THE COLUMBUS FETES. HCEI.VA, Wedncsdny.-Tc-day is the principal d \y u £ fcha Caiuinbus Fetes. Unfortunately a thick mist ltang3 over the river and sea, and from the shore at Palos one can seethe hulls of ships in dim outline. At six o'clock this morning, the hour at wh:ch Columbus started on his famous voyage, the caravel Santa Maria, which had been laying all night off Palos, set all her sails in order to go down the river, but there was no wind, and the vessel had consequently to be taken in tow by a gunboat. After her followed, in single file, the vessels of the Spanish flotilla, the Minister of Marine being on board the Legazpi. The voyage down the river, past the Monastery of La Rabida, on which the flags of all the American States were flying, and down to the bar took about an hour. Outside were moored the vessels of the different foreign squadrons-as many of them, at least, as had arrived from Cadiz -and as the caravel passed between the lines of ships a thundering salute, followed by deafen- ing hurrahs, was fired. Between the smoke of the guns and the mist it was impossible to recognise the various men-of-war or to see their manoeuvres from the bar. The Santa Maria followed for some distance the route taken by Columbus, but at nine o'clock returned and re-entered the river. The town of Huelva is filled with visitors, and is most gaily decorated. —Reutei.
TO-DAY'S WEATHER 4.30 A.M. TO-DAY'S FORECAST POR ,ENGLAND, S.W.. ÄND SOUTH WALKS. North-westerly winds, liglit er moderate; changeable some ^GENERAL- — Showery weather seems probable in most parts of the kinffdoni. with some reduction of temperature over England. WARNINGS.—fortn cone in dis- tricts 0 and part of 1. I" GENERAL FORECASTS. The following forecasts were prepared last night at the Meteorological Office at eight o'clock DISTRICTS-- e. Scotland, N. 1 JNortnerly winds, strong; L Scotland, E. squally some showers. 2. England, N.E. North-westerlv to northerly • winds, light or moderate; 4. Mid. Counties c]0udy some showers 5. Eng. S. (Lon. t possibly thunder; cooler. and Channel). fe. Scotland, W. "J North-westerly and northerly »- £ ■&», ivl', V winds, freshening: un- & North Wales, j settled showery. 9. Ireland, N.) "l North-westerly winds, lightor 10. Ireland, S. !■ moderate; changeable some showers. 10. Ireland, S. !■ moderate; changeable some showers. ABERYSTWYTH, Wednesday EVening.-B&reme. ter, 3C-190, falling. Thermometer, 64 in shade. Wind, N.W. Amount of sunshine registered by Jordan's recorder for the 24 hours preceding 9.0 a.m., 50 minutes. Sky overcast in the morning, with slight rain brighter afterwards, but sky again cloudy; light breeza.
SUPPOSED TRAGEDY AT LIVERPOOL. SHOCKING DISCOVERY. The Liverpool police are investigating a revolt- ing case of murder. Late on Tuesday night the body of a child was discovered in a closet in the rear of a house occupied by a man named Eaton, in Hopwood-street, Scotland- road. When taken out the body was conveye- to the nearest surgery, and life pronounced extinct, death being due to suffocation through the child's head being forced down the pan of the closet. The body was that of an extremely pretty girl with fair curly hair, and nearly four years old. The bodywas deposited iu the moituary, where it was en Wednesday identified as that of Louisa Concannen, aged three years and eight months, the daughter of a labourer who had evidently occupied a better position in life. The child had been missing since Tuesday afternoon, and when found her boots (which were nearly new) were missing, and also a pair of gold earrings which the child was wearing when last seen. The discovery caused intense excitement in the locality, and a rumour got abroad that the child had been outraged, but a medical examination showed this to be incorrect. I is suspected that the child got into the clutcnes of some child strippers, who had been disturbed while in the act of robbing her and thrust her into the closet to stifle her cries.
THE CHOLERA. 50,000 DEATHS IN RUSSIA. ST PETERSBURG, Wednesday.—In consequence of the cholera epidemic, the Minister of Educa- tion has issued an order that instruction shall not be resumed, and no examination shall be held in any of the educational establishments until the 1st prox., and that the lectures to medical students in their last term shall not be continued until Nov. 1. This latter measure is taken in order to set the students free to serve in the cholera districts.—Renter. The St. Petersburg correspondent of the Chronicle learns that more than 50,000 persons have died from cholera in Russia and the Cau- casus during the last thirty days. This number does not include all those that have fallen victims to the epidemic in Asiatic Russia, or all the peasants who have died unnoticed in their villages. The mortality has been the greatest in and around the towns of Baku and Astrakhan, among the impoverished and half-starved work- ing classes. The correspondent of the Tiflis Listock writes as follows concerning the terrible condition of the workpeople in the city of petroleum:—"Out of all that great number of persons who have made immense fortunes in this town there has not been found one who in this terrible time has come to the succour of the workmen, those same workmen by whose hands they have been able to earn many millions, by means of which these Croaci of Baku have built castles, bought costly horses, and thrown away hundreds right and left. Where are they now, and what are they doing, all these various Rothschilds, Feigls, Lalajens, Tupjens, etc., who, thanks to the incessant labour of these same poor wretches, have earned millions, while the labourers are dying in poverty in the streets, with scarcely medical assistance?" ST. PETERSBURG, Wednesday.—The cholera has now appeared in the government of Kursk, Central Russia. In Asiatic Russia the epidemic continues to increase, and in the government of Tobolik 59 cases occurred on the 1st, of which 39 proved fatal. -Bet&ter.
A WATERSPOUT AT TRIESTE. VIEFNA, Wednesday.—The Vienna newspi.jms report that an unusual phenomenon occurred yes- terday at Trieste, an enormous waterspout being observed in the harbour between Guiseppino Mole and the lighthouse. An omnibus passing along the quay at the time was lifted in the air and overturned, seven passengers being injured. Several tramway waggons were also thrown off the line, and some buildings were injured. The phenomenon, which resembled an immense dark grey pillar of cloud, lasted ten minutes and made the atmosphere so dark that it was found neces- sary to resort to artificial light in houses in the vicinity. -I?euter.
THE PANAMA CANAL. PARIS, Wednesday .—-The Temps announce that the renewal of the work for the completion of the Pana,ma Canal is about to be entered upon. With this object the vice-president of the Paris Chamber of Commerce has accepted, in conjunc- tion with the liquidator of the old Canal Com- pany, a contract, the conditions of which will shortly be made known. The hope is expressed that the combined efforts of the Minister of Finance and his colleagues will not remain fruit- less, but result in bringing this great work to a successful completion. -Peuter.
THE ERUPTION OF MOlTNT ETNA. ROME, Wednesday.—A dispatch from Catania states that the active craters ofjMount Etna have greatly increased in size. The northern mouth has again become active, and from the southern an enormous quantity of lava is issuing. A large stream appeared on the eastern side of the mountain yesterday. The lava is flowing very slowly.—Renter.
THE RISING IN AFGHANISTAN BOMBAY, Wednesday.—Serious news has been received here from Herat. One report says that some tribal levies—probably the Usbegs—who were ordered to advance against the insurgent Hazaras mutinied on the way, and attacked the Maimena garrison, but were repulsed. Other reports give a different version, stating that a battalion of regular troops, which were marching upon Hazarajat, was cut up by Usbegs, who afterwards captured Maimena, and now hold that place. Rettter.
