IMPERIAL PARLIAMENT. --+-- In the House of Lords, on Friday, Parliament was pro- rogued by commission. The Lords Commissioners having taken their seats in front of the Throne, th;s Speaker and several members of the House of Commons, in compliance ^th the summons of Black Rod, appeared at the bar. The Royal assent was then given by commission to the Appropriation Bill and several other bills. The Lord Chancellor then read THE QUEEN'S SPEECH. CCMy LORDS AND GENTLEMEN, We are commanded by her Majesty, in releasing you from the labours of a, protracted Session, to con- vey to you her Majesty's acknowledgments for the Seal and assiduity with which you have applied your- Belveg to your Parliamentary duties. "Her Majesty has much satisfaction in informing that her relations with all foreign Powers are on the most friendly footing. "Her Majesty has watched with anxious interest 'he progress of the war which has recently convulsed ? great portion of the Continent of Europe. Her Majesty cannot have been an indifferent spectator of which have seriously affected the positions of I Sovereigas and Princes with whom her Majesty is Connected by the closest ties of relationship and friendship; but her Majesty has not deemed it expe- ?ieut to take part in a contest in which neither the honour of her Crown nor the interest of her people demanded any active intervention on her part. Her j Majesty can only express an earnest hope that the Negotiations now in progress between the belligerent powers may lead to such an arrangement as may lay j the foundation of a secure and lasting peace. A wido-spread treasonable conspiracy, having for its objects the subversion of her Majesty's authority 111 Ireland, the confiscation of property, and the Establishment of a Republic, having its seat in Ireland, | t deriving its principal support from naturalised JJtizens of a foreign and friendly State, compelled her J "Majesty at the commencement of the present Session "U assent to a measure recommended by her represen- tative in Ireland for the temporary suspension in that Part of her Majesty's dominions of the Habeas Corpus j- Act That measure, firmly but temperately acted on by the Irish Executive, had the effect of repressing any outward manifestations of treasonable intentions, and ( of causing the withdrawal from Ireland of the greater | Portion of those foreign agents by whom the conspiracy Was inailtly fostered. The leaders, however, of this movement were not ') ^eterred from prosecuting their criminal designs beyond the limits of her Majesty's dominions. They attempted, from the territories of the United j Plates of America, an inroad upon the peaceful sub- 1 ir^ta of her Majesty in her North American provinces. ~hat attempted inroad, however, only served to mani- 1 ??at, in the strongest manner, the loyalty and devo- tion of her Majesty's subjects in those provinces, who, j Without exception of creed or origin, united in defence j their Sovereign and their country. It serve.?. also Bhow the good faith and sornpuloaa attention to In.ternational rights displayed by the Government of the United States, whose active interference, by checking any attempted invasion of a friendly State, Mainly contributed to protect her Majesty's dominions against the evils of a predatory inroad. Her Majesty would have been rejoiced at the close of the present Session to be enabled to put an end to i the exceptional legislation which she was compelled to Sanction at its commencement; but the protection Which her Majesty owes to her loyal subjects leaves j her no alternative but that of assenting to the advice Of her Parliament to continue till their next meeting the provisions of the existing law. Her Majesty looks 841zioasly forward to the time when she may be enabled to revert to the ordinary provisions of the law. "GENTLEMEN OF TEE HOUSE OF COMMONS, "Her Majesty commands us to thank you for the iberal provision which you have made for the public service and for the naval and military defences of the country, "My LORDS AND GENTLEMEN, "Her Majesty has seen with great concern the Monetary pressure which, for a period of unprece- dented duration, has weighed upon the interests Oi the country. The consequent embarrassment appeared at one moment to be aggravated by so general a feei- ng of distrust and alarm that her Majesty, in order to restore confidence, authorised her Ministers to re- cotnmend to the directors of the Bank of England a course of proceeding suited to the emergency. "This, though justifiable under the circumstances, ^ight have led to an enfringement of the law, but her Majesty has the satisfaction of being able to inform Jon that no such infringement has taken place, and that, although the monetary pressure ia not yet sen- sibly mitigated, alarm is subsiding,'and the state of tfade being sound, and the condition of the people generally prosperous, her Majesty entertains a san- guine hope that confidence will soon be restored. "Her Majesty has observed with satisfaction and "ith deep gratitude to Almighty God that he has so far favoured the measures which have been adopted £ or staying the fearful pestilence which has visited our herds and flocks, that its destructive effects have been ill a great measure checked, and that there Is reason to hope for ita entire extinction at no <istanfc period. In the meantime, her Majesty has given her willing assent to a measure which has been introduced for the :relief of those districts which have suffered the most Merely from its visitation. 