REVIEW OF THE YEAR 1863. The past year will ever be famous in history, as that in which the Prince of Wales, the eldest son of Queen Victoria, was married. It is the subject which takes fitting precedence of all others in a review of the events of the year just departed. On the various facts con- nected with the Prince's union we need not dwell- the tale of the entry of the fair young Princess into London, and the wonderful and wondering crowds which greeted her, has oft been told. The joyous- ness and unusual brilliancy of the London season is still well remembered, and the fact that, wherever the rriuucDO went, thousands upon thousands of loyal Eng lish hearts assembled to greet her. Soon afterwards, the royal couple settled down for awhile at the Prince's new seat in Norfolk, where, after a long round of balls, fetes, and entertainments, their Royal Highnesses have enjoyed themselves by driving about the estate, and visiting the surrounding neighbourhoods. The only drawback to the gaiety of the Court and the aristocracy during the London season was the great grief under which Her Majesty the Queen still laboured, and which kept her from appearing in public. Neverthe- less, Her Majesty has made several endeavours to draw herself partially from her seclusion, and we hope it may not be long before she is able entirely to do so. The opening of Parliament in the month of February will be remembered as the first occasion in which His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales took his seat in the House of Lords, as Premier Peer of the United Kingdom. He listened with attention to the debate on the address, and bowed his acknowledgments to the compliments which my Lord Dudley and the Earl of Grenard passed upon him. In another place the speech of Mr. Disraeli was also very eulogistic of the Prince and his fair bride. The address on the speech from the Throne was unanimously agreed to. The following is a summary of the more important ~hh.tr In Parliament which have been contested duriner the year. In January, the election for Totnes took place, and after much excitement Mr. Dent, the Con- servative candidate, was defeated by Mr. A. Seymour, by a majority of eight only in the same month the election for East Kent terminated in the triumph of Sir E. Dering (Liberal) over Sir N. Knatchbull; at Devonport and Devizes, Conservative candidates were returned, in the month of February, after fiercely- contested elections; at Tamworth, Sir Robert Peel's protege, Mr. Cowper, was defeated by a large ma- jority in favour of Mr. Peel, the independent can- didate. The Lancashire distress has, we regret to observe, been again reported on the increase. There is, how- ever, a great consolation in the fact that the Public Works Act is coming into operation in most of the towns in the cotton manufacturing districts. This will turn the labour of the workmen to useful public erections. A fearful colliery explosion took place in the month of October, in South Wales. It is stated that within the last eight years twenty lives have been lost In this pit, which belongs to Mr. Talbot, M.P., and is worked by the Messrs. Vivian. The scenes at the mouth of the pit when the accident happened were described as truly heartrending. The cause of the explosion was the negligence of one of the miners in using his safety- lamp. A number of murders have disfigured the newspaper records during the past year. The subjsct is not a genial one, and we will not linger to particularise them-merely remarking that capital punishment seems less than ever capable of repressing crime. The Volunteer gatherings at Wimbledon, in the month of July, passed off with great eclat, from the presence of the Prince and Princess of Wales. The exertions of Lord Elcho, the moving spirit in the com- mittee, are worthy of every commendation. The notorious William Roupell, ex-M.P. for Lam- beth, left his prison cell in the month of July to enter the witness-box against a Mr. Hawes, who held pro- perty under the convict's v% orthless title deeds. He again swore to his own guilt of forgery and perjury, but this time the jury were not unanimous, and he was mnt back to prison, disappointed. Another great prize-fight, fresh in the recollection of our readers, has taken place during the year. Heenan and King, the two most gigantic athletse of the ring, met at Wadhurst early in December, and fought for 2,0001. After a tough struggle, King was pro- claimed victor, and the American has to go home again defeated. Subsequently they had to appear be- fere the magistrates, but we fear this was but a matter of form. Among the minor events of the year we may men- tion the introduction of the Budget, which gave satis- faction to the Legislature and the country alike the attempt of Sir George Grey to amalgamate the City and Metropolitan police forces, which was resisted success- fully by the people of London; the victory of Macaroni at the Derby and the Two Thousand; the agitation about Dr. Colenso; the Crawley court- martial (resulting in the acquittal of the accused); the action against Colonel Calthorpe for slandering Earl Cardigan; the death of poor Ann Walkley, and the public agitation on the subject; the revolution in Ma- dagascar and the death of King Radama the riots in Prussia—though of very little moment, concerning the ¡.Ia." minwtry the elevation of M. de Persigny to a dukedom, and his retirement into the otium citiib dignitate of private life; the visit of the Reverend Mr. Beecher to England, and his orations at Exeter Hall; the meeting of the Social Science Congress, the inaugural speech of Lord Brougham and the Times and Cobden quarrel, which will soon be for- gotten. The year 1863, like all other years, has taken away from us many of our public men of literature, politics, and art. We may head the list with one who died while the year was yet young, and who has taken no mean part in all the three great branches of our social economy--the Marquis of Lansdowne. A munificent patron of art, literature, and the drama, he died, at the age of 80, full of honour and beloved by all parties. Mr. Daniel Whittle Harvey and Captain Gladstone (brother of the Chancellor of the Exche- quer) both died in the month of February. The former was well known as an advanced Radical in politics, and as Chief Commissioner of the City police. Sir James Outram died early in the month of March, and was interred in