THE VISIT OF THE GERMAN EMPEROR. [PRESS ASSOCIATION TELEGRAM]. COWES, Wednesday.—His Majesty the German Emperor has passed a day almost devoid of incident. After the excitement of Tuesday, when the Kaiser made a bold bid for the Queen's cup, there has been a calm which according to present arrangements promises to continue to-morrow. The Emperor, who again passed the night on board the Kaiser Adler. rose as usual about seven o'clock this morning. In the course of the morn- ing the Duke of Connaught and Prince Christian came down to East Cowes from Osborne House and embarked at the Queen's private landing 9 stage for the Aline, the private yacht of the Prince of Wales, which was lying out in the Roads, and which for the time being the heir apparenb has made his home. To-day. the German training ship Moltke, the lads of which his Majesty recently inspected steamed out of Cowes Roads homeward bound' Just prior to her leaving, however, one of her officers, Capt. Lieut. Wittmar, found favour in the eyes of his sovereign, who bestowed upon him the Order of the Red Eagle of the fourth class. As the Moltke steamed away to the sea volley after volley was fired from her saluting guns. About one o'clock the German Emperor entertained a select party to luncheon on board the Kaiser Adler, no ladies being invited on this occasion. The guests included the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Connaught, Prince Henry of Prussia, and the Duke of i Aosta. After luncheon the Duke of Connaught and Prince Christian returned to Osborne. The Prince of Wales paid a visit to the Royal Yacht Squadron premises at the Castle. If the Emperor left his yacht, he did not come ashore, but it is understood that in the course of the day he went aboard Lord Ormonde's yacht, the Mirage, and thus saw something of the regatta. The event included a race for a prize of £ 70 for yachts of not less than 41 tons over the Old Queen's Course, and in this contest the Meteor the Imperial racing yacht, was entered. The other vessels were the Iverna., the Columbine, and Maid Marion. The Iverna (owned by Mr Jonn Jameson), which gave the Meteor time allowance of 24 seconds, carried off that prize, the Emperor's yacht making an indifferent second. The Meteor will try her chances again to-morrow, His Majesty having entered her in the town prize race, which is worth £ 100. The principal event of the day was a dinner party given the Queen at Osborne House, the Emperor being the principal guest, and the following being [invited to meet his Majesty:—The Prince of Wales, Prince Henry of Prussia, the Duke of Connaught, Prince and Princess Christian, of Sellleswig Holstein, Princess Victoria, of Schles- wig "Holstein, the German Ambassador (Count Hatzfeldt), Lord and Lady Salisbury, Lady Londonderry, Lord and Lady Ormond, Lord and Lady Dufferin and Ava, Lady Downe (Lady-in- waiting), Count Eulenburg, Baron Von Hecken- dorff, Lieut. General Sir Fleetwood and Lady Edwards, Admiral of the Fleet, Sir Edmund Commerell, CoL the Hon. Henry Byng, Equerry; in waiting.
Sir George Elliot, the rejected of Newport, is willing to contest Newcastle as a Conservative in opposition to Mr John Morley when the right hon. gentleman seeks re-election. CADBUBTB OoooA. "A Cocoa possessing hon. gentleman seeks re-election. CADBUBTB OOOOA. — "A Cocoa possessing valuable flesh-formragqnalities and imparting siren sf n and staying power. U70
ACTIVITY IN LONDON. MR GLADSTONE AND HIS COLLEAGUES. THE LIBERAL LEADERS IN CONFERENCE. ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE MEETING OF PARLIAMENT. THE DEBATE ON THE ADDRESS. REPRESENTATION OF NEWCASTLE. THE PETITION AGAINST MR BALFOUR. The Press Association says:-The principal event yesterday in connection with the impending political crisis was a consultation held in the afternoon at Carlton-gardens between Mr Glad- stone and his leading colleagues. Amongst those present were Sir Wm. Harcourt, Earl Spencer, Mr John Morley, Lord Kimberley, Sir Geo. Trevelyan, and Mr Arnold Morley. The proceedings were, of course, private, but it is said that an understanding was arrived at con- cerning the terms of the motion of No con- fidence" which is to be moved at the beginning of next week in the debate on the Queen's Speech. It should also be stated, in contradiction of a rumour to the contrary, that Mr Gladstone has not yet taken any definite steps for the selection of those who will be asked to associate themselves with him in the new Liberal Government. Yesterday morning the Speaker called upon Mr Gladstone to inquire after his health, and not, as was immediately announced, upon State busi- ness, or to make any arrangement with regard to the opening of the Session, as the procedure upon that occasion follows the customary routine. Mr Gladstone has entirely recovered from his recent cold, and was not only able to leave his room and transact business downstairs from his usual hour, but also after the consultation with his colleagues, which concluded about four o'clock, to go for a drive with Mrs Gladstone in a closed carriage. Except at Carlton-gardens there was little political movement yesterday. The leading clubs, however, are more than usually frequented, and a large number of members of the new Par- liament arrived in town. Many of them who have been elected for the first time made their way to Westminster, where they made themselves acquainted with the precincts of the legislative chamber. In some semi-official circles it was again rumoured yesterday that debate upon the Address, which begins on Monday, will be brought to a close on Tuesday night, but many experienced Parliamentarians doubt whether it can be kept within the narrow limit of two nights, and express their opinion that the critical division which will settle the fate of the present Ministry is more likely to take place on the night of Thursday, the 11th inst. A Cabinet Council is to be held early on Friday, after which a Minister will leave for Osborne to see the Queen, and her Majesty will hold a council on Saturday, at Osborne. There are to be two meetings of the Liberal Unionist party, to-day, in Great George-street. The first will be held at noon, when Mr Chamberlain will preside over the Committee, and it is possible that the Duke of Devonshire will also be present. The second meeting takes place at two o'clock, and will be attended only by members of the party returned at the recent election. The following circular letter was issued yes- terday by the Earl of Kimberley to the Liberal peers:— "35, Lowndes-square, August 3. My Lord,—I have the honour to inform your lordship that the Address in answer to her Majesty's Speech will be moved in the House of Lords on Monday, the 8th inst., and I trust you may find it convenient to be in your place that day.—I ana, your obedient servant, "KIMBERLEY." [CENTRAL NEWS TELEGRAM.] LODON, Wednesday Night. Mr Gladstone was enabled to-day to devote himself almost entirely to political arrange- ments. He has quite recovered from his late indisposition, and carried through his work with- out any feeling of fatigue. He was en- gaged at an early hour with his secre- taries, and at noon received Mr Dillon and Mr Justin McCarthy, with whom he had a consultation-lasting over one hour. Mr Peel, the Speaker of the late House of Commons, subse- quently visited the right hon. gentleman, and was then informed of Mr Gladstone's intention to support his appointment as Speaker of the new Parliament. Later in the afternoon Lord Kim- berley, Lord Ripon, Sir William Harcourt, Mr John Morley, and Earl Spencer called at Carlton House-terrace and had an interview with Mr Gladstone. Shortly after four o'clock Mr Gladstone, accompanied by Mrs Gladstone, went for a short drive in a closed carriage, The Liberal leader looked pale, but walked very erect, though slowly. He has discarded the dark spectacles which he has worn since the outrage at Chester. There were no spectators beyond a few journalists and an enterprising photographer, who sought to memorialise the occasion by taking a series of snap shots as Mr Gladstone stood giving direc- tions to his coachman. At the meeting of the Nationalist party to- morro it is understood that the leaders will urge an unswerving support of Mr Gladstone in any action he may take upon the Address in reply to her Majesty's Speech, and in all probability their advice will be accepted without demur. The attitude of the Parnellites, however, is the subject of much discussion. The leader of the party has not yet committed himself to any definite line of action, and it is quite possible that no decision will be arrived at until the party has had an opportunity to discuss the terms of the motion, which it is understood the Liberal leaders will bring forward on Monday next. Nevertheless, three members of the Par- nellite party, in an interview with a Central News reporter to-day, stated that their present feeling was in favour of supporting the Liberal amendment to the Address, whatever action may be taken by them later. From present indications the number of mem- bers who will offer themselves to be sworn in to. morrow will be unprecedented on the first day of a new Parliament. The number of members in London was considerably augmented by further arrivals to-day, and on both sides a consensus of opinion prevails in favour of taking a division f upon the Address and of proroguing at the earliest possible date. Lord Salisbury's arrangements to return to London to-morrow bold good. The only visitor of distinction at the Foreign Office to-day was the Belgium Minister. Mr Balfour only remained at the Treasury for half an hour to-day, but Mr Akers Douglas again spent a very busy day. Mr Ritchie had an interview with the Con- servative Whip in the afternoon, and shortly before five o'clock Mr Arnold Morley called, and was closeted for some time with Mr Akers Douglas, the interview pro- ducing an understanding in reference to the swearing in of members and the conduct of busi- ness in the house. Several of the members of Lord Salisbury's Ad- ministration called at the Carlton Club this afternoon, as did also an unusually large number of unofficial Conservative members. There was a general but informal interchange of views. The Temperance organisations are amalgamat. ing with a view of bringing pressure upon the very large number of members of all parties re- turned to Parliament pledged to support temperance reform, and to use every effort to secure the early introduction of legislation in this direction. Mr W. S. Caine and Mr T. W. Russell have the matter in hand. The Duke of Devonshire to-night gave a Parlia- mentary dinner to the leaders of the Liberal Unionist party at Devonshire House, Piccadilly. Mr Arnold Morley remained at Carlton House- terrace for some time after the Liberal leaders had conferred with Mr Gladstone and taken their departure, and after the right hon. gentleman had left for a drive. It has transpired that Sir Andrew Clark on leaving town for a brief holiday gave no intima- tion of paying further visits to his distinguished patient.' Yet so anxious is he for the complete restoration of Mr Gladstone to health that he re: turned to London to-day and was delighted with his patient's progress. Mr Gladstone remained out for about an hour. Having taken a sharp drive round Regent's Park the veteran statesman appeared reinvigorated, ana a few minutes after his return home he enjoyed some tea, subse- quently dining with the members of his family.