'Her Maieshy regrets that this country has at S?fch been b'abjeeted to the fearful visitation of cholera which has prevailed in other European countries, but from which it has been hitherto happily exempt. Her Majesty has directed that a form of l'ayer to Almighty God, suitable to the present exi- Sency, should be offered up in all the churches of this -real-; and her Majesty has given her cordial ap- proval to legislative measures sanctioning t.be adop- tion, by local authorities, of such steps as science and experience have shown to be most effectual for the check of thi tearful malady. "Her Majesty hopes that those in whose hands so large and beneficial an authority is left will not be slow to execute the powers entrusted to them, and that they will ba seconded in their endeavours by all who have at heart the safety and well-being of her people. In connection with this subject her Majesty hopes that a bill, to which she haa given her ready assent, i'or improving the navigation of the River Thames, may incidentally be conducive to the public health. "Her Majesty has great satisfaction in congratu- ating the country and the ^°rld at large on the suc- cessful accomplishment ot the great design of con- necting Earope and America by the means of an I electric telegraph. It is hardly possible to anticipate the full extent of the benefits whic-i may be conferred On the human race by this Bignal triumph of scientific enterprise; and her Majesty has pleasure m express- ing her deep sense of what is due to the private energy ■Which, in spite of repeated failure and discouragement, has at length, for the time, succeeded in establishing direct communication between the two continents. Bar Majesty trusts that no impediment may occur to interrupt the success of this great undertaking, calcu- lated, as it undoubtedly is, to cemenb yet closer the ties which bind her Majesty's North American ^olo- Hiea to their mother country, and to promote the Unrestricted intercourse and friendly feeling which it ia most desirable should subsist between her Majesty s dominions and the great Republic of the United States. "Her Majesty is aware that in returning to your respective homes, many of you have duties to perform hardly less important than those which belong to you in your Legislative capacity. Her Majesty places full reliance on the loyalty and devotion with which you will discharge those duties; and her Majesty earnestly prays that your influence and efforts may, under the blessing of Divine Providence, tend to the general welfare, prosperity, and contentment of her people." At the close of the proceedings, the Speaker and. members of the Commons returned to the Lower House, and, the Session being over, their lordships separated. The House of Commons met about half-past one o'clock. Soon after the Speaker took the chair, the right hon. gentleman and several members of the House proceeded, in compliance with the summons of the Black Bod, to the House of Peers, to hear the Royal assent given by com- mission to the Appropriation Bill, and several other bills and also to hear her Majesty's speech on the prorogation of Parliament., On their return, the right hon. gentleman read the Speech, and, after a general shaking of hands with the members present, retired. The members speedily followed his ex- ample, and in a few minutes the House was cleared, and the Session of 1866 was closed. «
Buring the past week thirty-one wrecks have been reported;, making tfej total for the pressnfc year 1,275,
I THE ROYAL INSURANCE COMPANY. At the annual meeting of the Royal Insurance Company, held last Friday, Char-les Turner, Esq., M.P., in the chair, the Actuary and Manager (Mr. Percy M. Dove) read to the directors and shareholders the twenty-first annual report of its affairs :— "FIRE BRANCH. The statements of adverse results shown by similar establishments during the last year will have prepared the proprietors for the announcement which the directors have to make that, to some extent, the company has shared in the general calamities of fire in. surance offices during that period. The fire losses sustained by the Royal Insurance Company have amounted to X318,946 Os. 6d., or nearly 77 per cent. of the premiums received. This is far beyond the legitimate per-centage of claims which, under ordinary circumstances, would have accrued, though less than the amount anticipated at one period of the year; and, although the total sum is 10 per cent. less than the average ratio of loss recently an- nounced authoritatively as falling upon three other well-known and highly respectable establishments of large revenue during the year 1865, this combined ex- perience affords, together with the still more disastrous results of some other companies which might be referred to, undeniable evidence that the premium charged upon fire insurance is at present unremunerative. This now-established fact has, however, formed so universal a theme of regretful comment at recent meetings of fire. offices, that the directors of the Royal content them- selves with assuring the shareholders that they are prepared for a re-arrangement of rates of premium. They will, however, at the same time, as they have ever done, carefully guard against recognising more than a moderate addition to the existing charges sufficient to meet the exigency of the occasion, and no more. "Passing [to another subject-the progress of the company, as respects the amount of business effected, has been satisfactory, the returns of duty published by Parliament, on the motion of the chair- man of this company, exhibiting by far the largest measure of increase which the company has ever, in its most prosperous times, experienced. The total net amount of fire premium for the year, after deducting guarantees, is £ 414,733 13s., which does not show an