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---..J-----;AT ALL ABOUT ABERYSTWYTH.

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-J- ;A T ALL ABOUT ABERYSTWYTH. A VISITORS' GUIDE, 7 Written foe the "Aberystwyth Obsfrvek," ET THE REV. R. S. SHORT, Author of Daxdish, Historical and Topographical, illustrated; The Complete Guide to Clevedon and t its Vicinity, illustrated, Sfc. The visitor who seeks for a sea-side Health Resort, possessing- a fine, pure, bracing air-a. good beach Vita a grand rolling sea-excellent drainage, and the purest of water, obtained from Plynlimcn Mountain, together with extensive mari::e view3 and majestic mountain scenery, v.-ill Ü:!d dl these conditions cealiscd at Aberystwyth — tLo Brighton cf Wales and the" Queen of Welsh watering places." "Beauty and variety scem. the twin goddesses of the place; or, if a third he admitud.the presiding Deity of the bracing breeze, bright-eyed Health, complete* tlo trio. Tlia very rivers have distinct characters of their own- the r impetuous rushing rapidity forms an animated contrast to the eliMirpaign stream, which gecms to slumber in its heavy course. Whenever a, bold feature of originality in the adjacent scenery strikes the eye of the visitor, the presumed harshness of its intrusion is immediately softened by the milder charm of fertility and verdure, reposing, as it were. On the bosom of comparative barrenness, and arraved in all the enchanting wildness of the picturesque. Thus, whether viewed from the towering height or flowery slope, we are at once greeted with the com- mingled or alternate beauties of hill and dale, wood fUid river, charmingly variegated with sudden or eradual acclivities and gentle descents ending in the level walk." This description, written by Mr Wewelyn Prichard, Author of Welsh Minstrelsy," ila 1824, is strictly applicable now. I Strangers are invariably struck with the bright find lively appearance of the town. The streets are *ide and cleanlv. The Local Authorities, in com- Pination: with the inhabitants themselves, do all in their power from time to time to promote improve- Hients. The shops are exceedingly good—many of jthem handsome, and the public buildings superior in «tyle. The adjacent hill<. as seen from the town, tender the street scenery effective. The population in 1881 was 7188. Distances—London, 208 miles laverpool, 118; Birmingham, 123; Manchester. 135 Hereford, 76; Cheltenham, .)3; Bath, 170; Bristol, 3.58; Barmouth, 40 Abenlovcy, 11; Borth, 8 Aberayron, 16; Devil's Bridge, 12; Tenby, Si); Brecon, 67; Carmarthen, GO. Aberystwyth has played a conspicuous part in the lristoryof the Principality, and the antiquarian v '1 meet with.much to repay his diligent research. f, jfche geologist, the mineralogist, the ornithologist J aud jthe botanist will not lack interesting occupation. I THE CLIMATE. -D nrin, the colder months of the gear the climate is remarkably mild and salubrious, Weingsheltered on all sides, except the sea-board, by gh ranges of hills, it is effectively protected from £ he east and other winds s;o prejudicial to invalids, physicists assert that the temperature of the soa prater is milder at Aberystwyth than at any other (place on the western coast, which may be attributable Itoo the physical contour of Cardigan Bay. It is the testimony of those who have wintered here that it is an agreeable winter residence as regards the climate. < The great centre of attraction will always be The BEACH, which spreads in an indented semi-circle tor about a mile from Craiglais Point on the north to ■be Castle promontory on the south, and on the mar- gin are the Marine and Victoria Terraces. Several fs of rocks jut into the sea, and are covered with weed, which, when the sun shines upon it, throws loff into the air the principles of iodine, bromine, and contributing to its health-producing influence. Small pebbles mingled with smd compose the beach. Hundreds of children may be seen. during the sum- Iner, in happy groups, paddling in the water, or ener- getically constructing mimic to,,n. and fortifications, 'whilst indulgent parents are sitting about, working, ør reading, or ruminating, according to fancy. The (beach and rocks abound in marine vegetation and life, and interesting collections of algre, coralline, end eea-anemones may be made to instruct and amuse at lbomeWhc-p- the winter months arrive and in-door amusement is sought. The sea is remarkably fine. The water is very clear and varies in colour, sometimes appearing blue and ffchen of many-tinted green. It flows in uninterrup- itedly direct from the Atlantic Ocean, to the south of Ireland, in stormy weather dashing upon the ibeaches and rocks with impetuous fury to a height of some 50 or 60 feet, and falling in inexpressibly beauti- jfnljets d'eauz. The waves are emphatically "rollers" £ f great length, height, and force, forming a broad ne of silvery foam along the entire length of the beach, exciting the admiration and awe of visitors. As I see it surging onward, never nearor to tiie land, It seems to be a.moroster ciiain'd, and baffled in its onward t stride. And it seems to utter voices like a multitude of men, :Speaking in an awe-struck munnur,as if waiting for a sound That is always coming, but comes not; and sighing deeply, when It breaks and bleaches in great waves upon the pebble i ground. f *'iVIioInir" (Xant Eos): Sea Fancies." THE TERRACES.