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ALL ABOUT ABERYSTWYTH. A VISITORS' GUIDE, WRITTEN FOB THE "ABERYSTWYTH OBSEBVEB," BY THE REV. R. S. SHORT, Author of Dawlish, Historical and Topographical, illustrated; The Complete Guide to Clevedon and its Vicinity, illustrated, fye. The visitor who seeks for a sea-side Health Resort, possessing a fine, pure, bracing air—a good beach trith a grand rolling sea-excellent drainage, and the purest of water, obtained from Plynlimon Mountain, together with extensive marine views and majestic mountain scenery, will find all these conditions realised at ABERYSTWYTH the Brighton of Wales and the Queen of Welsh watering places. "Beauty and variety seem the twin goddesses of the place; or, if a third be admitted,the presiding Deity of the bracing breeze, bright-eyed Health, completes the trio. The very rivers have distinct characters of their own-their impetuous rushing rapidity forms an animated contrast to the champaign stream, which seems to slumber in its heavy course. Whenever a bold feature of originality in the adjacent scenery Strikes the eye of the visitor, the presumed harshness of its intrusion is immediately softened by the milder charm of fertility and verdure, reposing, as it were. on the bosom of comparative barrenness, and arrayed in all the enchanting wildness of the picturesque. Thus, whether viewed from the towering height or flowery slope, we are at once greeted with the com- mingled or alternate beauties of hill and dale, wood and river, charmingly variegated with sudden or gradual acclivities and gentle descents ending in the level walk." This description, written by Mr Llewelyn Prichard, Author of Welsh Minstrelsy," in 1824, is strictly applicable now. Strangers are invariably struck with the bright and lively appearance of the town. The streets are wide and cleanly. The Local Authorities, in com- bination with the inhabitants themselves, do all in their power from time to time to promote improve- ments. The shops are exceedingly good—many of them handsome, and the public buildings superior in style. The adjacent hills, as seen from the town, render the street scenery effective. The population in 1881 was 7188. Distances—London, 208 miles Liverpool, 118; Birmingham, 123; Manchester. 135; Hereford, 76; Cheltenham, 253; Bath, 170; Bristol, 158; Barmouth, 40; Aberdovey, 11; Borth. S; Aberayron, 16; Devil's Bridge, 12; Tenby, 80; Brecon, 67; Carmarthen, 60. Aberystwyth has played a conspicuous part in the history of the Principality, and the antiquarian will meet with much to repay hi" diligent research. the geologist, the mineralogist, the ornithologist, and the botanist will not lack interesting occupation. THE CLIMATE.—During the colder months of the year the climate is remarkably mild and salubrious. Being sheltered on all sides, except the sea-board, by high ranges of hills, it is effectively protected from the east and other winds so prejudicial to invalids. Physicists assert that the temperature of the sea water is milder at Aberystwyth than at any otlvr place on the western coast, which may be attributa' ie to the physical contour of Cardigan Bay. It is the testimony of those who have wintered here that it is an agreeable winter residence as regards the climatc. The great centre of attraction will always be THE BEACH, which spreads in an indented semi-cm-io for about a mile from Craiglais Point on the north to the Castle promontory on the south, and on the mar- gin are the Marine and Victoria Terraces. Several reefs of rocks jut into the sea, and are covered with eea-weed, which, when the sun shines upon it, throws off into the air the principles of iodine, bromine, and ozone, contributing to its health-producing influence. Small pebbles mingled with s'ind compose the beack. Hundreds of children may be Feen. during the sum- mer, in happy groups, paddling in the water, or ener- getically constructing mimic to-ns and fortifications, whilst indulgent parents are sitting about, working, or reading, or ruminating, according to fancy. The beach and rocks abound in marine vegetation :in life, and interesting collections of algæ, coralline, jind eea-anemones may be made to instruct and amuse "t home when the winter months arrive and in-d- or amusement is sought. The sea is remarkably fine. The water is very cle:. r and varies in colour, sometimes appearing blue an.; then of many-tinted green. It flows in mantei-mi.- tedly direct from the Atlantic Ocean, to the south of Ireland, in stormy weather dashing upon ti:e beaches and rocks with impetuous fury to a height, ,t some 50 orOOfeet. and falling in inexpressibly bean: ful jets d'eaut. The waves are emphatically "roller* of great length, height, and force, forming a line of silvery foam alony the entire length of the beach, exciting the admiration and awe of visitors. As I see it ending oaward, never nearer to the laud. It seems to be a monster chain'd, and baffled in its onward stride. And it seems to utter voices like a multitude of men, Speaking in an awe-struck luunnur.as ifwnithtg for a s. 