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ALL ABOUT ABERYSTWYTH. A VISITORS' GUIDE, WRITTEN FOG THE "ABERYSTWYTH OBSERVER, BY THE REV. R. S. SHORT, Author of Davlish, Historical and Topographical, illustrated; The Complete Guide to Clev don and its Vicinity, illustrated, g-c. The visitor who seeks for a sea-side Health Resort, possessing a fine, pure, bracing air-a good beach tvith a grand rolling sea-excellent drainage, and the purest of water, obtained from Plynlimon Mountain, together with extensive marine views and majestic mountain scenery, will find all these conditions realised at ABERYSTWYTII the" Bri,-h-on of Wales and the Queen of Welsh watering places." "Beauty and variety seem the twin goddesses of the place; or, if a third be admitted,the presiding Deity of the bracing breeze, bright-eyed Health, completes the "trio. The very rivers have distinct characters of their own—their impetuous rap;dity forms an animated contrast to the champaign stream, which seems to slumber in its heavy course. Whenever a bold feature of originality in the aiiiaeent scenery Strikes the eye of the visitor, the presumed harshness of its intrusion is immediately softened by the milder charm of fertility and verdure, reposing, as it on the bosom of comparative barrenness, and arrayed in all the enchanting wildne.-s of the piotniw-irifj. Thus, whether viewed from the towering he'era- or flowery slope, we are at once greeted with tin; eon- mingled or alternate beauties of hill and dale. wm d and river, charmingly variegated with sudden or fgradual acclivities and gentle descents ending in tin* evel walk." This description, written by llewelyn Prichard, Author of Welsh Minstrelsy," in 1824, is strictly applicable now. Strangers are invariably struck with the brisi:4; and lively appearance of the town. The streets are wide and cleanly. The Local Authorities, iii com- bination with the inhabitants themselves, do all in their power from time to time to promote improve- ments. The shops are exceedingly gf)oe.-ni,L-iv of them handsome, and the public buildings superior ill style. The adjacent hills, as seen from the town, render the street scenery The population in 1881 was 7188. Distances-Lonaon. 208 iuiU»<: Liverpool, 118; Birmingham, 123 Manchester. Hereford, 76; Cholteniiani, Bath. 170; Bristol, 158; Barmouth, 40: Aberdovey, 11; Bo-tli, S; Aberayron, IC); Devil's Bridge, 12; Tenby, Sv; Brecon, G7; Carmarthen, CO, Aberystwyth has played a conspicuous part in fie history of the Principality, and the' antiquarian will aneet with much to repay his diligent mc"f1a."ch, whilst the geolosist, the mineralogist, the ornithologist, and the botanist will not lack interesting occupation. THE CLIMATE.—During the colder months- of the year the climate is remarkably mild and salubrious. Being sheltered on all sides, except the sea-board. by Iiigh ranges of hills, it is effectively protected from the east and other winds so prejudicial to invalids. Physicists assert that the temperature of the sea water is milder at Aberystwyth than at any other place on the western coast, which may be attributaUe to the physical contour of Cardigan Bay. It is the testimony of those who have wintered here that it is an agreeable winter resilience as regards the climate. The great centre of attraction will always bo THE BEACH, which spreads in an indented semi-circle for about a mile from Craiulais Point on the north to the Castle promontory on the south, and on the mar- gin are the Marine and Victoria Terraces. Several Teefs of rocks jut into the sea, and are covered with aea-weed. which, when the sun shines upon i. throws off into the air the principles of iodine, bromin". and ozone, contributing to its health-producing influence. Small pebbles mingled with s"nd compose the beack. Hundreds of children may bo eon, during the sum- mer, in happy groups, paddling in the water. or ener- getically constructing mimic to-ng and fortifications, whilst indulgent parents are sitting about, working, ,or reading, or ruminating, according to fancy. The 'beach and rocks abound in marine vegetp/.ion an I life, and interesting collections of algfn, coralline. and sea-anemones may be made to instruct and ainuse at lome when the winter months arrive and in-d^or amusement is sought. The sea is remarkably fine. The water is very clear -and varies in colour, sometimes appearing blue and then of many-tinted green. It flows in uninterrup- tedly direct from the Atlantic Ocean, to the south of Ireland, in stormy weather dashing upon the beaches and rocks with impetuous fury to a height of some 50 or 60 feet, and falling in inexpressibly Iwanti- ful jets d'eaux. The waves are emphatically "rollers'' of great length, height, and force, forming a i>r -ad line of silvery foam along- the entire length of the beach, exciting the admiration and awe of visitors. c, As I see it surging onward, never nearer to the hud, It seems to be a monster cliain'd, and bafiled in its onward stride. And it seems to utter voices like a multitude of men, -Speaking in an awe-struck murmur,as if waiting for ;i sijun-l ^That, is always coming, but comes not; and sighing (leeuly, when It breaks and bleaches in great waves upon the-i>el.Me ground. Miülnir" (Nant