Westminster Abbey, clese to the remains of Lord Macaulay, the historian and statesman. The life of this gallant sol- dier was truly one of devotion to his country, and he fully earned the honours which were heaped upon him. His Grace the Duke of Grafton, of fox-hunting cele- brity, also died in March, and his son, the Earl of Euston, succeeded to the title and family estates. Sir George Cornewall Lewis, at the time of his death Secretary for War, died early in April last, and was It'gretted by all who entertain respect for scholarly attainments and high official capacity and a scene of true affection for their old friend and colleague was witnessed when the members of the House of Com- mons heard of Sir George's demise. Prince Frederick William, brother of the King of Prussia, Lord Nor- manby, the Duke of Hamilton, Sir .Joshua Jebb, and Sir Cresswell Cresswell died in the month of July. Lord Clyde, the master spirit of the Indian war, died in August, greatly lamented by the country at large. A short time since an influential meeting was held, at which the Duke of Cambridge presided, and it was determined to erect a statue to the noble lord's honour. The venerable Lord Lyndhurst expired in October; he began life as plain Mr. Copley, and lived to be Lord High Chancellor thrice. His lord- llhip's life is truly a lesson. Archbishop Whately'B nalDe, too, figures in the long list of deaths, as do also those of Earl Elgin and Mr. Justice Wiglitinan, b.)th deceased during the last month. Finally, litera- ^j*re has sustained a severe loss in the death of Mr. hacker ay, one of the most original of modern novelists. Undoubtedly the most important event which has transpired on the Continent for years is the proposal of the Emperor of the French for a European Con- jfe8s" His Majesty frankly invited the sovereigns of ur°pe to a Congress in which the affairs of the Con- inent shpuld be discussed, and by means of whic'i Q Pacification of Europe should be arrived at with- M a shosk." Various powers responded in the affir- 1Ve to the Emperor's invitation, including Prussia, Italy, Spain, Russia, and the Germanic Confederation. England, however, held aloof from the proposal, and a letter from the Foreign Secretary informed the Emperor that his project was visionary and impracti- cable. Whether the Congress will ever sit, remains to be seen. At all events, it is a step in the right direction. The past year witnessed the rise and development of the Polish revolution. Beginning in a mere resis- tance to a forced conscription, and openly disavowed by the leaders of previous revolutionary movements in Poland, it gained strength gradually, and at last assumed the proportions of a national revolt. Every one of our readeis haa read the accounts of cruel- ties practised on both sides, and of the fearful struggles of the Poles for existence. England, France, and Austria joined together to reproach Russia for her cruelty, but nothing more. The insurrection is not yet "played out," or quelled, and no one can foretel at present what the end will be. The unhappy war in America still rages, and our readers are too familiar with the various phases of the struggle to need our mention of them here. Suffice it that the end seems as far off as ever that both sides seem embued with bitter hostility and the chances of war are pretty evenly balanced. When the end will come, or what it may be, no one can at present predict. The year saw the outbreak and, it is to be hoped, the close of hostilities between this country and Japan. The murder of Mr. Richardson led to a rupture of our friendly relations with Japan, which was followed, after some delay, by the bombardment of Kagosima. Many persons think the Government does not come out of the affair with clean hands. After the destruction of Kagosima, the Japanese agreed to give up the indemnity demanded by the British, and no further hostilities have taken place. The King of Denmark died in the month of No- vember. oa went bor^ .BomG important fruits for the European balance of power, we refer to it se- parately. His Majesty was a good king, as times go, but an indifferent husband. He was married mor- ganatically to a dancer, whom he raised to the peerage as the Countess Danner. The king died very sud- denly, and Prince Christian, father of the Princess of Wales and the King of the Greeks, has been pro- claimed King of Denmark. The interminable Schlea- wig-Holstein question has, of course, been revived, andbefore it is settled there, will, not improbably, be war between Denmark and Germany. The reunion of the Ionian Islands with Greece has now become afait accompli. Although much opposition was threatened, the Government carried their point without a collision, and the protectorate of England consequently ceases.. The Mexican war has been almost terminated during the year, and the country declared an empire. The capture of Puebla will be remembered as the first great advantage which the French gained, and as the stepping-stone to the conquest of the whole empire. Before long the Archduke Maximilian will probably be called to reign over the Mexicans by the voice of universal suffrage. The year has been marked in Russia by the abolition of serfdom, or, as the Czar terms it, the transitory epoch." On the occasion of the proclamation a Te Deum was sung in all the churches throughout the empire. Might not this be appropriately followed by concessions to Poland ? Eighteen Sixty-Three, which has taken a king from Denmark, has given one to Greece, over which kingdom George'I. now reigns in tranquillity. At first the infatuated Greeks would have none other than our own Prince Alfred for their king, but they were given to understand that, although their wish wag very flattering to the Prince, the Queen, and the nation, still (and with all due respect) they couldn't have him. The consequence was a great deal of diplomatic notification, a great many exchanges of courteous international dispatches, and at last the acceptance of the Crown by Prince George of Denmark, brother of our gracious Princess of Wales. Long live his Majesty, say we and may the Greek nation prosper, and discharge its debts. The year closes happily amid pretty general pros- perity. Our trade is good, and we are, if not at peace with all men, still unembarrassed by any great war, May it be, not for the nation only, but for our readers individually, A HAPPY NEW YEAR!