'iir. l T*hat is always coming, but comes not; and sighiug deet.y, when It breaks and bleaches in great waves upon the peK lo ground. Miolnir" (Nant Eos): Sea Fancies." THE TERRA.CES-The Marine Terrace is built upon an indentation of seashore, extending from tLe rocky skare" under the Pier, known as the \V ee, to the reef called Penbryn Diodde. It forms a natnral crescent, made available for a Terrace of good houses. The Victoria Terrace is a continuation from tho Marine Baths to Craiglais, or Constitution Hill. The houses are large and lofty, with an oriianieiit-i.1 frontage which is of an attractive and imposing character. The Promenade extends the whole length, is of considerable width, and, being raised, is pro- tected from the encroachment of the sea, which at high tide flows close up to it, with ah agreeable effect. The views are very fine, and the sea is particularly grand. From the end of the Terrace, near the Pier, the lofty mountains, Cader Idris, Snowdon, and the Eifl may be distinctly seen, in clear weather, lifting their sublime forms in solemn majesty, after having wit- nessed many terrific battles and political and social changes wrought by the revolution of ages in the ancient land of the Cymry. Atmospheric changes often give the Eifl mountains the appearance of a chain of islands, the effect of which is very interest- ing. The historic Ruins of the Castle, the little Camera Obscura building with its flag flying, Pen Dinas Hill with its Wellington Monument, and the indented coast of Cardiganshire spreading some thirty miles dowa the Bay to the south, together with the invigorating nature of the air, the transformations of the clouds, the glorious sunsets, the merry groups of children playing upon the beach, the fishing smacks and pleasure boats, with their many- coloured flags flying, the sea gulls swooping around, the waves gently plashing upon the shore, and the various-costumed promenaders moving to and fro to the strains of the Season Band, present a scene of animation always enjoyable to the visitors. It is calculated that there are upon the Terraces about eighty houses, of which sixty-one are professional Lodging Houses, which provide about two-hundred and twenty-two "lets" or suites of apartments. THE BOATS, both sailing and rowing, are well built and licensed as to the number they aarry. They are Provided with fishing tackle. In the summer a Segatta occasionally takes place, when the Bay pre- sents a lively scene. The Ladies' BATHING MACHINES, about 30 in immber, are in front of the Marine Terrace, and the Gentlemen's, about 20, on the beach in front of the Queen's Hotel. They are on the model of those at Briehton. The attendants are proverbial for their civility. Expert swimmers may frequently be seen ewimminar froai the Gentlemen's Machines to the Pier and back, a boat accompanying them for safety. In the season swimming matches take place, when the Pier becomes thronged with interested observers. The MARINE BATHS, under the supervision of Dr Rice Williams, are on the Terrace. They com- prise Hot and cold pure sea water—sea weed baths, and fresh water baths," and are widely known, having been established in 1824. The SALT WATER PUBLIC SWIMMING BATHS, in Newfoundland-street, were opened in 1879. The Gentlemen's Itath is 77 feet long by 32 feet broad and the Ladies' Bath 72 feet long by 23 feet broad. Both are well fitted with d easing rooms, &c., and lighted with gas. The floors are of Portland cement, and the Gentlemen's Bath slopes from 3 feet 9 inches to 7 feet 3 inches; the Ladies' from 3 feet J inches to -5 feet 9 inches. The buildings are well lighted and ventilated, and the water, which is daily pumped from the sea, is kept at a temperature of about Géo Fah., or about 10° Fah. above that of the sea. The Private Baths, supplied hot or cold, with fresh or salt water, are handsomely fitted, and always ready for use. During the season EXCURSIONS are made, by rail, to Barmouth, Harlech, Dolgelley, Llandrindod Wells, 8trata Florida, Swansea and Tenby; and by Steam Packet to Bardsey Island, Barmouth, New Quay, and other places of interest. Numerous excursion parties also arrive from various English and Welsh towns. THE CASTLE RUINS stand conspicuously on a natural promontory projecting into the sea between the entrance to the Harbour and the University Col- lege. The massive character of its rains and its strong position confirm the historical accounts of its original importance. The first fortress, no trace which now remom, was built by Gilbert do Strongbow. son of "Richard de Clare. Earl of Strignil or Chepstow, under grant of King Henry I., A D. 1109. It was destroyed by Owen Gwynedd. Other castles were successive y built and destroyed during the wars of the Welsh princes. The castle whose ruins still remain was built by Edward I., or by Edmund, his brother, during his stay at Llanbadarn- fawr in 1277. The first charter of incorporation was granted to the borough by Edward I. After the formal annexation of the Principality to England, the castle appears to have been in undisturbed pos- session of the English crown nntil the reign of Henry IV., when it was taken by the renowned chieftain and prince Owain Glyndwr. During the Civil Wars the Castle was held for Charles I., but in 1646 the Parliamentarian besiegers obtained possession of it, and undermined and blew it to ruins, which, for nearly