ELECTION PETITIONS ABANDONED. The petitions ledged against the return of Mr Arnold Morley, for East Nottingham, and Mr Smith Wright, for South Nottingham, will not be proceeded with.
SIR PRYCE PRYCE JONES'S SEAT. The petition again the return of Sir Pryce Pryce Jones for Montgomery alleges bribery, I treating, using premises for committee rooms where intoxicants are sold, payment for con. veyance, and undue influence. These acts are charged against the member's agents, and it is not 1, alleged that Sir Pryce Jones was personally aware of them. Mr Hanbury Tracy, the defeated candidate, is not a party to the petition, which is being promoted indepen- dently of any action on his part. Sir Pryce Jones, who has not fully recovered from the attack made upon him at Llanidloes, states that he courts the fullest inquiry into the conduct both of himself and his agents.
THE OPPOSITION TO MR MORLEY. A Newcastle correspondent states that Air Mil- vain, Q.C., who has been asked to contest New- castle against Mr John Morley at the expected bye-election, has forwarded a communication declining the honours, principally on the ground of prejudice raised by the working men against him in connection with the discharge of Station- master Hood. A meeting of the Conservative party WM held at Newcastle on Wednesday night, when several names were mentioned as eligible candidates to con tost the bye-election against Mr John Morley. It was eventually decided to request Mr Pandeil Ralli, Liberal Unionist, who contested Gates- head against the Hon. W. H. James, to accept the candidature.
THE PETITION AGAINST MR BALFOUR'S RETURN. The petition against the return of Mr Balfour for East Manchester was duly lodged on Wednes- day morning at the High Court of Justice. The petition is laid under the Parliamentary Elections Acts, 1868, and the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 1883. The peti- tion is put forward as that of Joseph Edward Crawford Munro, 7, Didsbury-park, Didsbury, barrister-at-law, and is divided into no less than 11 sections. The petitioner alleges that Mr Balfour was, by his agents acting on his behalf, guilty of bribery, treating, intimida- tion, and undue influence before and after the election, and that his election as a Parliamentary representative of the Eastern Division of Man- chester is therefore totally null and void. Further, it is alleged that Mr Balfour was, by his agents, guilty of illegal practices by hiring horses and carriages for the conveyance of electors to the poll, well knowing that their owners were incapacitated by section 14 of the Corrupt and Illegal Practices Prevention Act, 1883, for letting same for that purpose. General ruption is also alleged against Mr Balfour's agents, and it is asserted that many persons voted, and were reckoned on the poll for Mr Balfour, who were guilty of bribery, treating, or undue influence, and were bribed, treated, or unduly influenced to vote for him, and that such votes are therefore all null and void. The petitioner also says that many who voted for Mr Balfour were legally disqualified from voting at all, some being disqualified by reason of the fact that they held disqualifying employ. ments or had been retained, hired, or employe for the purposes of the election for a reward on behalf of Mr Balfour as agents, clerks, messen- gers, or other like employments. These votes also, it is contended, should be struck from the poll. Another allegation is that some persons voted twice in the election, and that others personated electors. The con- cluding section of the petition says that Mr Balfour, by the means previously set forth, ob- tained an apparent and colourable majority whereas the petitioner had in fact a majority of votes which were legally and properly cast, and hence was duly elected and ought to be returned The petitioner prays that Mr Balfour's election may be declared null and void and himself dulv elected.
CHARACTERISTIC LETTER FROM THE DUKE OF ARGYLL. The following is the reply of the Duke of Argyll to a communication by Mr John Ogilvy, secretary of the Dundee Radical Association, with reference to the practicable working of the Liberal majority, and the possibility of passing Radical measures and an Irish Home Rule Bill Danbury Palace, Chelmsford, July 30. SIR,—I am not much inclined to discuss such an immense subject as a proposal to remodel the whole British constitution with reference to the mere probabilities of the immediate political situation. Much higher questions and considera- tions have an important claim upon us all, but subject to this observation, I should be disposed most certainly to answer every one of your questions in the negative. There are other questions which you do not put though they are vital to those you do put. For example, is it possible a that man of 83 can com- mand, or can justly claim, that allegiance of dis- cordant elements which is essential to success, and which is usually only given to leaders who have a political future, and can not only initiate but conduct a tremendous constitutional experiment ? Again, is it possible that, as regards his own mind, even if he were both a Solon and an angel, he can maintain that full responsibility which must always depend largely on the continued prospect of a responsible position ? These ques- tions also I must answer in the negative. We cannot but note the fact that his speeches have become more and more fanatical in denouncing opinions which were his own up to the mature age of at least 75. In a constitutional country responsibility is shared by all, and never has there been a juncture in the history of Great Britain when it has been so absolute a duty to be guided individually by considerations indepen- dent of party and of party leaders. "Yours obediently,
MR KEIR HARDIE, M P AT NEW- CASTLE. A conference of the Independent Labour party in Newcastle was held on Tuesday night to con- sider their action in view of the expected bye-elec- tion. Mr Ceir Hardie, M.P., said he was told that what he said there a few weeks ago had sealed his death warrant as member of Parlia- ment, and the electorate of South-West Ham, of whom he was proud, had turned their backs upon him, and given him notice to quit. In spite of all that had happened in the press to the contrary he held exactly the same opinions, and was prepared to give the same advice now as he gave when last he spoke there. They were told the South-West Ham Radical Club had passed a resolution condemning his attitude towaids Mr Morley, and threatening opposition at the next election. If the South-West Ham Radical Club supported a Tory at the next election they would be doing what they did at the last election. They asked that Mr Lister, the candidate whom they had been running, and his agent should be allowed to appear at one of his meetings, and he refused. They threatened to support the Tory, and he replied that he was prepared to lose the election, but not to bring disgrace on the Labour party. The working men of Newcastle were told that Mr Milvain, whom the Conservatives had selected as their candidate, was one whom the Labour party could not support. It was said that they should not oppose Mr John Morley, be- cause, although be was opposed to the eight- hour question, and on other questions like that, he was good on many other points. The Tempe- rance question especially had been mentioned, but that question had nothing whatever to thank Mr Morley for, and if he was sent into obscurity they would take care that that question should not suffer. They could not allow even the tem- perance question to interfere with the issues which were at stake, and were involved in the coming contest. The question at issue was this— was the Labour programme a part of it to be accepted and carried into execution by the Liberal Government now in power. He believed that on the issue of this election would depend whether or not the miners were to receive the legal eight-hours day, and it was found that the Labour party felt so intensely on this question of the restriction of the hours of labour that they were prepared to make it the dominant question in party elections. The Liberals, in sheer defence, would make an attempt at least to settle the bight-hour question for miners before leaving office, but if they found, on the other hand, that the only promi- nent man in the Liberal party who had taken up an unbending attitude towards the eight-hour question was again returned to Parliament by the votes of the workers of Newcastle, they would wisely and rightly conclude that the eignt-nour question was not the burning ques- tion which they who advocated it claimed that it was. When they spoke elsewhere their policy was to play the card which would in their opinion carry the most weight. When the final game came to be played his advice was that no decision should be come to, but that they should reserve their strength, and use it in a way that would best serve the interests of Labour. When the day of election came they were told that they were imitating the Irish party, who would oppose Labour candidates everywhere. They had always done so hitherto, i. P^ty in Newcastle was stronger than the Irish party had ever been able to prove itself to be, and if the cause of Labour was going to be endangered by the unbending opposition of T U Party it might become necessary for the Labour party to play the game of retaliation, and to prove to the Irish party that, much as they desired to see Home Rule passed, they much more desired to see freedom of speech main- tained in every British constituency. They were in danger of sedition within their own ranks more than opposition from without, and if the Labour party, and especially its leaders, would free themselves of the animosities and jealousies and the narrow-spiritedness of the past, and would agree to settle their differences in private, and not provide a spectacle for laughter, the Labour party would go forward rapidly to a triumphant issue. The Conference agreed that nothing definite at present should be decided. On the suggestion of Mr Hardie it was agreed that an endeavour should be made to have a conference of representative Labour leaders of the country in Newcastle to consider the situation.