-The Marine Terrace is built upon pa indentation of seashore, extending from the J-" rocky skare" under the Pier, known as the Weeg, jto the reef called Penbryn Diodde. It forms a natural screscent, made available for a Terrace of good houses. fhe Victoria Terrace is a continuation from the [arine Baths to Craiglais, or Constitution Hill, he houses are large and lofty, with an ornamental foontage which is of an attractive and imposing ieharacter, The Promenade extends the whole length, lis of considerable width, and, being raised, is pro- jected from the encroachment of the sea, which at high ltide flows close up to it, with an agreeable effect. The jfviews are very fine, and the sea is particularly grand. IjjFrom the end of the Terrace, near the Pier, the lofty '{mountains, Cader Idris, Snowdon, and the Eifl anay be distinctly seen, in clear weather, lifting their (sublime forms in solemn majesty, after having wit- nessed many terrific battles and political and social ^changes wrought by the revolution of ages in the .mncient land of the Cymry. Atmospheric changes jjoften give the Eifl mountains the appearance of a Ichain of islands, the effect of which is very interest- g. The historic Ruins of the Castle, the little mera Obscura. building with its flag flying, Pen "nas Hill with its Wellington Monument, and the indented coast of Cardiganshire spreading some ,thirty miles down the Bay to the south, together with 4he invigorating nature of the air, the transformations jof the clouds, the glorious sunsets, the merry groups lof children playing upon the beach, the fishing smacks and pleasure boats, with their many- coloured flags flying, the sea gulls swooping around, the waves gently plashing upon the shore, and the various-costumed promenaders moving to and fro to the strains of the Season Band, present a scene of j animation always enjoyable to the visitors. It is calculated that there are upon the Terraces about eighty holses, of which sixty-one are professional Lodging Houses, which provide about two hundred Buxd twenty-two lets" or suites of apartments. THE BOATS, both sailing and rowing, are well built and licensed as to the number they earry. They are (provided with fishing tackle. In the summer a Begatta occasionally takes place, when the Bay pre- sents a lively scene. 1 The Ladies' Bathing Machines, about 30 in j (lumber. are iii front of the Marine Terrace, and the {Gentlemen's, about 20, on the beach in front of the Queen's Hotel. They are on the model of those at iBrichton. The attendants al-e proverbial for their i uvility. Expert swimmers may frequently be seen ,13wimm.iiisr from the Gentlemen's Machines to tho Pier and back, a boat accompanying them for safety, ,[n the season swimming matches take place, when tho ?ier becomes thronged with interested observers. 1:. The Marin'" Baths, under the supervision cf ■iJr Rice AViMiaas, are on the Terrace. They com- prise Hot and cold pure sea water—sea weed batirs, 'aid fresh water baths." and are* widely known, jiaving been established in 1824. The SALT Water PUBLIC SwrcrsiiNG EATHS. in :Newfoundland-street, were opened in 1879. The gentlemen's Bath is 77 feet long by 32 feet bro/ul ,nd the Ladies' Bach 73 feet long by 2.3 feet broad. 3oth are well fitted with dressing rooms, &c., and ighted with eras. The floors are of Portland cement, (nd the Gentlemen's Bath slopes from 3 feet 9 inches o 7 feet 3 inches the Ladies' from 3 feet 3 inches to I feet 9 inches. The buildings are well lighted and j'entilated, and the water, which is daily pumped '-l'orn the sea, is kept at a temperature of about (K3 "tb., or abo^t 10° Fah. above that of the sea. The 'rivate Baths, supplied hot or cold, with fresh or 1lt water, are handsomely fitted, and always really jr use. During the season Excursions are made, by rail, > Barmouth, Harlech, Dolgclley, Llandrindod Wells, trata Florida, Swansea. and Tenby; and by Steam 'acket to Bardsey Island, Barmouth, New Quay, nd other places of interest. Numerous excursion arties also arrive from various English and Welsh Jwns. THE CASTLE Ruins stand conspicuously on a atural promontory projecting into the sea. between io entrance to the Harbour and the University Col- "gc. The massive character of its ruins and its xong position confirm the historical accounts of ita rifinal importance. The first fortress, no trace rhich now remains, WM built by Gilbert do i i Strongbow, son of Richard de Clare, Earl of Striguil or Chepstow, tinder grant of King Henry I., A D. 1109. It was destroyed by Owen Gwynedd. Other castles were successive y built and destroyed dnring the wars of the Welsh princes. The castle whose r.uins still remain was built by Edward I.. or by Edmund, his brother, during his stay at Llanbadarn- fawr in 1277. The first charter of incorporation was granted to the borough by Edward I. After the formal annexation of the Principality to England, the castle appears to have been in undisturbed pos- session of the English crown until the reign of Henry IV., when it was taken by the renowned chieftain and prince Owain Glyndwr. During the Civil Wars the Castle was held for Charles I., but