled public and 5rivate wealth, are established and adorned by a 'hrone which rests as deeply in the heart of the nation as it is rooted in its constitution. The passions of national antagonism or political enmity which Spread misery and bloodshed over the Old and New Worlds arerchecked at the narrow channel and the broad sea which separate us from Europe and America; and we present a nearer approach to those happy isles which the ancients imagined in the Western sea than any one but a poet would have anticipated a century ago. Even the evils we dreaded most are softened to us. What threatened to be an inevitable famine to thrrffe millions of our population is converted into an additional evidence and means of prosperity; ard now we are gladdened with a new gleam of happiness on the brightest feature in our prospect. ENGLAND'S NEW TEAR'S GIFT This auspicious event comes at a happy time to double the usual rejoicings of the season, and to scatter for the time the gloom which the troubles of other nations have been casting over our horizon. The Princess of Wales has presented the country with a New Year's gift, all the more welcome because it ful- fils the promise of the Old Year and holds out the brightest prospect for the future. The Christmas and New Year's rejoicings will be renewed with a heartier enthusiasm, and the nation will banish the gloomy forebodings of the last few days in unrestrained e delight and universal congratulation. We have all been settled down into a temper of anxious resolution, watching with care and dread the threatening signs of the times, determined, if possible, to keep our- selves free from the quarrels and wars which surround us, but yet with a painful expectation that we shall, somehow or other, sooner or later share them. But this event suddenly breaks on our view with an aspect of hope and promise. It reminds us that we are a united and prosperous nation; that if the New Year has difficulties and dangers in store for us, it has its supports and encouragements as well; and as we are made conscious how firmly the whole nation is bound 1together to the Throne, and beats with one pulse of mutual trust and sympathy at the happiness of the Sovereign as at the sufferings of the poor, we feel that we are strong enough to meet any shock that the ordinary destiny of nations may bring. < A HOPE! And now that we have run the round of all other congratulations, we mu3t recur to the first feeling of sympathy with the Throne, and utter the hope that the charm of a new life may wean the Queen from the sadness of the past, and dissipate the sorrow of the last two years..
MAY HEAVEN BEFRIEND IT The little infant of the Prince and Princess of Wales that has just breathed the breath of life, besides being heir to the mightiest empire in the world, is the one only link in blood between two fierce antagonisms now threatening to rend Europe in twain, and deluge it with blood, for no one can say how many years (says a contempo- rary). English, Dane, Saxon, and Hanoverian, Scan- dinavian and German, the blood that scarcely beats in its veins, is near akin to that of many contending sovereigns. Helpless and motionless, it represents a rapid course of events, which seems to have seized Europe, and even this quiet isle, as if a comet had suddenly added its momentum to our earth, and com- pelled a diversion Within nine short months two deaths have placed its grandsire on a disputed throne, and called into activity an endless question of dynas- ties, constitutions, and races. Though it reposes in a charmed circle of pacific hopes and kind wishes, yet there rages out of doors, round its cradle, an all but fra- tricidal war. Several times, indeed, in the course of our history, the cable by which we hold on our ancient anchorage has been strangely twisted with strands of sorrow and strife. It is through the son of the wan- dering Princess Elizabeth, and the son of the unfortu- nate Mary, that we trace to the Conqueror. Happily, in the immediate prospects of the Royal babe just added to our line there is nc dark cloud, no fatal ques- tion of succession or religion. It is born to a lofty state and an undisputed rule. So Nature, so Heaven befriend it, a generation yet unborn will look to it with loyal hope, another generation with loyal love and trust, and at length, another with loyal and grate- ful recollections. To make the above perfect we must attach some account of the events which preceded the birth of the young Prince, as under:- Friday was a grand day on the ice at Virginia Water-His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales left Frogmore Lodge at a quarter past eleven o'clock in the forenoon, in an open carriage and pair, with several gentlemen of his suite, and arrived at Virginia Water shortly before twelve o'clock. Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales followed in a close carriage, accompanied by her ladies in attendance. Their Royal Highnesses immediately proceeded to the lake, where they were met on the ice by about forty ladies and gentlemen, many of the gentlemen belong- ing to the London Skating Club. Two sides were chosen for the game of hockey. Those on the Prince's side were distinguished by a white riband on the left arm. The game was kept up with great animation until 2 o'clock, when the Prirce and his companions repaired to the Fishing Temple, where they partook of a sumptuous luncheon. After- wards they returned to the lake and resumed the game of hockey, which they kept up until a quarter | to 5 o'clock, when the Prince left for Frogmore. His Royal Highness proved himself a first-rate skater and player, being aa active with his hockey stick as he was on his skates, and puzzling many of the most expert players. Her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales, who is an excellent skater, seemed much interested in the pn.rng and was occasionally driveh about in a sledge, The Princess left Virginia Watenat 4 o'clock. Besides the Royal visitors and suite, there were up- wards of 500 people present, including a large number of ladies, who displayed much skill and grace in the performance of several difficult figures. This exciting scene was much enlivened by the performances of the band of the Royal Horse Guards (Blue), who were comfortably seated round a large charcoal fire on the banks efww lake, noax4a the EMhmg Temple.