Eos) Sea Fancies." THE TERRACES —The Marine Terrace is built upon 4in indentation of seashore, extending from the rocky skare" under the Pier, known as the 'VN'. to the reef called Penbryn Diodde. It forms a natural crescent, made available for a Terrace of good houses. The Victoria Terrace is a continuation from the Marine Baths to Craiglais, or Constitution Hill. The houses are large and lofty, with an ornamental frontage which is of an attraotive and imposing haracter. The Promenade extends the whole length, is of considerable width, and, being raised, is pro- tected from the encroachment of the sea. which at hitrh tide flows Blose up to it, with an agreeable effect. The Tiews are very fine, and the sea is particularly grand. From the end of the Terrace, near the Pier, the lofty mountains, Cader Idris, Snowdon, and the Eifl imay be distinctly seen, in clear weather, lifting their sublime forms in solemn majesty, after having wit- nessed many terrific battles and political and social changes wrought by the revolution of ages in the ancient land of the Cymry. Atmospheric changes often give the Eifl mountains the appearance of a chain of islands, the effect of which is very interest- ing. The historic Kuins of the Castle, the little ^Camera Obscura building with its flag flying, Pen Dinas Hill with its Wellington Monument, and the indented coast of Cardiganshire spreading some thirty miles down the Bay to the south, together with the invigorating nature of the air, the transformations of the clouds, the glorious sunsets, the merry groups of children playing upon the beach, the fishing Smacks and pleasure boats, with their many- lonred flags flying, the sea gulls swooping around, the waves gently plashing upon the shore, and the various-costumed proinenaders moving to and fro to "the strains of the Season Band, present a scene of amimation always enjoyable to the visitors. It is calculated that there are upon the Terraces about eighty houses, of which sixty-one are professional Lodging Houses, which provide about two hundred and twenty-two lets" or suites of apartments. THE BOATS, both sailing and rowing, are well built and licensed as to the number they carry. They are provided with fishing tackle. In the summer a Jiegatta occasionally takes place, when the Bay pre- aeuts a lively scene. The Ladies' BATHING MACHINES, about 30 in mumber, are in front of the Marine Terrace, and the Gentlemen's, about 20, on the beach in front of the Queen's Hotel.. They are on the model of those at JBriehton. The attendants are proverbial for their Civility. Expert swimmers may frequently be seen Bwimmin? from the Gentlemen's Machines to the Pier and back, a boat accompanying them for safety. In the season swimming matches take place, when the Pier becomes thronged with interested observers. The MAniNE BATHS, under the supervision of Dr Rice Williams, are on the Terrace. They com- lprise Hot and cold pure sea water-sea weed haths, and fresh water baths," and are widely known, having been established in 1824. The SALT WATER PUBLIC SWIMMING BATHS, in .Newfoundland-street, were opened in 1879. The Gentlemen's Bath is 77 feet long by 32 feet broad and the Ladies' Bath 72 feet long by 23 feet broad. Both are well fitted with dressing rooms, &c., and lighted with gas. The fiooare of Portland cement, and the Gentlemen's Bath slopes from 3 feet 9 inches to 7 feet 3 inches the Ladies' from 3 feet J inches to b feet 9 inches. The buildings are well lighted and Tentilated, and the water, which is daily pumped from the sea, is kept at a temperature of about ii,' )' Pah., or about 10a Fah. above that of the sea. The Private Baths, supplied hot or cold, with fresh or salt water, are handsomely fitted, and always ready for use. During the season EXCURSIONS are made, by rail, to Barmouth, Harlech, Dolgelley, Llandrindod Wells, Strata. Florida, Swansea and Tenby; and by Steam Packet to Bardsey Island, Barmouth, New Quay, and other places of interest. Numerous excursion parties also arrive from various English and Welsh towns. THE CASTLE RUINS stand conspicuously on a" natural promontory projecting into the sea between the entrance to the Harbour a.nd the University Col- lege. The massive character of its ruins and its strong position confirm the historical accounts of its original importance. The firgt fortress, no trace of which now remains, was built by Gilbert de Mtrongbow, son of Richard de Clare. Tarl of Striguil Chepstow, under grant of King Henry I., A D. 1109. It was destroyed by Owen Gwynedd. Other castles were successive y built and destroyed during the wars of the WeUh princes. The castle whose ruins still remain was built by Edward I., or by Edmund, his brother, during his stay at Llanbadarn- fn.WT in 1277. The first charter of incorporation was granted to the borough by Edward I. After the formal annexation of the Principality to England, the cast!e appears to have been in undisturbed pos- session of the Engli-h crown until the reign of Henry IV., when it was taken by the renowned chieftain and prince Owain Glvndwr. During the Civil Wars the Castle was held for Charles I., but in 1646 the Parliamentarian besiegers obtained possession of it, and undermined and blew it to ruins, which, for nearly