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JlUtarpfltitan QfJDsaip BY OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT. [The ranark3 under this head are to be regarded as the ampress.Oil of independent opinion, from the pen of a gentle- man ir. whom we have the greatest confidence, but for wlucJ* We nevertheless do not hold ourselves responsible-I This week the intelligence received from abroad certainly throws all home news into the shade. First, there was the telegram which announced that the Archduchess Matilda of Austria, had succumbed to her injuries. It is the old, old story, which has told of devastation in many a family, gentle and humble ere this time, but which has never hitherto been narrated of royalty. The sudden treading upon a iucifer, the quick-springing flames, the agonised ihrieks, and the slow and lingering death. By this awfully sudden fate a fair young girl has perished, another blow has fallen upon the already down-trodden jlionse of Hapsburg, the splendour of the Hungarian ,Coronation has been dimmed, and the young prince of Italy has lost a bride. But while the public mind was illed with sympathy for this catastrophe, the feeling Was changed to indignation when the telegraph flashed jtoross the intelligence of the dastardly attempt to assassinate the Czar in the streets of Paris. Even now, people have not done talking of it, and the papers still are full of it. All unite in condemning the attempt, and the press is unanimous in its denuncia- tion of the would-be assassin. The French press is particularly vigorous in its language. The CcmBtitu- tionnel "writes under painful and profound emotion.' ') The Siede looks upon the attempt with horror,' while the Union views it with "profound sadness," and the others indulge in didactic leaders on the topic The Pays, however, steers a course of its own, and scolds the French people vigorously. Our neighbours over the Water are more vivacious, even in their writing, than theirmore solid British neighbours, but although calmly Written and not expressive of horror," or sadness, the leaders of the great daily papers have been no less forcible, and all in uniting to condemn such an outrage against humanity, only express what is the feeling of the whole )f civilised Europe. Europe ean by this time boast another King. Francis Joseph of Austria has been reconciled to his Magyar subjects, and for the first time in thirty years the iron crown of Hungary has rested on the brow of a son of Haps- Irurg. Hungary is now, or ought to be, the great Jiope of the Austrian Empire, and the King will do well to please his Magyar people. He has begun well Jay remitting nearly five hundred sentences for political offences. It is the interest also of the Hungarians to ftudy war and politics less, and peace and commerce more. For many years the position of Francis Joseph will not be an easy one, but if he acquits himself well he will more than retrieve his expulsion from Germany and the disasters of Sadowa and Koniggratz. It seems that after all everybody has been nicely "sold" with regard to her Majesty's intention to build a Convalescent Home at her own ex- pense. Several papers have stated that they are authorised to contradict the report, and the Lancet endeavours to show whence the rumour arose. It says that the governors of St. Bartholomew's Hospital have for some time intended to build a home for their convalescent patients, that some benevolent person has promised to contribute liberally towards it, and that her Majesty will most likely be pleased to call it after her own name or confer the title of royal" upon it. If this be the true programme, the benevolent person (by whom I imagine Miss Bur- dett Coutts is meant) will have the onus of the matter to bear, and the Queen's share in it will be very small indeed. It must be awkward, even for royal person- ages, to be lauded to the skies for good deeds which they never meant to perform. The mountain has been in labour, and has brought forth a mouse." A discussion took place in Parliament last week upon the very queer subject of tattooing midshipmen's noses. It appears that two midshipmen were dis. missed from the Phcebe for cutting the broad arrow upon the nose of a newly-arrived comrade. The Daily Telegraph, which has7 a penchant for taking up odd matters, got wind of it, and published an account of it. There are always members anxious to redress grievances, and the matter was that same night brought before the House. The Admiralty gave an explanation, stating that the offenders had been dis- missed, but declining further information. One gen- tleman thereupon got to his feet and declared it a shame that midshipmen should be dismissed for carry- ing out a time-honoured custom of Her Majesty's Navy. Next morning the Telegraph, was, of course,. txtremely anxious to know how many more" time- lonoured customs" of the sort prevailed in the navy. The words of the champion of the youthful torturers leem, however, to have carried weight, for it was an- lounced on a subsequent evening that they had been reinstated. So much for the ceremonies of initiation aito our naval service There always have been, and there always will be, croakers and prophets of evil. Among them one of the medical publications may this week be classed. NVe. are informed in its columns that its conductors always Watch the progress of the Mecca pilgrims with anxious eyes. This year they have been at their accustomed task, straining their vision towards the holy place to see whether cholera would break out among the filthy fanatics who crowd to it. They are pleased to inform us that although cleanliness seems to have no place in the Mahommedan creed, not one- of the hordes of pilgrims has fallen a victim to the dread pestilence, so that he will not come stalking with giant strides