THE QUEEN'S AiifclVAL. "l- Telegraphic messages wereat once despatched to theQueetk. at Osborne, the Wnfsfcrs oTafeM. an&tBKiatly goyspapegi while tbe bells were rtutt tfcd the ffhofaroroagh of wTt^(, thrown into ast^^gplMatnt ontteineBt. About 1 o'«fl^Hjttaturday Her Majesty the Queev acting upon. maternal feelings, with thek Royal HighnesseH Princess Helena and Beatrice^ at- tended by Colonel T, M. Biddulph, Colonel the Hon! C. B. Phipps, Lady Churchill, and the Hon. MrftJ Bruce, arrived at the Windsor terminus of the Greajl Western Railway, having left Osborne at 20 minutes past 9 in the morning. The Royal party travelled in a Special train from Gosport by the South Western Railway to Basingstoke, and thence to Windsor, which was reached at 12.55, by the Great Western Railway." Here a large crowd of the principal inhabitants of the town, including the mayor and other officials, was assembled on the platform, while the Prince of Wales drove from Frogmore, and waited at the station to receive his Royal mother. As the train entered the terminus Her Majesty was received with the moat enthusiastic cheering, and the scene was quite anova- tion. His Royal Highness, when the train paused, entered the State saloon and affectionately embraced his Royal parent. On alighting from the train, the Royal party was received by Mr. Grierson, Mr. Kelley, and Mr. Matthews, of the Great Western Railway, and conducted to one of the Royal carriages, which was in readiness outBide the Queen's private entrance, and into which Her Majesty and the Prince of Wales entered, and immediately drove through the town to Frogmore Houston a visit to the Princess Wftks, thptJpuices^eB and suite leaving the station-3 r: the same time. i It was observed that Her Majesty on entering the carriage was much affected by the kind and loyal re- ception she had just met with from those around her indeed, so much so, that, after having taken her seat in the carriage, she bowed her head, and was almost affected to tears; while the Prirce, though conversing with her, could hardly draw her attention, so much was she overcome by her feelings and the excitement of the event. Her Majesty was still in mourning, though the Princesses wore only half-mourning, their bonnets being trimmed with blue. The Queen re- mained with the Princess of Wales at Frogmore the whole afternoon, till a late hour in the evening, and afterwards returned to the Castle. Earl Granville, the Lord President of the Privy Council, arrived most opportunely at Frogmore on Friday afternoon on a visit to the Prince of Wales, and was thus present at the birth of the Prince. His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales seems much pleased at the addition to his family, while the town and neighbourhood all day were in a state of joyous excitement. The precincts of the Castle and the railway stations exhibited scenes of unusual bustle through the sudden advent of the Queen, which called forth all the ener- gies of the various Royal purveyoril, who thus, without any notice or preparation, were called upon to supply the immediate wants of the Royal Family, suite, and household at the Castle, the domestics and members of which were. continually arriving.
WHY SIR GEORGE GREY RESPITED TOWNLEY. Sir George Grey has lost no time in replying to the remonstrance addressed to him by the magistrates of the county of Derby in the case of Townley, and his letter, containing a full account of the grounds upon which he acted has been published. Our limits precludes us from giving it in full; but it is sufficient to say that this document places the respite of Town- ley in a very different lightTrom that which has given rise to so much popular dissatisfaction, while at the same time it reveals a peint of far more serious and startling character than any hitherto noticed in refer- ence to the c&se. In the first place, this feeling of dis- satisfaction has arieen for the most part under the impression that the respite of the prisoner has been granted by Sir George Grey in the exercise of his dis- cretion* The public will, therefore, be startled to hear that he does not appear to have had any discre- tion at aU in the matter. Neither the suggestion of the judge nor the consequent examination of the pri. soner by the Lunacy Commissioners has had anything to do with the matter. Sir George Grey has not had even to form a judgment upon the merits of the case. It appears that by an act of Parliament, passed in 1840, it is euacted that whenever any person oonfinea in any prison under sentence of transportation, im- prisonment, or death, shall be declared insane by two physicians or surgeons and two justices of the peace for the place wherein the prison is situate, it shall be- come the duty of the Secretary of State to send him to an asylum. The precise words, indeed, of the act are it shall be lawful," but it £ well known that this is a regular legal term, implying an obligation, and not a permission. In the case of this particular act there appears, at all events, to be no doubt that this is their meaning, and Sir George Grey is strictly ac- curate in saying that "this is the construction which has been uniformly placed upon the section in ques- tion. Now, as the public are aware, a certificate in the form required by the act was duly executed, and placed in the hands of Sir