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FOREIGN AND BRITISH BREEDS OF CATTLE. Continued. CHOOSING CATTLE. The following hints will be usefulA large chest for organs of respiration a capacious trunk, for stomach and other viscera for digestion 'further, as a property indicating the secretion of fat, there should be an absence of thickness or coarseness in the bones of the extremities, head, limbs, and tail a thick, large head, massive limbs below hocks and knees, and a thick tail may indicate strength and large muscles, but will not be an animal to fatten quickly in addition to this the skin should be soft and expansive to the touch. According to Wilkinson the description of a good cow is :— She's long in her face, fine in her horn, She'll quickly get fat without cake or corn She's clean in her jaws and full in her chine, She's heavy in flank ?nd wide in her loin :— She's broad in her ribs and long in her rump, A straight and flat back without ever a hump She's wide in her hips and calm in her eyes, She's fine in shoulder and thin in her thighs :— She's light in her neck and small in her tail, She's wide in her breast and good at the pail; 11 She's fine in her bone and silky of skin, She's a grazier without and a butcher within. BREEDING CATTLE. The grand secret of breeding is to suit the breed to the soil and climate, and that which is the fun- damental point to be borne in mind is that Like produce like," which is the universal law of nature. Too many mistakes are made by some Farmers, on this point, and the results are only disappointing and vexatious. A farmer may have a fair class of cows with some good points, but may desire to see a point better developed in which his stock is de- ficient; he looks out for a bull with this very ex- cellence he desires to see in his own stock the experiment is tried, and to his no .little astonish- ment, proves a failure. Why this ? The bull had the very point he wanted but stay—the bull had some defects which the farmer has overlooked, and these very defects spoiled the good points he wished to carry out. The bull should in addition to the one great excellence he requires possess all the good qualities that his stock actually exhibited. The question as to the influence possessed by sire and dam seems to be on the side of the sire, but he acts best who sees that both sire and dam are per- fect. It will be remembered in our pamphlet on the Horse, we drew attention to the fact that the Arabians place more reliance upon the selection of the mare in breeding their celebrated horses. But the usual custom is to look most to the male. To the dairy farmer the most important points are the quantity of milk yielded, its quality, its value for the production of butter or of cheese, a freedom of the cows from vicious habits and ill-temper, their character as good and healthy breeders, the ease with which,, when useless as milkers, they become fattened for the market, and the nature and quan- tity of food requisite for this purpose. To the grazier the quickness of becoming fat, and at as little expense as possible, the fineness of the grain of the meat, or of the muscular fibres, the mode of laying on the fat, the smallness of the bone, sound- ness of constitution, and congeniality with the soil and climate, are the chief points which he takes into consideration." The heifer should not be allowed to breed until 2 or 2 years of age,—if 2 good pasture 2 years the same applies to the bull. The period of gestaLion in a cow is about 270 days. The cow has seldom' more than one calf—sometimes twins—but rarely more. When the twins are male and female, the female is often unproductive. It is most advantageous to have the cow calve during the first three months of the year, and the calf weaned when young grass comes in. Abortion occurs more frequently in the cow than any other domestic animal. When occurring after the 5th month there is danger from inflama- tion, particularly of the womb, it is then advisable to give sedative medicines, common salt in the drink of meal gruel is a good one keeping the animal in an open shed and studying quietness is the best means to adopt in order that the cow may reach her proper time. 111 The Rural American says that a farmer may cause a cow to calve during the day time instead of night, thus avoiding want of sleep and much watching. The method is this—When the cow is with calf, and the milk beginning to fail, let no milk be taken from her during the day or at night, but milk her at any time in the morning, and let none be taken but in the morning, and when her time for calving has come she will drop her young in the day time. DISEASES OF BATTLE. Cattle are subject to various diseases, the ner- vous system of the ox is not so soon grown as that of the horse the brain of the ox is 11 small it is not so easily restored from exhaustion, it is unable to stand much labour, and is soon prostrated by illness. By attention to feeding, shelter, and clean- liness, much can be done to promote health. Of late much has been done to promote the health of the inhabitants of our thickly populated cities, it has been a surprise to many who have felt the close fetid atmosphere of these places that the bill of mortality has not been much heavier, even though that was far above the average. We opine the same applies to animal life. How can some of our farmers expect healthy stock if they shut their cat- tie up in badly ventilated houses, with bad drain- age, little better than vapour baths ? Cattle should be housed during winter in well ventilated byres, or in open sheds,—and partially sheltered during summer. We cannot too strongly condemn the practice of sending for fariers, men who are generally alike ignorant of anatomy, physiology, and the symptoms. of diseases. All quacks should be discountenanced and reliance placed on nature curing itself, rather than the many nostrums compounded by ignorant people, men nearly as bad as one of whom we have read in the reign of JAMES I. who prescribed as a cure for the bloody flux in cattle, the follow- ing mode of treatment, Ye shall take but a frog and cut off his left leg and so put him alive in the beast's mouth, but then you must have ready a handful of salt mixed with a pint of good strong ale, and so soon as you can, after the frog, give the beast to drink and make him swallow all down together. Some do take a loch fish quick, and put it down the beast's throat, or certain herbs. with a quart of milk of a one coloured cow." The owners of stock would be acting prudently to se- cure the services of an experienced veterinary, many of whom are now within call of the farmer. INSTINCT OF CATTLE. The brain of the ox is half as large as that of the horse, and though inferior in grace and spirit is not much less sagacious when the ox is merely a beast to be fattened and destroyed, he may be- come stupid, having little or no need of intelligence. We have read of a Devonshire cow that was much annoyed by a boy often throwing stones at her one day the lad was repeating his annoyance when the cow suddenly caught him in. her horns, gave him a toss or two and then laid him quietly down, the lesson having been quite enough for the poor fellow. In Switzerland bells are put round the necks of favorite cows, the'bells are taken away us a punishment to the cow when it has proved itself undeserving this mark of honour. An incident is related that a procession was taking place in which oxen were placed-a cow that long had been fa- voured with the bell had just had a calf, and the herdsman thinking the bell too heavy removed it for. the occasion, the cow would not move-the man brought the bell out of the house and placed it on her again, when she sprang gaily forward. n The allusion to the bell reminds us of. a tradition that we have heard connected with one of the seats of the late Earl of Carlisle. When a bull shall toll Lanercost bell and a hare bring forth on Na- worth's hearthstone, Lanercost shall fall and Na- worth be burnt down." It is said that a bull accidentally got his horns entangled with the bell rope at Lanercost, and that a hare laid her young on the hearth-stone of the castle the writer re- members well, seeing the ancient and far-famed Nawdrth in flames,—Lanercost is now in ruins. In Instinct Displayed," we read of an instance showing in a remarkable manner the instinct of cattle," a boy was put to work to keep some cattle from trespassing to some corn-land, the boy was a sleepy-headed fellow and often got chastisement for non-fulfilment of duty, he got a long switch y I and whenever he found the cattle had strayed gave them a severe punishment the bull took notice of this, and got into the way of striking the cows with his head if any of them attempted to trespass, and so well did he do his work that the boy was relieved from his duty and put to other work. Captain Cochrane in his travels tells us that he has seen a large herd of bullocks surround the dead bndy of Ole of their herd, and bellow most hideously and has seen large tears rolling down their cheeks.




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