from Mecca to London. Unfortunately, we have a certain class of the population living in the lanea and alleys of the City who are as filthy as any pilgrims who ever visited a shrine, and letters which appeared lately tell us that in many places no steps have as yet been taken to improve their sanitary ar- rangements during the warm weather. What if we breed the dread visitor here, and let him loose on Mecca ? One of the pleasantest of the' London anniversaries took place towards the close of last week in the an- nual gathering of the Charity School children at St. Paul's. Upwards of four thousand children attended, and the bright facings of the girls' uniforms, and their quaint little mob caps mingling tastefully with the darker clothing of the boys', gave the assemblage quite a brilliant appearance. It brings the freshness back to one's heart to step into St. Paul's on this fes- tival day, and see so many innocent little faces, and hear so many little voices chanting praise in the grand old cathedral—and it makes one all the more happy when he thinks that these children are saved by the chanty of the age from becoming waifs and strays, broken down by misery and stained by crime. So many people seemed to feel it, for not fewer than ten thousand persons assembled in St. Paul's last week. It appears that in London there are two great armies which are constantly at war. These are the police and the thieves. Last week the thieves had decidedly the advantage. It appears that the com- mander of the City Militia chose to march his men through the City without first giving notice at Scot- land Yard. The predatory classes somehow became informed of his neglect, and mustered in strong force. They posted themselves at the corners of streets in the line of march, and as respectable passers-by cazae F "!i1!I along attacked them in bodies and despoiled them 01 their valuables. Sometimes a dozen of people were thus knocked down and robbed at one time. The police did their best, but they were only a handful against so many. They succeeded, however, in cap- turing fifteen of the rascals, who are now cooling their heels in a prison cell. The Irishmen are very indignant that while there are both Scotch and English regiments of Guards, there is not one in which their own nationality is exclusively represented. Whenever an Irishman mentions a grievance the proper thing to do is to sneer at him. So says society now-a-days. But in spite of Society, Erin seems to have the right on her side here. If she was admitted to the Union her sons ought to have their proper share of the fruits of that Union, and if there are national regiments which are better clothed, better fed, and more esteemed than others, Ireland ought decidedly to have one as well as England and Scotland. The Livingstone search expedition has at length set sail. Many people will imagine that it consists of a numerous party because of the significant title which has been given to it. It is in reality composed of four persons. These are Mr. Young, who has it in charge, John Reed and John Buckley, the one a mechanic and the other a seaman, and Mr. Henry Faulkner, who has volunteered to accompany it at his own ex- pense. They carry their steel boat with them. Of course the little band will be augmented by natives, so as to make travelling in the disturbed districts safe. It is expected that they will arrive at the scene of the supposed murder about the end of Sep- tember. Great excitement will naturally be created among Riflemen by the decision at which the Government has arrived regarding them. It haa been announced that they are liable to be called on to serve in the case of civil tumult. Certainly the volunteers never under- stood so. At the time the majority of them joined the force there was fear of a French invasion, and it was felt that our army was lamentably insufficient. The thought of desolated and desecrated homes caused old and young alike to rush to arms, but now that they find themselves liable to be called to assume them against their fellow-countrymen the case is different, and it is to be feared that unless the Government re- considers its decision the number of resignations sent in will not be few.
THE ATTEMPTED ASSASSINATION…
THE ATTEMPTED ASSASSINATION OF THE CZAR. The following particulars of the attempted assassina- tion of the Emperor of Russia by a young Pole, are from various sources The Moniteur avoids stating that the Czar was specially aimed at. It mentions only the literal fact that the shot was fired "at the carriage" containing the Emperor Napo- leon, the Czar, and the two Grand Duks, leaving the public to infer from the nationality of the assassin, who said he was a Pole," that it was not Napoleon III. but his guest whose life was intended to be taken. This inevitable inference turns out to be perfectly true—the Pole has confessed it. He told M. Gouet, the Judge of Instruction, that he meant and hoped to kill the Czar. He professed affection and grati- tude towards the Emperorof the French. lIe declared that he had no accomplices. There are two ways of spelling the unheroic syllables of the assassin ofititie 6. The ifotnieur calls him Bereyouski: but the Prefect of Police's placards, posted all over Paris, say BGrezowski. He is a native of Voli.yuia. His condition in life was that of a working engineer. He was employed by the considerable house of Gouin and Co. He is only twenty, and when sixteen served in a Polish insurgent army. The Emperor Napoleon's equerry (in French ectiyor), who rode close to the door of the Imperial carriage the horse which received the bullet in its head, is M. Rainbeaux. That horse died in the course of the night. It is said that M. Rainbeaux, seeing the Pole approaching the carriage, thought he was coming to present a petition, and spurred his horse to a