two centuries were allowed to crumble into decay. In 1844 a zealous antiquarian member of the Town Council caused the debris to be cleared away, bringing to view many interesting details. With its walks and seats it has now become a favourite resort of the visitors, who may be seen in the summer sea- son in happy groups, some knitting, some sketching, some sauntering, some reading, and some chatting, according to inclination, but all enjoying the salu- brious breezes and charming scenery which here abound. Mcthinks this spot pre-eminently one for meditation. Imagination restores the ruins to their pristine grandeur, and re-peoples its halls with their wonted guests, whilst the ancient bard recites his thrilling legends of Love or War, and the tradition- ary harper holds his listeners in rapt attention as he trills the melodies accompanying the ancient Pennill- ion, or thrums the martial strains of the patriotic Cymry. But now bard, harpist, warrior, and lord of the Castle are all numbered with the pa,st. The knight's hones are (hut, And his g-oOf1 sword rust; His soul is with tlie saints, I trust." S. J. Coleridge Tiie Knight's Tomb. The views from the Castle hill are very fine. The eo.ist, embracing Cardigan Bay, stretches away on the N. W. to the Eil fiiiountains and Bardsey Island, for the distance of thirty-three miles; »nd to the S.W., towards b". David s head, lorabuut the same distance, iliciud ago the Rebecca mountain peak. Mynydd JPregelly (Priseilla Top), height 1,7.>3 feet, rising in form of a cone, the highest land in Pembroke- shire, and the towns of Aberaeron and New Quay. On the W. the ocean rolls in its native freedom between the Welsh coast and the coast of Ire- land. the town of "Wexford being directly opposit-i Aberystwyth, distant abont 70 mUes. "It has bo-n asserted," remarks an old writer, "that a slight view of VV pxTord, in Ireland, which is situate opposite Aberystwyth, has been disco rero) in the sun's disc previous to its setting, from the Castle ruins." 'J his of course is open to speculation Bat from Pen Dinas hill on a very clear day, with a good telescope, the Wicklovr Mountains, in Ireland, the writèr is assnr-'d. uiny be distinctly seen. If Ireland is distin- guishable from -wi) not from Pen Dma* ? Snowdon, height, feet Cader Idris, height, 2,914, feet, and the lofty mountains of Carnarvon- shire are distinctly visible in ck-ar weather. ward inland will be seen the lofty peaks of Plyn- n limon, height. 2,.11 feefc, three in number, aptly Called the British Alps, wlii-Hi are the "sources of the rivers Severn, the Wye. and the JMieuiol: The Aberystwyth water supply"cs wnv obtained them*. The view m thi.- d'roc-feiojt furnishes a good impres- sion of the grandeur &>>d awe-mspinu.g effect of mountainous scenery Immediately below is the confluence of the river Rheidol wi:h the Ystwyth, forming the harbour, extending from which is a nier' with its flag-staff. light, controlled by Trinity Housed and signal apparatus for indicating to vessels the depth of the watr-r on the bar. Pori Dinas, with the remains of an ancient British <?noaijnjiificnt. about >¡O feet above the sea levehand the Wellington idonrunefit, erected by the late Major liiebardos, lirvneithyn. in memory of his commanding officer, the fluke of Wel- lington. It is built in tho form of a eivnnou, vortical I y, which accounts for somewhat ecirentrie appearance. The valley of the Ystwyth. with the mansion of Taay- bwlch-the valley of the IJheidol, with Llanbadarn, Penparke Bridge, Piccadilly, and the 0111 coach road to the Devi! s Bridge, aitd tJli) shipbuilding yards, and vessels in the harbour. Tho ancient character of the town is seen to good eifoct. The grand sweep of the Terraces, with tta* visitors and vehicles in motion, the boats upon the bay, and the bathers upon the beach, 't owyn iu the distance, the Pier, the University Colle-e. the Assembly Rooms, the Parish Church, the Grammar School, wi h numerous other objects, including the sheep flecked tiwids upon the verdant slopes, combine to form a picture pleasant to contemplate. The intelligent Christian observer by scenes such as here present themeolves will find his pious emotions awakened, in the spirit of the Psalmist, How man-fold are thy works. O Lord in wisdom hast Thou made them all the earth is full of Thy riches. So is this great and wi-io sea, wherein are things creeping innumerable, both small and great beasts. There go the ships there i that leviathan, whom thou hast made to plav therein. These all wait upon Thee that Thou miyest give them their meat in due season."—Ps. civ. These are Tliy glorious works, Pare-jt of,-Docl Almighty! Tluue this universal fifwoe. ° Thus wondrous fair: Thyself how rroji lnus thenl Unspeakable, Who sit'sh above these hear us, To us invisible, or dimly seen lu these Thy lowest works; yet these declare Thy goodness beyond thought, and power divine. Milton. The interest of the visitor will be drawn to the cannons on the castle grounds, facing the sea, 64 pounders, which were mounted in 1878. and are used at the 5th Brigade, Welsh Division, R.A. drills in May. The low square building, with lightning con- due tor, built in the moat of the castle, is the powder magazine. The STORM SIGNAL turret, and anemometer, for measuring the force of the wind, and gauge for regis- tering the rainfall, will not escape notice. The CAMERA OBSCURA (from Latin, earner a cham- ber, and obscura darkened), in which images of ex- ternal objects are exhibited on a white surface, is placed on the N. W. point of the Castle grounds. It is very wonderful. 