THE FRENCH ARMY. The World says :—" I pick up here and there much interesting information concerning the actual condi- tion of the French army, and of its progress towards that perfection which its rulers are striving so hard to secure. The show made at the recent autumn manoeuvres was exceedingly good. The general organi- sation had greatly improved; there was no need for much transport, but what there was was efficient; the arrangements for marches and movements were in- telligent and promptly executed. The method of carrying reserves of small-arms and ammunition is simple and works well. As for the troops themselves, their physique is good a very strong leven of reser- vists called up specially for these drills gave a sub- stantialloøk to battalions but it was clear that these old soldiers had been some time away from their colours, and were a little rustic and rusty. Most of them, if the truth were known, would have greatly preferred staying at home and this is the spirit which in a great measure animates the whole of the rank and file. The French nation as a body wants to be left in peace all classes but the permanent military caste, the officers, are sick of wars and rumours of wars, and yearn strongly for a period of rest and recupera- tion. The existing laws for military service are felt to be irksome and severe and all who have been con- scribed, if polled, would vote for letting bygones be bygones. It is the officer class only which cherishes still the desire for revenge and with them the sentiment is more one of wounded personal vanity than the desire to retrieve the national honour. But the men are docile and subordinate, and may be made smart soldiers. At these manoeuvres they carried packs, ammunition, and two days' ratiou-no incbbtfcfinratflt weight in all. The rations consisted of biscuit and preserved meat, and the troops were told not to eat them until the moment when supplies could not be brought up to them and in this way the rations were husbanded for nearly a fortnight—an amount of self- control which would probably be looked for in vain in the British soldier. The infantry, which is armed with thefusil gras, amoderately good breech-loader, marched well, and worked admirably in broken order. The French have adopted already the large companies of their late opponents, and their formation for attack is identically that of the Germans. As for the other arms, I am told that the cavalry need only a leader of genius—a Murat, Kellerman, or Lasalle-to become a most formidable force. Too horses, taking them all round, are as good as needs be; the men are really fine fellows, of average intelligence, and, if not pretty riders according to English notions, they stick well to their saddles, and have quite as much con- trol over their horses as is necessary for military work. The artillery is still in a transition state. The guns with which the field-batteries were armed have been condemned, and the new weapon, about which there is a good deal of mystery, not yet introduced. It is a breech-loader, I believe, with a tube of toughened steel; the calibre being for horse-batteries analogous to our nine pounders, and to our sixteen for field. To English eyes the French artillery presents many shortcomings. There is too much dirt on guns, harness, everything, eyes the French artillery presents many shortcomings. There is too much dirt on guns, harness, everything, and, what is worse, the horses are greatly neglected. But both gunners and drivers are smart and active, and they wear a very suitable loose uniform."
DEATH OF ADMIRAL CANARIS. From Athens the death is announced of Admiral Cauaris, the Greek Prime Minister, from apoplexy, on Friday night in last week. He was originally a captain in the merchant service. During the war of independence he distinguished himself by the daring he displayed in burning Turkijji ships, and in 1826 he was appointed to the command of a frigate. The fol- lowing year he entered the National Assembly. He again held command in the naval service, and soon took a leading part in politics. In 1848 and 1849 he was Minister of Marine and President of the Council. He was at the head of affairs in 1864, after the estab- lishment of the new Monarchy. Of late years he had withdrawn from political life, and had only recently come fortli from his retirement to serve his country at a critical period by joining the coalition Ministry now in power. _—.
EDUCATIONAL BRIDGES. The Leeds Educational Council has just adopted a very important resolution. Believing that the course of education in Leeds would be greatly advanced by establishing a connection between day and evening schools, the council has determined to take measures for the creation of such a connecting link. The de- sirability of the object aimed at must at once com- mend it to general acceptance. The folly involved in the notion of education being completed when school days come to an end has often been the theme of writers and public speakers. Theoretically all educated persons maintain that school teaching is but the foundation for future education practically, how- ever, with the lower and middle classes at least, systematic education usually comes to an epd with the close of the school career. It cannot be ques- tioned that much of the labour bestowed on the early teaching of children in our elementary schools tells for nothing in after life, simply because nothing is afterwards built upon the foundation thus laid. The Leeds Educational Council propose to do what they can to facilitate the transition from the ordinary day school to the evening schools which are held in the various districts of the town, and by this means to induce the continuation of an educa- tional course after the ordinary school curriculum has been passed through. The idea, is undoubtedly a good one, and though, perhaps, not altogether unat- tended by serious difficulties, the efforts proposed are well worthy of the attention of other towns. The night school is probably one of the coming institutions," and it seems probable that as general intelligence spreads a larger proportion of the community will be found to avail themselves of the advantages offered by it; and this progress cannot but be promoted by the facilities which the Leeds Council propose to hold out. —Globe.
——————— M. THIERS AS A SPORTSMAN. Very little has been left unsaid on the subject of the lamented M. Thiers, and his many and various accomplishments have received their due meed of praise, now that he who possessed them is no more; but I think no one has remarked upon his sporting tastes, which he imbibed during the reign of Louis Philippe, atatime when Anglomania," as the French then styled it, was in the ascendant, and it was fashion- able to profess a pleasure in English sports, and practise them with an assiduity which was not kept up during the Napoleonic regime. M. Thiers was an accomplished horseman, and was extremely fond of riding from his youth to his middle age. At that period the mallgewas a fashionable resort, and held something of that prutige which the turf soon after acquired. The jeunesse dm ee practised horsemanship with fervour, and the accomp- lishment stood high on the list of fashionable pursuits. M. Thiers, whose small, but symmetrical figure never appeared to such advantage as on horseback, was one of the noted habituts of the Bois where he and his grey mare Tata were well known, and suited each other perfectly well, as appears by a portrait of the late statesman in his youth bestriding his favourite animal, in which the pair appear sleek and natty in the ex- treme. Another of M. Thiers' favourite saddle horses was a magnificent Arabian stallion, which he pos- sessed when Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1840, and had christened Ibrahim. A little later, during his teureofthe Ministry of the Interior, M. Thiel's showed a violent fancy for gazelles, and the Ministerial garden was numerously stocked with these "soft-eyed denizens of the Eastern deserts." In the intervals of his arduous duties the minister delighted to caress and feed them. He was also fond of flowers and birds, and loved to be surrounded by the glorious flora of the tropics, by glinting, buzzimg humming birds, and bright-liued parrots. His mansion, in the Place St. George's, seemed a vast aviary and conserva- tory as far back as thirty years ago; and M. Thiers, if he felt himself die, must have regretted that his last glances could not fall on the lovely objects he had amassed around him during his life."—Field.