curvet to keep him off The action made the horse's head in all probability cover tha Czar At all events, the Emperor of Russia, the moment he arrived at the Iysee, sent for M. Rainbeaux, thanked him for having saved his life, said he should never forget him, and at once gave him with his own hand. the Order of St. Stanislas. The blood which spurted from the wounded head of M. Rainbeaux's horse stained the uniforms of the Emperor Napoleon and of the Grand Duke Vladimir, who was seated opposite to him. The Czar thought for a moment that the blood was that of his son, and was deeply affected. The horse's blood on the Emperor Napoleon gave rise to the rumour that his Majesty had received a scratch. The pistol was a double-barrelled one. It was at tlie-secozid shot that it hurst in the hands of the assassin. He was badly wounded, and faulted away before he was secured. Some say he has lost three fingers-others a thumb and one finger. A few seconds after the event the Emperor Napoleon, turning to the Czar and smiling, said to him Sire, we have been under fire together." The Emperor of Russia replied, "Our des- tinies are in the hands of Providence." This conversation ta authentic. Berezowski has not worked for MM. Gouin since April 30. ii ewa, first given employment by them on Feb. 7, 1865. His first words on being brought before the Prefect of Police were, "t am much obliged to your agents, but for them I should have been massacred by the public." On Friday the Emperor Napoleon in uniform, attended bv the officers of his household, the Empress, the Princess Mathilde, and several ministers and great officers of state, the Emperor of Russia and the Grand Dnkes, the King of Prussia and the 1'rince and Princess Royal of Prussia, went to the Russian church to hear a Te Dewn. for the preserva- tion of the Czar's lire. M. Rainbeaux, with his new decora- tion, was among the distinguished congregation which crowded the church. It is a noteworthy fact that a catholic and a protestant monarch thus joined with the head of the Greek church in erel k worship. At church the two Grand Dukes threw themselves upon their father's neck and wept. The assassin had placed himself near the cascades, calcu- lating-that the great crush there would prevent the imperial carriage from going beyond a foot pace, and that he could, therefore, take better aim. Fortunately M. de Bourgoing, in charge of the procession, seeing the great crowd. took a different avenue from the one that was in the programme. L Berezowski then crept through the brushwood to the newly chosen alley. He tired when at a distance of five paces, but the cortege was going at a trot. An incident of the late crime is worthy of being noted. Shortly before the attempted assassination, twelve or fifteen young workmen in blouses, stationed on the line of the cortege., had raised cries of Viva la Pologne. Two hundred yards further on the outrage was committed Tne news arrived almost immediately at the same srroup, when they at once commenced shouting enthusiastically Vive FEtnpureur In the piece Bouqwtiire dSI Innocents, at the Ambigu Cl-nii(tile, Nltlyne. Laerebsonnière, as LOUIS XIII., in speaking of his father, has to say The r gicide is doubly infamous, for he who strikes the Sovereign assassinates the country On Saturday evening, as she pronounced these words, the whole house burst out with shouts of applause. Berezowski passed the evening before tne review in a small eafi oi the latlgllolhos with one 0; his old comrades of the Gouin establishment There was no talk about politics- and nothing in the attitude or language of the man could have led to the supposition that he had conceived the terri- ble project so goon to be put in execut ion. He has from the beginning denied having an accomplice, and all inquiries prove that he spoke the truth There is much exaltation in his replies; nothing which denotes a bad disposition but every symptom of an imagination diseased and perverted by false ideas. On Saturday morning he asked if he could have the journals to read to set how they related the event of the 6th but he was told that such a course was contrary to the regulation. He is still at the Conciergerie, and not at Mazas, as has been already stated. The frequency of the examinations to which he had been subjected did not permit him being sent to too great a distance from the Palais de Jns- tice. The statement that his hand had been amputated is alsoincorrect, Although he puffers much from his wound, the flesh of his thumb having been completely lacerated by the fragments 01 the pistol barrel, no operat on has been considered necessary. He maintains the same attitude as in the first interrogation He replies without embarrassment to the questions put to him, and, far from manifesting any regret, he continues to express cjnically the same feeliugs as those which had driven him to the erime. Being of a taciturn and brooding disposition, be was without companions or friends. He was not addicted to drink, and frequented neither wineshops nor dancing-rooms. His solo relations are his father, who is a teacher of the piano in Russia, and a brother who lives with the former. The man is evidently a fauat'c possessed with a monomania. The features of Here zowski are said to present the ordinary type of his couutry- men. He is fair, the nose rather turned up, and the nostrils moveable. He has small moustaches and very little beard, is rather below the ordinary height, and speaks French well A plan is being taken of the psrt of the Bois de Boulogne where the attempt was committed, and experi- ments are being made to ascertain wliei her it was possible for Berezowski to reach, by running from the race course, Uit sj.oo u iiiiic ue nau yusleu nniiscu tmeu he suw Ultt Jttu- peror of Russia taking that direction.
EXAMINATION OF THE ASSASSIN.