advance quite corresponding in com- parative amount with the increase of duty. This, it should be explained, arises in some measure from the fact that the directors voluntarily surrendered a portion of their accruing advances of premium for the purpose of protecting themselves by guarantee from undue limits on any one risk. Hence, in no small degree they consider they owe their exemption from any very large claim on any single insurance during the year, the largest amount of loss on any one strictly individual risk being little more than X6,000 They have not been hindered from this prudent eourse by the consideration that when their guarantee account was last investigated it was found that, for a period of six years the company had paid £ 88,934 8s. 6d. more, in the shape of premium to its guaranteeing connection, than it received in amount of claims. It would, however, be inconsistent with a true stability of purpose (which should remain unmoved by acci- dental or erratic results) if the directors were drawn from a prudent course of action by any experience of this kind covering a limited space of time only. "Before passing from the subject of the fire depart- ment, the directors would draw brief attention to the favourable effect which would be produced if a judicial investigation were permitted by legal authority on the occurrence of fires. It is satis- factory to know that a wide -spread opinion has recently arisen throughout the country that a measure of this character would be attended with the happiest results. Such a system exists, more or less, in maIaY of the continental cities; and the natural consequence is, that the ratio of fires in several of them is far less than in the cities and large towns of this kingdom, and that the protection of insurance can therefore be obtained at a much less rate of premium. This is, however, more a general than an exclusively insurance j question, as it affects the whole body of the nation. I A well-digested Act of the legislature for this purpose would materially increase the general security of life and property, and would ultimately tend to reduce the premium for insurance to an extent which, unless the subject were duly weighed and examined, would scarcely be imagined. LIFE BRANCH. "Turning now to the life branch, it remains to be reported that the progress has been marked by un- checked success. This will be made clear by one or two statistical expositions. "Taking the four previous quinquennial periods, it is found that the first from 1845 to 1849 inclusive, commenced with a sum assured for:— Tear 1845 of £ 23,319.and ended the period with a total sum assured of £ 27<Z,79Q. The Second, 1850-54 Do. 1850. 95,650. do. do. 733,408 The Third, 1855-60 Do. 1855. 206,514. do. do. 1,655,678 The Fourth, 1860-64 Do. 1860 449,242. do. do. 3,439,215 And now the first year of the fifth like period—viz., 1865, the company has granted assurances for X886,663 7s. 8d., nearly twice the amount at the com- mencement of the last quinquennial period-more than one million sterling having been proposed during the yew. The amount of declined lives alone ia • £ 189,947 la. 2d. "If therefore, the result of the total five years, end- ing in the year 1869, were to have a corresponding increase with the previous periods of five years each, the amount of business that would be effected in the quinquennial period now running would ba more than has ever been on record in any insurance establish- ment in this country. The directors likewise have to report that the life and annuity funds have increased by the sum of £ 103,146 7s. 3d. A further important testimony, however, is given than the Royal has not even yet arrived at the zenith of its favour with the public, by tho fact that the sum assured for the six months of the present year, after deducting all guarantees thrown off, almost reaches half a million sterling, the actual amount being < £ 499,12i 4a. od., a sum larger than the total amount assured for the entire year commencing the last quin- quennial perwd, so that, at any rate for one further year, the i rape ass or continued advance is not likely to slacken. In this department the shareholders and policy-holders, have the opportunity of which it is trusted they will,avail themselves, not only to keep up the high position of the Royal, but even to advance it considerably. The result of such an aetivityon their part, it is confidently affirmed, would so tell upon the permanent prosperity of the establishment that the favourable result on the property of the shareholder and on the profits of the life assurer would be such as would exceed their highest anticipations. Tha directors ba,d during the last months of the year 1865 entertained some apprehension that the re- sults of the vear, so far as respects the fire business, would have been far worse than they have turned out to be. Many of the fire claims, however, having proved ia their settlement far less than the estimated, aad. the increase of revenue at the satne time having reached to a larger sum than was at one time anticipated, the total result, includ- mg interest, instead of showing a considerable loss O,UL the Y"ar's transactions, forms a gain of ø.£¡916 7s. 5d. on the year. t Tbe directori, propose to the proprietors that a dividend be declared of 3s. per share, and a bonus of 4s. per share, together 7s. per share, free of income tax. It is a matter of satisfaction to state that after withdrawing the amount of this dividend and bonus from the profit and loss account, a credit balance will still remain to that account of no less than X62,076 9a. in addition to the reserve fund, which, by the aug- mentation ot tha year, now reaches the Bum of X116,913 28. 