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AGRICULTURE. THE principal manufacturers of agricultural imple- ments in England have sect a memorial to the Colonial Office, stowing that th*y ai e practically shut out from Canadian trade because of the very high duties levied by the Government of tie colony. Mr. Cardwell bas transmitted the memorial to the Governor of Canada for consideration. A. great manufacturer of agricul- tural implements is ab(;ut to proceed to the United States wish a view to obtaining soice ooEcession from the Government there. At present English agricul- tural machinery is as-much shut out from the States as from Canada, and for the same reason. Ourmanu- facturers think this should not be, so long as American machinery is received here free from all duty charge. The Adulteration of Oil Cake. Professor Anderson has stated, at a meeting of the Highland and Agricultural Society, that there is pro- bably no article of agricultural consumption which is so frequently and groasly adulterated as oil cake. He adds The fraud, too, ia one of bat recent introduction, for- even ten or twelve years since it was rare, while now it has attained really gigantic proportions, and is carried on with such skill and ingenuity that the most experienced purchaser is liable to be deceived, even 'when he exercises all his prudence and caution, for the mixtures which are offered to him are not only the most perfect imitation of the genuine article, but it aot unfrequently happens that an adulterated cake will, to the eye, appear superior even to those which, though genuine, are not of^ the highest quality. This adulteration is a subject which must at all times attract the attention of the feeder, but becomes doubly im. portant at the present time, wnen epidemic disease is rife, and when nutritive food of the best quality is of especial importance; for it is by maintaining stock in the highest state of health that they are most likely to resist its attacks. The farmer most commonly judges by the eye, and if the appearance of the cake be good, and its taste sweet and free from bitterness, he is often, indeed most generally, satisfied. If he is more cautious, he demands the analysis of the cake he is about to buy, and ascertains whether the amount of oil, albuminous compounds, &c,, come up to the standard to which he has been accustomed. Both methods of judging are faliacions-the first, no doubt, more than the second, for the adulterator, dealing with the farmer who judges by the eye and the palate, has only to deceive these organs; while if he deals with the more cautious individual who looks at the analysis, he has to solve the somewhat more difficult problem of concocting a mixture which shall resemble the genuine article, not only in taste and appearance, but in composition also. In the former case the number of substances which can be used for adultera- tion is pretty large; in the latter it is more restricted and in general it is necessary to use them more cautiously, and for the most part in smaller quantity. It is scarcely necessary to observe that the substances used for adulterating oilcake must be of vegetable origin, and those are selected which can be most easily mixed with linseed, without provoking suspicion, and are, at the same time, materially lower in price. Bran, rice- dust, rape, and a variety of similar substances, are used for the purpose. In fact, the number of materials which can be employed are very large, and the selec- -tion is greatly influenced by local circumstances. The existence near the oil-crusher's premises of a work fur- nishing a suitable refuse, which can be introduced into the oil-mill without exciting suspicion, will often deter- mine its use; and thus it happens that the materials employed areconstantlyohanging,and it is often difficul t, if not impossible, to identify them when they are ground up in the cake, though it may be easy to say that they are not linseed. The adulterations of oil-cake are of two kinds-let. Those which seek to imitate the Teal cake both in appearance and composition. 2nd. Those in which so large a quantity of inferior material is added that the- composition of the cake is materially altered. The first is necessarily by far the most dangerous kind of adulteration, and that most likely to escape detection. It admits of being carried out with comparative ease, in consequence of the con- siderable variation in the composition of genuine linseed cake, which appears to be due to differences in the quality of the seed. In some instances the seed is small and shrivelled, and the husks bear a large pro- portion to the kernel- in others it islarge and plump, and then the proportion of husk is small; and when the latter seed is crushed, it gives a cake much richer in albu- minous compounds than the former. It is not easy to say to what this difference in the quality of the seed is due, but I think I have observed a decided superiority in that grown in warm climates. Whatever may be the cause of the difference, there is no doubt about its effect on the composition of the cake."


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