EXAMINATION OF THE ASSASSIN. Beregowski, the Pole who made the attempt on the Czar's life, was examined on Friday, and the following information was elicited from the prisoner, who gave his replies with great coolness He is twenty years of age, of Polish nationality, and was employed at M. Gonin's, an instrument maker after which at M. Cail's, whom he left on the 4th of, May, and he has since been living on his savings, augmented by the pecu- niary assistance given to refugees. He was aakei, .How could you fire at a Sovereign, the guest of France, who nourished you f He replied, with tears in his eyes, It is true, I committed a great crime towards France.' But you ran the risk of killing the Emperor Napoleon.' No,' he replied, a Polish bnllet could not go astray. It must go straight when aimed at the Czar. I wished to deliver the world of the Czar, and the Czar himself of the remorse which mus'u weigh upon him He was subsequently questioned by MM. Rouher and Schouwaloff, and in reply said that he was an insurgent ar 16, when he broke off all intercourse with his family. He had not communicated to any one his intention of assassi- nation, for fear of being betrayed. After the examination Beregowski was periectly collected. He signed the reports of the proceedings, and showed no sorrow, but expressed his regret at not having been successful.
Sergeant-Major John Laverty, who was present at the attempted assassination of the Emperor, makes the following statement He was in full-dress, returning from the review, as the carriage containing the Emperor passed. He saluted, and, being in the front rank, was especially noticed by the Em- peror Napoleon, who was nearest him. At the moment the Emperors were in line with him, about ten feet off, he felt a hand on his shoulder, and instantaneously a deafening re- port. Turning rapidly, he confronted a man with a revolver minus the barrel in his hand, whom he secured, the crowd rushing to the rescue, and the excitement being tremendous. The assassin was torn from his grasp, and shortly after taken charge of by the police. There can be little doubt that the lives of the Emperors were saved by the blowing off of the barrel of the revolver, which was, perhaps, due to overloading. This explanation is rendered more probable by the fact that the sergeant- major received no injury, although the pistol was on his shoulder.
The journal Le Droit publishes the following details relative to the attempted assassination He was on the road about fifteen paces from the Emperors when he fired, but the pistol being overloaded, burst, and wounded him in the hand. He is a Polish mechanic, and had bought on the previous day a double-barrelled pistul. Ile appeared very excited. The motives of the attempt appear to be political passion and personal hatred to the Czar. It is believed that he has no accomplices.
The Pays has the following:—" Scarcely had the shot been fired when the Emperor Napoleon, raising himself up in the carriage, saluted, as has been mentioned, the people. who acclaimed him with enthusiasm, thinking that the tall had been directed against his person. Moreover, their Majesties and suite shared the same misconception all the way to the Tuileries and it was only on arriving at the Palace that they learned that the assassin was a Pole, and that he had fired at Alexander II."
The Cow-titutionnel has the subjoined account of the occurrence Bereyouski had been not only in the employment of MM. Gouin, but previously in that of MM. Cail and Co. He left his last place on the 4th May, and says he has since lived on his savings, augmented by a subsidy of 35(. a month, al- lowed him, as a Polish refugee, by the French government. Why had he left off working? He does not explain. How, and at what moment, had the idea occurred to him of shoot- ing the Emperor of Russia ? *«l^vas thinking about it," he replied, since the day when I heard the Czar was coming to Paris." His first project was to commit the crime on Tues- day evening at the Opera. But he had made no preparations. He merely went in the evening on the Boulevards and the Rue Le Peletier. At the comer of that street he was in the first rank of the spectators. lie there saw the Czar, and pretends that Alexander looked at him, and recognised him as being a Pole. He then heard cries of "Vive la Polt-giie 1" but he did not join in them. From that moment, however, he was determined to attempt the life of the Czar. The morning of the following day, Wednes- day, he went to the Boulevard Sebastopol to a gunsmith's, and asked to see some double barrelled pistols. Several having been shown him at eight francs, he asked if they were good and solid. Yes," said the man, "but here is one at nine francs which has been proved." "I shall take :t, then, since it is better." Bereyouski paid, and returned home to load the weapon. In the evening he remarked that the bullets which the gunsmith had given to him were loose in the barrels, and he tried to Cast some others, but failed. On the Thursday he rose at seven, and went out with his loaded pistol in his pocket. He breakfasted in a very frugal maimer on a piece of bread, a morsel of sausnge, and half a bot:le of wine. He then went slowly in the d rection of the course. "I thought," he says, "of shooting the Emperor on his arrival; but I did not know exactly the route he was to take, and I could not, therefore, get to any spot by which the carriage was to pass." At the review he leaint that the cortiije would return by the cascade, and he went and got into the first row of the spectators at the angle of the two roads. For a moment there was some hesi tation as to