two centuries were allowed to crumble into decay. In 1844 a zealous antiquarian member of the Town Council caused the debris to be cleared away, bringing to view many interesting details. With its walks and seats it has now become a favourite resort of the visitors, who may be seen in the summer sea- son in happy groups, some knitting, some sketching, some sauntering, some reading, and some chatting, according to inclination, but all enjoying the salu- brious breezes and charming scenery which here abound. Methinks this spot pre-eminently one for meditation. Imagination restores the ruins to their pristine grandeur, and re-peoples its halls with their wonted guests, whilst the ancient bard recites his thrilling legends of Love or War, and the tradition- ary harper holds his listeners in rapt attention as lie trills the melodies accompanying the ancient Pennill- ion, or thrums the martial strains of the patriotic Cymry. But now bard, harpist, warrior, and lord of the Castle are all numbered with the past. The knight's bones are dust, And his good sword rust; His soul is with the saints, I trust." S. J. Coleridge :—" The Knight's Tomb." The views from the Castle hill are very fine. The coast, embracing Cardigan Bay, stretches away on the N.W. to the Eifl mountains and Bardsey Island, for the distance of thirty-three miles and to the S.W., towards St. David's head, for about the same distance, including the Rebecca mountain peak, Mynydd Pregelly (Priscilla Top), height 1,758 feet, rising in form of a cone, the highest land in Pembroke- shire, and the towns of Aberaeron and New Quay. On the W. the ocean rolls in its native freedom between the Welsh coast and the coast of Ire- land, the town of Wexford being directly opposite Aberystwyth, distant about 70 miles. It has been asserted," remarks an old writer, "that a slight view of Wexford, in Ireland, which is situate opposite Aberystwyth, has been discovered in the sun's disc previous to its setting, from the Castle ruins." This of course is open to speculation But from Pen Dinas hill en a very clear day, with a good telescope, the Wicklow Mountains, in Ireland, the writer is assured, may b j distinctly seen. If Ireland is distin- guishable from Snowdon—why not from Pen Dinas ? Snowdon. height, 3,571 feet: Caller Idris. height, 2,914, feet, and the lofty mountains of Carnarvon- shire are distinctly visible in clear weather. East- ward inland will be seen the lofty peaks of Il.N ii- limon, heicrlit. 2.163 feet, three in number, aptly called the British Alps, among which are the source's of the rivers Severn, the Wye, and the Rheidol. Tue Aberystwyth water supply is now ootained thence. The view m this direction lurnishes a, good impres- sion of the grandeur and effect of mountainous scenery. Immediately below is the confluence of the river Rheidol with the Ystwytii, forming the harbour, extending from which is a pier, with its flag-staff, light, controlled by Trinity House, and signal apparatus for indicating to vessels the depth of the water on the bar. Pen Dinas, with tiie remains of an ancient British encampment, about Sl;0 feetabove the sea level,and the Wellington Monument, erected by the late Major R;chardes. Bryneithyn. in memory of his commanding officer, the Duke of Wel- lington. It is built in the form of a cannon, vertically, which accounts for its somewhat eccentric appearance. The valley of the Ystwyth, with the mansion of Tany- bwlch-tbe valley of the Rheidol, with Llanbadarn, Penparke Bridge. Piccadilly, .and the old coach road to the Devil's Bridge, and the shipbuilding yards, and vessel in the harbour. The ancient character of the town is seen to good effect. The grand sweep of the Terraces; with the visitors aru vehicles in motion, toe boats upon tit., bay, and the bathers upon the beach, iovvyn in the distance, the hel", the University i'(,Ile --e. the Assembly Kooms. Parish Church, the Grammar School. wi h numevoiis other object". including the sheep flecked ft. his upon the verdant slopes, combine to form a jjictnro pleasant to coutemplate. Tho intelligent Christian observer by scenes such as here present themselves? will find his pious emotions awakened, in the spirit of the Psalmist, How manifold are thy works. O Lord in wisdom hast Thou made them all the earth is full of Thy riehes. So is this great and wide sea, wherein are things creeping innumerable, both small and g-reat beasts. There go the ships there is that leviathan, whom thoa hast made to play therein. These all wait upon Thee that Thou m.,tyest give them their meat in due season."