George Grey. Upon the receipt of that certificate, therefore, the whole question of Townley's fate was at once settled, independently of any other considerations whatever. The matter was taken out of the hands not only of the judge and jury, but of Her Majesty and the Home Secretary, and there was nothing left to the authorities but to obey a plain direction in a recent act of Parliament, and to order Townley's removal to a lunatic asylum. Sir George Grey concludes his letter as follows There is one other passage in the letter from the magis- trates to which Sir George Grey thinks it right to refer. They say that the effect of the respite of Townley and of his removal to a lunatic asylum has been to cause much dis- satisfaction, and to create a feeling, greatly to be lamented, that there is one law for the rich and another for the poor; that justice has been turned aside by the power of money; and that if Townley and his friends had been poor, he would have been executed." The magistrates may possess infor- ar mation as to the expenditure of money by Townley's friends of which the Secretary of State has no knowledge; nor is he aware of the manner in which the magistrates believe such money to have been expended. But the most satisfactory proof which can be given that the course taken with regard to Townley is one which it required no expenditure of money to obtain, and which would have been equally taken had Townley and his friends been poor, is a reference to a similar case which occurred at the Spring Assizes held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 1862, when a man named Clark, himself a poor man, and with no friends who were not also poor, and in whose defence no counsel even was retained, was convicted of wilful murder and sentenced to death. In that case, as in the case of Towxfley, the learned judge before whom Clark was tried, in reporting the case to the Secretary of State, expressed his opinion that the verdict was right, but called the attention of the Secretary of State to the evidence as to the unsound state of mind of the prisoner at the time of the trial, as having, to use his own words, so intensely important a bearing upon the question whether he ought to be executed." In consequence of this representation from the judge, an in- quiry as to the sanity of the prisoner was directed by the Secretary of State, and the result in that case, as in the present, was his removal to a lunatic asylum. Sir George Grey trusts that this statement will tend to re- move the impression which the magistrates say exists, and which they appear to have shared, that a similar course, under similar circumstances, would not be adopted In the case of a poor man as in the case of one whose friends had the power of expending money in his behalf. The following is a copy of a letter addressed to Sir George Grey by Mr. Cox, the magistrate of the county of Derby, who signed the certificate of insanity in the case of George Victor Townley:—• Sir,—We the undersigned justices of the peace for the county and borough of Derby, and medical men of Derby, who signed and forwarded to you two certificates as to the insanity of George Victor Townley, dated the 27th and 29th December last, having had our attention called to a memorial, signed by certain "magistrates of the county of Derby dated the 5th inst, beg to solicit your consideration of the following facts. Upon the trial of the prisoner, Mr. Gisborne and Mr. Sims, the surgeon and governor of the gaol in which the prisoner was confined, deposed to the fact of the prisoner being insane at that period -viz on the llth of December, and the Rev. H. Moore (chaplain of the gaol) made a written report of the prisoner's insanity in his minute-book, for the inspection of the visiting justices early n the month of December, and we have been credibly in- formed and believe that, notwithstanding such evidence of the surgeon and governor and report of the chaplain, none of the visiting justices or county magistrates, excepting ourselves, have visited the prisoner or taken any action whatever upon such evidence or report. We beg further to state that we entered upon the inquiry as to the prisoner's mental condition from a mere sense of duty, and we took considerable pains to ascertain the true state of- his mind. On the one hand, we believe our certffl- cates to be perfectly true, while, on the other, we are assured that none of the county magistrates who have signed the memorial of the 5th inst. have any personal knowledge of the subject matter of our certificates. Neither the prisoner's adviser nor any of his friends were present at our examinations, and they have in no way influenced onr judg- ment, or attempted to do so. Signed by W. T. Cox, J.P. for the Borough of Derby. J. B. TORMAN, J.P. for the Borough of -XX Cr Derby. J THOS. ROE, Mayor of the Borough of Derby. fxxix'i henry Goode, M.B. and MJt.C.S. TH0MA3 IUewood, Surgeon, &c and "o Medical Ollicer to the Derby UnMtL, Derby, Jan. 8,1864.
REMOVAL OF TOWNLEY. On Monday morning George Victor Townley ywaa removed from Derby gaol to St. George's-in-the-F lelda Criminal Lunatic Asylum, London. The murderer was conveyed in cab to Spondon station, three miles from Derby, and the noon express train to King's-cross stopped at Spondon station to take him up. He was accompanied by two warders.
