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AGRICULTURE. High Farming. We extract the following from the Keld:-If we are to meet the difficulties that arise in the course of pursuing the business of farming, it can only be done by a system of high farming; that is, of adopting all the processes which have been developed by experience for securing a larger return from the crops, and a greater number of animals from the land itself. Mr. Sussex Millbank, in a paper read at the Staindrop Farmers' Club on the advantages of high farming, stated the following as the result: An increase of crops cereal, grass and roots, deep drainage and amelioration of soils, more and better stock, a satisfactory balance- sheet, and a happier and more contented class from the feeling of having successfully carried out and applied the same sound commercial principles in farming as in any other industrial pursuit." Mr. Millbank recommends autumnal cultivation for roots, ploughing in, from twelve to fourteen inches deep,about twenty loads of best farm-yard manure per acre; adding, as a refresher in the spring, about ten loads per acre in the rows, with about 2 cwt. of bones or superphosphate as a top dressing. Instead of feeding stock on turnips alone, Mr. Millbank finds it more profitable to give from 501b. to 801b. of pulped roots, mixed with chaff, and about 121b. of oil-cake and 41b. of bean-meal. He is a great advocate for oil- cake; and last year, on 120 acres of land, consumed 43 tons of oil-cake. Mr. Milbank does not recommend haymaking from permanent grass, but rather from clover and the artificial grasses. He also considers the covered-yard system as a part of high farming; and, with reference to poultry, that there was much room for improvement, as barn-door fowls could be profitably kept, and the country lost annually some X60,000 or P,70,000 in the purchase of foreign eggs. Another topic in connection with high farming is irrigation, on which Professor Yoelcker read a paper at the late meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society. A great variety of opinions prevailed aa to the cause of the efficiency of different kinds of water. Some ascribe its beneficial effects to the matter dissolved in the water; while others assert that perfectly clear and bright water was the beat. Again, some say that waters ought to be soft; while others maintained that hard waters were best adapted for irrigation. Some ascribed the fertilising effect to the carbonic acid dissolved in the water; others said that the carbonic acid was the cause of the mischief that occasionally occurred. Again, some considered that the warmth of the water was the sole agent of fertility; while others thought that neither cold nor warmth had anything to do with the matter. The fact was that in irrigation it was not the water only, but the soil that ought to be looked to for some waters were good for some soils and not for others, according to the character of the land itself. The best water for irrigation, Professor Voelcker considers to be sewage-water, because it is a natural water which contains refuse excrementitious matters which are exceedingly useful on account of the fertilising agents they contain." But even with reference to sewage there was a diversity of opinion, some maintaining that it ought to be perfectly bright and clear; while others thought that the muddier it was, and the mere suspended matter it contained, the better. Professor Voelcker thought that a moderately clear sewage was better than very muddy sewage, because this last, which contains much suspended matter, is apt to produce on the surface of the soil, especially if the soil is not very porous, a silicious film, which dries and chokes up the pores of the soil, and in this way does mischief. Of all water that ought not to be used for irrigation is sea water; in most instances it has turned out a complete failure, and has often rendered the soil sterile for three or four years. However useful salt may be when applied in small quantities as a fertiliser, it is decidedly in. jurious to the land whea applied as salt water, es- pecially in large doses. As a corollary to the irrigation question, we may notice a paper on sewage itself, the subject of which is contained in a resolution put forward by Mr. Hough- ton, the author of the paper, "That the sewage of towns has long been utilised, and may continue to be so with more or less advantages to those places where it is produced, according as land can be found suitable and easily accessible for using it upon; but the idea that night-soil, or any other manure diluted to the ex- tent it must necessarily be in town sewage, can be of any use to farmers in that state, is an erroneous one, and the practice of so disposing of it entails an im- mense loss to the country of valuable fertilising materials." A CORRESPONDENT of the Times says that the crops in South Wales as well as other parts of the kingdom are, upon the whole, making favourable pro- gress, and on many farms the wheat is in full ear. Early-sown barley is also in ear in certain localities, and the oat fields are looking remarkably well, the only drawback as regards the crops generally being the want of rain. Such has been the heat during the last few days that the grass and corn fields are almost scorched, and unless there is a fall of rain soon it is clear that the crops will be affected, and that seri- ously in some districts. A few showers of rain would, however, entirely dissipate the present fears, and be the means, to a great extent, of realising the pros- pects held out a month ago. Potatoes give promise of a good crop, and the blight has not yet made its appearance except in a few instances. The turnips have proved a failure in many places from the preva- lence of fly, and the crop will not be anything like an average one. Haymaking has become general, and, as far as can be judged, the quantity per acre will be .in excess of last year. A LETTER from Canterbury states that, during the last fortnight, easterly and north-easterly winds have been prevalent in Kent; the temperature consequently has been lower and the nights chilly. The growth of the hops has thus been checked. This is, in most instances, fortunate, as there was a tendency to excess of bine; but in the slack bine grounds the effect is very prejudicial. The leaves are slightly tinged with yellow, but there is. no increase of vermin in the East Kent plantations. The check will probably render the plants more hardy and less liable to the attacks of fly, which the planters so much dread when the bine and leaves are tender and full of sap. The lateral or midsummer shoots are coming out well, and, alto. gether, the prospects are favourable. The reports from the Weald of Kent and Sussex, though not so favourable as a week ago, are, on the whole, en- couraging. The plantations look well, but the bine is stationary, and mould has appeared in several planta- tions. THE great Midsummer fair of Boughton (Northamp- tonshire) was held on Saturday and Monday, at which there was a fine show of well-bred horses, and the full attendance of dealers created high competition for first-class horses, and those adaptable for double harness for private carriages, &c., commanded figures varying from 55 to 70 guineas, well-grown, strong young cattle for heavy draught, omnibus work, and other London purposes realised 35 to 45 guineas, cart- horses for road and team work 40 to 50 guineas, and ditto for farmers' work 15 to 25 guineas. Cart colts made 18 to 28 guineas. Well-bred riding horses sold for 20 to 40 guineas neat cobs at 25 to 35 guineas; and horses of high blood suitable for the hunting field to 110 guineas horses of inferior stamp came at low- prices. In the cattle fair fat stock fetched extra- ordinary prices, ana the demand for store stock was very active, graziers paying fully 20 per cent. above the average of late years. — »






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