AN ONEROUS OFFICE. The Turkish consul at Pesth, Halil Bey, is having an exciting time. His house in the Herbst-Gasse is besieged from early morn till late at night by enthu- siastic admirers offering their services to the Porte. Poles, Hungarians, and all sorts of nationless indivi- duals are ready to do anything for the Porte—lead a forlorn hope, act as surgeons or nurses, and anything else. All they want is a few hundred francs at once and a free pass to Turkey. One individual said he admired Turkey because they shut up their wives there. Many are ready to become Mussulmans forthwith if they can avoid any painful formalities. One asked the Consul to get him a pair of Turkish slippers; another vainly importuned him to procure photographs of all the Sultans from Osman down to Abdul Hamid; but nearly all wanted the loan of a few florins" just till to-morrow." This latter request the Consul at last granted. He gave each of them a florin, and since then he has had comparative peace. But in the small hours of the morning he is generally rung up by a band of students, who insist on embracing and kissing their beloved brother, and honouring him with a series of Eljens" and a few serenades.—Oalignani.
THE INDIAN FAMINE. The Times correspondent at Calcutta telegraphs that the famine reports for the past week state that pro- spects have greatly improved in the Madras Presi- dency, but prices continue high. There has been abundant rain in many parts of Bombay, and fair re- ports have come from the Central Provinces, Berar, the North-West, Bengal, Assam, and Burmah. More rain is much wanted in Gwalior, and Neemuch. A good rain has fallen in parts of Rajpootana, but prospects are not generally improved. In the Punjaub there has been generally light rain, except in the Moltan district, where there are heavy floods. Grain imports con- tinue on a large scale. Rice is a little lower, but there is no change in the interior. The result of the Vice. roy's visit to Mysore has been the introduction there of th. potiCJ laid dttwn by ihe SupMBM GrtfVeTBinaxit— namely, the making gratuitous relief subsidiary to the main object of getting all able-bodied poor on the relief works. Several new works have been sanctioned, and are already begun among others the Bangalore and Mysore Railway. On his return from Simla the Vice- roy will assume the charge of the Famine portfolio. Cholera has reappeared at Cuddapah. Colonel Moberly, district engineer, and Dr. M'Nalty have been attacked. The public health is not much im- proved.
Fresh information respecting the famine in India has been received from the Viceroy, in a telegram, dated the 16th instant. In Madras there are 773,094 persons on the works, and 1,513,555 receiving gratuitous relief. In Bombay the numbers are, on the works 280,727, and receiving relief, 158,733; and in Mysore 52,000, and 227,000.
On Monday night the fund being raised by the Lord Mayor and an influential committee at the Mansion-house for the relief of the distress occasioned by the appalling famine raging in Madras, Bombay, and Mysore amounted in the aggregate to £173,000. This large sum has been raised in a little over three weeks, and it represents donations from all parts of the kingdom.
THE BRIDGES AT SISTOVA. A correspondent of the Paris Moniteur, writing from Sistova, says:—"The bridges, five in number, by which I crossed over, taken together, cover a dis- tance of five versts (3! English miles). Their construc- tion is in the highest degree remarkable, and they may be pronounced models of military skill. From the Roumanian shore the first bridge measures 66 metres in length, and consists of 22 pontoons. The second bridge, thrown across a bog, is 10 metres in length, and is supported on uprights the third, 435 metres in length, consists of 95 pontoons the fourth, 346 metres in length, is made up Elf 92 pontoons the fifth and last bridge, which reaches to the Turkish shore, is 385 metres in length, and consists of 65 pon- toons and uprights. On each of these pontoons remain a pontooner and two sailors, whose duty it is to look after the preservation of the hewers and boards. Furthermore, every precaution is taken to guard this line of communication from the attacks of the Turkish marine. On the right and on the left a double line of torpedoes are sunk in the bed of the Danube. If, contrary to expectation, a hostile vessel should manage to get over these terrible obstacles, ten plated boats are ready to attack it. Finally, if this second means of defence proves unsuccessful, 500 sailors are ready to board."
PERILS OF NEWSPAPER CORRESPONDENTS. The Correspondent of the Daily New., writing from Bucharest, says:— The campaign against Plevna has been a severe one for Correspondents. A Correspondent, the brother of the famous artist, Verastchagin, has been killed. The great artist him- self as is well known, is seriously wounded. Two more correspondents—one representing the Scotsman, and the other the St. Petersburg Exchange Gazette- have been wounded while others—nearly all—come back seriously ill, or completely knocked up. A correspondent of The Times has succumbed to the unhealthy weather. The day the attack began on Plevna he was for several hours at the point of death, but happily now is out of danger. Lieutenant von Huhn, a Prussian military correspondent for a German paper, has just returned very ill. Severe though the campaign has been to corres pondents, it has not been so fatal as that of Servia, in which, out of twenty who were at the front, three were killed and one wounded.
GALLANT RESCUE of a SHIPWRECKED CREW. The ship Thomas Brocklebank, which arrived on Mon- day at Liverpool from Jamaica, landed the crew of the American schooner Louis A. Swett, which was abandoned at sea. On the morning of the 10th ult., as the Thomas Brocklebank was proceeding under full sail, she sighted a schooner showing signals of distress, and making for her. Captain Brown immediately hove his ship to, and after about three hours came within speaking distance of the schooner, which proved to be the Louis A. Swett. In response to inquiries, the master said his vessel had sprung a leak and that the water had gained upon the pumps, which were kept continually at work. He asked Captain Brown to send off a boat, as his own crew were too weak from exhaustion to launch their own boats. The weather at the time was very heavy, with a tremendous sea running. However, four of the seamen with the boat- swain heroically volunteered to man a boat, to en- deavour to rescue the helpless men. A boat was accordingly lowered and pulled towards the sinking schooner. It was found impossible to approach near the vessel with safety, and lines had to be thrown, and one by one the members of the crew were pulled through the sea into the boat, the last man to leave the schooner being the captain, who swam to the boat. The whole of the crew were taken on board the Thomas Brocklebank, where they were kindly treated by Captain Brown, who supplied them with clothes, as they were almost naked when rescued. They lost all their effects. When the Louis A. Swett was last seen she was rapidly sinking; the sea was making clean breaches over her, and her decks appeared to be level with the sea. She was owned at Bostci by Messrs. Robinson and Mansfield, and was bound at the time of the disaster to that port from Accra with palm eil. The shipwrecked men were taken to the. Liverpool Sailors' Home. The rescue was attended with extreme danger, and Eraise is due to Captain Brown for his timely aid and umanity.