RUPTURE CURED -J. A. Sherman, Hernia Specialist, 64, Chancery-lane London. Book, 7 st mps PENARTH CRICKET CLUB SPORTS, on Saturday, August 27th (under A.A.A. and N.C.U. Rules). Prizes value J350. ftotry ferns frw»F. W. Morgan, PCgikrth.
VOLUNTEERS AT ALDERSHOT. SHAM FIGHT ON THE FOX HILLS. 30,000 MEN UNDER ARMS. A TRYING DAY'S WORK. [PRESS ASSOCIATION TELEGRAM.] ALDERSHOT, Wednesday Evening. The Volunteers now under canvas at Aldershot took part this morning in another big field-day, being joined by the whole of the regular battalions of infantry quartered here. The scene of the operations was the Fox Hills. About 30,000 troops of alt arms were engaged, but the cavalry were very sparsely employed, only half a squadron being detailed on either side for scouting purposes. The fight- ing took place between a northern and a southern force ranged over nearly the whole ^length of ihe Fox Hills, and the adjacent commons on the east side, beginning at Hangman's Hill and finishing near Normandy Hill fort. The northern or attacking force, which was under the command or Lord Methuen, was formed of two divisions, one commanded by Major General Gregory and the other by Major General Utterson. These divisions included nine battalions of regulars and four brigades of volunteers. The best of the northern force was made up of the home couuties volunteer brigade under Lord Wantage. in the centre were the South Wales Volunteer Brigade, under Colonel Tucker, and the Western Counties Brigade, and to the right were the East London Volunteer Brigade, under the command of Colonel Trotter. The volunteers in the attack- ing force were given the honour of forming the fighting line, the regulars mainly acting as sup- ports, but through a slight error in taking uo positions, the regular battalion of the South Wales Borderers were the first to come into contact with the southern men. Naturally, when once they found themselves in touch with the enemy, they did not readily lose sight of them again. The defending, or southern force, was under the command of Major-General Crealock, and com- prised a brigade of regulars (1st Royal Lancashire Regiment, 1st Royal Warwickshire, 1st Lincoln- shire, and 2nd South Staffordshire), the Stafford Volunteer Brigade, and the Guards Brigade. General Crealock, for purposes of mobility, again split up the Stafford Brigade into two, the three South Staffordshire Regiments and the two battalions of the Birmingham Corps (1st V.B. Royal Warwickshire), with the 2nd V.B. North Staffordshire, forming separate brigades. The brigade of infantry regulars were on the right of the line opposed to the attack of the Home Counties Volunteer Brigade duplicated, Stafford Brigade in the centre, and the Guards on the left. Lord Methuen's force had the advant- age in artillery, and also had a balloon with them. The northern force lying at Frimley were supposed to have received an order from Reading, at four o'clock in the morning, to send forward their right divisions to clear the ground up to Tunnel Hill. At the same time the left division was to clear the ground east of the Aldershot Branch Railway to Pirbright Lodge. When this had been effected the whole force was to move to the southward, along the Fox Hills, driving in the enemy's position. Lord Methuen's troops were expected to be in possession of the Ashe-Normandy-road by half past ono. The special idea for the southern force wa to send forward, at nine a.m., two battalions, one to reconnoitre north-westward as far as the windmill east of Frimhurst and the other due north to the main line of the London and South-Western Railway. If seriously op- posed they were to fall back slowly behind their outpost line. In the meantime entrenched posi- tions were to be occupied behind the line of out- posts, and the enemy's advance southward was to be retarded until the support of a division was received from Frensham, which it was hoped would arrive at Surprise Hill about half- past one. The supporting division was of course an imaginary one. Surprise Hill is ab the southern foot of the Fox Hills, which are also at this point skirted by the Ashe-Normandy- road. Briefly put, the position of affairs was this. The southern force wished to retard their opponents' advance along the Fox Hills until they received their supportmg division at Surprise Hill at half-past one. The aim of the northern force was to get to the Ashe-Normandy-road by one at the latest, if possible before. As a matter of fact they got there an hour and a half earlier, but whether they could have done so in real warfare was another matter What hastened the retirement of the southern force was the fact that their ammunition was exhausted at theopeningofthefigbt. Theoutposts of thesouthern force extended from Bridge Hill on the left to the Duchies on the right, thus drawing a horizontal line across the centre of the Fox Hills, to a point 2,000 yards to the east—Hangman's Hi!], or, as it is now called, Emperor's Hill. It was from the north-west of this line that the northern forces had to advance, and, in accordance with the special idea, clear the ground on the east of the hills right up to Pirbright Lodge, which is opposite the Duchies, and then move southward. At nine o'clock the fray commenced by the artillery fire of the southern force from Emperor's Hill, directed against the regular battlion of the South Wales Borderers, who made their appear- ance at Tunnel Hill. The South Welshmen drove in the Guards' outposts on Bridge Hill, and the action soon became general on the west of Fox Hills. The Guards fell back on their entrench- ments on Scarp Hill in the most perfect manner. The way in which sections covered the retirement of companies was highly creditable. In the centre of Romping Down were the two Staffordshire brigades en- trenched, their right reaching through Crown Prince Wood. The attack was vigorously pressed, the East London Brigade and the Western Counties Brigades coming within point blank range of their antagonists. It was now half-past 10, and General Crealock ordered a counter attack, but through some mis- understanding it was only partially carried out. The result was rough on those battalions which left their entrenchments, and the umpires were busy for some little time in putting com- panies out of action. The two Staffordshire Brigades bore the brunt of this Infantry Balaclava, and suffered in consequence. The whole of the Second Battalion of the Royal Warwicks were put out of action for some time, but it is only fair to Colonel Cox to sav that he r did his best to keep his men within their entrench- ments. The Birmingham boys, seeing their comrades in the South Stafford brigade, moving forward on their left, could not be restrained, and dashed forward with the rest. Two of the Staffordshire Companies were also temporarily put out of action. At this point the artillery officer had retired the guns, and the counter attack was, therefore, unsupported by artillery fire. The machine gun of the 1st South Stafford was worked at top speed, but of course could not make up for the missing artillery. The 2nd Tower Hamlets, the 24-th Middlesex, and the 1st Surrey sent the counter-attack back. As far as the noise and smoke were concerned this was one of the most bustling five minutes of the day's pro- ceedings. The entrenchments stretching across from Scarp Hill to Look Out Hill, in rear of Crown Prince Wood, were now abandoned by the southern force, and the line fell further back to a point where they had a stronghold, such as Bastion Hill affords. In the centre from Bastion Hill a magnificent view of the contest was obtainable. Looking down on Claygate Common the home counties volunteers, under Lord Wantage, could be seen slowly pressing back Colonel Lugard's brigade of rC helmets of the Northamptons and W a rwicks being especially conspicuous. The home counties men were handled admirably. Coyer was fully talon ad vantage of. and someof the volley faring was remarkably"good. The regulars fought tenaciously, clinging as long as possible to every point of vantage, and they slowly retired in excellent order. Looking north from Buxton Hill? the Welsh Brigade were to be seen forcing their way up through the furze, supported by the Highland Light Infantry. The hill was held as long as possible by the Royal Lancasters and the 1st V.B. South Staffordshire, but they were at last forced to fall back before the 1st V.B. Welsh Regiment and the 1st V.B. South Wales Borderers. In the meantime some of the Western Counties Brigade, more to the right of the line, had been ptessing fforward a little recklessly, and several companies of the 1st Somerset and the 1st Gloucester were put out of action for a quarter of an hour. The 2nd Coldstreams and the 1st Scots Guards made a last desperate stand in their entrenchments at Ricochet Hill, but they had finally to relinquish their position. Th* Post- office Rifles here performed a smart bit of work, rushing five guns of the field artillery. When the counter attack was tried, the artillery had been taken away too qtiickly now the battery stayed just a trifle too long. Only a half com- pany of the Guards were in support of the guns the opportune moment was seized, and the guns taken. At 12 o'clock the cease fire" sounded as General Methuen's force had now got possession of the Ashe-Normandy road. General Crealock kept one battalion of Guards-Srd Grenadiers- in reserve the whole day in case of an attempt to turn his left. This was not tried, however, the operations, as will be gathered, entirely consist- ing of a. series of frontal attacks. A well-horsed detachment of mounted infantry, belonging to the 1st Volunteer Battalion Royal Berkshire Regiment, assisted the attacking force. The operations, which may be regarded as of a very successful (i instructive nature, were carried °ut in fine weather. Field- Marshal Sir Lintorn Simmons and the Duke of present as spectators. Immediately after the ceasefire sounded, the men were formed up and marched back to their different encamp- ments, many of the battalions having been under arms since five in the morniiig. To-morrow the volunteers are to have an easy day in view of Friday's work, which will include another sham fight nnd a march past, the regulars again taking par6