i EXECUTION of a WOMAN-DREADFUL SCENE upon the SCAFFOLD One of the most dreadful and sickening spectacles which has ever been associated with a public ex- ecution was witnessed at Chester on Monday, on the occasion of the execution of Alice Hewitt, for the murder of her mother. Our readers may remember that Hewitt (her mother being ill) induoed a female acquaintance to personate the old woman, and by this means an insurance upon her life was effected in the Wesleyan Life Association for 2bl. The evidence at the trial, before Mr. Justice Willes, on Dec. 8 and !), showed that prisoner, her mother, and a man named Holt, with whom she cohabited, lived together at Stockport. In February last the de- ceased, Mary Bailey, was taken ill, and the prisoner in- sured her life for 26I. at a premium of 6d. per week. She induced a woman named Betty Wood to personate her mother before the doctor, telling her that the agent said Any one would do." The proposal was accepted by the Wesleyan Assurance Society, and from that time the mother became worse. Prisoner called in the parish surgeon and the infirmary visiting officer, both of whom were ignorant of the other's visits, and complained of their medicine not being given. On the 25th and 26th the prisoner bought some arsenic—a quarter of a pound each time, which she put in a jug with some boiling water, and sprinkled about the room where her mother lay to kill vermin. The night of the 26th deceased had some brandy-and- water, and complained of "grounds" being at the bottom Prisoner said, "You ought to have drunk grounds and all." Mary Bailey died in the morning with all the symptoms of arsenical poisoning, and was buried. The personation came to the ears of theotfice, and the body was disinterred on June 12, when the body was found perfectly fresh but "saturated with arsenic," of which no less than 160 gtains were found in the stomach and adjacent parts. The unfortunate woman was not tried at the summer assizes, in consequence of her being enciente, and she was delivered of an illegitimate child, which has since been adopted by Holt's uncle, the only person who has visited her during her imprisonment. She has been sullen, and strongly protested her innocence. On Sun- day, the 27th, the prisoner, however, made the follow- ing statement:— On the Monday before mother died, I brought the in- surance paper home, insuring my mother's life for 261, and mine for 281. He then proposed I should get some charcoal and put it under mother's bed alight when she was asleep, and she would never wake more. On Wednesday night Holt and I never went to bed. He said it would be a great re- leasement if she was in her grave, and he would buy some stretchnine (strychnine) if I would give it her. I said, "Thou'lt be found our." He said," They cannot find it out by that." I said, Thoujhast brought me to destruction, and now thou wants to bring me to the gallows." He then beat me. In the beer of which I spoke I saw, after rry mother had drunk it, a quantity of blue arsenic grounds. I said, "Thou hast given my mother arsenic." He said, "If thou tell aught, I'll have thee up for defrauding the in- surance," and said, nobody will believe but what thou hast done it thyself." This was the only arsenic my mother ever had. Another statement was afterwards made by the prisoner to this effect George Holt offered mother some beer, in which the arsenic was put. Mother was sick and could not take it, ™ ?^t it on the mantelpiece and went out. I said, .Mother can'st notaup this gill of beer ? She (hen took it rrom my hand and supp'n It. When I looked at the iii" I saw the blue arsenic at the bottom. There w is 1V oz l'effc 101 smeUlnff-hottlo. I put the j ug on the top shelf of the cupboard, and thouoht of taking it myself. When Ann Bailey cleaned the oupWd out it was washed out. She says, This is arsenic. That is the jug thy mother had her beer in." T said, Yes, I did not know how it had gotten in." Betty Wood then came in, and our discourse was dropped off. Both these statements were signed. In the middle of the night of Sunday last she was removed from the county to the city gaol, accompanied by thft chaplain, Rev. J. M. Kilner; the city sheriff, R. "Littler and the governor of the gaol. On her arrival she partook of toast and coffee, and listened attentively to the exhortations of Mr. Kilner, joining audibly vruen in chapel in the prayer for murderers introduced in the Burial Service. 1 no execution took place at ten minutes past eight. The -weather was bitterly cold, with a slight fall of snow, yet an excited mob of some 3,000 or 4,000 people were. gathered in front of the gaol. As soon as the cnvninal stepped upon the platform a subdued murmur y Vn through the crowd, which was followed by a death. like silence for a few minutes, broken only by the piteous wailings of the culprit. The cap and rope | having been adjusted, she fell upon her knees, and prayed that her infant child might be spared a similar fate, and that her death might be a warning to others. She then rose, and in the most piteous manner begged the executioner to make haste with his dreadful work. Calcraft then withdrew on one side, and pulled the bolt, but the drop would not fall. A second time the attempt was made, but with the same result. All this time the doomed woman was heard exclaiming, "Make haste!" and each time she heard the bolt withdrawn she gave an agonising shriek. Calcraft went through his work with the coolness of a practised hand, and the third time, with the aid of some of the gaol officials, the drop fell with a dull, heavy thud. The woman fell with a violent jerk about three or four The woman fell with a violent jerk about three or four feet, and the prayer upon her lips was left unfinished. rl She struggled hard, and her sufferings were aggravated by the incomplete adjustment of the rope as well as from her being a very light and slender woman. Calcraft almost immediately went in front of the dying woman and strapped her legs more tightly. A few groans and a few more struggles, and all was over. The condemned woman was thinly and poorly attired.
GARIBALDI AND VICTOR HUGO. The following letters have just been interchanged between Garibaldi and Victor Hugo, and were first published in the Guernsey Star TO VICTOR HUGO. Caprera, Nov. 25, 1863. Dear Victor Hugo,—I was certain of your assistance, and you must be certain of my gratitude. What you say is true; and I wish I had the million of hearts which would make the million of muskets unnecessary. I would have the univer- sal concord which would render war needless. I, like you, await with confidence the awakening of the peoples, but to realise truth without suffering, and to follow the triumph- ant road of justice without watering it with tears, this is the ideal that has thus far in vain been sought. It is for you, who are the lightbearer, to point out a less painful way, and for us to follow you.—Your friend for life. GARIBALDI. TO GENERAL GARIBALDI, CAPRERA. nauteville House, Dec. 20,1863. Dear Garibaldi,—We both of us have faith, and our faith is the same. The awakening of the nations is inevitable. For myself I have a deep conviction that when the time is come, but little blood will be shed. The Europe of the peoples fara da so. Even the revolutions the most fortunate and the most necessary, have their responsibilities, and yow, 1io myaelt, are of those who dread for them the enor- mous weight of a drop of bloodunneccssarily shed. Let us have no blood at all-that is the ideal-and why not the ideal ? When the ideal is reached by men, and you your- self suffice to prove it, why may it not be attained by things ? The level of hatreds sinks in proportion as the level of hearts is elevated. Let us then all endeavour to elevate them. Deliverance by mind-revolution by civilisation— this is our object—yours as well as mine. And when we must fight the last battle we may be assured that it will be beautiful, generous, and great-it will be as beneficent as any battle can be. The problem is in some sort solved by your presence. You are the hero of peace traversing the path of war. You are the righteous sword.—Dear friend, I press your illustrious hand. VICTOR HUGo. On the subject of Garibaldi's health, a letter recently addressed byMenotti Garibaldi to M. Giulio Rizzo, of Naples, published by the Popolo d'Italia, contains the following passage:—"My father's health is ex- cellent he walks about the island with his cane only, and hopes to be able to join you next spring, to take pa.rt in the last battles for our independence." "F-