'Unlike a painting, all is in motion, It is actually a living picture Its range is very extensive, embracing the magnificent front views of all the coast distinctly and clearly revealed, com- prising the Merionethshire and Cardiganshire hills, from Cardigan Head, on the south coast, to life north coast of Cardigan Bay up to Penybwch Point, part of the town of Aberystwyth, Ystwyth and Clarach Valleys, front views of the University College. Marine Torrace, the Castle grounds, Pendinas and Constitution Hills (Craiglais), the whole length of the Beach from Craig-yr-Alltwen and the Harbour to Wallog point, the Eifl mountains, Bardsey Island, Snowdon, and distant hills may be seen. Every moveable object, such as boats on the sea, friends on the beach, and the Castle grounds, can be seen and recognised. The setting of the sun no one should omit seeing from the Camera Obscura. THE PIER was opened on Good Friday, 1865. It cost JE13,6G0. It is about 690 feet in length. In January, 1866, a terrific storm washed away the head of the pier for about 100 feet, carrying portions of it to the shore three miles along the coast. In 1872 it was reconstructed, and the refreshment pavilion, with ts balcony and orchestra, erected. The Pier is an elegant structure, and when gaily deeked with ban- ners on gala days, or when illuminated with the coloured lamps by night, presents a very pretty and attractive appearance. From the western end beau- tiful views are obtained of the terraces and town, with the acclivitous hills at the back, Bardsey Island, the mountains of Carnarvonshire, Snowdon, Craiglais hill, Pen Dinas hill, the University College, St. Michael's Church, the Castle Ruins, with the indented coast of Cardiganshire and Pembrokeshire stretching away to the south. Of a fine summer's day, when the season band plays, it is a pleasant and cheerful pro- menade, and much enjoyed by the visitors. The fol- lowing acrostic, from the pen of Mr C. V. Grinfield, M.D., contains allusion to it:— ACROSTIC. As the lair" sea-queen" of Cambria's land, Beautiful, bright, and yet pleasingly grand. E'en as thy form now so graceful we view- Kobed in rich vesture both ancient and new- Yes, as around thy rude Castle we stray, See we old times-in thy Pier see to-day: Thought, aye, and learning, here find their full sway; Wend we our way up that steep rugged height Tonder uprising; we view with delight Thence the wide prospect-there sparkling the sea, Here vales and mountains, where oft we would be. The Pier is the property of a company. THE ASSEMBLY ROOMS, in Church-street, were opened in 1820. The style is Grecian. They com- prise a Ball and Promenade room, with an orchestra, billiard room and suite of ante rooms, and a dwelling house, and refreshments are provided. The building is now leased by the Library Committee, and the large room is available for balls, concerts, lectures, and public meetings. The TOWN CLOCK TOWER is a handsome stone structure, with a balcony look-out and weather vane. It is 62 feet in height, and is situated at the junction of Great Darkgate, Church, Bridge, and Pier streets. It was erected in 1856, on the site of the old Town Hall, and cost 1,250. Sir Pryse Pryse, Bart., of Gogerddan, generously presented the clock, which by night is illuminated. A barometer is so placed that it can be read by the public. There is a drink- ing fountain and cup at the base, and drinking trough for dogs. The water issues from a marble bivalve shell, and is surrounded by a scripture text, John iv. 13, 14, cast in metal by the celebrated Coal- brook Dale Company. Those who observe the weather changes will be interested to know that the barometer, Negretti's, reads correctly with the Greenwich standard. It is accompanied by a meteor- ological table of readings for the current months II t is under the control of the National Lifeboat Insti. tution, the Rev. John Williams, Bridge-street, being the local secretary. It would be of great interest to visitors if allowed for a small charge to ascend to the upper balcony to enjoy the magnificent prospects it commands. HOTELS.—The Queen's is pleasantly situated on the northern part of the Marine Terrace and embraces views of Craig-ais llill, the Eifl Mountains, Bardsey Island, the Terrace Promenade, the Pier, t'astle Hill and Ruins, Aberaeron, and the coast of Cardigan Bay for a distance of 30 miles towards -t. David's Head, with the fine flowing ocean in front. 