in 1616 the Parliamentarian besiegers obtained possession of it, and undermined and blew it to ruins, which, for nearly two centuries were allowed to crumble into decay. In IS-T-I a zealous antiquarian member of the Town Council caused the debris to be cleared away, bringing to view many interesting details With its walks and seats it has now become a favourite resort of the visitors, who may be seen in the summer sea- son in happy groups, some knitting, some sketching, some sauntering, somo reading, and sonic chatting, according to inclination, but all enjoying- the salu- brious breezes and charming scenery which here abound. Methinks this spot pre-eminently one for meditation. Imagination restores the ruins to their pristine grandeur, and re-peoples its halls with their Iwonted guests, whilst the ancient bard recites his thrilling legends of Love or War, and the tradition- ary harper hold's his listeners in rapt attention as he trills tho melodies accompanying the ancient Pennill- ion, or thrums the martial strains of the patriotic Cymry. But now bard, harpist, warrior, and lord of the Castle are all numbered with the past. The knight's bones are dust, And bis good sword rust; His soul is with the sainte, I rust." S. J. Coleridge :—" Tiie Knight's Tomb." The views from the Castle hill are very fine. The coast, embracing Cardigan Bay, stretches away on the N.W. to the Eifl mountains and Bardsey Island, for the distance of thirty-three miles; and to the S.W., towards St. David's head, for about the same distance, includng the Rebecca mountain peak, Mynydd Pregelly (Priscilla Top), height 1,753 feet, rising in form of a cone, the highest land in Pembroke- shire, and the towns of Aberaeron and Now Quay. On the W. the ocean rolls in its native freedom between the Welsh coast and the coast of Ire- land, the town of Wexford being directly opposite Aberystwyth, distant about 70 miles. It has been asserted," remarks an old writer, "that a slight view of Wexford, in Ireland, which is situate opposite Aberystwyth, has been discovered in the sun's disc previous to its setting, from the Castle ruins." This of course is open to speculation But from Pen Dinas hill on a ve-y clear day, with a good telescope, the Wicklcw Mountains, in Ireland, the writer is assured, may be distinctly seen. If Ireland is distin- guishable from Snowdon—why not from Pen Dinas ? Snowdon, heghb, 3,571 feet; Cader Idris, height, 2,914, feet, and the lofty mountains of Carnarvon- shire are distinctly visible in clear weather. East- ward inland will be seen the lofty peaks of Pivn- limon, height. 2,463 feet, three in number, aptly called the British Alps, among which are the sources of the rivers Severn, the Wye, and the Rheidol. The Aberystwyth water supply is now obtained thence. The view in this direction furnishes a good impres- sion of the grandeur and awe-inspirinor effect of mountainous scenery. Immediately below is the confluence of the river Rheidol with the Ystwyth, forming the harbour, extending from which is a pier. with its flag-staff, light, controlled by Trinity Honse, and signal apparatus for indicating to vessels tho depth of the water on the bar. Pen Dinas. with the remains of an ancient British encampment, 'about S00 feet above the sea level,and the Weliington Monument, erected by the late Major Riehardes, Bryneithyn. in memory of his commanding officer, the Duke of Wel- lington. It is built in the form of a cannon, vertically, which accounts for its somowhit eccentric appearance. The valley of the Ysrtwyth, with the mansion of Tany. owlch-the valley of tne Rheidol, with Llanbadarn, Penparke Bridge, Piccadilly, and the old coach road to the Devil's Bridge, and the shipbuilding yards, and vessels in the harbour. The ancient character ,of the town is seen to good effect. The grand sweep of the Terraces, with the visitors and vehicles in motion, the boats upon the hay. and the bathei-g ty>on_ the beach, Towyn i;i the distance, the Pier, the University College, the Assembly Rooms, the Parish C;:ureh, the Grammar School, wi'h numerous other objects, including the s fields up OR tho verdant slopes, combine to form a picture pleasant to contemplate. The intelligent Christian observer by scenes such as here present themselves will find his pious emotions awakened, in the spirit of the Psalmist, How manifold are thy works, 0 Lord in wisdom hast Thou made them alt the earth is full of Thy riehes. So is this great and wide sea, wherein are things creeping innumerable, both small and great beasts. There go the ships there is that leviathan, whom thou hast made to play therein. These all wait upon Thee that Thou rmiyest give them their meat in due season."