1011. "Notwithstanding, therefore, the comparatively unfavourable aspect of the fire insurance business, these two funds together will now be actually more than they were only three years previously (1862) by the sum of £ 24,743 lis. Sd." The chairman, in an elaborate speech, adverted to the losses of insurance companies generally through- out the past year, and said that although the Royal had come in for its Bhare, it had not suffered to the extent of others; but he continued "The business of the last year exhibits aconsiderable increase on that of the year preceding; and at the end of December, 1865, the accumulated funds of the life and annuity departments araaunted to £740,458. We are advancing every year in the issue of now policies, at a rate surpassing that of most other ) companies; and, judging from past experience and present progress;, we may fairly anticipate the addition of £ 100,000 annually for the next ten years to our present accumulation of X740,458, so that it is not beyond the bounds of reasonable possibility that, at the end of that time, the Royal will hold, in its life funds alone, not much less than two millions sterling." The report having been well received and unani- mously adopted, thanks were voted to the auditors, Messrs. Titherington and Younghusband, for their past services, and who were re-elected. These gentlemen having responded, a vote of thanks to the manager was passed by acclamation. Mr. P. M. Dove in responding said: The cir- cumstances connected with insurance transactions during the last year or two have certainly not been of a kind to form a bed of roses for those who have had the conduct of companies dealing in such matters. No shadow of distrust has, however, crossed my mind consequent on those dis- asters which have formed the subject of discussion at many insurance meetings lately. Unpleasant while they last, and requiring as they do no ordinary degree of tension for all our business qualities, they may be looked ou in some measure aa merely items in a neces- sary process going on for the correction of certain evils which have existed in the insurance world for some years, increasing in intensity year by 5 ear, but now, it must be confessed, aggravated by new hazards, for which no calculations have yet been adequately made. For some years the establishment of an insur- ance office has been considered the easiest thing in the world, and certainly, as far as the originators of many companies established of late years are concerned, who having launched these establishments re- ceive their reward, and then leave them to their fate, it has been so; but it is a far different thing to sustain them afterwards, or to make them yield any profit after, perhaps, the first year or two. It is not in times of prosperity aud ease that true principles are thoroughly tested. We have kad, and are still in the midst of, an epoch of trial and disaster, by fires, to offices around us, and in some measure to ourselves; and it is now, I think, judging from the proceedings of this day, more seen than here- tofore, and more acknowledged by the shareholders, that the principles which have governed this great company are sound and prudent ones (applause).
THE REFORM LEAGUE. Great Meeting at the Gxiildiiall. On Wednesday night a monster Reform meeting was held at the Guildhall; the Lord Mayor in the chair. The meeting was essentially one of the working classes, the admission being by tickets. Long before the d«e-ors were opened the whole of the vacant space in front of the building was filled by a dense crowd, and the hall itself was packed in a few minutes when the people were admitted. The pro- ceedings were quite unanimous, and considering the vastness of the assemblage and the pressure of the crowd extremely quiet and orderly. In order to avoid any commotion resulting from the disappointment of those who could not gain admission to the hall, some of the more prominent of the members of the League left tha Guildhall and addressed the crowd outside, who were formed into two distinct assemblies. Two or three things were observable about the yard, in contradistinction to appearances at recent out-door Reform meetings, which it may be well to notice. The powers that be seemed not only to have avoided any display which might have been construed into intimi- dation, or referred to a desire to strangle free utte- rance, but they had actually gone out of their way, and incurred trouble and expense to accommodate the people. A few polioemen- isolated, not in groups— were scattered here and there, mixing and talking with the people, and conspicuous by the absence from their sides of those leather cased wooden appendages of their belts with which the heads of many citizens of London have become painfully familiar. Then, along the walls each side of the quadrangle was placed gas tubing with jets at short intervals, so that the out-door meeting might enjoy light when the sun went down; and, close to the porch of the Guildhall a platform formed of loose stones was improvised, upon which the Reform leaders- could harangue the multitude. Add to this the fact that constables were placed at Cheapside, where it is intersected by King-street, and at Greahara-street, so as to prevent the street traffic from interrupting the processions as they arrived, and an idea may be had of the vast contrast this open-air demonstration presented —aa regards the action of the authorities-to those lately held in London. A cab was improvised as a chair, and Mr. John Richardson took his peaMon upon it as chairman, when the resolutions which were being spoken to inside the