A MAN WITHOUT A COUNTRY. A curious article has been published in the Atlantic Monthly, giving dates, names of officials and vessels of war, as if intended to be taken as literal fact. It is a history of Philip Nolan, who is described as having been, in 1805, a lieutenant in the United States' army, and who became im- plicated with Burr in some of his schemes of "treason." The narrative is as follows Nolan was tried by court-martial, found guilty, and, when asked if he had anything to say why he had not been faithful to the United States, he replied, the United States! I wish I may never hear of the United States again." The court-martial, it is said, took him at his word, and sentenced him to be hence- forth a man without a country. The authorities at Washington approved the sentence, and, immediately after, Nolan was transported to a vessel bound on a long cruise. From that time up to the hour of his death—a period of nearly sixty years-the United States became to him as if they never had existed. Whenever the vessel upon which he was embarked approached this country, he was transferred to one outward bound. The name of the United States was never mentioned in his hearing. All books and papers, before going to him, were carefully examined, and every allusion to this country completely removed. He was so surrounded that under no circumstance was there anything relating to the United States mentioned in his hearing. During his last sickness, and a few hours before his death, his physician, in obedience to his urgent entreaties, gave him a summary of the changes which occurred from 1807 down to May, 1863, during all which time not one syllable relative to his country had ever reached him. He is stated to have ditd on the United States' corvette Levant on the 11th of May of the present year. "I tell you," says the doctor, it was a hard thing to condense the history of half a century into that talk with a sick man. And I do not now know what I told him-of emigration and the means of it; of steamboats and rail- roads and telegraphs; of inventions, and books, and literature; of the colleges and West Point, and the Naval School; but with the queerest interruptions that ever you heard. You see it was Robinson Crusoe asking all the accumulated questions of 56 years. I told him everything I could think of that would show him the grandeur of his country and its prosperity; but I could not make up my mouth to tell him a word about this infernal rebellion. And he drank it in, and enjoyed it as I cannot tell you. He grew more and more silent, yet I never thought he was tired or faint. I gave him a glass of water, but he just wet his lips, and told me not to go away. Then he asked me to bring the Presbyterian'Book of Public Prayer,' which lay there, and said with a smile that it would open at the right place, and so it did. There was his double red mark down the page, and I knelt down and read, and he repeated with me- For ourselves and our country, 0 gracious God, we thank Thee, that, notwithstanding our manifold transgressions of Thy holy laws, Thou hast continued to us Thy marvellous kindness. And so to the end of that thanksgiving. Then he turned to the end of the same book, and I read the words more familiar to me— Most heartily we beseech Thee with Thy favour to behold and bless Thy servant, the President of the United States, and all others in authority. And the rest of the Episcopal collect. 'Danforth,' said he, I have repeated those prayers night and morning; it is now 55 years.' And then he said he would go to sleep. He bent me down over him and kissed me. I thought he was tired and would sleep. I knew he was happy, and I wanted him to be alone." But in an hour, when the doctor went in gently, he found Nolan had breathed Bis life away. We locked in his Bible, and there was a slip of paper, written- Bury me in the sea-it has been my home, and I love it. But will not some one set up a stone for my memory at Fort Adams or at Orleans, that my disgrace may not be more than I ought to bear? Say on it,—"In memory of Philip Dolan, lieutenant in the army of the United States. He loved his country as no other man has loved her but no man deserved less at her hands."
A SAD CHRISTMAS. Early on Friday morning last, a fire broke out in the tavern of Mr. Gameson, Birmingham. In the house at the time were George Gameson, landlord Mrs. Gameson, his wife Mrs. Bradley, an old lady who came that evening to spend her Christmas holi- day; a general servant (name not ascertained); a nurse girl named Spratt, aged about twelve and Mr. Gameson's six children, varying in age from two years to seventeen. The first alarm of fire was given by two young men who happened to be passing at about half-past four o'clock. The landlord, who was sleeping in the back bedroom on the first floor, got out by the window. He had nothing on but his shirt, and seemed to be half mad as he ran about the street calling for some one to help to save his wife and children. A crowd soon col- lected, and a young man brought a ladder, by which Mrs. Gameson was enabled to get out at the window. After a few minutes, which to the affrighted on-lookers appeared to be hours, one of ths garret windows was thrown up and the girl Hancocks, with a fearful cry, threw herself from it into the street, where she fell with a dull sound upon the hard pavement. So sudden, and so unexpected—for the window was on the second floor-liad been the action that no one had attempted, or had time to attempt, to break the fall, and the poor girl lay for some time upon the ground as though dead. She, however, recovered speedily, and beyond a slight pain in her side, she did not complain of having received any injury. injury. No sooner had the people recovered from the surprise and delight of this almost miraculous escape, than the other garret window was thrown up, and the boy John appeared at it, and was heard to call upon his sisters t) allo him to throw them through into the street. They did not respond, and the heroic boy, after waiting some time amid the stifling smoke, threw his youngest brother George upon the pavement. The father rushed forward to pick up his youngest horn, and whilst stooping over him, his eldest son fell upon the hard paving stones by his side, having thrown himself from the window to escape impending death. It was nearly an heur before any one could go into the building. Many people volunteered to do so sooner, and the landlord had to be held back by main force from rushing to what would have been a certain death in a hopeless attempt to save his children. When danger to the firemen had ceased, three brave men ascended the escape, and entered the attics. The fi! gt body found was thn t of the old lady, Mrs. Bradley, who lay flat upon the floor, with her head partially under the bed, and her legs extending towards the window. She was partially dressed, and appeared, when she heard the alarm, to have a 'sen and com- menced to dress herself. The children ;.ad their young nurse were found in different parts of this and the other attic, all dead, and some partially burnt. The body of the little boyWillie was quite naked, and charred quite black, whilst Matilda's flowing and beautiful tresses waved in the wind as they had done in life. The ap- pearance of the bodies lead to the belief that death did not come in the cruel form of fire, but that the smoke suffocated the poor creatures, after which the flames partially roasted their dead bodies. Six persons perished.