—Ps. civ. These are Thy glorious works, Parent of t-ood, Almighty! Thine this universal frame. Thus wondrous fair: Thyself how wondrous then I Unspeakable, Who sit'st above these heav'ns, To us invisible, or dimly seen In these Thy lowest works yet these declare Thy goodness beyond thought, and pJwer divine. Milton. The interest of the visitor will be drawn to the cannons on the castle grounds, facing the sea, 64 pounders, which were. mounted in 1878, and are used at the 5th Brigade, Welsh Division, R.A. drills in May. "Jhe low square building, with lightning con- ductor, built in the moat of the castle, is the powder magazine. The STORM SIGNAL turret, and anemometer, for measuring the force of the wind, and gauge for regis- tering the rainfall, will not escape notice. The CAMERA OBSCURA (from Latin, earner a cham- ber, and obscura darkened), in which images of ex- ternal objects are exhibited on a white surface, is placed on the N.W. point of the Castle grounds. It ia very wonderful. Unlike a painting, all is in motion, It is actually a living picture! Its range is very extensive, embracing the magnificent front views of all the coast distinctly and clearly revealed, com- prising the Merionethshire and Cardiganshire hills, from Cardigan Head, on the south coast, to the north coast of Cardigan Bay up to Penybwch Point, part .of the town of Aberystwyth, Ystwyth and Clarach Valleys, front views of the University College, Marine Terrace, the Castle grounds, Pendinas and Constitution Hills (Craiglais), the whole length of the Beach from Craig-yr-Alltwen and the Harbour to Wallog point, the Eifl mountains, Bardsey Island, Snowdon, and distant hills may be seen. Every moveable object, such as boats on the sea, friends on the beach, and the Castle grounds, can be seen and recognised. The setting of the sun no one should omit seeing from the Camera Obsoura. THE PIER was opened on Good Friday, 1865. It cost w813,600. It is about 690 feet in length. In January, 1866, a terrific storm washed away the head of the pier for about 100 feet, carrying portions'of it to the shore three miles along the coast. In 1872 it was reconstructed, and the refreshment pavilion, with ts balcony and orchestra, erected. The Pier is an elegant structure, and when gaily decked with ban- kers on gala days, or when illuminated with the coloured lamps by night, presents a very pretty and attractive appearance. From the western end beau- tiful views are obtained of the terraces and town, .with the acclivitous hills at the back, Bardsey Island, 'the mountains of Carnarvonshire, Snowdon, Craiglais Ihill, Pen Dinas hill, the University College, St. 'Michael's Church, the Castle Ruins, with the indented coast of Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire stretching away to the south. Of a fine summer's day, when the eeason band plays, it is a pleasant and cheerful pro- menade, and much enjoyed by the visitors. The fol- lowing acrostic, from the pen of Mr C. V. Grinfield, M.D., contains allusion to it t ACROSTIC. As the fair 11 sea-queen of Cambria's land, Beautiful, bright, and yet pleasingly grand, E'en as thy form now so graceful we view- Robell in rich vesture both ancient and new- Yes, as around thy rude Castle we stray, See we old timesin thy Pier see to-dly: Thought, aye, and learning, here find their full sway; Wend wo our way up that steep rugged height Yonder uprising; we view with delight Thence the wide prospect—there sparkling the sea, Here vales and mountains, where oft we would be. The Pier is the property of a company. THE ASSEMBLY RoOMS, in Church-street, were opened in 1820. The style is Grecian, They com- prise a Ball and Promenade room, with an orchestra, Milliard room and suite of ante rooms, and a dwelling 'house, and refreshments are provided. The building is now leased by the Library Committee, and the large room is available for balls, concerts, lectures, and public meetings. The TOWN CLOCK TOWER is a handsome stone structure, with a balcony look-out and weather vane. It is 62 feet in height, and is situated at the junction of Great Darkgate, Church, Bridge, and Pier streets. It was erected in 1856, on the site of the old Town iHall, and cost ^61,250. Sir Pryse Pryse, Bart., of ;Gogerddan, generously presented the clock, which by night is illuminated. A barometer is so placed lfaat it can be read by the public. There is a drink- ing fountain and cup at the base, and drinking (trough for dogs. The water issues from a marble (bivalve shell, and is surrounded by a scripture text, Uohniv. 13, 14, cast in metal by the celebrated Coal- brook Dale Company. Those who observe the weather changes will be interested to know that the barometer, Negretti'sji reads correctly with the jPreenwioh standard. It is accompanied by a meteor* ^logical table of readings fox the current month* 2t is under the control Gf the National Lifeboat Insti- tution, the Rev. John Williams, Bridge-street, being the local secretary. It would be of great interest to visitors if allowed for a small charge to ascend to the upper balcony to enjoy the magnificent prospects it commands. HOTELS. The Queen's is pleasantly situated on the northern part of the Marine Terrace, and embraces views of Craiglais Hill, the Eifl Mountains, Bardsey Island, the Terrace Promenade, the Pier, Castle Hill and Ruins, Aberaeron, and the coast of Cardigan Bay for a distance of 30 miles towards St. David's Head, with the fine flowing ocean in front. The hotel was built in 1866. Architecturally it is one of the largest and handsomest buildings in the Principality, and The Times," February 19th, 1868, says It is one of the finest buildings of its class." It com- prises coffee and dining rooms, ladies' drawing room, library, billiard, smoking, and large table d'hoto room, ten private sitting rooms, and more than one hundred bedrooms. Also