FUNERAL OF THE LATE LORD SHERBROOKE. I The remains of the late Viscount Sherbrooke who died on Wednesday last, were on Wednes- day committed to earth in the grounds of the London Necropolis, Brookwood, near Woking. The cortege was formed at the late residence of the deceased, Sherbrooke House, Warlingham, near Caterham, at about half-past eight o'clock. The coffin was borne by ten bearers, and escorted by a detachment of police, followed by the members of the household, and after them walked Viscountess Sherbrooke, her brother (Major-General Sneyd) and his wife, her lady- ship's maids, and the villagers and tenants of the estate, who brought up the rear, the entire party numbering about 150. The procession made its way to the Warlingham railway- station, about 300 yards distant, and rested in the waiting-room until the arrival of the nine o'clock up train to Waterloo. The South- Eastern terminus was reached in due time, and the train was soon afterwards shunted through to the Necropolis Company's private station in Westminster-bridge-road, which was decorated with palms and ferns. At half-past 11 the terminus at Brookwood was reached, where another pro- cession was formed. It included the follow- ing relatives and friends of the deceased:— Mr H. Sneyd, Mr Dryden Sneyd (Ash- combe Park, Staffordshire), and Mr G. E. Sneyd (Bray, Cornwall), brothers to the widowed Viscountess, Mr Charles D. A. Orred, Major Orred (Lavant House, Chichester), relatives of the first Viscountess, Mr Richmond Gale (Bar- dell Hall, Ulverston), Commander Sherbrooke, R.N. (Oxton Hall, Notts), Mr Penn Curzon Sher- brooke and the Rev Neville Sherbrooke, nephews of Viscount Sherbrooke, Major W. Hill, Lord E. Fitzmaurice, Sir John Pender, M.P., LordLingen, Rev Canon Melville, Mr H. R. H. Gale, Mr Geo. Buchanan, Mr F. H. Blaxell, and Archdeacon Dunbar. The shell containing the body was made of papier mache, upon the model generally known to those interested in Funeral Reform as the earth to earth coffin. It was draped with a pall of violet velvet, surmounted by a silver cross and tablet, the latter containing the follow- ing inscription VISCOUNT SHERBROOKE, P.C., G.C.B. Born Dec. 4, 1811. Died July 27, 1892. The pall was completely covered with beautiful wreaths consisting of arum lilies, immortelles, marguerites, and dahlias. Preceded by the Rev Nevile Sherbrooke, of Clifton, who was the officiating minister, the bearers carried the coffin into the ivy-clad mortuary chapel ad- joining the railway terminus, and placed it in front of the altar upon a catafalque, which was harmoniously hung with violet velvet. The chapel was also decorated with palms, fepns, and lilies, and here the first portion of the bufrial service was read. The grave, where the re- mainder of the ceremony was performed, is by the side of the late nobleman's first wife, Georgina, Viscountess Sherbrooke, whom he married when he was Mr Robert Lowe, and who died in November, 1884-. Wreaths were sent by the Viscountess Sherbrooke, the Countess of Derby, Blanche Countess of Airlie, Sir Rivers Wilson, Lady Gordon Cumming-, Mr and Mrs Lowe, Mr Sherbrooke, Mr and Mrs Cavendish Orred, Mr and Mrs G. Sneyd, Mrs Carew Hunt, and a wreath from the household. Amongst the offerings placed at the head of the coffin was a garland sent by Mrs Musters, of Bingham, Notts, formed from the leaves of a favourite tree of the late Viscount's, under whose shade he used frequently to sit.
A TRIBUTE BY ARCHDEACON FARRAR. In accordance with Lady Sherbrooke's wishes, a memorial service for the late Viscount Sher- brooke was held at St. Margaret's, Westminster, on Wednesday forenoon. The pulpit and the lectern were draped in black, and bouquets of fresh white flowers appeared on the communion table. There was a considerable attendance, amongst those present being the Speaker of the House of Commons, Mr Shaw Lefevre, M.P., Mr Courtney, M.P., and Mr J. G. Talbot, M.P. It was the usual funeral service. The officiating clergy were the Dean of Westminster and Arch- deacon Farrar, Rector of St. Margaret's and Chaplain to the House of Commons. The choral part of the fservice was sung by the Westminster Abbey choir boys, the organ being played by Mr Winter, assistant organist at the Abbey. After the jsing- ing of the hymn, Ob, Lord, our help in ages past," Archdeacon Farrar read, "lam the resurrection and the life," which was followed by the 19th Psalm, "Lord, Thou hast been our refuge." The Dean of Westminster read part of the 15th chapter of the First Epistle to the Corin- thians, beginning, "But some will say, How are the dead raised up ?" There was also read the 3rd chapter of the Book of Wisdom, commencing, "The souls of the righteous are in the bands of the Lord." Axchdeacon Farrar, before the close of the service, said on the morrow the Parliament of England would meet for sessions which were probably destined to lead to momentous issues and on this day, at that hour, the mourners were laying in the quiet grave a statesman who for 30 years had played an important part in the arena of politics, and was eminent among great col- leagues and great opponents in the fierce melee of Parliamentary warfare. Lord Sher- brooke had passed away at the ripe age of 81 to that land "where, beyond those voices, there is peace," and from whence, it might be, we should look back, as to a feverish and unintelligible dream, upon the passionate en- deavours, fierce animosities, and exaggerated perspectives of this our earthly life. For 12 years Lord Sherbrooke had taken no part in political or public life. Had his death occurred 20 years ago it would have attracted far more universal notice, but he had outlived the zenith of his fame. It was the wish of one whose wish he (the Archdeacon) could not but obey, that there, in that Chnrch of the House of Commons, where during the last seven years he had been a frequent worshipper, that he should say a few words about him. Lord Sherbrooke's life furnished one of the many instances that to the persevering man the blessed immortals were swift. It was his indomitable resolution which enabled him To break his birth's invidious bar, And grasp the skirts of happy chance, And breast the blows of circumstance, And grapple with his evil star, and to rise to foremost rank among so many eminent contemporaries. In the debates on the reform measure of 1866 he dazzled the House of Commons by eloquence which commanded the most enthusiastic admiration of all parties. It was a triumph won by sheer intellect and the courage of conviction over congenital deficiences. In those speeches of such admirable fresh- ness, vigour, and finish, he held his own against the foremost orators and statesmen of his day. In his case, as in the case of ali, success was accom- panied bv bitter mortification. Like most true men he despised popularity, and perhaps he in- dulged too much in intellectual scorn. Yet his fearless heart never quailed, and he spurned the ignava ratio-the coward's argument that we must yield, not because the thing is best, but because it is assumed to be inevitable. Sometimes, perhaps, Mr Lowe spoke too bluntly and pungently the unpalatable truth. Perhaps he did no allow sufficiently for the emotional and imaginative elements of our compex nature. If he was too cold and critical, and too little optimistic—too purely intellectual, and too little trustful of humon nature-he showed a dauntless and noble courage, with an utter hatred of every hypocritic conspiracy and every form of insincerity and sham. He was a sincere and humble believer in the truths of revelation. The service concluded with singing of the hymn, Now the labourer's task is o'er," the pronouncing of the Benediction by the Arch- deacon, and the playing of the Dead March in Saul.