THE PLAGUE OF LOCUSTS. England is happily free from the plague of crop- destroying insects which ravage less fortunate lands, and we ean hardly realize the effects that can be pro- duced on a district by an invasion of locusts such as that which, according to the commercial report of Consul Barnett on Rosario (Argentine Republic), spread desolation over that country last year. The destruction of the wheat crop, lie says, has been general in this district, and, according to advices from different colonies, there appears to be a loss of about 75 per cent. of the total harvest looked for. As the riches of the province of Santa F6 are supposed to be in the colonies, which number thirty-nine, with a population of 23,500, some idea may be formed of the loss and gen eral want of confidence the locusts have caused. These locusts have now lasted three or four years, the previous invasion occurring about seventeen years ago. It is hoped they will disappear this year. People m Europe think these insects can be extermi- nated by labour, but, owing to the country being sparsely populated, it is quite impossible to do so. Exertions of the colonists to save their crops from the young locusts (saltonas) are rendered useless when millions come on the wing. The year 1876 has been a disastrous one to the commercial community. Many failures have occurred, and in other cases houses having branches in Rosario are closing them and withdrawing for the present. Countries liable to afflictions of this kind should pay attention to the breeding of wild birds. Every noxious insect has its antidote in the shape of some bird. The first thing to do is to find the antidote* and then lose no time in applying it. As for locusts, if they eat the crops, they might themselves be ap- propriated for food. In former ages they were esteemed as delicacies, and, considering how much nastiness people nowadays manage to swallow, there seems to be no good reason why mankind should turn from a good corn-fed locust.-Pall Mall Gazette.
A PACIFIC and THOUGHTFUL SPEECH The Due Decazes, Minister of Foreign Affairs for France delivered a speech on Monday at Libourne, the chief pas- sages of which are as follows After its disasters oar country required a long re- pose. We signed with the Power which had suc- ceeded in triumphing over our soldiers a Treaty loy- ally assented to, and which we must also loyally carry out. The Government preceding that which I have the honour to represent acquitted itself nobly of its duty. But calm and confidence could not be the work of one day, and to insure them it was necessary to secure, with scrupulous solicitude, the exact observ- ance of our international duties. It was also necessary to prevent, amid the agitations of Parties, their diverse aspirations, and the very form of our Government from being regarded by Europe as a menace or a provocation. That was the aim which Marshal MacMahon, the President of the Republic, had before him. These are the in- structions he has given, the mission he intrusted to his Minister of Foreign Affairs, to him whom you have honoured by designating his Minister of Peace. I am proud to think that I have not failed in that mission. Amid difficult circumstances, when Par- ties in their blindness seemed to be inviting the foreigner to doubt our sincerity, we have never been susuected beyond our frontier. Euuope knows that we do not pursue against any Power a hostile and aggressive policy; that, respectful of all rights, we have no wish to give trouble or difficulty to our neighbours. She has seen us striving after con- ciliation, concord, and moderation among the Powers. She has not failed to understand us, and while she sees the extent to which our military power is already restored, she at the same time admits that this reorganization has preserved an exclusively defensive character. She sees in it the noble effort of a great country which is conscious of its strength, but which has been taught by experience that strength resides before all in wisdom and moderation. It is now known that we are, above everything, passionately devoted to peace. Such is the policy I represent before you, and which, I venture to add, wins the sympathy and confidence of Europe. f There is not at this moment one Power which entertains a doubt as to the pacific sentiments of the President of the Republic, which does not perceive that all France shares these sentiments, and which does not know that the French Government would refuse with all its energy to sanction agitations, from whatever side, which might be a source of trouble or peril to neighbours. We are, Europe knows, neither re- actionary nor revolutionary; we menace neither Governments nor Thrones. Hence we can say to France, We have procured peace for you; we count on your wisdom to maintain it. Protect her, with us, from all imprudence and passion. Aid us in defend- ing her against her own impulses, in resolutely guid- ing her in the path of a judicious liberty, and in pre- serving peace-that blessing of God, that tranquility and order, which for peoples no less than for the rest of nature is the principal, the sole, the essential con- dition of all productiveness, peace and concord.' Let me conclude with these words.'
Amongst the many schemes for the future water supply of Liverpool is a new one, by which it is proposed to bring the supply from Wales, by impounding the waters of the river Vyrnwy, at Llanwyddyn, Montgomeryshire, and the waters of the river Tarrat, at Llangedy wn, embracing a water-shed of somewhere about 80,000 acres. The distance from Llangedwyn tw the route it is proposed to adopt is sixty-six mifeB, or aoout twelve mite nearer than the Bala adhtem
THE COLLISION BETWIXT THE "AVA- LANCHE" AND THE FOREST. The following additional particulars are gien of the terrible collision which o02urred on Tuesday night in last week betwpen the Avalanchc, from London to 5ew Zealand, and the Forest, of Windsor, Xova. S'wtia. from London to Sand-y Hook, when the Avalanche sank at once, with ber sixty-three passengers, and all her crew with the excepMj/d. of three men —The Forest founder d shortly afterward. Only twelve men were left to tell the ale of the collision. Six bodies were washed ashore, upon which an inquest was opened at the Cove" Inn, Port- land, on Wednesday afternoon, before Mr. R. N. Howard, coroner. Captain Scriven was the foreman. The court having been opened and the jury sworn, the six b )dies were viewed. They were lying in a loft adjoining the Cove" Inn, side by side, and stripped. There were bruises about the bodies of several of the men, caused, dunbtless, by the washing of the corpses on the beach. The coroner said he never remembered a more important inquiry in the neighbourhood since the loss of the unfortunate ship Royal Adelaide, and having reminded the jury of their duty in au inquest such as the present, he made a few remarks on the sadness of the catastrophe, and proceeded to examine the witnesses, who were Joseph Shaddock and William Whhe, two of the men who were associated in the rescue of the survivors; Captain Lochart, of the Forest; Mr. Sherrington, third mate of the Avalanche, and an able seaman belonging to the Forest. The Coroner then stated his intention of adjourning the inquiry until Thursday morning, the 20th inst.; in the meantime other bodies would probably be washed ashore, and it was. advisable, therefore, to let a reasonable time eapse before the re-opening.