MAKING THE BEST OF IT. "In the Court of Common Pleas, last week, a cause, "Langan v. Hughes," was tried, and was an action for breach of promise of marriage against a major-general. In opening the pleadings it was stated that the plaintiff was Miss Frances Georgiana Langan, the defendant was James Victor Hughes. The plaintiff was a lady of good birth, and she sued the defendant, a major-general in the army, but now retired, in consequence of a breach by him of an engagement entered into many years ago, and renewed from time to time, to marry her. The only plea being a denial of the engagement, if it had become necessary for him, which he was happy to say it was not, he should have shown the jury by a correspondence extending over years and years that the promise had been made and Renewed and he should also have shown them that Major-General Hughes had now put it out of his power to perform his_ promise to Miss Langan, inas- much as he had married another lady. This being so, and the breach not being justified in any way, the only possible question would be the amount of damages. He had, therefore, conferred with his learned friend who appeared for the defendant, and had arranged the amount of damages to be paid and the only duty of the jury would be to give a verdict in accordance with that arrangement. Mr. Coleridge said that through the candour of his learned friend he had had an opportunity of seeing the letters of Major-General Hughes and after having seen them, he felt that it would be idle to take up the time of the jury with the question whether a promise to marry had been made, for the letters showed abund- antly conclusive to his mind that such a promise had been made and therefore the only question was one of damages for having broken a promise very solemnly entered into. Under these circumstances he had agreed, on the part of Major-General Hughes, to give substantial damages. He was bound also to say that having heard from his learned friend that there was a letter in which Miss Langan thought that Major- General Hughes made some reflection upon her, he wished to say that there was no intention to cast the smallest imputation of any kind, and that if there re- mained any suspicion that there was an imputation, Major-General Hughes, through him, withdrew it. In conclusion, he had simply to say that Major-General Hughes, like many other people, had changed his mind, and must pay for it; and the jpry would find a verdict for the plaintiff, damages 10WI.-Ver(lict accordingly.
THE RANK OF SERGEANT-COOK IN THE ARMY! The annexed circular memorandum, addressed to the army at home and abroad, has been promulgated Horse Guards, Dec. 2. His Royal Highness the Field-Marshal Commanding-in-Chief, in concurrence with the Secretary of State for Was-, is pleased to direct that the following instructions for sergeant-cooks be issued to the army 1. The sergeant-cook will personally superintend all cooking done in the regimental cook-house?, which is to be carried on in strict conformity with the system in which he has been instructed at Aldershott. 2. He will have under his orders, at most, one cook and one assistant per troop, company, or battery but this number may be reduced, at the discretion of the commanding officer the former is to be changed only at long intervals, or upon misconduct, and the latter weekly. 3. He will thoroughly instruct those under him in all operations connected with cooking. 4. He will have charge of all cook-houses and cooking utensils. He will cause them to be kept scru- pulously clean, and will report any damage or loss at once to the quartermaster. 5. He will enforce order, punctuality, and cleanli- ness on the part of those under him, and he alone will give them such orders connected with cooking as may be necessary. 6. He will not allow any person to enter any of the cook-houses, except on duty. 7. He will ascertain every morning from the quarter- master, or other person representing him, the number of men in each company, troop, &c., in mess for the day, and make arrangements accordingly. 8. He will cause-the water for coffee and tea, and as vegetables to be boiled in quantities as large as the size of the boilers will admit, without regard to troops, companies, &c. The vegetables for each mess to be enclosed in nets and labelled. 9. The dinners to be prepared by squadrons, batte- ries, or companies, unless the cooking apparatus be unsuitable for so doing, in which case such combina- tions are to be effected as may be found most economical. 10. He will encourage the men to have their dinners preparedin as many different ways as the apparatus will admit, due regard being paid to rule 11; and he will afford them every facility for their so doing. 11. He will be held responsible that no more fires are lighted, or ovens heated, than may be absolutely necessary, and that all the cinders are consumed. He will keep with accuracy the diary of cooking on the printed form provided for the purpose, and will hand it to the quartermaster on the first day of every month. 12. He will, as early as possible, report to the com- manding officer any case in which all the bones and refuse are not collected from the barrack-rooms by the orderlies, and deposited in the. appointed places; or any case in which the contractor does not remove them every alternate day at least, such provision being one of the conditions of sale. 13. He will, on the morning of the day on which the coals arc issued, furnish the (quartermaster with a note of the amount of coals he will probably require during the ensuing week. This estimate may equal, but must not exceed, the regulated allowance, and, with economy, may be much less.
TWO HISTORICAL PARALLELS. .t_ Louis Ponce de Leon, the monk, theologian, and poet, was arrested one morning after his usual lecture in the far-famed University of Salamanca in the autumn of 1572, and brought before the Inquisition of Valladolid (writes the Tinted Paris correspondent). The crime he was charged with was having made, at the request of a friend unacquainted with the Oriental languages, a version of the Song of Solomon," with a commentary explaining its character and purposes. His work had nothing in it profane or scoffing, or that any one could object to. Louis de Leon was of the order of St. Augustine, and was one of the most orthodox among the ortho- dox but the Inquisition thought they discovered in his manuscript, which had been copied by a trea- cherous servant, traces of Lutheranism. The Luther- anism was imaginary and tould not be sustained but to .the charge of having made a translation into the vernacular, contrary to a decree of the Council of Trent, he had little or no defence. The Spanish monk, who certainly was no Protestant, repudiated ener- getically the imputation of Lutheranism and as for the translation, he simply pleaded that he had made it for a friend, out of whose hand he never meant it to pass; that it had never been published nor intended to be published. He was left to languish for five years in the prison of Valladolid; his health was im- paired, and his spirits almost broken and it might have gone still harder with him but for the interven- tion of a powerful friend. That intervention was so useful that not only was he released, but was allowed to return to Salamanca, and to resume the chair of St. Thomas Aquinas in his beloved University. Louis de Leon was venerated by the students and the people. The day on which he was to appear, the lecture-room was crowded to excess not only from a desire to see him in the old familiar place, but from curiosity to hear him denounce his oppressors and de- scribe the unjust and undeserved treatment he had met with. When the assembly beheld that form bowed by suffering, that countenance pale and emaci- ated from illness, and the eye which the cells of Val- ladolid had not quite dimmed, a murmur of delight ran round the hall, and all rose to greet him. Not one but expected that he would at once enter upon the tale of his wrongs but they were disappointed. Louis de Leon gently raised his hand, looked calmly around, and in the midst of the deepest silence, began-" My friends, as I remarked, when we last met here;" and continued his lecture on the same subject as when he had last appeared before them, with no allusion what- ever to his imprisonment, as if it had been a blank and had left not the slightest trace on his memory. Among those who thronged the hall and the gallery of the Legislative Chamber in Paris, on Thursday last, there were many who were there from curiosity to hear M. Thiers, and who hoped or feared that he would yield to the temptation of alluding, however indirectly, to the morning when he was arrested, im- prisoned, and expelled the country, while the man, then Minister of the Interior, by whose orders it was done, was the same who now presides in the Chamber to which M. Thiers has been elected, after an absence of twelve years. If there were any such, they were as much disappointed as the students of Salamanca. M. Thiers stood up to speak with the same calm as if that long period of enforced silence had really no existence, and as if it were but yesterday, instead of twelve long years ago, he had stood in a place where he once reigned all but supreme. The subject was one with which he is well acquainted, and had but an indirect relation to politics. The moderation of M. Thiers's speech was remarked by every one. He spoke with great self-command and caution; he provoked no recrimination, and he scrupulously avoided anything which would excite the u le passions or prejudices of any party. It is reported that the Emperor expresses himself much pleased with the speech. He, too, perhaps, is agreeably dis- appointed at the absence of delicate topics but if he really is so satisfied as people say, he must now feel how mistaken his ex-Minister, M. de Persigny, was in combating with so much violence and denouncing as an enemy to the country the man who has just shown that he can, even on such questions, delight, if not completely convince a public assembly.