EXECUTION OF WRIGHT. Samuel Wright was executed on Tuesday morning at Horsemonger-lane Gaol, in London. Even as late as eleven o'clock on Monday night, hopes were entertained that he would be reprieved, -M all those who have interested themselves on his — Jf were untiring in their exertions. There is no ,I\eed for us to recapitulate the particulars of the crime l which he wa» condemned. Thoy are familial to e public they have been freely canvassed and dis- jussed. It will suffice to state that the fatal deed was ^committed on the morning of Sunday, 13th December; that on the following day Wright was brought before z a,gistrate; and that on the Tuesday he pleaded guilty at the Central Criminal Court, and refused to detract this plea when the judge suggested that he should do so. He was without any legal advice and assistance and it was thought by many who were in the court that, had he taken his trial in the usual way, the jury would have simply convicted him of the minor offence of manslaughter. Be this as it may, a good deal of sympathy was soon evoked in his favour; and the fact that Townley had been spared gave rise to a feeling that WrightVcase was one in which the prerogative of mercy might reasona- bly be exercised. Accordingly, on the 7th January the Ajisitmg justices of Horsemonger-lane Gaol presented a memorial to Sir George Grey, in which they ex- pressed a strong opinion that, had all the facts of the case been made known on his trial, no jury would have returned a verdict of Wilful murder." This appeal, however, was unsuccessful, and the Home Secretary in his reply held out no hopes of mercy. The popular feeling, however, had strengthened in the meanwhile, and several meetings been held the particulars of the last and most important we give below. Whilst the exertions to get his life spared on Monday were in progress the scenes in front of the raol were assuming that character which betokens the Jiear approach of an execution. Although such indications as the placing of barriers were delayed until quite late in the evening, the space before the prison gate was occupied by a crowd, consisting partly of mechanics and their families, and partly of the vilest dregs of the London populace. The two public-houses were thronged to overflowing. At least a dozen preachers were loudly exhorting the mob a.t one time, and that as early as three or four o'clock in the afternoon. Hymns were sung, and their burden taken up by others than the devoutly inclined, the sacred tunes being frequently drowned by the dis- cordant refrains of many comic ditties. At ten o'clock there was a much larger body of people in front of the gaol than at later hours of the night. Steady and continuous streams were converging on the spot, along every road in the neighbourhood; men and women walking together in couples. It was plain that the majority of those who had assembled by eleven o'clock did not contemplate re- maining. There were as many women as men; and almost as many children as either. Towardp midnight they dispersed, and at two or three o'clock the place was,-comparatively speaking, deserted. Still the public-houses were full; but the preaching outside had ceased. High upon the grey stone walls of the gaol the hideous black planks and beams of the gallows ap- peared. Throughout the night and the early hours of dawn arrangements were beiDg made to prevent any possible disturbance. Indeed, we are able to state with certainty, that far greater precautions were taken on Monday night and Tuesday morning in front of Horsemonger-lane Gaol than were put in practice when the notorious Mannings were executed, or when Youngman suffered for the murder of his relatives. At least 600 picked policemen 'were present. The houses opposite the gaol have all long gardens in front; and to keep these from being invaded by the mob, a strong body of police was posted along the rails. It may be hereafter cited as a notable example of the miscalculations usually made by the most ex- perienced officials, that all the predictions of an immense crowd were falsified as the morning wore on. Day broke and found scarcely half the assemblage that gathered under the drop when Younginan paid the penalty of his crime. The impression among all, down to the most depraved, was that Wright deserved a punishment less than that of death; and many who left the spot during the night cried out that they would not stay and see the man murdered." There was, at times, a great deal of tipsy shouting and brawling in the street; and a clearance of the public-houses took place some three hours before the execution, it being found that most of the customers had ceased to be profitable, having fallen asleep upon the benches, tables, and floors. After awhile, these places k>t entertainment were reopened to a fresh set of Uoosers and the preaching began again, with re- doubled strength of lungs, amid the stentorian cries of people vending articles of food. A great placard was carried about with religious sentences in large characters, and with a smaller bill appended, the in- scription on which was not easy of deciphering. Contrary to expectation, the crowd was hardly greater in number than a full regiment. When Youngman was hanged, fainting and crushed women and men were dragged up to the leads of a building adjoining one of the public-houses; but nothing of the kind occurred to-day, nor were railings broken down as on the former occasion. One strong man fainted as Wright fell, and the prostrate figure was carried over the heads of the people. It is unquestionably due to the police authorities and to the men who kept order, that the admirable character of their arrangements and general conduct should be praised. A demonstration of popular feeling was expected; nor can it be said that none took place but such outcries as were heard assumed no formidable or threatening tone, and the excitement at the last terrible climax was met with such moderation as sufficed to quell it without a show of force. The hour fixed for the execution was nine o'clock and when that hour had arrived some astonishment was caused to the assembled crowd by the fact that the hangman had not appeared, and the gibbet was without a rope, or hook to receive one. Then, when people were beginning to feel some faint hope that a reprieve had arrived, the sheriffs came on to the roof, at the foot of the steps leading to the gallows, and waited with their wands in their hands as the clergyman, the condemned man, and the executioner mounted to the drop. Then broke forth a storm of yells such as had been faintly fore- siiadowed, when several officials had come upon the roof about an hour before. The culprit bowed low, and drew himself up as with an effort at self-control He bowed again, and as he was a third time bending his head forward the hangman slipped the ghastly white cap over his face. But still he bowed, and con- tinued doing so even when the rope was round his neck. Meanwhile the mob groaned and yelled in a perfectly indescribable and very appalling manner, and the executioner, having flung the end of the rope over the beam, proceeded clumsily and tardily to tie it. The cruel delay was borne with a marvellous forti- tude by the dying man, who bowed and bowed, and continued that hysterical drawing up of his body, throwing back the head. His legs were then'strapped, and the bolt was drawn. Certainly, for at least two minutes, he moved, but whether in pain or the insen- sible convulsion of a violent death, we do not attempt to say. One of the preachers in the crowd was uttering a prayer as he fell; and the placard being carried nearer, disclosed the words, Solemn Protest against the Execution of Wright." The greatest exertions wer. made to save this unfortu-