The Correspondent ef The Times, writing from Weymsuth, on Saturday, says :— A number of persons still continue to arrive at Portland for the purpose of seeing if they can identify any of the dead bodies as being those of their friends or relatives. Tn nearly every case these persons come to seek for passengers, so that their journey has been a fruitless one, as all the dead bodies cast ashore here are those of men who once fonned portions of the crew ef the ill-fated ships which came into collision. This morning the body of a man, apparently between 25 and 30 years of age, was washed ashore off Lulworth, having on it a pair of blue cloth trousers, with a belt and brass clasps. A star was tattooed on the left hand, while on the right were an anchor and chain; on the right arm was a cross, and under th left elbow was a scar, apparently of old date. In one of th«* trowsérs pockets was fOlmd a lightly- made horn-handled two-bladed knife. From ih appearance it is evidently not that of an ordinarn seaman, but of a person who had occupied a superior position in life. Close by were seen the bodies of a sheep and a pig. A cask of sherry was also picked up off Lulworth, while several other casks were seen drifting towards East Lulworth, but tke fishennen could not bring them on shore on account of the flood tide. A con- siderable quantity of articles have come ashore at Port- land, among these being numerous ducks, pigs, and sheep. The latter were considered to be so good that many of the carcasses were cut up on the beach and divided among the fishermen and others. Candles out of number have been found floating about, while articles of wearing ;>pparel, cattle troughs, and other things have been washed on shore. The weather has moderated considerably since last night, and several boats have been cruising off the beach in order to see what can be picked up. Of wreckage there is very little afloat, the principal things being stores; but these are only in small quantities, the exception being candles. The bodies of the seamen who were washed on shore were not buried until the afternoon, so as to afford as long a time as possible for identification. None of their friends, however, have arrived, and only the two ship's carpenters have been identified by name, the remaining four being only known as having belonged to the Forest. I was shown a plain massive gold ring which was taken from the third finger of the right hand of one of the seamen. On the inside was inscribed M. S., 1877.' The men were buried afthe expense of the parish, and therefore, as economically as possible. The undertaker provided plain strong-looking coffins, but the bodies were placed in their shells in a per- fectly nude state, and but for the kindness of the land- lady of the Cove' Inn, Mrs. Way, they would have been buried in that condition. She said, I could not bear they should go like that,' and at her own expense she pur- chased sufficient white calico to partly cover each corpse. A number of people assembled on the beach about the time it was known the bodies would be brought out of the loft, and considerable surprise and indignation seemed to be felt when it became known how they were to be taken to the place of buriaL This was at St. George's Church, Reforne, a place over a mile distant, on the top of the island, and for the purpose of taking the bodies there a common four-wheel waggon, drawn by a white and black horse, was engaged. Into this waggon the comns were placed, one on the other, covered by a sail cloth, and thus, without any token of outward reject, they were conveyed to the churchyard. On the journey, however, two persons testified their respect to the dead by walking behind the waggon these consisting of a petty omcer and seaman belonging to one of the ironclads. The place of in- terment was in a corner at the extreme end of the churchyard, an immense grave having been dug for the re- ception of the bodies. A large number of persons had as- sembled at Reforne Church by the time the waggon contain- ing the bodies had arrived there, but no bearers had been provided to carry the corpses into the church, and thence to the grave. Seeing this, the Rev. J. A. Beazor, the rector, asked who would volunteer to do so, when four-and-twenty volunteers came forward to render the last office to the dead. It was a strange sight to see quarrymen just returned from work throw down their tools, and in their ordinary working attire follow in procession with the detid bodies, and had it not been for their kindness common decency would not have been shown towards the dead. The hull of the Forest has been visible from the Nothe and the Breakwater to-day. Apparently it has not shifted far from the Shambles Lightship. About three o'clock this after- noon the Weymouth and Portland Steam Company's tug Commodore left the harbour, having on board some of the directors, the secretary and manager, and Captains Falleand Flicker, of the Aquilla and Cygnus steamers, for the purpose of seeing if it was possible, in conjunction with the powerful steamer Aquilla, to do anything with the wreck. The hull was found at least six miles south-south-east of the Shambles, her bowsprit evidently dragging the ground, as her stern is so high out of the water. Owing to the very heavy swell roll- ing, it was found impossible to get any fastening, nor was there any place to make the towing line fast, while it was equally impossible for men to work on her keel. After a verv close examination it was decided by those onboard the steamer to give up all idea of attempting to bring the hull in, and an intimation to that effect was made to the officers on board the Admirals' ship, the Black Prince. Admiral Dowell at once communicated to the Dockyard authorities at Portsmouth, asking them to send the necessary assistance to remove the wreck of the Forest, either by blowing it up or in some other manner. The matter is now entirely in charge of the Admiralty."
The Correspondent of The Times, writing from Wey- mouth on Monday night, says :— I have just returned in the Premier steamer, which has taken several persons to the hull of the ill-fated Forest. A great deal has been said about the obstacle which she pre- sents to the navigation of the Channel, but had I not seen the hull myself I could never have believed so much of it remained above water. When five or six miles away, it somewhat resembled in appearance the sail of a ship, but, on drawing nearer, it put me more in mind of the sloping roof of a house than any- thing I can compare it to. Not until the steamer had nearly arrived at the hull could any definite shape be made out of the curious-looking object. It was lying in much about the same position as I have reported before— about four miles south and a half east of the Shambles Lightship. The whole of the stern is out of the water, rising to a height of between 40 and 50 feet, while a large portion of her bright metallic keel lies exposed to view. On this the sea was breaking, but without in the slightest degree affecting the stability of the hull. The Forest lies on her counter bottom upwards, but not a par of any description is to be seen. The captain of the Commodore had a sounding taken of the depth of water in which the hull lies, and found it to be 27 fathoms, so that according to her length, she must be touching the ground. As she has not shifted a great deal since Sunday, it is thought her bow is embedded in the sand on account of her ballast having all gone forward. Whatever the cause there must be a tremendous weight forward to keep her in the position in which she now remains. I cannot imagine a more dangerous obstruction to navigation than this great towering hull rising like a rock out of the sea. and if it is not speedily removed there is no doubt serious conse- quences will result to shipping. A Revenue cutter was cruising round her this morning, and on the counter of the wreck was one of the cutter's men, who seemed to be trying to establish a communication between the two. This was at last obtained, but no sooner had the rope become taut and a strain put upon it than it parted. I am in- formed seven steamers passed nearly close to the wreck on Saturday night, and that a bark was not far from coming into collision with the hull. To show how directly it lies in the highway of ships coming up and down the Channel, I may also mention that even during the short time the Premier was going out several full-rigged ships passed the hull. I am informed that Lloyd's agent has telegraphed to the proper authorities that the wreck is in a position very dangerous to life, and ought to be removed at once, and that if a collision occurred after the notice he had given the Board of Trade would be very seriously to blame. I understand that a telegram has been received from the Admiralty ordering one of the torpedo boats to be despatched to-morrow and blow up the hull. That would be the most satisfactory way of disposing of it, as persons competent to form an opinion believe it will be impossible to remove the hull by means of tugs. LATER. Just as I close this report I am informed that a telegram has been received from the Admiralty in reply to a message forwarded to the First Lord, who states that, although the ship will be blown up, it is not likely it will be by the use of torpedoes."