Guildhall were read to the crowd, and the meeting was addressed by Mr. Wool- terton, Mr. Lester, Mr. Leno, and Mr. 0.;borne. At the same time another gathering in the yard was being addressed in a similar way by Mr. Bradlaugh, Mr. Mantle, Mr. B. Lacgley, and Mr. Nieass, Mr. G. Brooke being chairman. The cheors of the populace outside could be distinctly heard in the Guildhall itself, and in this manner there were three meetings going on at once. The number of people outside the haJl were variously estimated at from three to five thousand. The Lord Mayor, attended by tha xaaoe and sword- bearer, with their insignia of office, entered the hall at half-past seven, and was loudly cheered. The Lord Mayor, in opening the proceedings, begged to return his thanks for the hearfcyreception he had met with, and to say that he was there in the dis- charge of hia municipal duties, and ha would never shrink from anything done in that hall which de- manded the presence of the chief magistrate. The present meeting was held, as he understood, for the purpose of permitting the free expression of the feel- ings of the working classes in that hall upon the great question of political reform (cheers). It was essential to the success of such a gathering that the proceed- ings should ba conducted with good temper and mode- ration (cheers). He had never gear, a larger or more intellectual gathering of working men under one roof, and that alone was a guarantee for order. Ha con- cluded by introducing Mr. Baalea, the President of the Reform League, to the meeting as the mover of the first resolution. Mr. Beales said that it fell to his lot as President of the Reform League to propose the first resolution—the otherspeakerabeingworking men in the popular sense of the word; though, as regarded the working of the brain, he also claimed to be considered a working man, and a very hard working man—(cheers)—with all dlle defer- ence to hia friends of the Tory press, who in the excess of their love and kindness to one who had furaishsd them recently so much matter to write about, would, if they could, ma,ke him it Briefless barrister. The resolution he had the honour to propose was as follows: Tila t the moderate measure of Reform introduced by her Ma- jesty's late Government having been rejected by Parlia- ment, and the present Government having indefinitely postponed the question of Reform, this meeting feels it its duty to declare tha,t the great body of the unen- franchised working classes in this country will be satisfied with nothing leas than the speedy introduc- tion of a bill for the amendment of the representation, on the basis of residantal and registered manhood suffrage and the ballot." It was a significant sigr* of the times, and a somewhat serious warning to the anti- reform faction in this eountry, that such a resolution should be, as it would, carried by a. large majority, if not unanimously, in the Guiid hall of the City of London (cheers). It was, perhaps, the first time I in which working men had held a meeting them- selves in-defence of their rights in that building. Tha existence of the present ministry as an anti- reform ministry was only on sufferance (hear. hesr). It had but a minority in Parliament, while in the country it was regarded as only existing because our beloved Sovereign, -to the present fashion and etiquette in such matters, had no other persons to whom she could apply to take the reins of govern- ment on the resignation of the late Government. It was, in fact, the strongest possible proof that the present system of the representation Ðfthe, people in Parliament was nothing more than a fiction ana a delusion, and that the present House of Commons violated its own character, its own title, and was nothing more than, an exclusive and oligarchical assembly, elected by a mere fraction of the commons of this country, when at the present great crisis, when the country was crying out, for Reform, the administration of public affairs should have been committed to euoh men, notwithstanding the vice of the present system of representation was so notorious that its amendment had been urged in speech after speech from the throne; and that they, with the f1S- sistance of the Liberal renegades, should ba able to de- feat the attempt of the late Government to the representation; and that now upon taking office they positively declared that they postponed indefinitely the question of Reform altogether. In adverting to the late disturbances in Hyde-park, b" said Lord Derby, whose literary and debating powers and high I principle he highly respected, had recently stated that however good a cause may be, however it may be commended to the reason of the oountry, it could only be irijured in the opinion of the. public and in the opinion of the Legislature, if it be attempted to be supported by anything bearing the ap- pearance of violence or intimidation." He (Mr. Boales) assented to every word of the noble earl and to the principles so laid down, as the president of a body advocating manhood suffrage and the ballot. The principle laid down recalled to his mind the scene which had taken place on the 23rd of July last, when his request for admittance into Hyde-park had cer- tainly met with something in the shape of intimida. tion, in the uplifted truncheons of police —(shame)— under the direction of the very Government of which Eatl Derby was himself the chief The Times, in commenting on Mr. Mason Joses's letter, had im- proved upon the Earl of Derby's guarded allusions, and protested against any attempt on the pa.rt cf the Re- form League to overawe reason by brute force, and to silence discussion by threatening