'I he hotel was built in 1866. Architecturally it is one of the largest and handsomest buildings in the Principality, and "The Times," February 19th, 1868, says "It is one of the finest buildings of its class." It com. prises coffee and dining rooms, ladies' drawing room, library, billiard, smoking, and large table d'hote room, ten private sitting rooms, and more than one hundred bedrooms. Also an elegant assembly and concert room, holding about 400 persons, in which assemblies are held during the season. The Belle Vue Royal Hotel, situated on the Marine Terrace, consists of two houses thrown into one, which gives it an appearance of a private dwelling. It comprises spacious commercial room, coffee room, ladies' coffee room, billiard room, library, and suites of apartments adapted for families, and seventy bedrooms. It is pleasantly situated close upon the sea, and commands extensive coast views. The Gogerddan Arms and Lion Royal Hotel, in Great Darkgate-street, is one of the oldest established and widely-known hotels in the town. It provides coffee and commercial rooms, large billiard room, suites of apartments for families, and a posting department. The Talbot, in Market-street, is an old established and well-known commercial and family hotel, and is much frequented by agriculturists. Besides the above, there are other hotels and many inns, most of which let apartments. There are also several temperance houses. The LODGING HOUSES are commodious, numer- ous, and generally well-appointed. Indeed, they will bear comparison with those in any other watering-place in the kingdom. Several thousands of visitors of all classes are accommodated. The terms vary with the varying season. In winter they are greatly reduced. PUBLIC CONVEYANCES.—Breaks, flys. Bath chairs, saddle donkeys, pony carriages, bicycles, and tri- cycles are obtainable by visitors of the various proprietors. LIBRARY. The Free Library, at the 'Assembly Rooms, was established about 1866. There are about three thousand volumes in various branches of literature, which are being augmented annually by purchase and by donations. Visitors are allowed to have books at twopence per volume. Works in more than one volume are charged at one penny each after the first. The Reading Room is accessible to visitors at one penny per visit, or one shilling per quarter. The late Mr. G. E .T. Powell, Nant Eos, with a generous and patriotic spirit worthy of emulation, a few years ago presented np- wards of 1000 volumes. Mr. Isaac Pitman, of Bath, the founder of Phonography, has also enriched its shelves by a handsome donation of modern works. The Right Reverend Dr. Basil Jones, Bishop of the Diocese, and the Eight Reverend Dr. Ryle, Bishop of Liverpool, have likewise presented volumes. The LIFE BOAT was established in 1861, by the National Life Boat Institution. The boat- house is in Queen's-road, and is surmounted by a weather-vane. It is supported by voluntary contri- butions and a box is placed at the boat-house. There is also a Life Boat pillar box near the Belle Vue Hotel, on the Marine Terrace, enclosed by iron railings.—President of the Aberystwith Branch, Colonel Pryse chairman, His Worship the Mayor honorary secretary, Rev. J. Williams, BrIdge-street. The crew consists of twelve men—coxswain, Mr. Thomas Williams. Sweet Charity, with generous will, May here a true recipient find, "Where no deceptive arts can chill The love that warms for human kind. And while our rock-ribbed island stands, Let this be Britain's noble boast: That Life Boats, manned by gallant hands, Like guardian angels watch the coast." The MARKETS. There are markets for but. ter, eggs, poultry and vegetables, held respectively in Terrace-road, Market-street, and Pier-street. The meat market is held in a large building in Church-street. The real Welsh mutton is small, but very delicious in flavour, probably from the thyme- oasture of the mountains. 'Ralph Higden wrote- The beef is good, the mutton better, If England can produce such-let her! A monthly market for cattle is held in the Smithfield on the first Monday in the month. Horse fairs are held twice a year. The Corn Market is held on Mondays in the hall in Market-street. This is the market-place also for cheese, wool, and sundry agricultural produce. Hiring Mondays are the three Mondays after November 12th, called "Dydd Llun Cyflogau," and are held by ancient custom. FIsH.-There is no fish market. Great quantities are landed here from the fishing smacks and sent off by rail, chiefly to Liverpool. The public are supplied by the shops and by the hand-barrows, which go from house to house with cod, herrings, sprats, mullets, mackerel, silver eyes, gurnet, skate, plaice, brill, dabbs, salmon (from the Teifi, the Dovey, and the Aeron), crabs, bass, lobsters, oysters, prawns, shrimps, and cockles. Laver (Viva) grows upon the rocks, and may be obtained at the fish shops. It is much eaten in the south of Enarland. The CEMETERY was opened about twenty-one years ago. It is situate on the Llanbadarn-road, and occupies six acres of lend. It is divided, as usual, into two portions—the consecrated and the uncon- secrated, and is provided with a church, chapel, and keeper's lodge. It is prettily laid out with trees, shrubs, and flowers. The following stanza from a poem, the Welsh Grave," in allusion to the ancient national custom of planting flowers over graves, will be read with interest:- Oh full of beauty sott and kind— Oh ever gentle and refined Oh full of dear warm-hearted nature t Amiability's best feature! •Suggested first by pensive love And into being framed to move, Wert thou-so exquisitively bland! Dear custom of my native land. • Thy sons-wherever born-have cried, While