THREATENING BANKERS WITH DYNAMITE. NEW YORK, Wednesday.—Albert DelaurenF, a Swiss, has been arrested for sending a letter to Messrs Baring, Magour, and Co., the New York representatives of Messrs Baring Bros. and Co., Limited, the London bankers, threatening that unless they sent him twenty dollars he would visit the office the office and blow some of them up with dynamite. It appeared that the man is in a half-starved condition. -Revt,
THE PROFESSORSHIP OF WELSH AT ABERYSTWYTH, i The Council of she University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, held a prolonged meeting in London on Wednesday, with a view to the appointment of a Welsh Professor in succession to Mr J. E. Lloyd, who has removed to Bangor. The proceedings were conducted in private, and the only information vouchsafed to the Press was that a. public announcement on the subject could not be made for a day or two.
ATTEMPTED MURDER AT LEEDS. On Wednesday afternoon at Leeds Assizes, George Graves (23), smith's striker, was found guilty of attempting to murder his wife, brother- oi and father-in-law, at Huddersfield, on Z1'and sentenced to teft years' penal servi- tude. The prisoner had been separated from his wife, and on the date named he called at her father's house, and, after a somewhat heated altercation, produced a revolver and knife de- liberately firing at the three persons named, after which he stabbed his father-in-law in the back.
FATAL STABBING AFFRA Y. TWO DUTCH SAILORS ARRESTED. Early on Wednesday morning afatalaffray took place at Millwall. In the course of a quarrel the mate of a ship now lying in Millwall Docks was stabbed, and died from the effects of the wound. Some Dutch sailors took part in the quarrel, and two of them have been arrested. The deceased's name is John Lawdells. His as-: ^rits were rei-naudc-d in custody this after- aoua.
THE BRITISH ASSOCIATION. ANNUAL MEETING AT EDINBURGH. [PRESS ASSOCIATION TELEGRAM.] EDINBURGH, Wednesday Night. For the third time the British Association for the Advancement of Science is holding its annual meeting at Edinburgh, and under circumstances felicitously alluded to this evening by the newly- elected president, Sir Archibald Geikie. Since Monday throngs of visitors have arrived here, and Edinburgh now has within her borders a large and distinguished body of savants, who will bring to the discussions of the next few days the ripest culture and the widest experience in their several departments of knowledge. When we add that there were also delegates from no less than 41 scientific societies throughout the kingdom, the representative and influential character cf the 1892 meeting will be seen. Parliament Hall, transformed into the reception room, has been crowded throughout the day by representatives of many nationalities, not only of leaders of thoughtin Great Britain and Ireland, but such distinguished scientists as Professor Benedict, of Vienna; Professor Axel Blyth, of Christiania ProfesQ-or Manou vrier, of Paris, and Professor Paterson, of Indiana. Amongst the principal members attending are Sir Henry Acland, Oxford; Pro- fessor W. G. Adams, King's College, London; Professor James Blyth, Glasgow; Sir Frederick Bramwel), Professor Crum Brown, Professor Chrystal, Edinburgh Professor Copeland, Astro- nomer-Royal for Scotland Professor F. Clowes, Nottingham; Professor A. E. Dixon, Queen's Colloge, Cork Professor J. A. Ewiag, Cambridge Professor Fitzgerald, Trinity College, Dublin; Professor G. Carey Fos- ter, London; Professor Michael Foster, Cambridge; Sir Douglas Galton, General Secretary of the Association Professor Essor Patrick Geddes, Professor James Geikie, Lord and Lady Kelvin, Professor Charles Lapworth, Birmingham Professor G. A. Lebour, New- castle Sir Douglas MacLagan, Lord Maciaren, Professor Peterson, Dundee Col. Sir R. L. Play- fair, Algeria; Professor J. Emerson Reynolds, Dublin Professor Scott, Lampeter Professor H. L. Snape, Aberystwyth Professor P. J. Sollas, Dublin Professor Lawson Tait, Birming- ham Mr Joseph Thomson, the African traveller and Professor Sir Wm. Turner. The sections open to-morrow, and the serious business of the meeting will be varied by excur- sions. For these very elaborate arrangements have been made, and members and associates will find relaxation in visits to the places of historical and general interest, of which Edinburgh is so richly possessed. The several committees held meetings to-day, and this even- ing there was a grsat crush at the Synod Hall, Castle-terrace, for the first general meeting. The demand for tickets was said to have been greater than on any former occasion. Dr William Hug- gins, last year's president, formally resigned the chair, and the presidency was assumed by Sir Archibald Geikie, Director-General of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. The President then delivered his address. THE PRESIDENTIAL ADDBESS. The PRESIDENT, who was received with ap- plause, said that in its beneficent progress through these islands the British Association for the Ad- vancement of Science now for the fourth time received a welcome in that ancient capital. A hundred years ago a remarkable group of men was discussing there the great problem of the history of the earth. J ames Hutton, after many years of travel and reflection, had communicated to the Royal Society of that city, in the year 17S5, the first outlines of his famous theory of the earth. In choosing from among the many subjects which might properly engage their attention on the present occasion, he (the President) had thought it would not be inappropriate or uninteresting to consider the more salient features of that theory, and to mark how much in certain departments of inquiry had sprung from the fruitiul teaching of its author and his associates. It was a fundamental doctrine of Hutton and his school that this globe has not always worn the aspect it bears at present; that, on the contrary, proofs may everywhere be called that the land which we now see had been formed out of the wreck of an older land. Airo-iz these proofs the most obvious are supplied by some of the more familiar kinds of rock, which teach us that though they are now portions of the dry land, they Were originally sheets of gravel, sand, and mud, which bad been worn fromjthe face of long-vanished continents, and after being spread out over the floor of the sea were consolidated into compact stone, and were finally broken up and raised once more to form part of the dry land. This cycle of change involved two great systems of natural processes. On the one hand men were taught that by the action of running water the materials of the solid land are in a state of continual decay and transport to the ocean. On the other hand the ocean floor is liable from time to time to be upheaved by some stupendous internal force akin to that which gives rise to the volcano .and earthquake. Huttuu further perceived that not only had the consolidated materials been dis- rupted and elevated, but that masses of molten rock bad been thrust upward among them and had cooled and crystallised in large bodies of granite and other eruptive rocks which form so prominent a feature on the earth's surface. Nowhere was the profoundness of the author's in- sight more astonishing than in the clear, definite way in which he proclaimed and reiterated hit doctrine that every part of the surface of the con- tinents, from mountain top to seashore, is con- tinually undergoing decay, and is thus slowly travelling to the sea. He discerned that ceaseless and widespread decay would eventually lead to the entire demolition of the dry land, but he con- tended that from time to time this catastrophe is prevented by the operation of the underground forces, whereby new continents are upheaved from the bed of the ocean. And thus in his system a due proportion is maintained between land and water, and the condition of the earth as a habitable globe is preserved. But, as Playfair sorrowfully admitted, this theory attracted notice only very slowly, and several years elapsed before anyone showed himself publicly concerned about it, either as an enemy or a friend. Fortunately for his fame, as well as for the cause of science, his devoted friend and disciple, Playfair, at once set himself to draw up an exposition of Hutton's views, and after five years of labour on this task there appeared the classic Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory — a work which, for luminous treatment and graceful diction, stood without a rival in English Geological litera- ture. Various causes contributed to retard the progress of the Huttonian doctrines. Especially potent was the influer.ee of the teaching of Werner, who, though he perceived that a definite order of sequence could be recognised among the materials of the earth's crust, had formed singularly narrow conceptions of the great pro- cesses whereby that crust has been built up. By a curious fate, Edinburgh became one of the great headquarters of Wernerism. The friends and followers of Hutton found themselves at- tacked in their own city by zealots, who, proud of superior mineralogical acquirements, turned their most cherished ideas upside down, and assailed them in the uncouth jargon of Freiberg. Among the names of the friends and followers of Hutton there was one which on this occasion deserved to be held in especial honour-that of Sir James Douglas, of Dunglass, who, after Hutton's death, instituted a remarkable series of researches which were memorable in the history of science as the first methodical endeavour to test the value of geological speculation by an appeal to actual experiment. By a curious coincidence, continued the President, they might fitly celebrate on this occasion the centenary of William Smith as well as that of James Hutton. Nosinglediscovery had ever had a more momentous and far-reaching influence on the progress of a science than the law of organic succession which Smith 'established. At first it served merely to determine the order of the stratified rocks of England. But it soon proved to possess a world-wide value, for it was found to furnish the key to the structure of the whole stratified crust of the earth. Thus a hundred years ago, by the brilliant theory of Hutton and the fruitful generalisation of Smith, the study of the earth received in our country the impetus which has given birth to the modern science of geology. It was the special glory of the Edin- burgh School of Geology to have cast aside all fanciful trifling. In Hutton's hands the investigation of the present became the key to the interpretation of the past. The establishment of this great truth was the first step towards the inauguration of a true science of the earth. The doctrine of the uniformity of causation in Nature because the fruitful principle on which the structure of modern geology could be built up. But while they recognised with