nate man from the gallows, a' d on Monday morning a de- putation of the residents ot Lambeth waited upon the Eight Hon. Sir George Grey, for the purpose of presenting a memorial adopted by a large meeting of the working men, held on Saturday evening, at the Lambeth baths praying for a commutation of the sentence on Samuei Wright, urging, among other reasons, that the present moment (the birth of an heir to the Prince of Wales) was almost fliting time ifor an act of Royal clemency. The deputation was followed by a procession of more than 200 working people anxious to learn the result of the interview. Mr. Doulton, M.P., was to have introduced the deputation, but? owing to the short time since the memorial wasn opted, they had been unable to get the Home Secre Ury to fix an hour for the meeting. Mr. Doulton, however, had a long interview with Sir George Grey, in the course of which Mr. Campbell Sleigh arrived, and the Home Secretary having ex- pressed a desire to see him, he was admitted to his presence, when another long conference took place, at the expiration of which Mr. Doulton returned to the deputation and informed them that he feared their efforts had been fruitless. Sir George Grey felt acutely the unpleasantness of his position, and regretted that be could not at once accede to their request. This an- nouncement caused great disappointment among the members of the deputation and the numbers of people waiting the result. In the afternoon Mr. Murphy proceedfedto Windsor Caatlefor the purpose of presenting a memorial on Pjbalf of Wright to her Majesty. He was received njr Sir Charles Phipps, who, having read the memorial, said her Majesty could not interfere with the decision come to-by Sir George Grey, although she deeply sympathised with the unfortunate man. On Monday evening a public meeting was held at the Lambeth Baths, to recede the result cf Mr. Murphy's mission to Windsor, at which Mr. Doulton, M.P., took the chair. At least 4,000 persons were present in the building, &nd as many more were unable to obtain admission, and the'excitement in the neighbourhood was very great. Mr. Murphy having stated the failure of his mission to Windsor, It was then resolved that a deputation consisting of Mr. Doulton, M. P., and Messrs. HiH> Applegurth, and Murphy, should at once have a final interview with Sir George Grey, to induce him to re-oonsider his determination. The deputation having proceeded to the Home Offioe, saw Sir George Grey at 10 o'clock, but were unable to in- duce him to comply with their request. He said the law must take its course. The deputation having returned and stated this result, it was received with shouts of indignation and loud cries of Shame," "Judicial Murder," &c. A collection was then made on behalf of the two children of Wright, and the immense meeting separated in great excitement. The following bill, bordered with deep mourning, was circulated at the meeting:- A Solemn Protest against the Execution of Wright.—Men and women of London, abstain from witnessing this sad g spectacle of injustice. Let Calcraft and Co. dotheir work at this time with none but the eye of Heaven to look upon their crim&. Let all window-shutters be up, and window- blinds be down for an hour on Tuesday morning, in South- ward blinds be down for an hour on Tuesday morning, in South- wark.
FRAUD BY AN ACTUARY. James Woodward, of Neston, who has been actuary of the savings-bank there since the year 1825 (says the Liverpoal Mercury), is now in custody for frau- dulently appropriating to his own use the moneys of the depositors. The Neston Savings-Bank is an inde- pendent institution, managed by a board of directors, but the treasurer deposited the money of the bank in the Liverpool Bank for Savings. It appears that Woodward, who is about 70 years of age, was so well known and so much trusted by the villagers that he was in the habit of receiving the money from de- positors at his own house, in the street, or wherever it was presented to him. He, of course, entered the money cor- rectly in the books held by the depositors, but he did not enter it in the receipt cash-book, as he ought to have done when the bank opened, in the presence of one of the directors. Subsequently having access to the ledger, he entered the amounts to the credit of the depositors in the ledger, so that the ledger correctly showed the money due to depositors, and if the directors had insisted upon the-pre- paration of a balance-sheet by any other person than the actuary, the deficiency would have been at once detected. The Rev. R. W. Gleadowe, the vicar of Neston, was the trea- surer and he and the other directors appear to have had such implicit faith in Woodward, that no steps had been taken to check his accounts. It is said that, on making up the last statement, in November, he took the amount in the Liverpool Savuigs-bank and struck a balance, forgetting altogether that the treasurer had SOOt. in hand. Kvea thii does" not seem to have arpused the suspicions of the treasurer, and it was only on the Rev. Mr. Coxon, the vicar of Heswell, insisting on the production of the balance-sheet that Woodward, after several weeks' delay, confessed that he had been appropriating money to his own use. In round numbers the bank owes over 12,0001. to depositors, and there is only a sum of about 9 0002. to meet the liabilities, so that the appropriations of Woodward will be somewhere about, and will probably not exceed, 3,6001. It seems that the irre- gularities commenced about 1844. As may be supposed, there has been little regularity in the working of the -bank. The rules provide for filling up vacancies in the list of directors, but they have not been adhered to, and it is said that at the present time it is scarcely known who are the re- rnsible parties, the vacancies on the board «f sctors not having been filled up, while in other cases the gentlemen who have been named for the directory have not acted. Whoever the gentlemen may be who have allowed their names to go forth to the public as trustees, we trust that they will not allow the poor depositors to be losers by their neglect. The trustees can only be charged with having placed implicit con- fidence in a man who has grossly betrayed his trust, and the amount will scarcely be felt among the rich residents of the district but if the poor depositors are to suffer the loss, it will deprive many a hardwork- ing, honest man of years of saving, and reduce to beg- gary, in this inclement weather, some of the industrious and deserving poor of the district.