—Ps. civ. These are Thy glorious works. Parent of good, Aixuiffhty Tliiue this universal frame, Thus wondrous fair: Thyself how wondrous theD. Unspeakable, Who sit'st above these iienv'us. To us invisible, or dimly seen In these Thy lowest works; yet these declare Thy goodness beyond thought, and power divine. Milton. The* interest of the visitor will be drawn to the cannons on the castle grounds, facing the sea, 64 pounders, which were mounted in 1878, and are used at the 5th Brigade, Welsh Division, R.A. drills in May. The low square building, with lightning con- ductor, built in the moat of the castle, is the powder magazine. The STORM SIGNAL turret, and anemometer, for measuring the force of the wind, and gauge for regis- tering the rainfall, will not escape notice. The CAMERA OBSCURA (from Latin, earner a cham- ber, and obscura darkened), in which images of ex- ternal objects are exhibited on a white surface, is placed on the N.W. point of the Castle grounds. It is very wonderful. Unlike a painting, all is in motion, It is actually a living picture! Its range is very extensive, embracing the magnificent front views of all the coast distinctly and clearly revealed, com- prising the Merionethshire and Cardiganshire hills, from Cardigan Head, on the south coast, to the north coast of Cardigan Bay up to Penybwch Point, part of the town of Aberystwyth, Ystwyth and Clarach Valleys, front views of the University College. Marine Terrace, the Castle grounds, Pendinas and Constitution Hills (Craiglais), the whole lenerth of the Beach from Craig-vr-Alltwen and the Harbour to Wallog point, the Eifl mountains, Bardsey Island, Snowdon, and distant hills may be seen. Every moveable object, such as boats on the sea, friends on the beach, and the Castle grounds, can be seen and recognised. The setting of the sun no one should omit seeing from the Camera Obscura. THE PIER was opened on Good Friday, 1865. It cost £ 13,600. It is about 690 feet in length. In January, 1866, a terrific storm washed away the head of the pier for about 100 feet, carrying portions of it to the shore three miles along tncoast. In 1872 it was reconstructed, and the refresmnent pavilion, with ts balcony and orchestra, erected. The Pier is an elegant structure, and when gaily deeked with ban- ners on gala days, or when illuminated with the coloured lamps by night, presents a very pretty and attractive appearance. From the western end beau. tiful views are obtained of the terraces and town, with the acclivitous hills at the back, Bardsey Island, the mountains of Carnarvonshire, Sno.wdon, Craiglais hill, Pen Dinas hill, the University College, St. Michael's Church, the Castle Ruins, with the indented aoast of Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire stretching %iway to the south. Of a fine summer's day, when the season band plays, it is a pleasant and cheerful pro. menade, and much enjoyed by the visitors. The fol- lowing acrostic, from the pen of Mr C. V. Grinfield, M.D., contains allusion to it ACROSTIC. As the fair 11 sea-queen" of Cambria's land, Beautiful, bright, and yet pleasingly grand, E'en as thy form now so graceful we view— Robed in rich vesture both ancient and new- Yes, as around thy rude Castle we stray, See we old times-in thy Pier see to-day: Thought, aye, and learning, here find their full sways "Wend we our way up that steep rugged height Yonder uprising; we view with delight Thence the wide prospect-there sparkling the sea, Here vales and mountains, where oft we would be. The Pier is the property of a company. THE ASSEMBLY RoOMS, in Church-street, were opened in 1820. The style is Grecian, They com- prise a Ball and Promenade room, with an orchestra, billiard room and suite of ante rooms, and a dwelling house, and refreshments are provided. The building is now leased by the Library Committee, and the large room is available for balls, concerts, lectures, and public meetings. The TOWN CLOCK TOWER is a handsome stone structure, with a balcony look-out and weather vane. It is 62 feet in height, and is situated at the junction of Great Darkgate, Church, Bridge, and Pier streets. It was erected in 1856, on the site of the old Town Hall, and cost £ 1,250. Sir Pryse Pryse, Bart., of Gogerddan, generously presented the clock, which by night is illuminated. A barometer is so placed that it can be read by the public. There is a drink. ing fountain and cup at the base, and drinking trough for dogs. The water issues from a marble bivalve shell, and is surrounded by a scripture text, John iv. 13, 14, cast in metal by the celebrated Coal- brook Dale Company. Those who observe the weather changes will be interested to know that the barometer, Negretti's, reads correctly with the Greenwich standard. It is accompanied by a meteor- dogioal table of readings for the current mo&tifc n A is under the control of the National Lifeboat Insti- tution, the Rev. John Williams, Bridge-street, being the local secretary. It would be of great interest to visitors if allowed for a small charge to ascend to the upper balcony to enjoy the magnificent prospects it commands. HOTELS.—The Queen's is pleasantly situated on the northern part of the Marine Terrace, and embraces views of Craiglais Hill, the Eifl Mountains, Bardsey Island, the Terrace Promenade, the Pipr, Castle Hill and Ruins, Aberaeron, and the coast of Cardigan Bay for a distance of 30 miles towards St. David's Head, with the fine flowing ocean in front. The hotel was built in 1866. Architecturally it is one of the largest and handsomest buildings in the Principality, and The Times," February 19th, 1868, says It is one of the finest buildings of its class." It com. Erises coffee and dining rooms, ladies' drawing room, brary, billiard, smoking, and large table d'hote room, ten private sitting rooms, and more than one hundred bedrooms. Also an elegant assembly and concert room, holding about 400 