an elegant assembly and concert room, holding about 400 persons, in which assemblies are held during the season. The Belle Ytte Royal Hotel, situated on the Marine Terrace, consists of two houses thrown into one, which gives it an appearance of a private dwelling. It comprises spacious commercial room, coffee room, ladies' coffee room, billiard room, library, and suites of apartments adapted for families, and seventy- bedrooms. It is pleasantly situated close upon the sea, and commands extensive coast yimvs. The Gogerudan Arms and. JAon Roifil Hotel, in Great Darkgate-stroet, is one of the oldest established and widely-known hotels in the town. It provides coffee and commercial rooms, large billiard room, suites of apartments for families, and a posting department. The Talbot, in Market-street, is an old established and well-known commercial and family hotel, and is much frequented by agriculturists. Besides the above, there are other hotels and many inns, most of which let apartments. There are also several temperance houses. The LODGING HOUSES are commodious, numer- ous, and generally well-appointed. Indeed, they will bear comparison with those in any other watering-place in the kingdom. Several thousands of visitors of all classes are accommodated. The terms vary with the varying season. In winter they are greatly reduced. PUBLIC CONVEYANCES.—Breaks, flys, Bath chairs, saddle donkeys, pony carriages, bicycles, and tri- cycles are obtainable by visitors of the various proprietors. LIBRARY. The Free Library, at the FAssembly Rooms, was established about lSGo. There are about three thousand volumes in various branches of literature, which are being augmented annually by purchase and by donations. Visitors are allowed to have books at twopence per volume. Works in more than one volume are charged at one penny each after the first. The Reading Room is accessible to visitors at one penny per visit, or one shilling per quarter. The late Mr. G. E -T. Powell, Nant Eos, with a generous and patriotic spirit worthy of emulation, a few years ago presented up- wards of 1000 volumes. Mr. Isaac Pitman, of Bath, the founder of Phonography, has also enriched its shelves by a handsome donation of modern works. The Right Reverend Dr. Basil Jones,. Bishop of the Diocese, and the Right Reverend Dr. Ryle, Bishop of Liverpool, have likewise presented volumes. The LIFE BOAT was established in 1861, by the National Life Boat Institution. The boat- house is in Queen's-road, and is surmounted by a weather-vane. It is supported by voluntary contri- butions and a box is placed at the boat-house. There is also a Life Boat pillar box near the Belle Vue Hotel, on the Marine Terrace, enclosed by iron railings.—President of the Aberystwith Branch, Colonel Pryse chairman, His Worship the Mayor honorary secretary, Rev. J. Williams, Bridge-street. The crew consists of twelve men—coxswain, Mr. Thomas Williams. Sweet Charity, with generous will, May here a true recipient find, Where no deceptive arts can chill The love that warms for human kind. And while our rock-ribbed island stands, Let this be Britain's noble boast: That Life Boats, manned by gallant hands, Like guardian angels watch the coast." The MARKETS. There are markets for but- ter, eggs, poultry and vegetables, held respectively in Terrace-road, Market-street, and Pier-street. The meat market is held in a large building in Church-street. The real Welsh mutton is small, but very delicious in flavour, probably from the thyme- pasture of the mountains. Ralph Higden wrote- The beef is good, the mutton better, If England can produce such-lot her! A monthly market for cattle is held in the Smithfield on the first Monday in the month. Horse fairs are held twice a year. The Corn Market is held on Mondays in the hall in Market-street. This is the market-place also for cheese, wool, and sundry agricultural produce. Hiring Mondays are the three Mondays after November 12th, called Dydd Llun Cyflogau," and are held by ancient custom. FIsH.-There is no fish market. Great quantities arc landed here from the fishing smacks and sent off by rail, chiefly to Liverpool. The public are supplied by the shops and by the hand-barrows, which go from house to house with cod, herrings, sprats, mullets, mackerel, silver eyes, gurnet, skate, plaice, brill, dabbs, salmon (from the Teifi, the Dovey, and the Aeron), crabs, bass, lobsters, oysters, prawns, shrimps, and cockles. Laver (Ulva.) grows upon the rocks, and may be obtained at the fish shops. It is much eaten in the south of England. The CEMETERY was opened about twenty-one years ago. It is situate on the Llanbadarn-road, and occupies six acres of land. It is divided, as usual, into two portions—the consecrated and the uncon- secrated, and is provided with a church, chapel, and keeper's lodge It is prettily laid out with trees, shrubs, and flowers. The following stanza from a poem, the Welsh Grave," in allusion to the ancient national custom of planting flowers over graves, will be read with interest:— Oh full of beauty soft and kind— Oh ever gentle and refined Oh full of dear warm-hearted nature t Amiability's best feature! Suggested first by pensive love And into being framed to move, Wert tdou-so exquisitively bland I Dear custom of my