demonstrations. That was a modest protest, considering that the brute force which had first made its appearance on the 23rd of July to overpower reason was the force em- ployed against the Reform League for the purpose of preventing the entranca of those members into the park, and for the brute force which had been provoked in opposition it had nobody but itself to blame (oheers). Under what circumstances had the Reform League in its advocacy of manhood suffrage and the ballot held the demonstration which had been called threatening, and a means of overpowering reason by brute force ? Invectives had been poured out in Par- liament and in the press of the anti-reform faction against the working classes. They had been cha- racterised by one well known to the Times- (hisses and cries of "Lowe")—as so venal, ignorant, and vicious, as to ba unfit for the franchise, and so besotted as not to care for it. If it were true that the crown bad still the right to exclude the public from the parks, was it wise, just, or politic to exercise that right on an occasion when the people wished to use it for one of the most important and constitutional of all their rights (hear, hear, and cries of No ") ? But independently of that, what became of the reasoning of Earl Darby and the Times, when it was notorious that tha same Government offered to the Reform League Primrose-hill for their meeting (cheers) ? Could they legally overpower reason by brute force, and use intimidating and threatening demonstrations against tho Government on Primrose-hill (cheers and laughter) ? What, then, became of the allegations of Lord Derby and of tbe Times, whest the meeting pro- hibited on Monday had been held by himself in the same park on Wednesday with the consent of the same Government ? The verdict on that question was now recorded, and the Reform League could appeal to the whole country, whose verdict could neither be arrested nor changed. The prohibition of the 23rd of July had done more to advance the cause of Reform than a hundred such meetings could have done- (hear, hear)— to unite the people in its support (cheers). The Go- vernment and its partisans were doing all they could to advance the cause of the League. No half and half measure of Reform would now be listened to for a moment. The banner of the Reform League—man- hood suffrage and the ballot—would be more and more hailed throughout the length and breadth of the land until its principles were adopted. In conclusion, he appealed to the meeting to pass the resolution unanimously (cheers). Mr. G. Potter seconded the resolution. He said that they had met in that ancient hall by the permission of the Court of Common Council to discuss the question of Parliamentary Reform. They demanded reform on the principle that honesty, morality, and justice ought to be observed in matters of Government taxation; and in order to secure the observance of that principle it was necessary that eaoh class should be adequately [ represented in Parliament. The only way to secure the greatest happiness of all, in a political sense, was to give the rights of citzenship to every man who was not morally or mentally incapacitated. The Govern- ment of England was said to be a representative one, but out of a population of 7,500,000 adult males, 84 per cent,, or upwards of 6,000,000, had no more voice in making the laws than they had in making those of Russians or barbarians (shame). On what principle were those 6,000,000 excluded? The elective fran- chise was alike a right and a necessity. It was a right, because it was assumed by the constitution tE) be the reason why obedience to the laws was exacted, that the subject was present at the making of the laws in the House of Commons, either personally or by delegate. That was a nut for the Tory Standard to crack. The franchise was also a necessity, because it was necessary to protect the subject from plunder and oppression, from class Government and misrule (cheers). The Tories gave one reason for the exclusion of the working classes from the franchise and the Adullamites another. They had been insulted and slandered by the Tories, and called venal, ignorant, and corrupt by the Adullamifces, while they were de- prived of their rights of citize nship by a combined and overbearing oligarchy (cheers). They therefore de- manded the restoration of the rights of which they had bean defrauded, their claims having been again and again recognised as reasonable by the Queen in successive speeches from the throne. Their voice was now making itself heard; they were making- rapid strides in social progress, and their advanced intelli- gence fully entitled them to share in the management of public affairs. Above all, they had learnt the value of unity, and he'was sure that by exercising a little patience they would succeed. With confidence in the great leader of the' Liberal party (cheers), who had advocated their cause in the House of Commons, and defended them against the slanders of the Tories— with such leaders as -Air-. Gladstone (oheers), Mr. Bright, Mr. Mill, and 1iIt. Collier, the day was not far distant whon their full political rights would be accorded to them (cheers). The motion was then put and carried unanimously. Mr. Conolly, a stonemason, and a member of the Working Men's Association, moved the next resolu- tiozi: -"That unless the -present Go yor a ai ezit is prepared to redeem the antagonism it has already exhibited to popular rights, by the speedy introduction of a bill for the amendment of the representation of the people, in accordance with tha preceding resolution, it will be the imperaSivB duty of Reformers throughout the country to withhold from