persons, in which assemblies are held during the season. The Belle Vue Royal Hotel, situated on the Marine Terrace, consists of two houses thrown into one, which gives it an appearance of a private dwelling. It comprises spacious commercial room, coffee room, ladies' coffee room, billiard room, library, and suites of apartments adapted for families, and seventy bedrooms. It is pleasantly situated close upon the sea, and commands extensive coast views. The Gogerddan Arms and Lion Royal Hotel, in Great Darkgate-street, is one of the oldest established and widely-known hotels in the town. It provides coffee and commercial rooms, large billiard room, suites of apartments for families, and a posting department. The Talbot, in Market-street, is an old established and well-known commercial and family hotel, and is much frequented by agriculturists. Besides the above, there are other hotels and many inns, most of which let apartments. There are also several temperance houses. The LODGING HOUSES are commodious, numer- ous, and generally well-appointed. Indeed, they will bear comparison with those in any other watering-place in the kingdom. Several thousands of visitors of all classes are accommodated. The terms vary with the varying season. In winter they are greatly reduced. PUBLIC COI-TVEYANCEs.-Breaks, flys, Bath chairs, saddle donkeys, pony carriages, bicycles, and tri- cycles are obtainable by visitors of the various proprietors. LIBRARY. The Free Library, at the [Assembly Rooms, was established about 1866. There are about three thousand volumes in various branches of literature, which are being augmented annually by purchase and by donations. Visitors are allowed to have books at twopence per volume. Works in more than one volume are charged at one penny each after the first. The Reading, Room is accessible to visitors at one penny per visit, or one shilling per quarter. The late Mr. G. E J. Powell, Nant Eos, with a genereus and patriotic spirit worthy of emulation, a few years ago presented up- wards of 1000 volumes. Mr. Isaac Pitman, of Bath, the founder of Phonography, has also enriched its shelves by a handsome donation of modern works. The Right Reverend Dr. Basil Jones, Bishop of the Diocese, and the Right Reverend Dr. Ryle, Bishop of Liverpool, have likewise presented volumes. The LIFE BOAT was established in 1861, by the National Life Boat Institution. The boat- house is in Queen's-road, and is surmounted by a weather-vane. It is supported by voluntary contri- butions; and a box is placed at the boat-house. There is also a Life Boat pillar box near the Belle Vue Hotel, on the Marine Terrace, enclosed by iron railings.—President of the Aberystwith Branch, Colonel Pryse chairman, His Worship the Mayor; honorary secretary, Rev. J. Williams, Bridge-street. The crew consists of twelve men—coxswain, Mr. Thomas Williams. Sweet Charity, with generous will, May here a, true recipient find, Where no deceptive arts can ohill The love that warms for human kind. And while our rock-ribbed island stands, Let this be Britain's noble boast: That Life Boats, manned by gallant hands, Like guardian angels watch the coast." The MARKETS. There are markets for but- ter, eggs, poultry and vegetables, held respectively in Terrace-road, Market-street, and Pier-street. The meat market is held in a large building in Church-street. The real Welsh mutton is small, but very delicious in flavour, probably from the thyme- oasture of the mountains. Ralph Higden wrote- The beef is good, the mutton better, If England can produce such-let her! A monthly market for cattle is held in the Smithfield on the first Monday in the month. Horse fairs are held twice a year. The Corn Market is held on Mondays in the hall in Market-street. This is the market-place also for cheese, wool, and sundry agricultural produce. Hiring Mondays are the three Mondays after November 12th, called "Dydd Linn Cyflogau," and are held by ancient custom. FISH.-There is no fishmarketf. Great quantities are landed here from the fishing smacks and sent off by rail, chiefly to Liverpool. The public are supplied by the shops and by the hand-barrows, which go from house to house with cod, herrings, sprats, mullets, mackerel, silver eyes, gurnet, skate, plaice, brill, dabbs, salmon (from the Teifi, the Dovey, and the Aeron), crabs, bass, lobsters, oysters, prawns, shrimps, and cockles. Laver (Ulva) grows upon the rocks, and may be obtained at the fish shops. It is much eaten in the south of England. The CEMETERY was opened about twenty-one years ago. It is situate on the Llanbadarn-road, and occupies six acres of land. It is divided, as usual, into two portions—the consecrated and the nncon- secrated, and is provided with a church, chapel, and keeper's lodge It is prettily laid out with trees, shrubs, and flowers. The following stanza. from a poem, the Welsh Grave," in allusion to the ancient national custom of planting flowers over graves, will be read with interest:— Oh full of beauty sott and kind- Oh ever gentle and refined Oh full of dear warm-hearted nature Amiability's best feature! Suggested first by pensive love And into being framed to move, Wert tliou-so exquisitively bland I Dear custom of my native land. Thy sons—wherever