DISEASE AMONG THE RUSSIAN FORCES. Telegrams to the Russian newspapers state that the garrison at Poti is entirely disabled by disease, and thereby unable to defend the fortress against any attack from the Turkish fleet. Typhus and dysen- tery are the two epidemics which afflict the soldiers most, and owing to want of proper sanitary pre- cautions the men are dropping off by hundreds. The garrison at Poti is not the only sufferer from disease, the Russian force occupying Soukhum Kale being afflicted to a nearly similar extent. In one de- tachment encamped outside the latter place the doctors report 647 men suffering from various illnesses, and distinctly state that the medical staff is utterly incompetent to grapple with the rapid increase of epidemic disease, and that unless the soldiers be speedily removed from the Caucasus none of them will survive the deadly effects of the climate. Several of the flying columns sent into the valleys of Abkazia to crush the insurrection have returned with their work unfinished, having been driven back by typhus fever, which, in some instances, has reduced the invading force to one half its original number.
"THE TIMES" ON THE WAR. The Times (in a leader on Tuesday) observed that the feeling generally excited by the course of the war is that of horror and astonishment. None of the other great struggles which have afflicted this generation have let loose such a store of savage passion. But a glance at the history of Turkey might have sufficed to show that such is always the result of her collisions with European races; and if there is no cause for sur- prise at the horrors of the struggle, still less need is there for wonder at the bravery and the victories of Turkey. The Turks have always fought well. The real charge against the Turks is, not -that they cannot fight, but that they cannot govern; and the real cause for wonder is that the Russians should have expected to overcome such a people in one campaign. The original cause of their disasters, how- ever, is to be found in the political and financial posi- tion of Russia herself, as well as in the rashness of her commanders. She was ooaly half prepared for war when she broke the peace, and there can be little doubt that down almost to the time of the rupture she had hoped to escape from the necessity of battle. The unexpected firmness, or obstinacy, of the Porte hav- ing ruined that calculation, Russia had -to take the field with an army much larger on paper than in reality and badly equipped. The state of her finances made it highly important for her to finish the task in one campaign and the (;4a.Ulple of tie Franco-German war spread the belief that it could be accomplished oy a few decisive battles. Hence everything was sacrificed for the sake of speed. But the Russians must now have learned the obvious lesson of the war. They must now see that they must either abandon the enterprise or double their effective forces. It is the Cear 2n ms people to say Vvhicli of Ihcss courses they will cuooee. Meanwhile Prince Bismarck and Count Andrassy, who was to meet at Salzburg on Tuesday, may have a potent word to say respecting the future. •
A FAMINE IN BRAZIL.# Tlie Lord Mayor of London has received the follow- ing communication from the Foreign Office, dated September 13 :— "Jlfy Lord Mayor,—I am directed by the Earl of Drby to transmit to you the accompanying extract of a despatch from her Majesty's Minister at Rio d" Janeiro, reporting on the drought in the Northern Provinces of Brazil, and sug- gesting a public subscription in England in aid of the sufferers. His Lordship would be glad to recommend Mr, Buckley Matthew's proposal to your consideration in the event of its being in your power to render any asaistance in the matter. I am.my Lord Mayor, your most obedient ser- vant, JCLIAS PAC^CEFOTE." The extract is :— The accounts from the Province of Ceara, Pianulu, and Rio Grande do Norte continue to be of the most harrowing nature, and fully justify an appeal to foreign sympathy and charity. Many are stated to have died from starva- tion, and a population of above 200,000 are said to be in absolute want. The reports from the small seaports in these Provinces describe them as thronged withfamished refugees from the interior, seeking food and the means of embarking for more prosper01iS States; and in many instances their families are represented as hiding themselves by day ia the adjacent woods from want of vesture and covering. The newspapers add that all the cattle in the interior have perished." The Lord Mayor, after formally acknowledging the receipt of the letter, has thus replied to Lord Derby:— As your Lordship is aware, I am now actively engaged in raising a fund for the relief of the distress occasioned by the Indian Famine. I am anxious to do nothing which might have the effect of diverting the flow of public charity from that channel. I am afraid that were another fund started both it and the Indian Famine subscription would suffer, and I therefore hesitate in making a fresh appeal for public aid. But I will give your Lordship's letter and Mr. Buckley Matthew's proposal due publicity, and should any funds reach me I will forward them to fUo. I will also lav the letter before the Famine Committee."