admiration the far-reaching influence of the doctrine of uni- formity of causation, they must, upon refection, admit that the doctrine bad been pushed to an extreme perhaps not contemplated by its original founders. An illustrious former president, Lord Kelvin, who occupied the chair when the Associa- tion last visited Edinburgh, by the most convincing arguments, showed how impossible it was to believe in the extreme doctrine of uniformitarianisin. And though, owing to un- certainty in regard to some of the data, wide limits of time were postulated by him, he insisted that within these limits the whole evolution of the earth and its inhabitants must have been comprised. While, therefore, the geological doctrine that the present order of Nature must be our guide to the interpretation of the past remained as true and fruitful as ever, it had now to be widened by the reception of evidence furnished by a study of the earth as a planetary body. The loss of heat which demonstrably takes place both from the earth and the sun, made it quite certain that the present could not have been the original condition of the system. This dimimvaou of temperature with all its consequences is not a mere matter of speculation, but physical facts of the present time, as much on any of the familiar physical agencies that affect the surface of the globe. It points with unmistakable directness to that beginning of things of which Hutton and his followers could iind no sign. The President proceeded to urge that among the debts which science owes to theiHuttonian school, not the least mamorable is the promulgation of the first well-foundsd conception of the high antiquity of the globe. Lord Kelvin was willing, he believed, to grant them some 20 millions of years, but Prof. Tait would have them content with less than ten millions. It they took certain results and applied them as measures of the length of time required for the deposition of the various sedimentary masses that formed the outer part of the earth's crust, they obtained some indication of the duration of geological history. On a1 reasonable compilation these stratified masses when most fully developed attained a united thickness of not less than 100,000 feet. If they were all laid down at the most rapid recorded rate of denudation they would require a period of seventy-three millions of years for their completion. If they were laid down at the slowest rate they would demand a period of not less than six hundred and eighty millions. Taken in connection with the testi- many of the sedimentary rocks the inferences deducible from fossils entirely bears out the opinion that the building up of the stratified crust of the earth has been extremely gradual In conclusion, the law of Evolution was written as legibly on the landscapes of the earth as on any other page of the book of Nature. The living plants and animals of to-day had been discovered to be eloquent of ancient geographical features that had long siuce vanished. In tbeir distribu- tion they to'd us that climates had changed, that islands had been disjoined from continents, that oceans once united had been divided from each other, or once separate had now been joined; that some tracts of land had disappeared, while others for prolonged period of time had remained in isolation. The present and the past were thus linked together not merely by dead matter, but by the world of living things into one vast system of continuous progression. At the conclusion of the President's address, which was much cheered, Lord Kelvin said that 30 years ago lie heard Sir Archibald Geikie lecture at Dundee on the history of Scottish landènring the last one hundred millions of years, and he did not recollect at the present .moment any one statement in that lecture inconsistent with the conclusions to which the Preside nt and other geologists had more or less settled in tbeir convictions. In to-night's address nobodv would say that Hutton's contributions to science had been overstated. He asked the assembly to accord Sir Archibald a hearty vote of thanks. Lord Provost RUSSELL, in seconding, cordially welcomed the British Association to Edinburgh, and commented with much gratification on the fact that a native of that city was now at the kead of British geologists. The proceedings were then adjourned. The sections assemble to-day (Thursday) at 11 o'clock.
iR. J. H. WILSON, M.P., IN CARDIFF. SPEECH BY THE SAILORS: LEADER. HIS PARLIAMENTARY ATTITUDE. Mr J. H. Wilson, MP. for Middlesbrough, addressed a meeting of members of the Sailors' and Firemen' Union, held in the Gladstone Hall, Cardiff, on Wednesday night. There was a crowded attendance, which was presided over by Mr John Gardner, who described Mr Wilson's election as the most unique, in several respects, in the United Kingdom. Mr J. H. WILSON, M.P., was greeted with hearty cheering. He thought the singing by the audience of the labour chant, "The coming of the Light," was especially appropriate, because there was no class of working men whose affairs ought to have more light thrown upon them than the sailors and firemen of this country. Too long had the House of Commons been in the dark as to their position and he was proud to have the honour of being the first able seaman who had had the privilege of being a member of the Imperial Parliament. (Applause.) The Middlesbrough election was an exceptional fight, and one carried on against the greatest odds. He was proud to know he was opposed on that occasion by both political parties, and that he occupied an independent position to advocate the cause of labour on the floor of the House of Commons. (Hear, hear.) There were Liberals who were shipowners whose record was not the cleanest; and no doubt tbe tIme would come when it would be necessary for him to speak out respecting those men. (Applause.) At the same time, there were many reforms which they could get from the Liberal party which they could not obtain from the Tory party; and in the interests of labour it would be his duty to identify himself with that party while retaining his individual independence. (Applause.) The speaker went on to refer to the benefits which had accrued to seamen and firemen from the Union of which he was the general secretary, and strongly attackd the consular system, the reform of which would be one of the first questions that he intended to bring before the House of Com- mons. He described the system as a glaring in- justice, as nothing but robbery and corruption. Every mail brought him letters from unfortunate seamen who had been either swindled out of their wag-es or illegalijr sent to prison. In the early part of last year, nine members of the Seamen's and Firemen's Union were committed to prison at Phillippi for refusing to go to sea in a steamship which had about 5ft. of a list and was about five inches overladen. The men pro- tested the captain went ashore and made his statement to the British Consul, who sent out a police boat, and the men were sent to prison with- out trial of any kind. The Union took the matter up; and secured their release and the dismissal of the Consul. (Applause.) The Onion took similar steps with reference to cases at Gibraltar, New York, and Constantinople and his maiden speech in the House of Commons should deal with these particular matter!' of urgent reform. (Applause.) The shipping of incompetent seamen, because they could be got at low wages, was another subject to which the attention of Parliament would be directed, and the Legislature would be asked to grant certificates to seamen, firemen, cooks, and stewards. (Hear, hear.) Another pressing reform was as to the accommodation of seamen on board merchant ships. There was an absence of venti- lation and of all decency, the cubic space allotted to seamen being far less than that set apart for convicts. He had more accommodation when he was in Cardiff Gaol than was given to 12 seamen on board an ordinary merchant ship. The main reform, however, was as to the safety of life at sea; and he contended that a large proportion of the cases of less of life could be prevented. There was no labouring class (Mr Wilson went on to say) in the country which would benefit morl" by direct representation in the House of Commons than the sailors, because they were affected by so many laws and surrounded by so many conflicting interests at home and abroad. (Applause.) The British merchant seamen had now an opportunity which was never theirs before and if they did not get justice done, it would be due to their own apathy. It was not a question of .T. H. Wilson being in the House of Commons, but the question was—what support had Wilson behind him when he addressed Parliament (Hear, hear. and applause.) If he spoke on behalf of 120,000 seamen the House of Commons would bs prepared to listen to him, and the support which he obtained there would depend, to a large extent, upon the power of th8 Seamen sand Firemen's Union. (Applause.) The man who would stand idly by until benefits were conferred which he would share was guilty of nothing less than con- temptible meanness. (Hear, hear.) He demanded their loyal support in the position to which he had had the honour of being called, so that they might have their long-standing and cruel grievances remedied. (Applause.) He and others engaged in the emancipation of the seamen had been subjected to the grossest calumny. Last year he went to prison to-day he was goiug to Parliament— (loud cheers)—while the man who passed the sentence upon him in Cardiff had been the most hopelessly beaten candidate in the United Kingdom. (Laughter and cheers.) Re- ferring to the summons which had been iesued against him at South Shields, he explained that some months ago a boarding- master stole men from another boarding-master, and sold them to a ship captain. He saw these men a.t the end of the voyage, and was instru- mental in getting conviction against both the boarding-master and the captain. (Applause.) In order to furnish evidence in the case he told one of theillegally-obtained seamen to stay on shore until after the trial; and now, four months after, he (Mr Wilson) was charged witb attempting to persuade a seaman to desert. (Derisive laughter.) The solicitor of the Shipping Federation at South Shields was a. Tory, and he had so arranged it that the summons against him was returnable on the day that a very important division would take place in the House of Commons to decide whether the Tories should 1:>. ejected from office. Were ever such disgraceful proceedings heard of before ? In conclusion, Mi Wilson again urged his hearers to stand by the Union, and so help on the great reforms which he had indicated. (Applause.) A resolution was proposed and seconded from the audience in support of the Seamen's and Fire- men's Union. This was supported by Councillor Jenkins and Mr W. Sprow, organising agent, and carried unanimously.