the generous scene they eyed, I Oli beautiful! in simple taste The Cambrian peasant's grave is dress'd.' English visitors are invariably struck with the de- corous manner in which Sunday is observed at Aber- ystwyth, so different to the excitement and gaiety of the Continent. No excursion trains run, and all business is suspended. After the various places of religious worship are closed on a Sunday evening multitudes of well-conducted people may be seen promenading on the Terraces beside the bay. We trust that Aberystwyth will ever be loyal to the tra- ditions of the Cymry for their attachment to Sabbath observance. The graphic pen of the late gifted Frances Ridley Havergal, in her Life Chords," has very beautifully pourtrayed the contrast between a British and a Continental Sabbath:— There is a cloud o'er other lands, though fair their mountains be, And beautiful their sunny plains, re-echoing with glee: But on our Sabbath-loving hearts it cast a saddening gloom, While the mirth of all their songs is as the music of the tomb. They know no holy Sabbath rest: and yet, above, around. The trees are waving solemnly with a deep and holy sound; And the flowers smile to greet His day, and the streams more softly roll, And all things speak of God to the silent listening soul." CHURCHES.—St. Michael's is a plain edifice, near the Castle precincts. In 1762 the inhabitants of' Aberystwyth issued an appeal for subscriptions for the erection of a Chapel-of-ease to the parish Church of Llanbadarn-fawr, in which it was stated that "the town had many years- before been deprived of its Church by the sea gradually undermining it; and that there were several persons then living who had been married in the churchyard formerly belonging to the Church that had fallen, that their only place of worship then was the parish church of Llanbad- arn, upwards of a mile from the town; and that all the inhabitants without exception were of the estab- lished Church of England." The Church was com- menced but remained a mere shell in an unfinished state for 22 years, having bee. used for boat-build- ing. It was finished in 1787. The Rev. R. Morgan, curate of Llanbadarn, became the first incumbent in 1827. The present new and enlarged Church was built in 1830. It accommodates 1000 persons, and is in the latter style of English architecture. The tower has never been completed. A third of the sittings are free. The Organ, by Robson, cost .£350. It is in- tended to rebuild the fabric, in a different style of architecture.. It is now a cruciform. Aberystwyth is in the Diocese of St. David's, Archdeaconry of Cardi- gan, and Deanery of Llanbadarn-Fawr.—St. Mary's Welsh Church is situate in Gray's Inn lane. It is a chapel-of-ease to St. Michael's. It was built in 1865, at the cost of d83,000. Style, Gothic holds 400. ( It is served by the vicar and curates of St. Michael's. Holy Trinity Church is situated on Buarth Mawr, to the east of the Railway Station, and is approached from the north gate. Later on a roadway will be made from Railway-terrace, by a continuation of Thespian-street. The design is a cruciform, in the early English style of architecture, and when com- pleted the Church will be one of the most handsome modern churches in the Principality. The nave was consecrated in August, 1886, with sittings for 308. The erection of the central tower and transepts was commenced in June, 1887. the foundation stone hav- ing been laid on Jubilee day. The nave oost £ 2,700; the transepts and lower part of the tower are esti- mated to cost J63,000; and the chancel 452,000 and the remainder of the tower and bells another w62,000. All sittings are free. Catholic Church, Our Lady of the Angola and St Winifrid, Queen's-road, opened 1875, holds 300. Llanbadarn Favir, distance 1t mile. During the summer omnibuses convey visitors to and fro to enable them to attend the English service on Sunday mornings. The CHAPELS are numerous, on account of the bi- lingual population. They are for the most part com- modious and handsome edifices. The Welsh Sunday services are at 9.30 a.m., and 6 p.m. The English at 11 a.m., and 6 p.m. The usual week-day services are held in connection with each. There are Sunday schools connected with all the places of worship in the town.—In 1824 there were the Baptist chapel in Baker-street, the Wesleyan Methodist in Queen- street, the Calvinistic Methodist in Mill-street, and the Independent in Penmaesglas, all of which were Welsh. The state of religion in Aberystwyth was at that tim<e considered to be very favourable. The fol- lowing numeral accommodation is approximate:- The Tabernacle, Welsh Calvinistic Methodist, Mill- street, built in 1785, enlarged 1832, rebuilt 1879, holds 1,100.