THE DEATH OF MR. THACKERAY. Mr. Thackeray was found dead in his bed on Tuesday morning, December 24th. Sudden as the loss of Peel, or of Talfourd, or of Lord Macaulay, whose death saddened the Christmas holi- days three years ago,—sudden, also, as other recent deaths of able men who laboured worthily in the world's eye, but whose calling did not bring them so near as that of the foremost novelist to «ie world's heart, has been this new cause of public gner (says the Examiner). For a few days past Mr. Thackeray has been slightly unwell, yet he was about among his friends, and he was out even on Wednesday evening. But when called at about 9 o'clock on Thursday morning he was found dead in his bed, with placid face, having apparently died without suffering pain. Mr. Thackeray's age was but fifty-two, and he seemed a man large, vigorous, cheerful, with yet a quarter of a century of life in him. There were some parts of his character that never felt the touch of his years, and these were tenderly remembered yesterday at many a Christmas fireside. There was to the last in him the sensibility of a child's generous heart that time had not sheathed against light touches of pleasure and pain. His sympathy was prompt and keen, but the same quick feeling made him also over-sensitive to the small annoyances that men usually learn to take for granted as but one form of friction to his sensitiveness, and did in his writings what thousands of men do in their lives, shrouded an over-tender heart in a transparent veil of cynicism. Often he seemed to his readers to be trifling or nervously obtruding himself into his story when he was but shrinking from the full discovery of his own simple intensity of feeling. In his most polished works, "Vanity Fair," "Es- mond," or the Newcomes," in which book the affected cynicism,that, after all, could not strike deeper than into the mere surface of things, is set aside, and more nearly than in any other of his works, discharge is made of the whole true mind of William Thackeray—in these his masterpieces there is nothing better, nothing more absolutely genuine and perfect in its way than the pure spirit of frolic in some of his comic rhymes. He could play with his "Pleaseman X," very much as a happy child plays with a toy and how freely and delightfully the strength of his wit flowed into the child's panto- mime tale of The Hose and the Ring." It is not now the time for taking exact measure of the genius of the true writer we have lost. What sort of hold it took upon the English mind and heart his countrymen knew by the sad and gentle words that yesterday connected the sense of his loss in almost every household with the great English festival of lovingkindness. There are men who, appealing to widely-spread forms of ignorance or prejudice, have more readers than Mr. Thackeray, and yet the loss of one of these writers on the eve of Christmas would have struck home nowhere beyond the private circle of his friends. Whatever the extent or limit of his genius, Mr. Thackeray found the way to the great generous English heart. And the chief secret of his power was the simple strength of sympathy within him, that he might flinch from expressing fully, but that was none the less the very soul of his successful v ork. Quickly impressible, his mind was raw to a rough touch but the same quality gave all the force of the truth to his writing, all the lively grace to his style. That part of him which was the mere blind he put up at the inconveniently large window to his breast, degenerated into formula; and there were "orne who might be pardoned for becoming weary at the repetition of old patterns of sarcasm at the skin-deep vanities of life. But the eye was a dull one that could not look through the muslin work into a mind that, so to speak, was always making Christmas, although half ashamed to be known at the clubs as guilty of so much indul- gence in the luxuries of kindly fellowship, and so con- tinual an enjoyment of the purest side of life. Whatever little fends may have gathered about Mr. Thackeray's public life lay lightly on the surface of the minds that chanced to be in contest with him. They could be thrown off in a moment, at the first shock of the news that he was dead. In the course of his active career there are few of his literary brethren with whom he has not been brought into contact. At one time he was a fellow-worker with us in this journal. He worked much and variously; many and various also were his friends. To some of the worthiest in the land he was joined in friendship that had endured throughout the lifetime of a generation, and there are very humble rooms in London where there were tears yesterday for him whose left hand did not know what his right hand had done in silent charity.