MR. HOME, THE SPIRIT MEDIUM, IN ROME. Perhaps the most exciting incident of the week is that Mr. Home, of spiritualism notoriety (writes the Times correspondent from Rome), has been ordered to leave Rome in three days and that I may not err in my statement of a fact which has occasioned a great sensation, I give you a report of the proceedings in his own words :— Jan. 2.—Received a letter requesting my presence before the police on the 3rd inst, between the hours of ten and one. Jan. g.-Weiit, and was shown to the room of the ad- vocate Pasqualoni. I was accompanied by my friend M. Gouthier, Consul of Greece in Rome. The questions were as follows:— The names of my father and mother? Have you published a book ?— Your profession ?-An art sttident.-Yes. Your residence ?—S5, Via del Tritone. When did you arrive ?-Six weeks ago. How many times have you been in Rome 1—Twice. How long did you stay each time ?—Two months the first and three weeks the last. How long do you intend to remain this time ?—Till April. Have you a fixed residence in France ?—No. How many books have you written?--One. How many copies have you sold 1—As I am not my own publisher, it would be Impossible to gay. After you became a Catholic did you exercise your power as a medium ?—Neither before nor after did I exercise my power as a medium, inasmuch as it is not a power dependent on my will, I could not use it. How do you make these things ?—I think the reply I have just given is sufficient for this. Do you consider your power a gift of nature ?—No; I consider it as a gift of God. What constitutes a trance?—A study of physiology will explain this better than I can. Do you see the spirits asleep and awake ?-Both. Why do the spirits come to you ?-As a consolation, and to convince those who do not believe in the after existence of the souL What religion do they teach ?—That depends. What do you do to make them come?—I was about to reply that I did nothing, when on the table where he was writing there came clear and distinct raps. He then said "But the table also moves?"—Just as ke was saying it the table did move. What is the age of your child?—Four and a half. Where is he ?-At Malvem. With whom ?—Dr. Gully. Is Dr. Gully a Catholic ?-No. When did you last see your child ?—Two months ago. When do you expect to see him again ?—In April. He then said, without assigning any reason, that I must leave Rome in three days. Do you consent ?" No, most decidedly not, inasmuch as I have done nothing to infringe the laws of this or any other country. I will consult with the English consul and be guided by him." On Monday morning the British consul saw Mon- signor Matteucci, the Governor of Rome, and com- plained that any British subject should be interfered with in consequence of his opinions. He stated that Mr. Home had conducted himself during his residence in Rome in a strictly legal and gentlemanly manner, and demanded that the obnoxious order should be rescinded. Monsignor spoke of dangerous powers of fascination, of the prohibition by the Government of all prac- tices of the black art, and finally assented to Mr. Home's remaining, on condition of his entering into an engagement, through Mr. Severn, that he would desist from all communications with the spiritual world during his stay in Rome. An agreement to that effect was drawn up and signed by Mr. Home, who will hence- forwards abstain from all communication with the upper or lower world, as the case may be, during his residence in Rome.