which direction the Emperor ought to take, one road being occupied by a regiment of dragoons. The carriage, however, having gone to the left, he got to the side by which the cortege was to pas, and at the instant the carriage with the two Emperors and the Grand Dukes was approaching where he stood he stepped out of the ranks of the crowd, holding his pistol in botli hands, his two index fingers on the triggers. The result of the shot is known. The Emperor Napoleon perceiving the yonng Prince Vladimir bespattered with blood, brnc towards him quickly, saying, "Prin.;e, are you wounded?' "No, sir; but yourself p., And in fact the Emperor's uniform was also stained with blood, as well as those of the Czar and the Cos are witch. Each of the august personages then remarked that the whole carriage was bespattered, but that no one was hurt. When the prisoner was taken to the Conciergerie, Count Schouvalow also went to the Palais de Justice, but from scruples of delicacy, exaggerated per- haps, did not demand to see or interrogate the prisoner; but M. Rouher nrviled him to receive the first avowals of Bereyouski. The Russian functionary put numerous ques- tions in Russian, Polish, and French. He questioned the prisoner as toliisfamily and his antecedents, and Bereyouski having stated that at sixteen he had had borne the insur- rectionary musket, asserted that he had left his home two years ago. "Have you not continued in correspondence with your father?"—"No, 1 have never written to him, and when I left home he told me that if I joined the revolution he would curse me." Bt reyouski, whoe affirmations will natu- rally be tested, declared several times with great self posses- sion that, he had not imparted his project to any one for fear of being betrayed. He continues calm and exhibits intelli- gence. lie signed the reports of his interrogatory, reading them with great care, and even to the note identify;ng the pistol as the weapon he had used he suggested modifications The words retrouvS sur le iieu du crime were scrutinised by him, and he asked if the word ramassd would not be more exact,
A STRANGE STORY.
A STRANGE STORY. The Pays, of Saturday, prints the following at the head of its columns, under the title of "A Strange Story — A singular affair, of which the exact meaning is not yet known, happened the day before yesterday in the Rue MCTitmartre, at the corner of the boulevard. About two o'clock in the morning the cries of "Help the assassin! the assaMill were heard in the street and attracted a large crowd. A young man, his hands and face covered with blood, came out of the Hotel du Tyrol, and rushed about like a mad- man. A doctor, who I ved opposite, came to the spot, and immediately dressed his wounds, which he at once saw had been caused by the breaking of a wind )w in a moment of delirium. The young man was taken to the office of the com- missary of police, where ii was tried, during his moments of sanity, to question him. The commissary succeeded in elicit- ing that. his name was Knoll, that he was a Pole, twenty-one years of age, and a medical student. Havtng left his lodg ng in the Rue St. Francois, he had demanded a room for the night at the hotel above-named. The commissary asked liim whether he had been at the review, and whether he was near the cascade. He replied, "Yes." But when it was tried to question him further, he became again delirious, and cried out 1, Yes. the Russian seigneurs have given me a million But I will tell all to the Czar!" The unfortunate young man was then taken to the hospital. We guarantee the correctness of the a.h.ve facts, and our readers will re- mark that we abstain from making any comment. But this strange event happening on the same evening as the attempt in the Boi8 leads one to think that the last word has not yet been said in the drama of the day before yesterday.
LETTER FROM COUNT ZAMOYSKI.
LETTER FROM COUNT ZAMOYSKI. General Zarnoyski, an eminent member of the Polish emigration, on the subject of the attempted assassination of the Czar, has sent the following letter to the Paris journals The attempt announced on Thursday by the Moniteur has caused, as may easily be believed, a deep emotion amongst my fellow-countrymen. Several of them have expressed to me their desire, in the absence of Prince Czartoryski, to see me proclaim without delay the sorrow and deep indignation with which the deed has inspired us. Allow me, for that purpose, to have recourse to your kindness. The past history of Poland shows-and it is one of our glories-ttiat a crime of this nature has never been produoed in our country, notwithstanding the political convulsions of which it has often been the theatre. I do not hesitate to affirm that at tlrs day the senseless act of a man, said to be a Pole, will meet with unanimous reproba- tion throughout all Poland. The barbarous treatment to which our country is subjected has, indeed, in the last trials, driven some weak minds int o a state of culpable exasperation, To acknowledge this fact is the more pitinful that these aberrations are incontestable the fruit of the assiduous attention paid to the education of our youth by a Govern- ment which knows no scruple. However that may be, a Pole, worthy of the name, never despairs of Providence, and we expect everything from the justice and mercy of God. It is enough to say that we are resolved to remain invariably faitl) u to the duties of the Christian faith, to our nwst glorious traditions, to whatever is commanded by the dearest Interests of Poland, and. above all, to the obligation! imposed by the hospita'ity so generously accorded to us 1.1) Frauce.-General Zamoyski.
