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--'..."., AGRICULTURE. ----+--


AGRICULTURE. -+-- BR"3S3IN3 FOR CERE1LS. Mr. Cuth'oeit ",V, Jobnsos, P.B.S., furnishes an elaborate paper to the Marie Lane Express on this I subject. In the course of it he quotes the following valuable expieselon of opinion o £ Lawes and Dr. Gilbert, who have made many important experiments npen the wheat plant:— The records cf a field of 14 acres in which wheat has bsec grown vrithoat naatmre, and by different descrip- tions of manure, year attar year for twenty successive seasons, without either fallow or a fallow crop, and in winch the lowest produce was in the first year 15 and in the last year 17:Ï bushels, and the highest in the first year 2H- end in t' c, last 56-i- bushels, cannot fail to be of much interest at once to the practical: farmer, to the esononnst, and the man of soisnoe. Accounts havo been before reported of the growth of wheat for many consecutive years apparently with great etxoees, titd with cut much evidence of ex- haustion, on fcoils of extraordinary fertility and the recent experience of the Rev. S. Smith, of Lois. Waedon, has shown that, on hia soil, at least, many wheat crops can betaken, under a system of alternate crap and fallow without reaching, at any rate for isiny years, the point of deterioration, History also tells us of b.r:ge tracts of land on which the wheat crop has been cultivated year after year for many years, but which have eventually succumbed to the unnatural strain put upon them. The records now to be laid before the teader refer to conditions of growth liks in some points, but essentially different in most, to those cases to which we have alluded. The expe- riments have been made upon what may be called fair average wheat land. But, as the rental of similar land in the immediate locality ranges, and has ranged for many years past, only from 25s. to 80s. per core tithe free, and its wheat crop, ur.,Br the ordinary management of the diotriet, cer- tainly dogs » ot average more than from 25 to 27 bushels per acre once every five years, it is obvious that, in a practical point of view, it can lay no claim to extraordinary fertility, or to be ranked on a higher level than a large proportion of the soils on which wheat is grown with a moderate degree of success under a system of rotation and home manuring. in an figiicsltural or commercial point of view, were the general characters of the land. Speaking still in agricultural language, it may be said that tha soil is p, eoasewhat heavy loam, with a subsoil of raw yellowish red clay, but resting in its tarn upon chalk, which provides good nataral drainage. Tlia questions f.risc: TV tat are the grain-yielding capabilities cf f sab land, what its powers of endu- rance, in what constituents, or class of constituents, dees it sooner* show signs of exhaustion ? On a soil of not more tbas average wheat-producing quality, and taken for experiment after a course of five crops since ths application o* manure, wheat has been grown suo- cessfully, without manure, and with different descrip- tions of manure, for twenty years in succession. Without manure, tbo produce of dressed corn was, in the first year, 15 bushels ter acre; in the last, 1741 bushels; and, takiag the average cf the 20 years, 16| bushels. With farmyard marure, applied every year, the produce was, in the first year, 20& bushels; in the last 44 bushels; and, on the average of the twenty years, 32; bushels. V'ith artificial manures, the nighsst produce vaK, in the first year, 24} bushels; in the last 561 bushels; and, taking the average of the twenty years, 36J bushels, or considerably more thsn the average produce of Great Britain when wheat is grown in the ordinary course of agri- culture in totaUon; and also considerably more than was obtained in the same field by an 'annual application of farmyard manure. Mineral manures alone, though applied in the soluble form, ■increased the produoe scarcely at all; that is, they daa not enable the plant in any material degree to assimilate more nitrogen and carbon from atmospheric sources than wisen it was grown on the practically exhausted rttnanurod land. Nitrogenous manures alcne increased the produoe very considerably for many years ia hence, the soil in its prao- ti sally exhausted condition was relatively much richer in available mineral constituents than in available nitrogen. The largest crops were obtained when miroral and i-itrogeloua manures were employed together; and it was by Euch mixtures, even though they supplied rio ftilioa (nor carbon), that the produce by farmyard manure was far exceeded, although the la' kr supplied t ot only both silica and carbon, but all ether constltuente, ia larger quantity than they were removed j); the crops."









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