THE INTENDED ASSASSINATION OF THE EMPEROR NAPOLEON! The discovery of the conspiracy against the Emperor's life [writes the Times Paris correspondent) has filled with conster- nation every one who has heard it. The agents of this plot which was to have been executed with circumstances of ex- traordinary atrocity, are found. It was at first said that one of the party was a Belgian, and then a Pole. The cir- cumstance of a Pole who was employed on the Northern railroad having been arrested in consequence of the last fatal accident on that line led to the mistake. The following are the particulars It would now appear that the four are Italians: their names jjre Greco, Imperatori, Trabuco, and Saglio, otherwise caUed Marpholi. They were arrested in the afternoon of Sunday last. When they were examined before the Juge d'Instruction, Greco, who, it seems, was at the head of the band, unhesitatingly, and with audacious frankness, avowed his crime, affected to glory in having been employed to execute it, and regretted that he had not succeeded. If the disclosures made bv this man are to be trusted, it would appear that towards the end of September, or beginmng of October last, he and his three accomplices were summoned to Lugano by Mazzini, with whom they had been for some time in correspondence. It was then and there arranged that they should proceed to Paris to assassinate the Emperor. Mazzini gave them four shells which he had received or brought from England; four shells of a similar description which he had caused to be made at Genoa; four revolvers and four poniards. On leaving Lugano Mazzini gave him 4,000f., telling him he was going to London to await the result of the at- tempt, and would then send him more money. He at the same time left him the address of a person through whom he was to write, in case he wanted more funds. The address, in Mazzini's handwriting, was found on Greco's person. Among other papers was a "e copy of instructions from Mazzini written in cipher, and containing certain signs which he was to send him on the eve of the day the crime was to be attemjpted. Mazzini also gave him two photographic portraits ef himself, with his name at the bottom written in his own hand. Those papers were found in Greco's trousers, between the linhkg and the cloth. There was alao foundin Greco's pocket-book a letter addressed by Imperatori to Mazzim, fitatinp, that, having heard of a plot for the murder of the Emperor, he claimed to be one of the party. Greco admitted that this letter had been handed to him at Lugano by Mazzini. [Injustice to M. Mazzini, we think the evidence of his having arranged the, above plot should be further confirmed before our readers place any con- fidence in the exparte evidence of such men.] It was on. Christmastday that the men bent on this missio'n'of blood arrived in Paris. It was at first said that they had come direct from London to France ♦w^ij??pe,ar8.fro.m the depositions that they entered -French "territory from Switzerland, and with passports perfectly en regie, without a single flaw, TSviiTirj n 6^ven them by the Swiss authorities, fr h had two shells uncharged on his person. From Ta of their arrival to Siat of their arrest they cnanged their lodging more than once in order to tnrow the police, whom they seemed to know were on the watch for them, off the scent. They did not itH live together, but met in the daytime to concert the means of carrying out their object. i. TO who appeared to be as eager an approver as 4 he had been a conspirator, related to the judges every movement, every particular of himself and his accom- plices since their coming to Paris.. They had made a careful inspection of the approaches to the Opera in v- and of those of the other theatres tou u 6 In the habit of visiting. 1 hey had' clowfy examined every place which, gave access to the Palace of the Tuileries, and repeatedly visited the Bois de Boulogne when the Emperor went to skate. Their plan was that wherever or whenever the. opportunity presented itself they were to throw their shells (said to be more destructive than those of Orsini) under his horse's feet, and at once rush on him and his attendants with their revolvers and poniards. f 6C0 at e< tha' the poni £ *ds which he had received from Mazzini were poisoned, and it seems, on examination, that the points and blades are of a peculiar colour, as if they had been long steeped in some liquid. The conspirators, who declare that they were in con- stant correspondence with Mazzini, resolved to effect their purpose on Monday or Tuesday last at the Bois de Boulogne. On the previous Saturday the shells were loaded and everything prepared. They were, however, out of money, having already spent the iwOf. Mazzini had given them in October. Their way of life contrasted strangely with the secret object on which they were bent. They bad been constantly tracked by the police, and, from tntyjr rfrequent changes of domicile, seemed to be perfectly aware of it, yet they acted as if they wished to give every facility to those who were so vigilantly watching them. They denied themselves no pleasure; they lived joyously, and a dinner for the four cost over 200C. Thijt contemplated oeoaping from Paris after the perpetration of their crime out, as they had spent their money in orgies of every kind, they wrote to Mazzini, who is now in London, for more. The Emperor had been kept acquainted with what was going on, but it did not prevent him from going out as usual, and the police, knowing that Monday or Tuesday was fixed for the attempt, made all vuii. by arresting the conspirators on Sunday evening. The money they had written for did not arrive the day they expected; but I hear that a letter containing an order —some sayfor500f., others for 4,000f.-adciressed to one of them was intercepted on Saturday at the post-office. Had the funds arrhed before Sunday, they would, they taM. have at once proceeded to aofaon. "Such in substanoe is the confession of Greco,- and it is in all respects corroborated by his accomplices. The only^ne who has Bhown compunction for the crime in which he was to have a share, is Saglio, alias Marpholi, a young man of two- w threeand-twenty, and he declares that when matters same to the point he would have refused to abt. Imperatori and Trabuco describe themselves as formerly belonging to the band of Garibaldi, and as having taken part in the affair of Aspromonte when he was wounded; and both wore the Marsala medal. Trabuco, who had passed under another name, is said to have been tried and convicted. in FlntBefe f#r swindling, and in London for theft. Greco^tbe'head of the party, was in a state of great excitement during his examination by the Jage d'Instruction. He blasphemed, foamed at the mouth, cursed himself for having failed, and declared that there were others bound like himself by oath to complete the crime. The shells found at the house where they lodged are about the same size as the Orsini ones, but somewhat differentlv shaped. Orsini's were in form like a pear; these are perfectly oval, and very thick, and, instead of being charged with fulminating powder, were filled with ordinary powder. The conspirators are now lodged in the prison of Mazas; their preliminary ex- amination is not yet quite ended, and it is believed they will make further diiclosures. Trabuco was seized at the door of his house on Sunday afternoon, Imperatori almost at the same moment while pre- paring to go out, and Greco and the other in another house in the Rue St. Honore.