In alluding to the famine in Brazil, and the above appeal, The Times, in a leader, remarks :— What a sad and strange sight this little planet of ours would present just now to any spectator raised sufficiently above it to take in at a glance the entire hemisphere beneath, and sufficiently keen of eye to discern its most minute details From the first country that rolled round into the light of morning to the last on which the setting sun would be just flinging his earliest beams, there would be famine, or threats of famine, everywhere From Northern China to Brazil the line is hardly broken. India, with its already starving millions, and Egypt, with a short rain- fall and a low Nile, fill up the intervening space only too adequately. The war in the East of Europe, the mutual slaughter of opposing hosts, and the reckless devastation of the most fertile regions of the globe, would scarcely be needed to complete a full picture of human misery and want. But such scenes as these, it may be said, have been common enough at all periods of the world's history. Sad as they are, there is nothing strange in them, nothing that has not been seen and heard of a thousand times before. Let us add, then, that at every point where the misery from war or from famine was most intense, the eyes of the sufferers would be directed to one small island far away in the North, and that from the inhabitants of this speck of ground, alien from them in almost every way, they would be all looking for relief. Strangest of all, this island would take it for granted that it must assume the burden, or, if this were more than it could bear, it would take shame to itself for its in- ability to give the full help asked for. It could show already its Relief Funds for India and for China, its subscriptions in aid of wounded Russians and in aid of wounded Turks. If the Northern Provinces of Brazil are left without assist- tance in their distress, it is not that their claim is unrecognized, but that all resources available are too fully employed elsewhere. Why this kind of duty is assigned to England and accepted by England alone is what we have already professed ourselves unable to explain without assumptions in our own favour which we have no right to make. There are other countries rich enough and humane enough to do what we are doing, but there is no other country which dnes it or which thinks of doing it. The distinction, however we may account for it, is honourable, but we should be glad just now to have it less exclusively to ourselves. Of the help which we are sending or proposing to send abroad, by far the largest portion will fall to the share of India. This is as it should be. The claims of India upon England are, of coure, paramount, and we cannot refuse to acknowledge them, however heavily they may press
THE MARKETS. r: MARK-LANE.—MOKDAT. The wheat trade is hardly so firm as on Friday, but still decidedly steady. The supply of English wheat was moderate, and the condition rather better. The prices realised were Is. per quarter higher than on Monday last. For foreign wneat a fair Inquiry was exprienced, at an ad- vance on the week at Is. per quarter. The supply was moderate. Fine malting barley wns scarce and dear. Grinding produce ruled steady. Malt sold at full quotations. Oats were in full supply and steady request, at an improve- ment on the week of 6d. to Is. per qr. Maize was firm, and Is. per qr. dearer than on Monday last. Beans and peas were well held. The flour market was firm. Country and foreign sorts were one Ii. to 2s. dearer on the week. METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET. —MONDAY. The cattle trade has been dull in tone. Supplies have not been large, but Ample for requirements. From our own grazing districts the receipts of beasts have been tolerably good, and there has been a fair sprinkling of choice stock. The demand has ruled very heavy 6s. per 81b. has been quite an exceptional quotation for even the best breeds, 5s. lOd being the more general figure, whilst many good animals have not made more than 5s. per 81b. From Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, and 50rthamptonshire we received about 1,500, from other parts of England about 250, from Scotland 29, and from Ireland about 700 head. On the foreign side of the masket there was a fair supply of beasis, Ï1lCiuding nearly 500 American. The trade was dull, at irregular quotations. The sheep pens were not over well supplied; nevertheless the demand was heavy, and prices gave way fully 2d. per 81b. The best Downs and half-breds made 6s. 8d. to 6s. lOd per 81b Calves were fiat, and irregular in value. Pigs sold steadi v. At Deptfora there were 2,000 beasts and 8,000 sheep. Prices Coarse and inferior beasts, 4s. 6a7 to 5s. second quality ditto, 5s to 5s. 4d. prime large oxen, 5s.8d. to 5s. lOd. prime Scots, 5s. lOd. to 6s. coarse aud inferior sheep, 5s. to 6s.; second quality ditto, 6s. to 6s. 6d. prime coarse wot>lled, 6s. 6d. to 6s. 8d. prime Southdowns, 6s. 8d to 6s. lOd.; large coarse calves, 5s. to 5s. 6d. prime small ditto, 5s. 8d. to 6s. 2d. large hogs, 4s. to 4s. 8d. and neat small porkers, 4s. lOd. to 5s. 4d. per 81b., to sink the offal. METROPOLITAN MEAT MARKET.—MONDAY. The demand for meat was very, quiet this morning, and prices were much the same. The supply was moderate while the weather was more suited to the trade. Inferior beef 3s. to 3s. 6d. middliug ditto, 3s. 8d. to 4s. 4d prime large ditto, 4s. 6d. to 5s.; prime small ditto, 5s. to 5s. 4d. veal, 5s. to 5s. 8d. inferior mutton, 3s. to Ss. 8d. middling ditto, 4s. 4d. to 5s. prime ditto, 5s. 4d. to 6s. large pork, 3s. 4d. to 4s.; small ditto, 4s. 4d. to 5s. per 81b. by the carcass. PROVISION. LONDON, Monday, Sept. 17.-The arrivals last week from Ireland were 660 lirkins Butter and 4,578 oales Bacon, and from foreign ports 25,695 packages Butter aud 1,796 bales Bacon. Early in the week the finest Xormaudv Butter ad- vanced about 4s. per cwt., but the demand bèing dack at the advanced prices receded to the same extent, now varying from 90s. to 140s.. according to qualities- best Dutch l3,b. to 186s. For finest Irish there was rather more inquiry. In the Bacon market there was a good sale for all descriptions except best sizeable and six sides, which declined 2s. per cwt., but in other kinds no change in prices. Lard Tnere is more doing, and sellers now hold for ill. advance on both bladdered and kegs. TALLOW. s. d. | s. d. Town Tallow, per cwt. 4] 3 Rough Stuff, percwt 15 C Rough Fat, per Slbs..19 Greaves 12 0 Melted Stuff, per cwt. 30 6 Good Dregs" 6 0 yellow Russian, new 42s. Od. per cwt. Australian Mutton Tallow,42s. Od. „ Ditto Beef Ditto, 4ls. Od. HAY. WHITECHAPEL. Saturday, September 15.—There was a short supply of Hay and Straw offered for sale. The trade was brisk and prices were firmer. Prime old Clover, 100s. to 150s. inferior, S5s. to 95s. good new, 100s. to 135s. Prime old Meadow Hay, 90s. to 124s. interior, 70s. to 85s. good new, 80s. to 120s. and Straw 445. tú 57&. per load. SEED. LOHl'OJi, Monday, "pt. 17.—There is not much English Oloverseed yet offering, l'ut bl,lmC samples of French are now- shown of fair quality prices appear likely to open at moderate rates. Trefoil was rather dearer, with a good de- mand for the best qualities. Trifolium* lncarnatum sold slowly at irom Ii's to 22s. per cwt. Winter Tares were in good request at lather more money. The parcels offering from France arc held too high for the views of the buyers. New Essex White Mustardseed was disposed of at 18s. per bushel for the btst qualities, which are very fine. Cambridge sorts arc not fir e, and offering considerably nnder the Essex New secondary sorts at 14s. to ,1.68. There is very uttle ot *di\\ old. remaining on hand. Cauaryseed v. as rather saleable at the prices of last week Hempseed. realised quite as much money. New Crass Seeds were inquired for ana disposed of at fair current 11 s. GAME AN D POULTRY. Dueks, 2s. to 3s.: ducklings, 2s. d. to 4s. 3d.: goslings, 6s. 6d. to 8s. 9d. geese, 5s. üd. to 7s. pullets, 5s. to 6s. 6d.; chickens, 2i. to 3s. 3d. capons, (fs. to 8s.: grouse, 3s. to 5s. partridges, Is. 3d. to 2s. 3d.: 1Jl:.ci: game. 4s. to 4s 6d.; leverets, 2s. 3d. to 3s. 3d. tame r;) Hoits, Is. 6d. to 2s. 3d. wild ditto, Is. to Is. 9d. pigeons, 6 d. to lOd. haunches of venison, 33s. to 50s. each; forequarters of ditto, 7d. to 9d per lb. hen eggs, 9s. to lis. 3d. per 120. HOPS. New hops are arriving pretty freely, but it will be some time before the bulk of the crop has been picked., and until a much larger assortineut is to be seen -upon the market consumers are not li: dy to operate very readily^pid values for the most part will remain unsettled. The character of the crops in this couiitry is well spoken of, the aggregate value being estimated at about £300.000, but in America and on the Continent generally the production it-appears has been even better than at home. It is, therefore, evident that the season of 1S77-S shows very favonrably irnin a consumers point of view, though as regar s the probable range of prices it is quest;on«bie whether the presuit low level can admit of any further oonsiderab-e decline. Trans- actions have taken place in the new growth at from £3 108. tb IDs. P«er cwt.