such a Government all sympathy and support." He said that in his opinion the working classes could offer no clearer demonstration of loyalty than coming to the City of London to express in the presence of the Lord Mayor their opinions on a great constitutional question. It was pleasing to the citizens of London to reflect that in the late debate on the Roform Bill the representatives of the City had faithfully advocated the causa of Reform. As an Irish. man they certainly must, have the greatest confidents in him, when he reflected that 400 years ago the Lord Mayor and aldermen of London led 8.army against Jack Cade. People had got wiser since, and now knew that no difference of opinion justified the shed. ding by each other of the blood of their countrymen. The working classes had, by the force of reason, and the support of the wise and good, every reason to expect that they would soon possess the franchise. He concluded by saying that it was not the way to advance political liberty to commence by bludgeoning the people in Hyde-park. He quite exonerated Mr. Walpole from any design on the liberties of the people, but expressed his opinion that the right hon. gentleman would not be long abio to act with his less liberal colleagues. Mr. G. Odgers seconded the resolution. He observed that the conduct of tha Reform League, under its leader, Mr. Beales, a man well known for his common sense and hia appreciation of the constitution, had been most moderate from the commencement of its existence; but no sooner had it started than the Stan- clai-d, Mrs. Gamp, called aloud to Mrs. Grundy and Mrs. Partington to help her to sweep it away. He con- tended that it would have been a gracieus concession on the part of the Government to have permitted them to hold a. peaceable meeting in the park. Finding that the park-gates were closed against them they had only one course to pursue, and that was to go and make a quiet demand for admission, but they were met by Sir Richard Mayne and his bludgeoned policemen, who, in the moat reckless manner, struck down a peaceable and unarmed people, including even women and children. But for every man, woman, and child thus struck down there would rise up ten men deter- mined to obtain their just political rights. The Reform League were determined to work steadily during the winter, preparing systematically and wisely for the next Parliamentary campaign (cheers). The president of the League would not desert them, and would never lead them to anything wrosg, but to a calm and dignified success (cheers). If the present Government would introduce a good measure, not only would they meet with the support of the working classes, but he felt sure that the Ministry would meet with no factious opposition from Mr. Gladstone and the other leaders of her Majesty's Opposition (oheers). The resolution was carried by acclamation. Mr. Upshall then moved" That the working men and others composing this meeting pledge themselves to support the objects and principles of the Reform League and the Working Men's Association, by en- rolling themselves either as members of. the Associa- tion or the League, and by all other legitimate means." He expressed his belief that the Tories would intro- duce a much larger measure of Reform than the lata bill, and he was convinced that the reason why the working people did not so thoroughly support the late Government by agitating for an extension of the franchise was because they felt that the measure in. troduced was not liberal enough. The Working Men's Association not only advocated manhood Buficage and the ballot, but an equalisation of electoral districts, so as to get rid of Tory coer- cion in the country at large. He urged on the meeting to join with the Working Men's Association in demanding their just rights; but while they main- tained a peaceable aspect they should evince their unalterable determination never to cease agitating until they had obtained the fulfilment of their political rights (cheers). Mr. Coffey, a bootmaker and member of the Reform League, seconded the motion. Mr. Mason Jones next addressed the meeting. He said that he was pleased, as the meeting was composed almost exclusively of working men, that working men had addressed them that evening, and he was equally pleased to see tha people at last rousing them- selves into real vital political action. Within the last fortnight they had witnessed the greatest outrage that could be inflicted upon a free people; and in point of fact the Tory pMty, during its short ten are of office, had managed to cover itself with odium. In the first place, they said that the people did not care for Reform, and when by the mass unfit ings which had been held it became obvious that the working men of England did care, they insulted and. slandered them, and finally endeavoured to put an end to their meetings by brute force. The result 0; all this would be a renewed and more earnest demand for Reform than had ever yet been made, and the numbers, intelligence, wealth and influence which they could bring to bear on the Government were now so great that a far more liberal measure would be exacted than bad been offered by the late Government. He sincerely hoped that in addition to passing the resolu- tions they had passed they would tigrea to a petition to the Qaeen, signed on behalf of the meeting by fhe chairman, calling on her to dismiss the present Cabinet and recall Lord Russell, Mr. Gladstone, and the Liberal party to her councils. Mr. Bradlangh, in the course of a short address, pointed out that it would be very inopportune at a meeting presided over by the Lord Mayor to compro- mise him by adopting a