The Polish emigrants in Paris had made every effort to prevent any sort of manifestation against the Czar, and the following is the textual translation of ai article which its committee caused to be inserted several times in its organ, the Niepudleglosse (Inde- penclence) It is affirmed that some of the Poles residing in Paris have a design of making a hostile demonstration against the Czar during his stay in the French capital We are convinced that this intelligence, propagated as a simple supposition, and perhaps with a view to provocation, is devoid of all foundation. The Polish emigrant! who have been received in France in so hospitable and sympathetic a manner, will always know how to respect the rights of their hosts The Czar and the whole world are fully cognisant of the feelings of the country, and demonstrations could tell tlieni nothing new. It is not to the Czar that we should cause annoyance by violating in that way the sacred law. of hospitality, but to those who have received us a4 brothers, who protect our sick and infirm, who have given us the means of imparting instruction to our children. A manifestation made by the Poles would constitute, on their part, an ingratitude towards their hosts, and would not fail to injure our holy cause. It is not in Paris that a Pole ousrht to disclose his feelings towards the Czar. We are, therefore, sure that these fears are groundless; and that the attitude of the Polish Emigration during the residence of the Emperor of Russia in Paris will be as always, in con- fornuV with the dignity we ouirht to preserve in our mis- fortunes, and to the respect which we owe to the sacred laws of hospitality. This journal appears in Switzerland and at Paris, and whilst this note was being printed, another news- paper, the Free Voice; published in London, inserted a warning and counsels ih the same sense, reminding the refugees of the duties imposed on them by the generous hospitality of France.
The Paris Liberie says it is asserted that the Czar has asked the Emperor Napoleon to spare the life of the assassin Berezowski.
Her Majesty the Qneen, on being informed of the dastardly attempt, at once sent from Balmoral to the Emperor Alexander a telegram warmly congratulating him upon his escape.
THE NEW BLACK DEATH.
THE NEW BLACK DEATH. The Chronicle of Saturday had a very interesting, and at the S'lme time very alarming, article upon the disease which has lately appeared in Ireland, and which our contempo- rary dreadfully names "The New Black Death." We reprint the greater part of this article below For more than fourteen months a mysterious disease has been displaying a rapid and fatal activity in Ire- land. The first case occurred as far back as the 18th of March, 1866. An apprentice t,) a surgeon in Dublin had felt unwell, and remained indoors during the day, taking his meals, however, as usual. He had a bad night, and complained of headache in the morning and his master then remarked some spots upon his chebt. Dr. Stokes, an eminent Dublin physician, was immediately sent for, and saw the patient at 11 a.m. He found him perfectly collected, and in apparently ordinary strength but the left arm and left breast were covered thickly with large purple patches of the deepest hue. Both medical men recognised that they were in presence of a case which, if an attack of typhus fever, was certainly such as neither of them had ever witnessed before. When Dr. Stokes returned two hours later a great change had taken place. The patient was as self-possessed as before, but the left arm and breast were now completely black At half-past one the young man was sitting Up in bed, discussing his case with his master and as he com- plained of great thirst, the latter went from the bed- side to the window to mix a cooling draught, but upon turning round almost instantly he saw, to his horror, that collapse had set in, and by 2 p.m., within little more than twenty-four hours of the first sign of indis- position, within eight or nine hours of the appearance of any formidable symptoms, and within half an hour of being in full possession of all his faculties and of a considerable amount of muscular strength, the patient was dead. A few other cases occurred during tue spring and early summer, all presenting the same general features, and all fatal; but, with theappearalice of cholera in August, this strange disease vanished. With the approach of spring, however, it re-appeared. One of the earliest of the new cases was that ot a healthy child about five years old. Here the first symptom of illness was noticed at 8 a.m.; at 11 a.m. a small purple eruption appeared, generally diffused over the bo ly at 1 p.m. the whole body was covered with large purple patches; coma gradually supervened, and at 3 p.m. death. The last audible utterances of the child were complaints of cold. Another caseoccurred at the Portobello Cavalry Barracks on the 17th of April. An officer had complained on the previous morning of feeling slightly unwell. He got feverish towards night, had little sleep, suffered from headache, and was oc- casionally incoherent. In the morning, about nine o'clock, purple spots appeared, which spread rapidly both in size and number, until the whole body became covered with them. Collapse set in with the usual suddenness, and at 11 a.m. he was dead. Within ten minutes after death the superficial purple hue had given place to a rose red. In the following week a boy about nine or ten years old was attacked in the same rapid way. NVIlen seen at 1 p. m. his body was all dotted with purple specks; the pulse was scarcely perceptible at the wrist, but the action of the heart was perfect; he was in full possession of muscular strength and mental faculties, and felt so little ill that he complained bitterly of being kept in bed. At 7 p.m. he was dead. In the beginning of April the first provincial cases were noticed. They were connected with the troops who had been engaged in pursuit of the insurgents through the Galtee mountains. Two or three soldiers