—Shiloh, Welsh Calvinistic Methodist, North-parade, built 1863, holds 1,100; style, Italian Gothic. Congregational, English, Portland-street, built 1866, holds 450, style Gothic, spire 80 feet. Congregational, Welsh, from Penmaesglas, Baker- street, built 1878, holds 500. Presbyterian Calvinistic Methodist, English, Newfoundland-street, built 1871, style, Gothic, holds 300. Baptist, Welsh, Baker-street, rebuilt 1833, holds 500. Baptist, English, Alfred- place, Baker-street, built 1871, holds 326, style Gothic. Wesleyan. Welsh, St. Paul's Great Dark- gate-street, built 1879, holds 600. Wesleyan, Welsh, Moor-street, built 1869, holds 200. Wesleyan, English, Queen's-road, built 1869, holds 300. The United Methodist Free Church, Welsh, Lewis-ter- race, built 1841, holds 300. The UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF WALES is situate near St. Michael's Church and the Castle ruins. This structure was originally erected on the site of Castle House, by the late ir Uvedale Price, Bart., of Fox- ley, Herefordshire, the architect being the celebrated Mr Nash, the designer of Regent-street, and other works in London. It is a castellated mansion, of somewhat fantastic appearance, in imitation of the Gothic, and consists of three octagonal towers, con- nected by ranges of apartments. In front is a balcony overlooking the sea; small turrets in character are added at each end. It was originally intended as a marine summer residence for his family, the late Lady Caroline Price being very partial to the place. The baronet having died before the completion of the building, it was afterwards enlarged as an hotel, at an expenditure of < £ S0,0t>0 but the company hav- ing failed, it ultimately became the property of the University College of Wales, at a cost of < £ 10,000. The College was established chiefly through the ex- ertions of the late highly respected Sir Hugh Owen, who was knighted in recognition of his patriotic labours in the promotion of Education in Wales. Government is giving a grant of X4,000 per annum. It was formally opened on October 9th, 1872, with twenty alumni. The college has several scholarships open to Welsh and English competitorsliip. The Library and Museum will interest visitors. The President is the Right Hon. Lord Aberdare. Princi- pal, the Rev. T. C. Edwards, D.D. (Edin.), M.A. (Oxon and Lond.), late scholar of Lincoln College, Oxford. Registrar and Librarian, Mr E. P. Jones^ M.A., B.D. (Glasgow). The Library contains many works of value. The Museum contains many inter- esting collections illustrating the various branches of geology, mineralogy, natural history, and also many curiosities, many of them the gift of the late Mr G. E. J. Powell, Nant Eos, and other benefactors. A Magazine is issued by the students. The ABERYSTWYTH PEBBLES are of unceasing in- terest to visitors. They are cut, polished, and mounted by local lapidaries. Agates, named from Achates in Sicily, composed of layers of different tinted quartz; Onyx, an agate formed of layers of chalcedony of various colours, from Greek, onyx a finger nail; Jasper, a siliceous many-coloured mineral; Topaz, a precious stone of brilliant colours, from Greek, topazos to light; Crystal, from Greek' kryos, ice; Cornelian, from Latin carnis, flesh and flesh-coloured variety of chalcedony Amethyst, a violet-tinted variety of quartz, from Greek amythys- tos, not drunken, bftaews supposed to prevent in- toxication Mocco, from k moschos, a tender plant, descriptive of its plllt-like formations. Very beautiful ferns, mosses, and wild flowers abound in the neighbourhood. The seaweeds wiil repay for collecting. Solan geese, cormorants, and many Bpecies of wild sea fowl are occasionally seen along the coast. RECREATIONS.—Theatricals, Concerts, Assemblies, Balls, Lectures and various entertainments, in addi- tion to Lawn Tennis, Cricket, Archery, Football, Boating and Fishing. Among the GENTLEMEN'S SEATS may be noted Crosswood Park; the Right Hon. Earl Lisburne; Gogerddan, Sir Pryse Pryse, Bart.; Nanteos, Mr. W. B. Powell; and Hafod, once the Fonthill" of Wales, with its remarkably beautiful surroundings of mountains, wood, and water, and its church dating from 1620, rebuilt in 1803, and containing an exqui- site monument by Chantry. THE MOUNTAINS.—The visitor to Aberystwyth, whether he sails upon the bay or whether he walks, rides, or drives about the neighbourhood, cannot fail to be impressed with the loftiness and striking gran- deur of the adjacent as well as the distant mountains. Many an ancient bard has drawn his inspiration from his native mountains. The mountains, too," aptly observes the author of Wales, Past and Present," are associated not only with a characteristic poetry, but with a hearty love of independence, such as the Welsh enjoy in common with the Highlander of Scot- land, and the dweller in Switzerland. Of this strong relish for liberty hills seem the fitting nursing ground. There nourished it has exhibited itself in a daring and heroism which has time after time made its leg- ible mark on history, and graven out annals which passing centuries cannot efface. On the highest peaks of some mountains a thoughtful man, taking in the whole vast distance before him, might exclaim, as he notes its primitive appearance, such was the world ere Adam delved." No spade or axe have here left their achievements; the fern, the gorse, and the wild thyme have lived and died for ages, and the only ruler has been the storm. Far away, on distant mountains, may be seen glimpses of human life, small farms crouching in hollows, with strips of cultivated land around, and all insignificant in the extreme com- pared with the great unfenced tracts that surround. Bracing health and pleasant mind our mountains in- variably