native land. Thy snus-wherever boi-n-have cried, While the generous scene they eyed, I Oh beautiful! in simple taste The Cambrian peasant's grave is dress'd.' English visitors are invariably struck with the de- corous manner in which Sunday is observed at Aber- vstwyth, so different to the excitement and gaiety of the Continent. No excursion trains run, and all business is suspended. After the various places of religious worship are closed on a Sunday evening multitudes of well-conducted people may be seen promenading on the Terraces beside the bay. We trust that Aberystwyth will ever be loyal to the tra- ditions of the Cymry for their attachment to Sabbath observance. The graphic pen of the late gifted Frances Ridley Havergal, in her Life Chords," has very beautifully pourtrayed the contrast between a British and a Continental Sabbath:— The is a cloud o'er other lands, though fair their mountains be, And beautiful their sunny plains, re-echoing with glee: But on our Sabbath-loving hearts it cast a saddening gloom, While the mirth of all their songs is as the music of the tomb. They know no holy Sabbath rest; and yet, above, around, The trees are waving solemnly with a deep and holy sound; And the flowers smile to greet His day, and the streams more softly roll, And all things speak of God to the silent listening soul. CHURCHES.—St. Michael's is a plain edifice, near the Castle precincts. In 1762 the inhabitants of Aberystwyth issued an appeal for subscriptions for the erection of a Chapel-of-ease to the parish Church of Llanbadarn-fawr, in which it was stated that "the town had many years before been deprived of its Church by the sea gradually undermining it; and that there were several persons then living who had been married in the churchyard formerly belonging to the Church that had fallen, that their only place of worship then was the parish church of Llanbad- a. n, upwards of a mile from the town and that all the inhabitants without exception were of the estab- lished Church of England." The Church was com- menced but remained a more shell in an unfinished state for 22 years, having been used for boat-build- ing. It was finir-hed in 1787. The Rev. R. Morgan, curate of Llanbadarn, became the first incumbent in 1827. The present new and enlarged Church was built in 1830. It accommodates 1000 persons, and is in the latter style of English architecture. The tower has never been completed. A third of the sittings are free. The Organ, by Robson, cost < £ 350. It is in. tended to rebuild the fabric, in a different style of architecture. It is now a cruciform. Aberystwyth is in the Diocese of St. David's, Archdeaconry of Cardi- gan, and Deanery of Llanbadarn-l' awr.—St. Mary's Welsh Church is situate in Gray's Inn lane. It is a chapel-of-ease to St. Michael's. It was built in 1865, at the cost of £ 3,000. Style, Gothic holds! 400. It is served by the vicar and curates of St. Michael's. Holy Trinity Church is situated on Buarth Mawr, to the east of the Railway Station, and is approached from the north gate. Later on a roadway will be made from Railway-terrace, by a continuation of Thespian-street. The design is a cruciform, in the early English style of architecture, and when com- pleted the Church will be one of the most handsome modern churches in the Principality. The nave was consecrated in August, 1886, with sittings for 308. The erection of the central tower and transepts was commenced in June, 1887, the foundation stone bar- ing been laid on Jubilee day. The nave oont 1 the transepts and lower part of the tower are esti- mated to cost < £ 3,000; and the chancel X2,000 and the remainder of the tower and bells another £ 2,000. All sittings are free. Catholic Church, Our Lady of the Angels and St Winifrid, Queen's-road, opened 1875, holds 300. Llanbadarn FaUlT, distance 1 £ mile. During the Summer omnibuses convey visitors to and fro to enable them to attend the English service on Sunday mornings. The CHAPELS are numerous, on account of the bi- lingual population. They are for the most part com- modious and handsome edifices. The Welsh Sunday services are at 9.30 a.m., and 6 p.m. The English at 11 a.m., and 6 p.m. The usual week-day services are held in connection with each. There are Sunday schools connected with all the places of worship in the town.—In 1824 there were the Baptist chapel in Baker-street, the Wesleyan Methodist in Queen- street, the Calvinistic Methodist in Mill-street, and the Independent in Penmaesglas, all of which were Wekh. The state of religion in Aberystwyth was at that time considered to be very favourable. The fol- lowing numeral accommodation is approximate:— The Tabernacle, Welsh Calvinistic Methodist, Mill- street, built in 1785, enlarged 1832, rebuilt 1879 holds 1,100.