petition such as that sug- gested. The Reform League had now places of its own where such petitions had been and could be fit- tingly agreed to; but the present meeting was rather in the shape of a demonstration from the working men of London in favour of Reform. If the Lord Mayor joined the League in his private capacity, nothing would give them greater pleasure, and he should be rejoiced to see the day when a memorial in a niche in the Guildhall commemorated the fact that the great Reform movement, began with renewed vigour in his mayoralty, had been attended by a glorious success. The resolution was agreed to. Mr. Weston, joiner, Reform League, moved the fol- lowing resolution, which was greeted with great cheer- ing That the cordial thanks and confidence of this meeting' are most justly dae, and are hereby presented to the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor, for his able and courteous conduct in the chair on this occasion ;• and the warm thanks ef this meeting are also due, and are hereby gratefully presented to the Court of Com- mon Council for their kindly granting the use of the Guildhall for the present meeting." The resolution was seconded by Mr. Davis, painter, Working Man's Association, and carried by acclama- tion and the Lord Mayor having briefly replied, the proceedings terminated.
BENDING BAD MEAT TO THE LONDON MARKETS. Several cases have been brought before the magis- trates at Guildhall lately, in which fines have been in- flicted for introducing bad meat into the London markets. The following case was heard on Satur- day:- James Cook, who is what is termed a knacker- man," residing at St. Ives, was summoned before Mr. Alderman Waterlow, by the Commissioners of Sewers for the City of London, to answer the following charge: For that you are the person to whom did belong three pieces of beef, which were, on the 5th day of July last, deposited in Newgate-market for the pur- pose of sale, and intended for the food of mas, the same being diseased and unfit for the food of man, against the statute," &c. Mr. Baylia prosecuted for the Commissioners of Sewers. The defendant said he was the person to whom the three pieces of beef belonged. James Newman said he was inspector of meat at New,g%t, market. On the 4th of July he sa^ three quarters of beef in the shop of Mr. Steam, in Newgate- market. The tally (a ticket) was on one of thm., and the note produced was under the package. On the 6th of July he showed ife to the defendant, and lie stated tha,t it was his handwriting. The three quarters were of an animal that had suffered from disease a long time—some months; the flesh and bones were quite white, and any one acquainted with iseat must have known for some time that it was foul and unfit for human food. It waa full of water. On the 6th of August he saw the defendant, who was a knacker- man," and told him he had come to see him aboat the meat he had sent up to Mr. Steam. He said he had received the condemning note. Ha also stated that ha had bought the cow for 40s., and that he and his man had killed it. He thought it good enough to send to London. He and his man had eaten some of it, and the rest he had given to the igs. William Wood, of Godmanciiester, said he bougat the cow for 25a,, and sold, it to the defendant for 37s. It was then alive. The skin was worth lOa. He thought it was worn out with age, but did not think it was diseased. John Blott Fordham, a veterinary surgeon of St. Ives, said that in May last he was called on to enmine some cows, which a Mr. Herbert wanted to turn oat on the common. That cow was amongst them, and she appeared so dieeased that he retused to pass her. Henrv Friend, porter at the St. Ivea railway station, said that on the 4th of July the defendant left three packages of meat at the station with a label on them similar to that; produced. The defendant said he did not know the meat was unfit for human food, nor did he know tho cow was diseased. Mr. Alderman Waterlow thought this a very bad case, and one that the imposition of a fine would not meet. He should, therefore, send the defendaat for one month's hard labour to the House of Correction. Richard Head Holt, at Edgcott and Grendon, Bucks, was summoned by James Newman^ inspector of meat at Newgate-market, for a precisely similar offence, but under less aggravated circumstances. In thia case the defendant was a farmer, and his cow having a cross birth at calving' was obliged to be killed. He hired a butcher to kill it, and then asked him if it was fit for human food, and he said it was. The cow was accordingly killed and sent up to town, but was condemned as unfit for human food. The butcher appeared as a witness, and maintained that when he dressed it it was fit for human food, and he would have had no hesitation in eating it. He had naa a case of this kind before, and had sold the meat to his customers. „ Mr. Alderman Waterlow fined him ±5 and costs, which were paid. Tha inspector afterwards applied to Ja. Alderman Waterlow to condemn 172 ox tongues. He saia about six o'clock that morning he saw in the shop of Mr. Bonsor, in Nosvgate-market, 172 ox tongues contained in two barrels. They were in a stinking condition, and utterly unfit for human food. His attention was called to thorn by the stench. Mr. Fisher, the collector of tha market, confirmed the abova statement as to the condition of the tongues. Mr. Alderman Waterlow made an order for the tongues to be destroyed. CJ-
The Austrian rifled guns which have been taken by the Prussians are made of brass, on the same sys- tem as the French one?, and are muzzle-loaders. The Prussian rifled guns are all breech-loaders, and made of steel.