a married woman, and a couple of children were at- tacked the woman and one of the soldiers recovered, the others died. The fatal cases were remarkable for great suffering, which no skill seemed capable of re- lieving. Indeed the children appear to have screamed themselves to death iu the violence of the pain which no efforts could mitigate. In all these cases there were indications of considerable inflammation of the brain and spinal column. A special interest attaches to these military eases, as throwing some light upon the question of contagiousness. The mother of the children washed for some of the soldiers of the flying column, among whom we have just mentioned the attacks of the disease occurred, and in this way the disorder may, it is conceived, have been communicated. At this moment a woman is in the Meath Hospital in Dublin with her young child, both suffering from this malady; and Dr. Stokes, who has them personally in charge, has declared his conviction that this is an unquestionable case of contagion. It appears, then, that a strange and terribly fatal disease exists in Ireland, and as yet chiefly in Dublin. The general features of the preliminary stage are bilious vomiting and sometimes purging, and usually headache of unparalleled intensity, with incoherency. Then comes the pur | >le eruption, accompanied, in most cases, by great debility, and followed by collapse and death. The duration of the illness is of a threefold variety. In the first, where the period is reckoned by hours, one case was fatal in four hours from the occur- rence of the first symptoms; but the average is eighteen hours. The second variety includes from three to six days, from the first indications of indis- position to the fatal issue. The third variety, in which alone any recoveries have taken place, embraces a period extending to many days, and even weeks. It is hardly necessary to say that in Dublin great interest is felt upon the subject among the members of the medical profession, and considerable anxiety has been awakened among the general public. Already the Medical Association of the city has held two meetings, in one of which detailed and authentic reports of the cases observed were presented and read, while the other was devoted to a discussion of the character of the disease. It is not unnatural that, upon the latter point, medical opinion should be divided. Some consider it to belong to the family of blood-poisons, of which in these countries typhus and typhoid fevers have hitherto been the chief specimens; and they refer as proofs to the purple eruption and the rapid development. Others consider that it is a new form of cerebro-spinal malady, appealing to the headache and injected character of the spots, and to the appearances usually presented by the brain and spinal column in post-mortem examinations. They also cite, in confirmation of this view, the morbid sensibility of the surface, the dilatation of the pupil and temjiorary loss of vision, the twitching I, of the muscles and convulsive spasms, the muscular rigidity and curvature of the spine, which often accompany the disease, and the displacement of the head, paralysis, and other affections which frequently I retard the very few cases of recovery. Others, again, suggest that two distinct types of disease elist, in these cases, and by their commingled symptoms give oc sion to confusion of diagnosis and pathology. All important as the decision of these matters must bet the time has hardly come when it can be given upoi the safe basis of a sufficiently extensive and searching induction. Meantime it is unfortunately too clean with the steady and rapid increase in the Dublin deathi rate from this mysterious complaint, that its attacks deserve the closest and most watchful attention, not only from the medical profession, which is thoroughlj on the alert, but also from the public and the Goyenfe ment.
Lord Naas, on Thursday evening, in the House Commons, in reply to a question, said that the RegiAk trar-General had not received any information of a dist-ase called the black death in the neighbourhood 01 Dublin. Saunders says that the fact exists, never- theless, that a new disease, or an old disease attende4 with some novel features, .especially a peculiar pete« ohial eruption or discolouration of the surface of the body, has from time to time during the past year made its appearance, not in Dublin alone, but also in mans parts of the country. The name black death,' whicfl was hastily given to it, has been condemned by the universal voice of the profession, not only as calculated) to eause great and unnecessary alarm among the public^ but as giving a very erroneous idea of the true nature of the disease. This malady has no resemblance tq the black death of the Middle Ages, nor is its fatality of so extreme a character as to justify the use of the term death' in connection with it. The earlier casei of the disease were almost all fatal in their results, but» as we have experienced in other epidemics, its vimlenci after some time began to decline, and the latter casef have not been nearly of so bad a type as those whien at first startled the public. There is good reason tf believe that the disease is disappearing. The membenj of the medical profession are divided in opinion as a. the nature of this singular maia* ly. Some are incline to regard it as a kind of fever, while others hold it be only a new form of a well-known disease which eft isted as an epidemic in Dublin in the year 1846, ana was elaborately described by the late lamented Dh Mayne, under the name of cerebro-spinal arachnitis* Whether it is contagious or not is also a disputed point, the great preponderance of evidence, we believe, bearing out the theory of its non-coutauious character although there are not wanting some facts tending support the contrary view. Upon one point only the profession is unanimous, and that is to discard the in, appropriate and objectionable name which the disease has hitherto borne."
BIDDING FOR AN ACTOR.