born-have cried. While i iic generous scene they eyed, • Oh beautiful! in simple taste The Cumbrian peasant's grave is dress'd.' English visitors are invariably struck with the de- corous manner in which Sunday is observed at Aber- ystwyth, so different to the excitement and gaiety of the Continent. No excursion trains run, and all business is suspended. After the various places of religious worship are closed on a Sunday evening multitudes of well-conducted people may be seen promenading on the Terraces beside the bay. We trust that Aberystwyth will ever be loyal to the tra- ditions of the Cymry for their attachment to Sabbath observance. The graphic pen of the late gifted Frances Ridley Havergal, in her "Life Chords," has very beautifully pourtrayed the contrast between a British and a ConLinentr.1 Sabbath :— There is a cloud o'er other lands, though fair their mountains he, And beautiful their sunny plains, re-echoing with glee: But on our Sabbath-loving hearts it cast a saddening gloom, While the mirth of all their songs is as the xnuBic of the tomb. They know no holy Sabbath rest: and yet, above, around, The trees are waving solemnly with a deep and holy sound; And the flowers smile to greet His day, and the streams more softly roll, And all things speak of God to the silent listening soul," CHURCHES.—St. Michael's is a plain edifice, near the Castle precincts. In 1762 the inhabitants of Aberystwyth issued an appeal for subscriptions for the erection of a Chapel-of-ease to the parish Church of Llanbadarn-fawr, in which it was stated that "the town had many years before been deprived of its Church by the sea gradually undermining it; and that there were several persons then living who had been married in the churchyard formerly belonging to the Church that had fallen, that their only place of worship then was the parish church of Llanbad- arn, upwards of a mile from the town and that all the inhabitants without exception were of the estab- lished Church of England." The Church was com- menced but remained a mere shell in an unfinished state for 22 years, having been used for boat-build- ing. It was finished in 1787. The Rev. R. Morgan, curate of Llanbadarn, became the, first incumbent in 1827. The present new and enlarged Church was built in 1830. It accommodates 1000 persons, and is in the latter style of English architecture. The tovaer has never been completed. A third of the sittings are free. The Organ, by Robson, cost < £ 350. It is in- tended to rebuild the fabric, in a different style of architecture. It is now a cruciform. Aberystwyth is in the Diocese of St. David's, Archdeaconry of Cardi- gan, and Deanery of Llanbadarn-Fawr.—St. Mary's Welsh Church is situate in Gray's Inn lane. It is a chapel-of-ease to St. Michael's. It was built in 1865, at the cost of £ 3,000. Style, Gothic holds 400. It is served by the vicar and curates of St. Michael's. Holy Trinity Church is situated on Buarth Mawr, to the east of the Railway Station, and is approached from-the north gate. Later on a roadway will be made from Railway-terrace, by a continuation of Thespian-street. The design is a cruciform, in the early English style of architecture, and when com- pleted the Church will be one of the most handsome modern churches in the Principality. The nave was consecrated in August, 1886, with sittings for 303. The erection of the central tower and transepts was commenced in June, 1887. the foundation stone hav- ing been laid on Jubilee day. TW "TO a", the transepts and lower part of the tower are esti- mated to cost X3,000 and the chancel A2,000 and the remainder of the tower and bells mother £ 2,000. All sittings are free. Catholic Church, Our Lady of the Angels and St Winifrid, Queen's-road, opened 1875, holds 300. Llanbadarn Four, distance Ii mile. Daring the summer omnibuses convey visitors to and fro to enable them to attend the English service on Sunday mornings. The CHAPELS are numerous, on account of the bi- lingual population. They are for the most part com- modious and handsome edifices. The Welsh Sunday services are at 9.30 a.m., and 6 p.m. The English at 11 a.m., and 6 p.m. The usual week-day services are held in connection with each. There are Sunday schools connected with all the places of worship in the town.—In 1824 there were the Baptist chapel in Baker-street, the Wesleyan Methodist in Queen- street, the Calvinistic Methodist in Mill-street, and the Independent in Penmaesglas, all of which were Welsh. The state of religion in Aberystwyth was at that time considered to be very favourable. The fol- lowing numeral accommodation is approximate:— The Tabernacle, Welsh Calvinistic Methodist, Mill- street, built in 1785, enlarged 1832, rebuilt 1879, holds 1,100.