THE STRIKE IN THE BOLTON COTTON TRADE. The Daily News of Monday says The strike in the cotton trade of Bolton and district, by which some 12,000 persons are oat of employment, has now entered on its third week, and yet there are no slns. of yielding on the part of either masters or men. It is difficult, however, to believe that it can long continue, consider- ing the heavy loss it is entailing on the operatives. During the fortnight the strike has lasted, it is esti- mated that the loss in wages alone has been £20,000, While it has taken from the funds of the central and loal trades unions a furthersumof nearly £4,500. With such a strain upon them the present resources of the opera- tives must soon be exhausted, though, of course, the Amalgamated Association of the four counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, Yorkshire, and Derbyshire may continue the struggle for an indefinite time if the 15,000 members of which it is composed should cheer- fully pay the levies which may hereafter be required of them. It is hoped, however, that before the strike resolves itself into a question simply of endurance as between employers and workmen, some mode of settle- ment may be found which will be satisfactory to both sides. Already the dispute has been the cause of a great deal of suffering, as is evidenced by the in- creasing number of applications which are being daily dade for parish relief. The work of the relieving officers in Bolton alone, to say nothing of the sur- founding townships, is triple what it was a month ago. In fact, never since the disastrous cotton famine, occasioned by the civil war in America has there been such wide-spread destitution in the town as there is at the present time. This is partly attributable to th$eircumstance that some 5,000 of those on strike, and who consist mainly of young women, are not connected with any union, and have therefore no funds out of which to support themselves. It is from no choice of their own that they are now idle; they would gladly resume work at the reduction, if they could, but it is one of the peculiarities of the cotton trade that when the handmule spinners and self- acter minders, with their piecers, come out on strike, the whole machinery of a mill is stopped, and the carders, grinders, and all the other hands are thrown into a state of enforced idleness. It is gratifying, however, to learn that the unfor- tunate position of the card-room hands is evoking the sympathy: of the employers. At one mill—that of Messrs. Hebflen and Son, Vernon-street, Little Bolton—they are provided daily with a good dinner, free of charge. Another millowner, Mr. W. Bamber, of Halliwell-road, has opened reading, chess, and draught rooms for the recreation of those on strike. The Co-operative Society of the East Ward Liberal Association have also thrown open their read- ing rooms, and other praiseworthy measures are being adopted with the view of attracting the young people from the streets and the public-houses. The Self- acter Miners' Association paid their first week's strike money in public-houses, being unable, they said, to get other places; but on its being pointed out to them what a dangerous temptation was thus thrown in the way of the piecers (nearly all per- sons of tender age), they resolved to pay the latter at their homes, and this arrangement was carried out on Friday aqji Saturday last. No bitterness has yet been imported into the struggle. Indeed, it is remarkable Vrhat amicable relations subsist between the masters and the men. As an instance of this we may mention that one day last week Mr. J. P. Thomasson, of Mill Hill mill, treated the whole of his unemployed hands, with their wives and sweethearts, numbering altogether 300, to a trip to Southport, where they were provided with a substantial dinner."
THE COLORADO BEETLE. The following extract from a letter written by an English gentleman residing in the neighbourhood of New York has been published :— It would amuse you to know how I have battled all through this summer with the potato bug in order to retain my crop. First, as soon as the plant showed Itself, I turned over the leaves and with a pebble crushed the eggs. This I did for a week, till I thought 'you are disposed of.' In a few days I go triumph- antly into my potato patch like a conqueror when to Inyamazement I find myriads from the size of a pin's head to a bean. No, you shan't,' I say, and forth- with we all get together and slay and spare not. Now I've conquered, thought I. In a day or two I go to reconnoitre, and for every one slain one hundred or one hundred thousand had come, so I proclaimed War to the knife, and every day I went with a vessel of Water, and shook them off into it; meanwhile the plant was rapidly being devoured. At last I had suc- ceeded in getting the plant out of danger, and the potato was well formed; still I did not relax until this was a well-assured fact, and the haulm began to Wither when I thought they could be left to take care of themselves. The insects were game, for after a. week's furlough I went to look at the result, and it Was simply millions, and there they remained till I found vast quantities had perished for waut of Nourishment; but now they infest every place in the city and in the country, on the road and the sidewalk, and wherever you go you see the familiar beast. It is a loathsome insect; no animal or bird will devour them, and even the toad will rather leave them alone. I might have saved some trouble by using Paris green, out this I object to."
THE SEA SERPENT AGAIN. The barque Aberfoyle, which arrived at Falmouth on "tonday from Bassein, reports as follows There is not the slightest doubt that there are Monsters in the sea of various kinds as yet unknown to man but as to the existence of the sea serpent, so oftn. reported, we have every reason to doubt, as the Positions given are those of several rocks or shoals Sported to have been seen by some vessels, and 8ailed over by Others. Sailors, as a rule, are a class of men who, in the monotony of a long Voyage, will imagine anything that first presents Itself to any one of them, and is expressed in Words. Our story of the sea serpent is—that when in lat. 34.2 north, long. 29.3 west, on August 26, it was a calm, when the captain, who was on the poop, saw What appeared to him to be a sea serpent, and called Several of the crew to see it. All thought, as he did that 1t Undoubtedly was the monster, and after a slight demur he consented to ascertain the fact by a closer inSpection. A boat was lowered and manned, and sent after him. A harpoon was taken, the crew being determined to catch him if possible. Ihe reptile Appeared to be upwards of thirty feet in length and had a reddish appearance, with a white head and blunt end. On the boat getting close the second mate stood up and threw the harpoon, which went clean through the creature's body. Much to the astonishment of the boats crew, as well as of all aboard the Aberfoyle, who were watching the boat with the greatest excitement, wondering if the brute would capsize them, or they secure it intact, they succeeded an bringing away with the harpoon apiece fabotthree feet in girth, hollow inside, of a sort of jelly fish de- scription, with little red things, something the shape of a lily leaf incased in cell*, after the fashion of honeycomb. We put the pieces in bottles and corked them up airtight, but in a few hours they dissolved into a light brown fluid, and left the red particles at the bottom of the bottle. There is no doubt that most of the reports originate in something of this kind. We concluded that it was the spawn of some kind of fish. It was decidedly animal matter."