BIDDING FOR AN ACTOR. A singular scene occurred a few days back at the Restaurant Gousset, in the reserved garden of the Paris Exhibition. In an elegant saloon, the company at three tables were remarked for their unreservea, gaiety. The first was occupied by M. Dormeuil*' director of the Palais-Royal Theatre the second, bjft M. Duquesnel, of the Odeon and the third by M»; Harmant, director of the Vaudeville, each of whom was entertaining some members of his theatrical staff.] After having shown them the splendours of the Exhir bition, jests were exchanged among the three tables, and the sounds of merriment were frequent. Sud«! denly, Harmant paused. His stage director, "Vizentini, had whispered something in his ear Harmant rosa and spoke in a low tone to his two colleagues each' v remained surprised, gazing on a head of marvellous stti )i(lity,siniilartotliitof irassotatt-werity. Thesama, nose, a similar idiotic smile contradicting the shrewd' expression of the eyes, and the samestature. In fine, the most comic and original countenance that could be seen. The head belonged to a waiter of t he restaurant, who appeared in no way surprised at his unexpected success. It is a treasure," said one It is a gem 1'* exclaimed the second. I must have him," said Har- mant. The hero was at once sent for and offers com- menced. Fortunately, he had already been on the stage, but had quitted the profession to become a waiter, and thereby earn 20f. a day. Such a sum would make the boldest rdiect, but impresarii, on the look-out for novelties, know no obstacles 20f. a-day is 600f. a-month the Palais-Royal offered 400f. the Odeon, 450f., but the Vaudeville at length triumphed by several lengths in this comic race. M. Harmant wished to sign the treaty at once but the other mado, a show of reluctance, as his ambition had grown with his success. A new piece for his dfbut is about to be, ordered, and in the month of October wdl be seen this singular head. What was not the astonishment of ALI Harmant on receiving his bill, running thus :-Break- fast, 60f. consultation of the garcon, lof. first month's salary in advance, 600f. total 670f.
CAPTURE OF A BRIGAND QUEEN..
CAPTURE OF A BRIGAND QUEEN.. The Pontificial government is excessively proud of an achievement of its troops, who have recently sue* ceeded in securing a valuable prize—no less a person- age than a brigand qneen styled "Loisella," the partner of the redoubtable Andreozzi, who reigns supreme among the Volscian hills. This "Loisella" before she took to the hills was serving maid to the wife of that Panicci, governor of a paese called San Lorenzo, who was carried off in March last by the brigands, and, being found unable to walk, was for three weeks borne about the mountains in a chaise-b, porteurs. During his period of detention, at the. instigation of Loisella, who dictated to him the items, Pauicci was required to send to his wife a list of her, jewellery, with a letter begging her to hand to the bearer the precious articles named as a portion of his ransom, and an indispensable oondit on of his being set free. With the exception of a pearl necklace, which had been presented by the Signora Panicci to her daughter on her marriage, and winch was instantly. missed by the observant Loisella, the whole of the required jewels were promptly forwarded. Seizing the glittering and precious things, Loisella proceeded to adorn herself with them, and, thus arrayed, pre- sented herself before her late master, demanding of him derisively for whom he took her. You are Loisella," replied Pauicci, my w fe's maid." "No," answered Loisella, pointing to the jewellery, "lam your wife." Having been captured with a double-barrelled gun m her hands, Loisella will probably ha ve sentence of death passed on her, but will certainly not be execu- ted, even though she should he unsuccessful in decoying Andreozzi or others of her lovers into the hands of the authorities.
We also lean, that two brigand chiefs, Attobelli and Achille Andsio, were killed last week by the Ponti- fical gendarmes, and five brigands surrendered, them- selves in the province of Frosinone. On the other hand, savage bands ravage the country from the side of Tnscany, and the Pontifical troops show themselves wholly unequal to cope with the marauders. The in. habitants of the Campagna lmve presented an address to the Pope, giving a melancholy picture of the losses they have sustained through this devastation, stating that it has deprived them of the means of paying tha taxes, and praying him to take energetic measures for the restoration of public security.
EXTRAORDINARY PROCEEDINGS AT LANCASTER. The recent decision of parliament, relative to disfran- chising Lancaster has caused much annoyance and ill- feeling among a large portion of the electors in that borough. That feeling was displayed in an extraordi- nary manner on Friday night, when three well-dressed, life-siaed figures, intended to represent three gentle- men who, it is said, have been among the chief actors in bringing about the unseating of the late members and the subsequent royal commission Iff inquiry, were publicly exhibited in the town. Each figure, which bore a close resemblance to the original," was fastened to a high pole in a cart drawn by one horse, and supported by a numerous body-guard." The procession started at eight o'clock, headed by a band of music, and fully two hours were occupied in perambulating the principal streets, which were lined with some thousands of spectators. At the head of the procession a large placard was carried, displaying the words, in warm remembrance of three loving cons of Lancaster." A chief mourner," with a long white hat-band, followed the third cart. Across the breast of each figure there was a printed placard, ex- plaining the relation in which the trio stood to aach other, whilst at the back of one another placard, ex- hibitmg a sentence about ''Judas," was fastened. About ten o'clock, the procession returned to the place whence it had started from, and the three eftigieawera burnt, amidst the cheers and groans of the assembled multitude, which throughout, had maintained tolerably good order, and had not been interfered with in any Way by tha police authorities. .f' h