yield. WALKS abound in all directions. Following are a few of them:—On the south, through Trefechan, by the side of the harbour, and along the shore to a cottage, then along the river-side, with Tanybwlch on the right, for a mile or so to a bridge, near Elm Cottage, and then hackalong the road to the south gate; afterwards returning by the road, or through the meadow and Plascrug walk, on the right, or through Llanbadarn. The top of Pen Dinas can be reached by turning to the right by Trefechan railway bridge; along the lane and footpath to the Monument, and down the other side, coming out near the railway bridge. Plascrug walk runs from near the Station towards the old Castle; thence on the left through the Cemetery, or as far as the Tanyard, and into Llan- badarn-road; or keeping to the. right, across the railway and on to the stone bridge, returning through Penparke on the right, or Llanbadarn on the left. A longer walk may be obtained by going beyond the bridge along the river-side for about a mile, thence across the railway and into the road and back. Several walks diverge from the Machynlleth road. Nearly opposite the Workhouse is the entrance to the lovers' walk, for admission to which a charge is made. Higher up the hill (Penglais hill), on the right-hand side, opposite Penglais lodge, is a pleasant walk through the fields which leads to the new reservoir. From this point a lane leads on to the villagf Llanbadarn, and a path goes down to Llan- gawsa. then back by the road or by PlasCrug. Still higher up the hill arc cross roads close to Cefnhendre Hall. That on the right leads to Llan- badarn; also, by keeping to the left, towards the Darren Mine and British encampment, some half-a- dozen miles distant. At the village of Waun a path diverges to the right, and passes through a very pretty dingle into Llanbadarn. Half-a-mile further, near Lluest Gwilym, a road branches back to Llan- badarn, passing by Bronpadarn. Another half-a-mile further is Fronfraith, where a pretty lane turns to the right, passing Fronygog and Nantceirio Hall, and into Llanbadarn-road. Another path nearly opposite Fronfraith, on the left, leads to the Machynlleth road, close to Ivy Cottage. Half-a-mile beyond Fron- fraith is Peithyll, where there are cross roads. That on the right leads to Llanbadarn-road, along which back to town, passing, on the right, Lovesgrove, Dole, Fronfraith, and Nantceirio Hall. The road to the left at Peithyll leads to Gogerddan, Bow Street, &c., on the Machynlleth road. From Bow Street there is a road leading to Clarach, where again there are cross roads. Llangorwen Church is prettily situated here. One leads back to town through Cwm woods, near the mansion, and out at the cross roads on the Machynlleth road already mentioned, and down Penglais hill. Another road from Clarach leads to the sea, from which point a path returns to town, over Constitution Hill, and another goes north- ward, past Wallog and Moelcerney, to Borth. The latter place is also reached from Clarach by a road. A lane also runs from Clarach to the beach on the south side of the valley. Opposite the west entrance to-Cwm a path runs through the wood towards the town x on the top of the hill the pedestrian may take his choice of three ways. He can turn to the left, go along a lane and out into the Machynlleth road near Cefnhendre Hall; or he can go down the Bryny- mor road; or follow tho path slightly to the left of the latter, and come in sight of the town close by Penglais Cottage, over the quarry. Constitution Hill is a very popular resort, the quarry, with its many winding paths and cosy nooks, being an especial favourite. 'J his is private pro- perty, and a feeling is growing that the Corporation should purchase or lease it, as it is in danger of being enclosed. Alone Brynymor road as far as the mansion, and then back over Ropewalk Hill, is a pleasant walk. As a WINTER RESIDENCE the general testimony to Aberystwyth is very favourable. Of course the great influx of visitors is in Summer, but the Spring and Autumn are very enjoyable. The WELSH LANGUAGE is spoken by about one million of the inhabitants. Dialects of the Welsh language are also spoken in Brittany and some dis- tricts of northern Germany. In the compilation of the above the subject matter was so extensive and the space at disposal necessarily so limited, that condensation approaches abruptness. During the past 40 years the writer has occasionally travelled throughout the length, breadth, and centre of the Principality. He has read much of its literature and mingled with its people, and cordi- ally testifies to the hospitality, law-abiding spirit, and loyalty to the Throne, of the warm-hearted, Sabbath-observing, Bible-loving, and patriotic Cymry. The spreading vales, meandering rivers, extensive woodlands, fishing, rushing waterfalls, and rolling ocean, deep ravines, ferns and flowers, sea weeds and products of the deep, stratified and weird- looking rocks and majestic mountains, all so brought as it were into one focus in this favoured region, combine to display both the wonderful and the beau- tiful works of God, and to draw forth from the devout and intelligent visitor the exclamation My Father made them all!"


FF" LLEDROD. ^ (*&