THE SEAMEN'S WAGES QUESTION. AGITATION IN SOUTH WALES PORTS. Of late it has been pretty well understood at the Cardiff Docks that an effort would be made by the members of the Sailors' and Firemen's Union to prevent any further reduction of wages taking place, and to try and restore the rate of pay that was in operation some time back. In connection with this movement a rather disorderly scene took place at the Shipping Office on Wednesday. Crews for three steamers, the Castleton, the Harold, and the Tudor Prince, at present lying at Newport, had been engaged at the offices of the Shipping Federation, Mount Stuart-square. When the men pro- ceeded to the Shipping Offica to sign on they were surrounded by a large number of Union and other men, who, learning that the wages which had just been accepted by them were £4 5s per month, made so hostile a demonstration that the crews were afraid to pro- ceed further in the matter. All three crews had the same experience, and the anger of the crowd proved so alarming that none of the new bands proceeded with the negotiations, leaving the office without having signed. Later in the day a crew of Federation men for one of Messrs Morel Bros. steamers, at present lying in the roads at Swan- sea, was sent from Cardiff in a steam tug, the sailors aud firemen at Swansea having united with the object of procuring higher wages than those at present recognised in that port.
Lord Rosebery is an enthusiastic yachtsman, but prefers he bold scenery along the Scottish coast to that of the Channel a.nd the Isle of Wight. He has made two cruises since the Dig- solution of Parliament, his sons accompanying him 011 the second, which was from Qbaa.
THE RUSSIANS IN THE PAMIRS. BOMBAY, Wednesday.—According to reports received here from G.igit, three Russian detach- ments have appeared on the Pamirs, and are enhsting the local Khirgiz in their service. The news of the arrival of a Russian force in the country immediately to the north of the Hindu Kush has created some uneasiness. It appears that three detachments have made their appearance, one party being at Ak Tash, near the Tagdumbash Pnmir, another at Tag- hatma, facing towards Kasiigar, and the third at a place which is not marked on the official maps. -Reuter SIMLA, Wednesday.—About 20 British officers will shortly leave for Gilgit. The Central News learns that the Government have received infor- mation that Russian troops have occupied the Pamirs up to the Hindoo Koosh.
THE HOMESTEAD RIOTS. PITTSBURG, Wednesday.—Lieutenant-Colonel Streeter, of the 10th Regiment of the National Guard, was arrested yesterday at his house in Washington, Pennsylvania, on Private Jam's charges of aggravated assault and was subsequently released on bail in $1,000. Colonel Hawkins was not arrested, as he is still on duty at Homestead. A crowded meeting was held at Homestead last night under the auspices of the Amalgamated Iron and Steel Workers, whose officers urged the men not to waver. Letters were read from different parts of the country, and England and Scotland offering assistance. The committe which had gone through the Carnegie Mill, reported that although a large number of men, including a few experienced rollers, were now at work, most of them were unskilled and practically useless. Malliek, the Hebrew baker, arrested on suspicion of being an accomplice of the Anarchist Berg- mann, has been released in default of sufficient evidence against hii-a.-Peiiter. NEW YORK, Wednesday.—On the day of the attempted murder of Mr Trick his wife gave birth to a child. The shock so affected the lady that she was unable to nurse the infant, and it subse- quently died. Mrs Trick herself is said to be very ill. The strikers have to-day issued writs on charges of murder against Messrs Pinkerton, Mr Trick, and other persons who took a prominent part in the recent disturbances.—Central News. PITTSBURG, Wednesday.—Hugh Ross, one of the men accused of murder and riot at Home- stead, has laid an information before Alderman King here against Mr Frick, the president, Mr Lovejoy, secretary, and Mr Potter, manager of Messrs Carnegie and Co.'s works. Three other officials of the Company, and Messrs Robert and William Pinkerton, and live Pinkerton detectives charged them with the murder of three locked-out workmen. Lovejoy and the other Carnegie officials and Mr Frick and Mr Potter are repre- sented by counsel, who appeared in court this afternoon. After formal hearing the accused were released on bail to the amount of 10,000 dollars each. Mr Frick is still confined to his house. —Renter.
FIGHTING IN MOROCCO. MADRID, Tuesday.—A telegram received here from Tangier reports the arrival at the Moorish camp at Magoga. of reinforcements of troops, accompanied by artillery. Muley Hammed is expected to take command of the forces shortly, and to push forward a vigorous campaign against the Angherites. The pay of the Sultan's soldiers has been increased. Skirmishing took place yes- terday in the Angherite territory. -.Reuter. TANGIER, Tuesday.—It is reported that Moor- ish cavalry and infantry are preparing to make a general attack on the insurgent Angherites on Saturday next. Fresh contingents of troops are arriving each week from the interior to join the Sultan's expeditionary force against" the rebels. Fifty cases of ammunition and ten thousand v shells were despatched on Sunday and yesterday from Tangier. -Beiver.
AMERICA AND THE TIN- PLATE TRADE. [KBOM OUR NEW YORK CORBHSPONDKNT.] The tin-plate plant erected by Mr W. H. Edwards, of MorristoD, Swansea, and situate at Norristown, near Philadelphia, was successfully started on July 21, by Mrs Lewis, the wife of the manager, who conducted the operation of tinning the first plate, which was cut up into small pieces as souvenirs, for which there was a great demand. It is expected that in a short time this factory will be making from 4,000 to 5,000 boxes of plates per week, as all the preparations indicate exten- sive operations in the near future. The Government agent, Ira Ayer, specially appointed for the purpose of reporting on the tin-plate industry of the United States, has just made a report to the Treasury Department, Washington, for the quarter ending June 30th, 1892, in which he states that the production of tin and terne plates, shown by the sworn state- ments of manufacturers, is more than 80,000 boxes, as against 30,000 boxes for the previous quarter, and about 52,000 boxes for the previous nine months, the total production for the whole year ending June 30th, 1892, being up- ward of 130,000 boxes of about lOOlbs each.