-Shiloh, Welsh Calvinistic Methodist, North-parade, built 1863, holds 1,100; style, Italian Gothic. Congregational, English, Portland-street, built 1866, holds 450, stylo Gothic, spire 80 feet. Congregational, Welsh, from Penmaesglas, Baker- street, built 1878, holds 500. Presbyterian Calvinistic Methodist, English, Newfoundland-street, built 1871, style, Gothic, holds 300. Baptist, Welsh, Baker-street, rebuilt 1833, holds 500. Baptist, English, Alfred- place, Baker-street, built 1871, holds 326, style Gothic. Wesleyan. Welsh, St. Paul's Groat Dark- gate-street, built 1879, holds 600. Wesleyan, Welsh, Moor-street, built 1869, holds 200. Wesleyan English, Queen's-road, built 1869, holds 300. The United Methodist Free Church, Welsh, Lewis-ter- race, built 1841, holds 300. The UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF WALES is situate near St. Michael's Church and the Castle ruins. This structure was originally erected on the site of Castle House, by the late ir Uvedale Price, Bart., of Fox- ley, Herefordshire, the architect being the celebrated Mr Nash, the designer of Regent-street, and other works in London. It is a castellated mansion, of somewhat fantastic appearance, in imitation of the Gothic, and consists of three octagonal towers, con- nected by ranges of apartments. In front is a balcony overlooking the sea; small turrets in character are added at each end. It was originally intended as a marine summer residence for his family, the late Lady Caroline Price being very partial to the place. The baronet having died before the completion of the building, it was afterwards enlarged as an hotel, at an expenditure of = £ 80,0.J0; but the company hav- ing failed, it ultimately became the property of the University College of Wales, at a cost of £ 10,000. The College was established chiefly through the ex- ertions of the late highly respected Str Hugh Owen, who was knighted in recognition of his patriotic labours in the promotion of Education in Wales. Government is giving a grant of X4,000 per annum. It was formally opened on October 9th, 1872, with twenty alumni. The college has several scholarships open to Welsh and English competitorship. The Library and Museum will interest visitors. The President is the Right Hon. Lord Aberdare. Princi- pal, the Rev. T. C. Edwards, D.D. (Edin.), M.A. (Oxon and Lond.), late scholar of Lincoln College, Oxford. Registrar and Librarian, Mr E. P. Jones, M.A., B.D. (Glasgow). The Library contains many works of value. The Museum contains many inter- esting collections illustrating the various branches of geology, mineralogy, natural history, and also many curiosities, many of them the gift of the late Mr G. E. J. Powell, Nant Eos, and other benefactors. A Magazine is issued by the students. The ABERYSTWYTH PEBBLES are of nnceasing in- terest to visitors. They are cut, polished, and mounted by local lapidaries. Agates, named from Achates in Sicily, composed of layers of different tinted quartz Onyx, an agate formed of layers of chalcedony of various colours, from Greek, onyx a finger nail; Jasper, a siliceous many-coloured mineral; Topaz, a precious stone, of brilliant colours, from Greek, topazos to light; Crystal, from Greek, kryos, ice; Cornelian, from Latin carnis, flesh and flesh-coloured variety of chalcedony Amethyst, a violet-tinted variety of quartz, from Greek amythys- tos, not drunken, biMii supposed to prevent in- tosicaticja; Mocco, from Qre^ik moschos, a tender plant, descriptive of its plsnt-like formations. Very beautiful ferns, inosses, and wild flowers abonnd in the neighbourhood. The seaweeds wi'I repay for collecting. Solan geese, cormorants, and many species of wild sea fowl are occasionally seen along the coast. RECREATIONS.—Theatricals, Concerts, Assemblies, Balls, Lectures and various entertainments, in addi- tion to Lawn Tennis, Cricket, Archery, Football, Boating and Fishing. Among the GENTLEMEN'S SEATS may be noted Crosswood Park; the Right Hon. Earl Lisburne; Gogerddan, Sir Pryse Pryse, Bart.; Nanteos, Mr. W. B. Powell; and Hafod, once the "Fonthill" of Wales, with its remarkably beautiful surroundings of mountains, wood, and water, and its church dating from 1620, rebuilt in 1803, and containing an exqui- site monument by Chantry. THE MOUNTAINS.—The visitor to Aberystwyth, whether he sails upon the bay or whether he walks, rides, or drives about the neighbourhood, cannot fail to be impressed with the loftiness and striking gran- deur of the adjacent as well as the distant mountains. Many an ancient bard has drawn his inspiration from his native mountains. The mountains, too," aptly observes the author of Wales, Past and Present," are associated not only with a characteristic poetry, but with a hearty love of independence, such as the Welsh enjoy in common with the Highlander of Scot- land, and the dweller in Switzerland. Of this strong relish for liberty hills seem the fitting nursing ground. There nourished it has exhibited itself in a daring and heroism which has time after time made its leg- ible mark on history, and graven out annals which passing centuries cannot efface. On the highest peaks of some mountains a thoughtful man, taking in the whole vast distance before him, might exclaim, as he notes its primitive appearance, "such was the world ere Adam delved." No spade or axe have here left their achievements; the fern, the gorse, and the wild thyme have lived and died for ages, and the only ruler has been the storm. Far away, on distant mountains, may be seen glimpses of human life, small farms crouching in hollows, with strips of cultivated land around, and all insignificant in the extreme com- pared with the great unfenced tracts that surround. Bracing health and pleasant mind our mountains in- variably yield. WALKS