-Shiloh, Welsh Calvinistic Methodist, North-parade, built 1863, holds 1,100; style, Italian Gothic. Congregational, 'English, Portland-street, built 1866, holds 450, style Gothic, spire 80 feet. Congregational, Welsh, from Penmaesglas, Baker- street, built 1878, holds 500. Presbyterian Calvinistic Methodist, English, Newfoundland-street, built 1871, style, Gothic, holds 300. Baptist, Welsh, Baker-street, rebuilt 1833, holds 500. Baptist, English, Alfred- place, Baker-street, built 1871, holds 326, style Gothic. Wesleyan, Welsh, St. Paul's Great Dark- gate-street, built 1879, holds 600. Wesleyan, Welsh, Moor-street, built 1869, holds 200. Wesleyan, English, Queen's-road, built 1869, holds 300. The United Methodist Free Church, Welsh, Lewis-ter- race, built 1841, holds 300. The UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF WALES is situate near St. Michael's Church and the Castle ruins. This structure was originally erected on the site of Castle House, by the late Sir Uvedale Price, Bart., of Fox- ley, Herefordshire, the architect being the celebrated Mr Nash, the designer of Regent-street, and other works in London. It is a castellated mansion, of somewhat fantastic appearance, in imitation of the Gothic, and consists of three octagonal towers, con- nected by ranges of apartments. In front is a balcony overlooking the sea; small turrets in character are added at each end. It was originally intended as a marine summer residence for his family, the late Lady Caroline Price being very partial to the place. The baronet having died before the completion of the building, it was afterwards enlarged as an hotel, at an expenditure of £ 80,000; but the company hav- ing failed, it ultimately became the property of the University College of Wales, at a cost of Xio,ooo. The College was established chiefly through the ex- ertions of the late highly respected Sir Hugh Owen, who was knighted in recognition of his patriotic labours in the promotion of Education in Wales. Government is giving a grant of £ 4,000 per annum. It was formally opened on October 9th, 1872, with twenty alumni. The college has several scholarships open to Welsh and English competitorship. The Library and Museum will interest visitors. The President is the Right Hon. Lord Aberdare. Princi- pal, the Rev. T. C. Edwards, D.D. (Edin.), M.A. (Oxon and Lond.), late scholar of Lincoln College, Oxford. Registrar and Librarian, Mr E. P. Jones, M.A., B.D. (Glasgow). The Library contains many works of value. The Museum contains many inter- esting collections illustrating the various branches of geology, mineralogy, natural history, and also many curiosities, many of them the gift of the late Mr G. E. J. Powell, Nant gos, and other benefactors. A Magazine is issued by the students. The ABERYSTWYTH PEBBLES are of nnceasing in. terest to visitors. They are cut, polished, and mounted by local lapidaries. Agates, named from Achates in Sicily, composed of layers of different tinted quartz; Onyx, an agate formed of layers of chalcedony of various colours, from Greek, onyx a finger nail; Jasper, a siliceous many-coloured mineral; Topaz, a precious stone of brilliant colours, from Greek, topazos to light; Crystal, from Greek, kryos, ice; Cornelian, from Latin carnis, flesh and flesh-coloured variety of chalcedony Amethyst, a violet-tinted variety of quartz, from Greek amythys- tos, not drunken, bftasiMS supposed to prevent in- toxication Mocco, from k moschos, a tender plant, descriptive of its plant-like formations. Very beautiful ferns, nosses, and wild flowers abound in the neighbourhood. The seaweeds will repay for collecting. Solan geese, cormorants, and many species of wild sea, fowl are occasionally seen along the coast. RECREATIONS.—Theatricals, Concerts, Assemblies, Balls, Lectures and various entertainments, in addi- tion to Lawn Tennis, Cricket, Archery, Football, Boating and Fishing. Among the GENTLEMEN'S SEATS may be noted Crosswood Park; the Right Hon. Earl Lisburne; Gogerddan, Sir Pryse Pryse, Bart.; Nanteos, Mr. W. B. Powell; and Hafod, once the "Fonthill" of Wales, with its remarkably beautiful surroundings of mountains, wood, and water, and its church dating from 1620, rebuilt in 1803, and containing an exqui- site monument by Chantry. THE MOUNTAINS.—The visitor to Aberystwyth, whether he sails upon the bay or whether he walks, rides, or drives about the neighbourhood, cannot fail to be impressed with the loftiness and striking gran- deur of the adjacent as weH as the distant mountains. Many an ancient bard has drawn his inspiration from hife native mountains. The mountains, too," aptly observes the author of Wales, Past and Present/' are associated not only with a characteristic poetry, but with a hearty love of independence, such as the Welsh enjoy in common with the Highlander of Scot- land, and the dweller in Switzerland. Of this strong relish for liberty hills seem the fitting nursing ground. There nourished it has exhibited itself in a daring and heroism which has time after time made its leg- ible mark on history, and graven out annals which passing centuries cannot efface. On the highest peaks of some mountains a thoughtful man, taking in the whole vast distance before him, might exclaim, as he notes its primitive appearance, such was the world ere Adam delved." No spade or axe have here left their achievements; the fern, the gorse, and the wild thyme have lived and died for ages, and the only ruler has been the storm. Far away, on distant mountains, may be seen glimpses of human life, small farms crouching in hollows, with strips of cultivated land around, and all insignificant in the extreme com- pared with the great unfenced tracts that surround Bracing health and pleasant mind our mountains