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.'--AGRICULTURE. ---+-

HINTS UPON OABDsisnisrQ. ------




THE GREAT BATTLE BETWEEN PRUSSIA AND A. US TRIA. The Times, in a leading article, thus summarises the battle scenes as described by their able corres- pondents Sadowa. was another Waterloo in its strategy, if not in its influence upon the fate of an empire. The invading army of Bohemia stretched far and wide over a slightly undulating country, and from the centre of its line a high road led directly to the head-quarters of the enemy. Along this road Prince Frederick Charles advanced with his main army, while auxiliary forces to the right and left at- tempted to turn the Austrian flanks. Sadowa was his Hougoumont. The brunt of the battle fell upon those who attempted, on the one side, to take and on the other to keep this position. This peaceful little village on the River Biatritz was eight days since the scene of an encounter which, for mingled fierce. ness and duration, cannot be matched by any battle, since the end of the great war. On that Tuesday morning, July 3, its wooden cottages stood among orchards thick with the fruit of summer, apparently in perfect security. Before night came the cottages were mere charred wood and dying embers, the orchard trees were flayed and scarred and broken, and the Bistiita itself ran a discoloured stream, bearing its tale to those who could not see the rmsa of Sadowa. The Bistritz at Sadowa runs from about N.N.E. to S.S.W., and nearly parallel on its east side is the course of the Upper Elbe between Josephstadt and Koniggrafz. On the morning of the 3rd Prince Frederick Charles was at Milowitz,> on the right bank of the Bistritz, and little more than six miles from Sadowa. At Neubidschau, ten miles on the right, was General von Bittenfeld, with the Stib Division, and about the same d. stance on the left, stretching from Milatin, on the Bistritz, further to tke east, on its left bank, was the Crown Prince, with the army of Silesia. Between these- extreme wings lay the Praesian forces, parallel to the Bistritz, 250,000 strong, under the immediate control of the Prussian king. The Austrian force was correctly believed by the Prussians to be nearly equal to their own, and although it was known to be strongly posted along the left bank oftha Bistritz, Prince Frederick Charles determined on taking the high road which leads from Milowitz across the stream at Sadowa towards Koniggriitz, so as to fall upon its centre, orders being sent to the Crown Princa and General von Bittenfeld to attempt to turn tha enemy. Five miles brought the main army, a little after seven o'clock, to Dub, whence the road descends for a mile and a quarter to the bridge of Sadowa. It was from the crest of the hill at Dub that our correspondent with the Prussian army looked down, on that Tuesday morning, upon what was to be, before sunset, the scene of a most sanguinary conflict. At his feet was Sgdowa; on his right, a mile further down tha stream, was Dohilnitz, and, still a mile be- yond, Mokrowens, and between the two, but standing back from the stream, the schloss of Dohalicha; on his left, come two miles up the river, was the village of Benatek. All along the opposite bank were thick woods covering the eide of the valley, and on the crest, a mile and a half above Sadowa, stood the church spire of Lipa, close behind which lies Chlum, or Klum. Tho Austrian forces were posted along the left bank, under cover of the woods; and it is evident that aa long as they could keep such a position they were able to neutralise in great measure the terrible advantage of the needle-gan. The firing began about haif-past seven o'clock, but about a quarter before eight tha Prussians had brought up their field batteries and the struggle commenced. The Austrian guns seemed to appear, says our. correspon- dent, as if by magic, on every paint of their position. From every village along the course of the stream, from Ben&tek down to Mokrowens, cama flashes of fire and whizzing shells among the Prassiaa artillery, dismounting guna, killing men and horses, and splintering carriages in all directions. Shells were even thrown up the slope towards Dub, one of which bursting among a squadron of Uhlans killed four men close beside the King. For two hours the cannonade continued with terrible vigour on each side, the Austrian artillery officers not only having the better position, but also knowing their ground, but towards 10 tha Austrian batteries on the Prussian right, at Dohilnitz, Dohalieha, and Mokrowens, were forced to re ziri), a little up the hill, and it was resolved to carry the villages along the stream. Benatek, meanwhile, caught fire on the left, the Prussian 7th Division made a dash upon it, and after desperate hand-to- hand fighting in the midst of the flames secured the position. A simultaneous attack was made on Sadowa, Dohilnitz, and Mokrowens, and the slaughter on both sides was for an hour tremendous; the Prus- sians were ablo to fire more quickly, but they were obliged to firs pretty much at random, while the Aus- trian Jagera cid terrible execution on their assailants. The Prussians almost paved their way with dead and wounded, and when to help their infantry they turned their artillery on the villages, and Mokrowens and Donil. nitz both caught fire, still the Austrians did not yield. Our correspondent with the Austrian army from his station tower at Kckiiggratz saw the villages burst into flames one after another, but the unbroken lias of the Austrian forces maintaining its ground in the centre, and apparently advasaing on its left, still gave promise of victory to their arms. At length, about 11, the Prassians having secured the 'villages on the river, attempted to seize the opposite slopes, and it was then that the 27th Regiment entered the woods above Benatek, 3,000 strong, with 90 offioers, to come out of them with only 300 or 400 rank and file and two officers alive and unwounded. The Prussian artillery was brought to the far side of the Bis- tritz, and began to play upon the new position which the Austrians had taken up on the slope, but for nearly four hours they failed to produce an impression. The Austrian artillery made fatal practice,, the needle-gan did not tall, and repeated charges of infantry served to carry forwards the front a few hundred yards up the slope only to ba repelled again. The position was most critical. The Prussian right wing had been advancing at an early period of tho morning against Nechanitz, but it had since become stationary, and the observers from the Koniggrilts watch tower dis- tinctly sa.w the Saxons, who formed the Austrian left, repulsing their assailanta. Prince Frederick Charles, in command, of the centre, was—like Napoleon at Waterloo—earnestly praying that the Crown Prince, his Grouchy, might appear to turn tho enemy's right. The result of the battle waa so doubtful that the cavalry was formed to cover a re- treat should it be found necessary, and General von Rhetz was sent off to look after the Army of Silesia. At three he returned with the welcome intelligence that the Crown-Prince was pressing the Austrian right; at half-past three the columns of the Crown Prince were seen moving along the crest over Benatek against Lipa, and at the same hour it became evident to the Austrian commanders, and to the Konig- griitz observers, that the battle was lost. It was, in fact, a question whether the Army of Silesia might not out off tha Austrian forces from their base, and pre- vent the retreat to KoniggrSitz and thence to Pardu- bitz. Oiar correspondents with the Austrian army appear, indeed, to" think that the battle might yet have been saved, The Austrian eav&lry-porbaps the finest in the woÜd-had scarcely been engaged, and had a Murat been present to have led it against the advancing commas of tha Crown Prince, tiie bautie might have been won. The opportunity, if it existed, was lost; the whole army fell back along the highroad to Koniggiacz, and the struggle into that citadel across the pontoon bridges which had been thrown over the Elbe was to same extent a r^productaoH of the honors of the retreat from Loigsio. t





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