abound in all directions. Following are a few of them :—On the south, through Trefechan, by the side of the harbour, and along the shore to a cottage, then along the river-side, with Tanybwlch on the right, for a mile or so to a bridge, near Elm Cottage, and then bakalong the road to the south gate; afterwards returning by the road, or through the meadow and Plascrug walk, on the right, or through Llanbadarn. The'top of Pen Dinas can be reached by turning to the right by Trefechan railway bridge; along the lane and footpath to the Monument, and down the other side, coming out near the railway bridge. Plascrug walk runs from near the Station towards the old Castle; thence on the left through the Cemetery, or as far as the Tanyard, and into Llan- badarn-road; or keeping to the right, across the railway and on to the stone bridge, returning through Penparke on the right, or Llanbadarn on the left. A longer walk may be obtained by going beyond the bridge along the river-side for about a mile, thence across the railway and into the road and back. Several walks diverge from the Machynlleth road. Nearly opposite the Workhouse is the entrance to the lovers' walk, for admission to which a charge is made. Higher up the hill (Penglais hill), on the right-hand side, opposite Penglais lodge, is a pleasant walk through the fields which leads to the new reservoir. From this point a lane leads on to the village of Llanbadarn, and a path goo; down to Llan- gawsa, then back by the road or by Plascrug. Still higher up the hill are cross roads close to Cefnhendre Hall. That on the right leads to Llan- badarn also, by keeping to the left, towards the Darren Mine and British encampment, some half-a- dozen miles distant. At the village of Waun a path diverges to the right, and passe- through a very pretty dingle into Llanbadarn. Half-a-mile further, near Lluest Gwilvm. a road branches back to Llan- badarn, passing by Bronpadarn. Another half-a-mile further is Fronfraith, where a pretty lane turns to the right, passing Fronygog and Nantceirio Hall, and into Llanbadarn-road. Another path nearly opposite Fronfraith, on the left, leads to the Machynlleth road, close to Ivy Cottage. Half-a-mile beyond Fron- fraith is Peithyll. where there are cross roads. That on the right leads to Llanbadarn-road, along which back to town, passing, on the right, Lovesgrove, Dole, Fronfraith. and Nantceirio Hall. The rOd-d to the left at Peitbyll letds to Cogerddsn, Bow Street, &c., on the Machynlleth road. From Bow Street there is a road leading to Clarach, where again there are cross roads. Llangorwen. Church is prettily situated here. One leads back to town through Cwm woods, near the mansion, and out at the cross roads on the Machyn leth road already mentioned, and down Penglais hill. Another road from Clarach leads to the sea, from which point a path returns to town, over Constitution Hill, and another goes north- ward. past Wallog and Moelcerney, to Borth. The latter place is also reached from Clarach by a road. A lane also runs from Clarach to the beach on the south side of the valley. Opposite the west entrance to Cwm a path runs through the wood towards the town: on the top of the hill the pedestrian may take his choice of three ways. He can turn to the left go along a lane and out into the Machynlleth road near Cefnhendre Hall; or he can go down the Bryny- jnor read or follow the path slightly to the left of the latter, and come in sight ol the town close by Penglais Cottage, over the quarry. Constitution Hill is a very popular resort, the quarry, with its many winding paths and cosy nooks, being an especial favourite. This is private pro- pertv, and a feeling is growing that the Corporation should purchase or lease it, as it is in danger of being enclosed. Alonsr Brynymor road as far as the mansion, and then back over Ropewalk Hill, is a pleasant walk. As a WINTER RESIDENCE the general testimony to Aberystwyth is very favourable. Of course the great influx of visitors is in Summer, but the Spring and Autumn are very enjoyable. The WELFIH LANGUAGE is spoken by about one million of the inhabitants. Dialects of the Welsh language arc also spoken in Brittany and some dis- tricts of northern Germany. In the compilation of the above the subject matter was so extensive and the space at disposal necessarily limited, that condensation approaches abruptness. iJuring the past 4-0 years the writer has occasionally travelled throughout the length, breadtli, and centre of the Principality. He has read much of its literature and mingled with its people, and cordi- ally testifies to the hospitality, law-abiding spirit, and loyalty to the Throne, of tho warm-hearted, Sabbath-observing, Bible-loving, and patriotic Cymry. The spreading vales, meandering rivers, extensive woodlands, fishing, rushing waterfalls, and rolling ocean, deep ravines, ferns and flowers, sea weeds and products of the deep, stratified and weird- looking rocks and majestic mountains, all so brought as it were into one focus in this favoured region, combine to display both the wonderful and the beau- tiful works of God, and to draw forth^rom the devout and intelligent visitor the exclamation My Father made them all!"

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