A JEWISH BREACH OF PROMISE. The case of "Meyer v. Gottinger" has been tried at the Court of Common Pleas, and was an action to recover da- mages for a breach of promise to marry, the plaintiff being 28 years old, and the defendant by admission 60, but perhaps, as was suggested, 70 years of age. Both parties were of the Jewish religion, and met in the first instance at the syna- gogue. The particulars are as under Mr. Huddleston said that the plaintiff, Miss Frances Meyer, was a young lady, 28 years of age, the daughter of a gentleman who carried on business as an importer of foreign goods in Houndsditcli. The defendant was of more mature age—he was GO years old, and having carried on a lucrative business as a merchant, he had retired to live in Noel-street, Islington. He had been for some time a widower, and in July of last year he became acquainted with some members of the plaintiff's family whom he had met at the synagogue, both parties to the suit being of the Hebrew persuasion. Mr. Meyer had ten children, of whom the plaintiff was the eldest. The defendant having seen the plaintiff, requested permission to be introduced to her, and he became in- timate with the plaintiff's family in the course of August and September. In October his attentions to Miss Meyer became very marked, and they continued through the remaining months of 1862. In May, 1863, the defendant spoke to the mother of Miss Meyer on the subject of marrying the young lady, and he mentioned to the mother hisposition in society. He said he was a widower that he was possessed of 6001. or 8007. a year, derived from property. He also said that he would be prepared to settle upon the plaintiff 5,0001., to be at her own disposal. Mrs. Meyer said that she could scarcely make any arrangement without first having the consent of the lady and of her father. It was, therefore, desired that the defendant should see the lady, make his proposal, and ascer- tain whether he would be accepted or not. He had an interview with the plaintiff—she accepted him —and he came out of the room in a state of great exultation, saying that he had been accepted; and from that moment tli parties were treated as being affianced to each other. The defendant was very eager that the marriage should take place almost immediately indeed, he wanted to be married within a month after the proposal was made but the father suggested that this would he too soon. and the 5th of August was fixed for the wedding-day. After the proposal had been made, the defendant took a house in Noel-street, Islington, and began to furnishit. He visited the plaintifr continually, presented her with agold watch arid earrings, and said that he had been looking out for a diamond necklace, but could not find one that was sufficiently expensive. He was also taken down to Ramsgate and introduced to the plaintiff's relations in that town, and everything was done upon the faith that the marriage was to take place upon the 5tb of August. The defendant became ill, and during that illness he asked most tenderly after his intended bride, and said that, if anything should happen to him, he had taken precaution that she should not su fier. Having recovered, the parties went for a drive in Victoria Park, and on that occasion the defendant asked her to accom- pany him to Scarborough, and she said that she thought that this would not be quite right until after they were married. Whether from this cause or not, the defendant soon afterwards told plaintiff's brother that he had cbauged his mind, and he refused to marry the plaintiff. The plaintiff's mother went to the defend- ant to ask him what he meant by this, and the only answer she got was, "I do not intend to marry her, and you may do what you like." In conclusion the learned counsel said that he did not put this case before the jury as one in which any great affection or roman- tic sentiment was involved but still the fact remained that a lady of mature age had lost the chance of being settlrd in life, and there was no doubt that she was entitled to substantial damages. Mr. Serjeant Ballantine rose and said that his client was perfectly prepared to marry the lady. The Lord Chief Justice asked whether the defendant was ready to forfeit the 5,0001, which Mr. Huddleston said he had promised to settle on the plaintiff in case he did not marry her in a month. Mr. Serjeant Ballantine said that he was perfectly pre- pared to forfeit a reasonable sum in case he again broke his promise, and to make such provision for Miss Meyer when his wife as his means would admit of. No arrangement was made, and the trial went on.- The first witness called was Mr. Meyer, who deposed as follows:— I am the plaintiff's father, and an importer of fancy goods, in July, i&>2, 1 tbe plaintiff pty plwe j of worship. The defendant sat next me, and addressed himself tome. He said he was a widower, lonely, and in- dependent, and had been living in England for eight years. He asked me to let him call. He first called about October and continued to call from time to time up to May. In consequence of what my wife told me in that month, I spoke to him, and told him I must see to my daughter's interest, and that there was a disparity of age. He used the German word (ti-wU? (although it was said that there is no English equivalent to this word, we venture to translate it as" All right"), and added that he was strong and hearty, and should like to see my daughter in private. He saw her, and said he was quite satisfied. He would settle 5.0002. on her and to her own use, and he expected a family. I said I was perfectly satisfied. He said, I am the happiest man in the world; and he wanted to be mar- ried in a fortnight or three weeks. I objected, and we flxed the 5th of August. The defendant was introduced to mem- bers of my family as accepted suitor. I went with him to Dr. Adier, the chief rabbi. He told the doctor be was going to be married, and asked, Am I not right in getting married ?" He said, "Yes, certainly.' lie got a certificate in Hebrew. I spent 100?. in providing for the marriage. The defendant gave my daughter silk dresses and jewellery, and said he was looking out for It diamond necklace, but could find nothing to his fancy. I and my son went to a house taken by the defendant in consequence of something said by my wife. The bedroom was not furnished according to our English notions of comfort. He said be meant the rooms to be in the German style. I said he had promised to get other things. I pointed out various things as necessary, a washhandstand for instance. Chief Justice Erie: Was there not one? Witness: I saw none. He said he would see my daughter. The defendant told me he had originally 0002. or 700Z. a year. His securities were in a chest, which I saw. Cross-examined by Mr. Serjeant Ballantine:—I have three other daughters younger. It was arranged that 5,0001. should be settled. I think I should have allowed her to marry without settlement, for he said he had no family, and the property would have come to his wife. I think I should not have consented originally. I found no great fault with the furniture. I do not think there was anything I praised. The defendant said he had been German all his life, and he should like to continue to live like a German. I did not let him come to my house for months after he first spoke to me. Ile never said that he had neither the means nor the inclination to settle anything on her. He said he would make her com- fortable and happy and provide for her by his will. It was his offer to make a settlement. I did say, "If my daughter has no influence now, what would she after marriage?" but I never said it should be broken off. I do not know of any letters. I never asked my daughter, but she has no letters. Chief-Justice Erie: I do not wish to interfere, but have you not asked every question you can think of? Mr. Sergeant Ballantine: I take credit to myself for not occupying time unreasonably, but I can't call the defendant. Mr. Huddleston Nor I the plaintiff. Mr. Sergeant Ballantine: I wish you would; then they could settle It amicably. In answer to Mr. Henry James, who re-examined the plaintiff, he said that there was only a small bedstead and a few chairs in the bedroom; no washhandstand, no wardrobe, and no curtains. Mrs. Meyer, the plaintiff's mother, stated that the defen- dant first asked her if she had any objection to his recom- mending a partie; afterwards he proposed himself, said he had 7001. or 8001. a year, and would make my daughter as comfortable as a lady could desire, and settle 6,0002. upon her. He expected to have children, in which case his fortune would be divided; if he had no family, he would leave his wife all his^lroperty, except a legacy to his sister, an old lady at Berlin. Mrs. Meyer then shortly detailed the very pro- saic course of the defendant's courtship, until he broke his promise, refused to marry the plaintiff, and said that they might go to law or do whatever they liked. THe plaintiff's brother was called to confirm the evidence given by his father and brother. Notwithstanding the eloquent and indignant speech of Mr. Huddleston, and the sarcastic and energetic reply of Mr. Serjeant Ballantine, the question was really one of pounds, shillings, and pence, and the jury gave a verdict for the plaintiff.—Damages, 750h
THE COST OF THE AMERICAN WAR! The New York Herald, in a recent number, thus summarises the cost of the civil war up to the present time :— During the Abolition war at least 100,000 men have been killed, 400,000 have been disabled for life thus half a million have been subject to death, wounds, and to sickness worse than wounds in the armies of both sides. What amount of human misery has occurred beyond and behind the armies we shall not now inquire. The amount of property destroyed during the war may be roughly estimated at 500,000,000 dol- lars. The injury inflicted on our commerce and carrying trade may be stated at 100,000,000 dollars. This is rather under than above the mark, for the rebel Maffit asserts that he alone has destroyed 11,000,000 dollars' worth of ships and cargoes, and Setnmes has destroyed much more. The war debt nf the North and South amount to about 5,000,000,000 dollars. If the war ends by the abolition of slavery, we shall have to keep a standing army of a hundred thousand men, and support two or three millions of indigent negroes for several years. But we will leave that probability out of the account, and will also refrain from estimating the millions and billions of dollars which the now impeded industry of this country would have produced had not the Abolitionists caused this war. We wish to confine ourselves to facts and figures of indisputable authenticity. And what do these facts and figures show ? Estimating the white population of the United States in 1800 at 20,000,000—and this is within a few hundreds of the official figures—we find that the Abolitionists have been instrumental in causing the death of one man out of every 2/10 people, and the crippling or otherwise disabling of one man out of every 52 people. Also, that the Abolitionists have caused the destruction of property valued at600,000,000 dollars and a war expenditure of about 5,000,000,000 dollars. If these are things to be proud of, let the Abolitionists hold a perpetual jubilee.