in- variably yield. WALKS abeund in all directions. Following are a few of them:—On the south, through Trefechan, by the side of the harbour, and along the shore to a cottage, then along the river-side, with Tanybwlch on the right, for a mile or so to a bridge, near Elm Cottage, and then backalong the road to the south gate; afterwards returning by the road, or through the meadow and Plascrug walk, on the right, or through Llanbadarn. The top of Pen Dinas can be reached by turning to the rightly Trefechan railway bridge; along the lane and footpath to the Monument, and down the other side, coming out near the railway bridge. Plascrug walk runs from near the Station towards the old Castle; thence on the left through the Cemetery, or as far as the Tanyard, and into Llan- badarn-road; or keeping to the right, across the railway and on to the stone bridge, returning through Penparke on the right, or Llanbadarn on the left. A longer walk may be obtained by going beyond the bridge along the river-side for about a mile, thence across the railway and into the road and back. Several walks diverge from the Machynlleth road. Nearly opposite the Workhouse is the entrance to the lovers' walk, for admission to which a charge is made. Higher up the hill (Penglais hill), on the right-hand side, opposite Penglais lodge, is a pleasant walk through the fields which leads to the new reservoir. From this point a lane leads on to the village of Llanbadarn, and a path goes down to Llan- gawsa, then back by the road or by Plascrug. Still higher up the hill are cross roads close to Cefnhendre Hall. That on the right leads to Llan- badarn also, by keeping to the left, towards the Darren Mine and British encampment, some half-a- dozen miles distant. At the village of Waun a path diverges to the right, and passes through a very pretty dingle into Llanbadarn. Half-a-mile further, near Lluest Gwilym, a road branches back to Llan- badarn, passing by Bronpadarn. Another half-a-mile further is Fronfraith, where a pretty lane turns to the right, passing Fronygog and Nantceirio Hall, and into Llanbadarn-road. Another path nearly opposite Fronfraith, on the left. leads to the Machynlleth road, close to Ivy Cottage. Half-a-mile beyond Fron- fraith is Peithyll, where there are cross roads. That on the right leads to Llanbadarn-road, along which back to town, passing, on the right, Lovesgrove, Dole, Fronfraith, and Nantceirio Hall. The road to the left at Peithyll leads to Gogerddan, Bow Street, &c., on the Machynlleth road. From Bow Street there is a road leading to Clarach, where again there are cross "roads. Llangorwen Church is prettily situated here. One leads back to town through Cwm woods, near the mansion, and out at the cross roads on the Machynlleth road already mentioned, and down Penglais hill. Another road from Clarach leads to the sea, from which point a path returns to town, over Constitution Hill, and another goes north- ward, past Wallog and Moelcerney, to Borth. The latter place is also reached from Clarach by a road. A lane also runs from Clarach to the beach on the south side of the valley. Opposite the west entrance to Cwm a path two through the wood towards the town; on the top of the hill the pedestrian may take his choice of three ways. He can turn to the left, go along a lane and ont into the Machynlleth road near Cefnhendre Hall; or he can go down the Bryny- mor read; or follow the path slightly to the left of the latter, and come in sight of the town close by Penglais Cottage, over the quarry. Constitution Hill is a very popular resort, the quarry, with its many winding paths and cosy nooks, being an especial favourite. 'I his is private pro- perty, and a feeling is growing that the Corporation should purchase or lease it, as it is in danger of being enclosed. Along Brynymor road as far as the mansion, and then back over Ropewalk Hill, is a pleasant walk. As a WINTER RESIDENCE the general testimony to Aberystwyth is very favourable. Of course the great influx of visitors is in Summer, but the Spring and Autumn are very enjoyable. The WELSH LANGUAGE is spoken by about one million of the inhabitants. Dialects of the Welsh language are also spoken in Brittany and some dis- tricts of northern Germany. In the compilation of the above the subject matter was so extensive and the space at disposal necessarily so limited, that condensation approaches abruptness. During the past 40 years the writer has occasionally travelled throughout the length, breadth, and centre of the Principality. He has read much of its literature and mingled with its people, and cordi- ally testifies to the hospitality, law-abiding spirit, and loyalty to the Throne, of the warm-hearted, Sabbath-observing, Bible-loving, and patriotic Cymry. The spreading vales, meandering rivers, extensive woodlands, fishing, rushing waterfalls, and rolling ocean, deep ravines, ferns and flowers, sea weeds and products of the deep, stratified and weird- looking rocks and majestic mountains, all so brought as it were into one focus in this favoured region, combine to display both the wonderful and the beau- tiful works of God, and to draw forth from the devout and intelligent visitor the exclamation My Father made them all!"