A PARALLEL! A gentleman writing to the Times draws the following parallel betwixt Bill Sykes in "Oliver l'wist," and Townley:— As cold-blooded and brutal a murder as was ever, perhaps, committed having been followed by the respite of the murderer on the ground of insanity, it ia not surprising that the public, feeling that deep interests are at stake, wish to th oroughly sift the reasons and the justice which have led to the preserva- tion of the deliberately forfeited life of Townley the murderer. But public interest appears to be universally excited in this case by the suspicion that the equality of justice has not been preserved between rich and poor. If we take the case of Townley the murderer on the one hand, and that, of Sill Sykes the murderer on the other, and compare them calmly, we may arrive at a conclusion whether this suspicion and distrust has been reasonably or unreasonably excited. Townley, passionately in love with his victim, finding that she has played him false, seeks an inter* view, the object of which is clear. If the poor girl had acceded to his wish and con- sented to become his wife, her life would have been saved, but she refused, and he kills her deliberately and brutally. Bill Sykes, equally, after his manner, enamoured of I his sweetheart, proposes a certain ultimatum to her, which she declines to accept, and consequently meets .¡ with the same fate. Townley, superior in social position to Sykes, has plenty of friends, who come forward apd state that his behaviour has been eccentric all his life, and that several of his relations have been rather odd. The result is, the preservation of his. deliberately forfeited life, and that he ill to live-iii a madhouse certainly, but still to live—for, probably, very inanr years, in a condition which the recent insight whicn we have obtained into the treatment of criminals forbids us to believe will be one of serious discomfort. Poor Sykes, unfriended by parson or doctor, within three weeks merely represents something put out of sight withm the precincts of the prison. Yet both these men were actuated by the same motive,— Lust, through some certain strainers well refted, Is gentle lore. And it is difficult to discern much difference, making due allowance for the difference in the education of the two criminals, between the ultimatum presented to Townley's victim, and, I will say, that of the Fording- bridge murderer's. Townley went with a deliberate motive, and failing in his object, committed a brutat murder. I would only quote, in justification of the universal feeling, of dissatisfaction which is now evinced by the publio at the respite of Townley the very words of the Under- Secretary of State while declining to extend the pre- rogative of mercy to the criminal right:- It is one of those sad cases, unfortunately too frequent, where human life is taken under the Influence ofungoverned passions, but with a full Intention at the time, as evidenced by the use of a deadly weapon, and the natnre of the injury r inflicted, to take life, and without such provocation m could reduce the crime to manslaughter. If we have done wrong in respiting Townley, as we seem to think we have, ehall. we set matters tiarhi hv stretching severity to its utmost extent in the case of Wright, whose crime, very many have suggested, was difficult to consider more than manslaughter ? A mistake haa been made. Let us try not to make it again, but not to atone for it by displaying unwonted strength of mind in its correction.
A NBW MILITARY FOUNDER! An Indian correspondent writes About sixteen years ago, and not long before we became masters of the Punjab one Baluk Singh started a new Sikh sect, near Rawul Pindee, called Juggeassees." After making a large number of converts, he died just a year ago. Of his three favourite chelas," or pupils, Ram Singh, a carpenter, was chosen to succeed him. In many respects the doctrines of the sect are an improvement even on the Sikh creed. Ram Singh condemns caste, and preaches against adultery and fornication. He enjoins the marriage of widows, and advocates the inter- marriage of all classes. He takes no alms, nor allows his followers to do so. He condemns drunkenness, and urges cleanliness of person and truth-telling. He, however, allows too free an intercourse between the sexes, many of his followers consisting of girls and women, who, in thousands, rave at his meetings. All accept the Grunth as their inspired Bible, wear a peculiar turban, use as a Goorooumuntair, or mystic watchword, the words" Wah Gooroo," and have a necklace of knots made on a white woollen cord tq represent beads. The three dangers of this fraternity to the peace of the community are these—each man must carry a staff, with which, instead of a Tnusket, the whole are drilled; the leader, Ram B, declares himself to be Gooroo Govend the Second, or military founder of the Sikh faith, risen from the dead: and ho but especially his followere, declare that they wil! very soon expel the English, who will leave all their wives behind them. Of course ail this has long been well known te the Punjab 'authorities, and, besides, many of Ram Singh's devices are in the Punjab police. Sir Robert Montgomery has acted most wisely by putting tfre ittan under surveillance during the last Dewallee fair At Uinritsur, and believe he is again in gaol