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h TREATMENT OF THE CEOLEBA…

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h TREATMENT OF THE CEOLEBA IN PALESTINE. Jl oomspomdent of the Times writes thus :— .4, your paper of the 30 ih of August one of ysuc •earaBspondeata recommends, among other precautions ajtaiaafc the cattle plague, the mixture of half a pint ei pnpwed,charooml with the daily allowance of food k-Ot e"h O)Rimal. ',The some treatment, in a modified form, may be advautisgeously applied to the human family. I have mm it euacassfully used in the East as a precaution hwinit the prevalence of the cholera, or 'Howa el (the yellow wind), as it is called in Arabic. ft:In the year 1855, when that terrible disease was Beg about the Levant, I was living at Haifa, a sea- pelt town on. the southern shore of the Bay of Acre, al the foot of Mount Carmel. This little town, the -jse^eistion of which was about 2,000, had never en- jeyed thebenoot of a sanitary commission. w Many of its guttered streets and unpaved lanes were little better than open sewers. The dust, hea,ps Mxsr to the seashore had been allowed to grow into ifcroad, steep, and firm barricades, formed of dead B&irnals. vegetable refuse, and all sorts of filth. On the 23rd of October a new Pasha far Acre loaded at Haifa. At the urgent entreaty of the Con- sals' iiia Excellency ordered our little town to be feosoughly cleansed and swept. The work was com- -1ioed at once, energetically, but not judiciously. 'be great dust heaps which had been so long undis- bed were vigorously attacked, and the task or shovelling "them into the sea occupied all the porters 200 boatmen, of Haifa. Man and boys ran hither and thither with baskets of putrefying rubbish, and unwil- 2aig labourers-t ware employed in raking and sweeping i&e.0eep and ohoked-up gutters of the crooked streets. te, .The. odours which arose in all directions were al- sacat unbearable. This attempt at sanitary reform in Baifa. was suddenly arrested by the breaking out of t,-bolara ola the night lof the 25th of October. Chlo- 1'500 of iime was thrown over the heaps of corruption wd along the disturbed gutters. "All the Europeans, with the exception of my brother (who was then English Vice-Consul at Haifa) sad myself, fled to the spacious convent on Mount ^arael. Some of them, however, returned after the Srsfc. shook of fear had passed away. The Moslems quietly smoked their pipes and a- waited their fate with resignation. "The native Christians—Latins, Greeks, and Mel- ites-were panic-stricken, and many of them re- created to Aora and Nazareth. Those who remained isded to propitiate Heaven, and to arrest the plague iby extra fasting. Belies, seapularies, and handker- chiefs which had touched the Holy Sepulchre were in great request. "The few Jawsiof Haifa (who, to their praise be it said, are industrious and skilful artificers) wisely whitewashed their houses, and pursued their daily avocations as usual. From the 25th of October to the 19th of December efeolera lingered in Haifa, gradually decreasing in satensity. A large proportion of cases were euocess- jttlly treated. Among the Moslems the disease made the most liavoe, as they could not be persuaded to take pre- cautions of any kind. There was not one case of tholera in the Jewish quarter. The precautionary measures which appeared to me- to be the moat effectual were recommended by an intelligent native Christian doctor: A teaspoonful of fresh ehareoal (made of wheaten bread, burnt in an cren crucible), to be taken every morning before breakfast in a small cup of cafe iioir-that is, strong coffee without milk or sugar. The same doctor advised the frequent fumigation Ðf houses by burning fragrant gums; and, to the 3jorror of -the ecelesiasties, he said it was very im- portant that no fast days should be observed during e prevalence of cholera. "As far as I could ascertain, those who used these iseasurea with strictness and confidence generally •ssoaped, or recovered from attacks of the epidemic. An Armenian doctor, attached to the suite of the aewly-ftppointed Pasha of Acre, at my brother's re- quest, was permitted to spend a short time with us at the English Vice-Consulate. "He treated many cases of cholera successfully, perhaps partly owing to the courage and confidence with which he inspired his patients. He generally, in the first place, ordered friction, and the outward appli- cation of heat. He made a sort of smooth creamy paste, composed of equal parts of castor-oil, magnesia, gum arabic, gn;r and water, and gave about a tea-spoonful every aonr. (In this preparation I could not perceive the slightest odour or taste cf the oil.) The patient, who is generally very thirsty, was allowed to drink as aaneh lime-flower water as possible, and was en- couraged to partake freely of gruel, made of three parts oatmeal and one part magr-esia. Sometimes the -doctor found it necessary to administer tincture of opium, in coffee, with a small quantity of pure spirits wine, te overcome severe pain and prostration. As the patient progressed, camomile tea was given instead of lime-flower water. Bark and other stimu- lants with nourishing food of a simple kind could, in a favourable case, be taken on the third cc fourth day. The Armenian doctor approved the use of char- coal, and encouraged it as much as possible. "The homes of the poorer classes of Haifa generally consist of one large room only. In these rooms a large open basket containing a store of vegetable charcoal fear fuel may always be seen. This accidental circum- stance. perhaps, helped to protect the inmates from Sfee. bad air which surrounded them."

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