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THE QUEEN AN THE ALBERT ORPHAN…

-,--------THE MURDER NEAR…

THE FRENCH EXHIBITION. --

THE SCOTCH SCHOOLS.I

--...;;¿¡:..""': --THE PEOPLE…

-_--_.------A COOL LOT OF…

A SAD STATE OF THINGS IN AMERICA.

FASHIONS FOR JULY.

TRADE LAWS IN THE OLDEN TIME.

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TRADE LAWS IN THE OLDEN TIME. It would be curious, as well as profitable, did time allow of it, to set down here some of the many curiosi- ties of trade, and the regulations which governed it, that are to be found in the records of the public com- panies^ of England; but a few extracts must suffice, (remarks Gassell's Magazine). It appears from the Liber Albus," the volume containing a collection of the rules appertaining to ancient trade in London, that in the time of Edward I. carpenters, tilers, masons, plasterers, and daubers received an equal wage, according to the following scale :—between Michaelmas and Martinmas (Nov. 11) they had 4d. a day, or else ld. and their table," at the option of the employer between Martinmas and the Purification (Feb. 2) 3d., or Id. and their keep between the Purification and Easter 4d., or and their keep and between Easter and Michaelmas, 5d., or 2d. and their keep. Satur- days and vigils were paid for as whole days, though the men worked till four o'clock only, and on Sundays and feast days they were "to take nothing." Under workmen in these crafts had 2d. a day between Michaelmas and Easter, and 3d. a day between Easter and Michaelmas in discharge of all demands. A bye-law of London declared that if any person paid a workman more than these prices he should pay a fine of 40s. to the City, and the workman should be liable to forty days' imprisonment. When the pestilence known as the Black Death," in 1848-1851, had made labour scarce, and should therefore have raised the price of it, a law was passed in the Oity that every workman and labourer shall do his work just as he used (i. e., on the same terms as) "before the pestilence;" and that "labourers and workmen who will not work shall r be arrested and imprisoned." Proclamations ( f Ed- ward III. directed that saddlers, skinners, and tan- ners shall be chastised for charging excessively and that fishmongers, poulterers, and other journeymen shall take no more than they used to take." Prices for manufactured articles were also fixed from time to time, thus restraining in some measure the capital with the labour employed by it, the restrictions in this case being wholly in favour of the consumer and it is just possible that in the then condition of trade, in view of the difficulty there was in the way of com- munication with other places, and the consequent im- possibility of healthy competition being introduced, it might have been as well to check by otherwise un- warrantable restraints the avarice and greed of the few from making unfair gain out of the need of the many.

----GREAT FIRE IN LONDON.

THE EPIDEMIC IN DUBLIN.

A STUBBORN BARREL ORGAN!

THE EMPRESS EUGENIE.

THE COLOUR DIFFICULTY IN AMERICA.

THE EGYPTIANS LEARNING AGRICULTURE.-

-----------------THE VICEROY…