A CANDID OriNioN.—If you ask a man to give you his candid opinion, it implies that you are prepared to hear something disagreeable, and that you think it is more likely that what he says will be some- thing disagreeable than otherwise (says the Saturday Ra iev:). It would be too much to say that, in phrases like these, the words "candid opinion" have come themselves to mean" unfavourable opinion;" still they are almost always used in such a way as to imply that a candid opinion will most likely be an un- favourable opinion. WOMEN IN BATTLE !-The correspondent of the Cincinnati Times, describing a fight with part of General Bragg's forces at Ringgold, near Chattanooga, says:— Several of the fair sex were in the Confederate ranks, and certainly conducted themselves with a great deal of courage. We make no reflections on their taste in entering the ranks with negroes and greasy greybacks. Rebeldom now needs every aid on the earth above or in the caverns under it.
THE MARKETS. MARK LANE, MONDAS. l''t\ h up to Mark-lane to-day, the arrivals of English wheat were small, but, owing to the holidays, there was a very moderate number of buyers in attendance. The condi- tion of the wheat was tolerably good, The trade both for red and white qualities was in a sluggish state, and factors, had they felt disposed to force sales, would have ,been com- pelled to accept less money. Very little business was, how- ever, transacted, and prices must be considered nominally the same as on Monday last. There was a moderate supply of foreign wheat on the stands. In all descriptions the transactions were on a limited scale, yet last Monday's quotations were in most instances supported. The amount of business done in floating cargoes of grain was much restricted, at about previous rates. Owing to the large supplies on offer, and the heaviness in the trade in the country markets, the demand for all des- criptions of barley was in a sluggish state, and late quotations were barely supported. Even good and fine malting parcels were a dull inquiry, The market was well suppled with malt, and the trade ruled heavy, at drooping prices. The supply of oats on offer was very moderate. The falling off in the supply was caused by the decreased importations, the show of samples of home-grown produce being tolerably good. All descriptions were in slow request, at barely pre- vious quotations. Beans, the supply'of which was moderate, moved off slowly, on former terms. Peas met a slow sale, at late currencies. The market was flat, and moderately supplied with samples. There was very little American flour on offer. The supply of home descriptions, however, was tolerably large, and the trade ruled quiet, at late rates. METROPOLITAN CATTLE MAHKET, MONDAY. Our market to-day was but moderately supplied with foreign stock but the general quality of the sheep from Hol- land was good. From our own grazing districts the receipts of beasts fresh up were limited, even for the time of the year. Most breeds, however, came to hand in good saleable condition. Some of the Scots and shorthorns were remark- ably prime. Scots, crosses, Devons, and the best shorthorns moved' off freely, at an advance in the quotations compared with Monday last of 2d per Sib Otherwise the beef trade was inactive, nevertheless prices were well supported, and a good clearance was effected. The highest value for Scots was 5s 2d per 81b We were very scantily supplied with sheep, but their quality was prime. All breeds com- manded a steady sale, at fully last week's currency. The top figure for Downs was 6s per SIb. Nearly the whole of the supply found buyers. Calves-the show of which was limited —met a dull inquiry, at late rates, viz., from 4s to 5s per 81b. The pork trade was somewhat heavy, on former terms, which ranged from 3s fid to 4s oil per 81b. HOPS. Since we last wrote a very moderate business has been transacted in all kinds of hops. The supplies of produce on offer, however, being somewhat restricted, the quotations are well supported. The import last week amounted to 44 bales from Dunkirk, 91 from Ostend, 50 from Hamburg, :?5 from Rotterdam, 83 from Antwerp, 126 from Bremen, 30 from Boulogne, and 20 from Calais. Mid and East Kents, 100s to 1808; Weald of Kents, 90s to 126s; Sussex, 90s to 120s: Yearlings, 60s to lOQs; Olds, 20s to 30s; Bavarian, 105s to 160s: Belgian, 72s to 84s; American, 105s to 120s per cwt. ""POTATOES. Full average supplies of potatoes continue to be received at these markets. In most qualities a fair business is doing, and very little change has taken place in prices, when com- pared with last week. Yorkshire Regents, 75s to 85s; ditto Flukes, 90s to 100s; ditto Rocks 60s to 70s; Perth, Forfar and Fifeshire Regents, 60s to 70s; ditto Rocks, 60s to 60s; Kent and Essex Regents, 70s to 80s per ton. WOOL. The business doing both in Down and long English wool, is very moderate. Holders, however, remain firm, and pre- vious quotations are supported. The reduction in the Bank rate, together with the holidays, has not, as yet, had any pev t piible effect on the trade. In colonial wwl YffS UWre iI\ 9Wi1