EXCAVATIONS AT MOUNT CABURN. Excavations into Mount Caburn, near Lewes, by permis- sion of the Right Hon. the Speaker, the owner, have just been made by Colonel A. Lane Fox, on behalf of the com- bined committees of the British Association and Anthropo- logical Institute. The present is the first time that these societies have directed their attention to the camp. During the progress of the evacations, which have been made by several workmen under Colonel Fox's direction, Professor Rolleston, F.R.S., Mr. John ■Evans, .F.R.S., Mr. Francis Galton, F.R.S., Mr. John Price, Dr. Ogier Ward (Eastbourne), and other gentlemen were present and rendered assist- ance. The discoveries made were of an interesting character. Seven pits were opened in the in- terior of the camp, of a square, oval, and round shape, of different sizes, and between 6ft. and 7ft. deep. They were evidently human habitations, and would only contain two persons crouched together, there not being room for them to lie extended. They were found to contain the bones of the ox, pig, horse, calf, and kid, showing that domesticated animals were Used. The remains have been sent to Professor Rol- leston, of Oxford, for identification. The filling in of the pits appeared to be of the late Celtic period; but Whether the pits themselves are of the same age it is difficult to determine. A large basin-shaped shaft, 16ft. deep was cleared on the south side of the Mount. in tills case it was also difficult to decide the object of the pit; but in all probability it was sunk by the inhabitants of an earlier period for the purpose of obtaining flints similar to those of Cissbury. A vein of flints was found near the bottom, but there are no galleries as at Cissbury. A section was cut through the rampart in order to ascertain by the pottery Whether it was of the same age. Lasge quantities of • British pottery were found of an earlier period to that ? Ut the pits in the interior, indicating that the rampart Was probably of an earlier date, and that the tort was subsequently occupied by a later race of people in the Celtic age. At the bottom of the pits were discovered several implements of the Late Celtic type—among other things, a knife, a battle-axe, and a kind of iron spade; also a bone comb. Some wood was found show- ing that a pallisading formerly existed, which was pro- bably used for firing over the rampart. On Wednes- day, in last week, in the second rampart more posts of a similar kind were found with holes, evidently Used for purposes of stockade, and some more decayed Wood. The clay discovered appeared to have been Used for plastering osier wattles. One object in dig- ging has been to lind the original shape of the ram- parts. Colonel Lane Fox is well satisfied with the result of the excavations. The filling in of the pit was concluded on Satur- day. and the work is for the present suspended.
AMERICAN HUMOUR. We nominate J. Billings for the next President— of the Fonetik Speling As05iashun-Philadelphia. Press. Gud enul; Second the moshun.— Grafik. Cum now Nu Orleom Timz. If the Graphfie and the Knew Orleans Times hadd as hard work as we have to phill out a collumm they Wouldd hesitate befoare lendding their support to enny system of pshorttenning words. We will s tan d by enny psys- tem of oarthaugraphie that will majke two or three words till a pparragraphhhtihh. —Burlington HawJceye. A man has invented a plan in three parts, by which Ho one need lose his life in a burning hotel. Omitting the other two parts, the plan is generally considered a success. An American "writest" wishes to know why People always spell finis without the h. He ran somehat hastily into a cigar store and said Pompously "Give me one of your best Matilda cigars." I guess you mean a Manilla," said the assistant. "Oh, yes," he said, "I was thinking of another "Jane, it is eleven o'clock tell that young man to please shut the front door from the outside } General Tom Thumb is coming West on another annual farewell tour. We are pleased to note that the general is still twenty-three years of age, and has just re- turned from a starring tour in the courts of royalty in fiUsopa and Aoa same as tarty years ago.—.4 Pupir.
PLANTS AND INSECTS. Sir John Lubbock, M.P., recently delivered a lecture in the Royal Pavilion, to the members of the Brighton Literary Association, on the Relations of Plants to Insects. He commenced by giving a de- scription of the flower of the common nettle, of which he exhibited an enlarged diagram. He pointed out that the lower lobe of the corolla formed a kind of pjatform, having at each end a projecting lobe or tooth. Between the lower and upper pro- jected the little point of the pistil. At the lower end of the tube there was a small reservoir of honey, and just above was a little row of fine hairs. What did all those parts of the flower mean? and why was the flower whit;? What was it that regulated the length of the tube ? and why was the corolla white, while the rest of the flower was green ? Such ques- tions might be asked with respect to almost every flower. A celebrated G-erman botanist, Christian Conrad Springell, had been the first to throw light on this interesting question. Every one knew the im- portance of flowers to insects, and that bees and butter- flies derived the main part of their nourishment from flowers, but comparatively few were aware of the im- portance of insects to flowers. If flowers were useful to insects, insects were indispensable to flowers. The beau- tiful and varied colours of many flowers were due to the existence of insects. The hues, lines, and shades found in day flowers were invariably absent in night flowers, and the reason was that, as they bloomed a,t night, they could not be seen. Chose flowers which were not fertilized by insects did not possess either colour, scent, or honey. In the great majority of instances the relations between insects and flowers were mutual, but in some plants it was different. There was a North American plant which actually seized and devoured the insect which alighted on its leaves. By means of a diagram Sir John illustrated this process by which the insect-devouring plant cap- tured its prey. Representations of open and closed leaves were shown. Sir John said that a number of interesting experiments had been tried with those leaves, and it had been found that they very. much disliked cheese, which disagreed with them and made them extremely ill. He then entered into a descrip- tion of the simple structure of flowers and dwelt at considerable length on the results of the fertiliza- tion of flowers by different causes. Those fertilized by insects reached the highest state of excellence. Self-fertilization, he said, tended to dwarf the flowers. In the case of a convolvulous experiments had been tried by which it was shown that where the flower had been self-fertilized it only grew to a height of five feet, while a flower fertilized by the pollen of another plant had grown to a height of 71f t. The hon. lecturer then mentioned some experiments to test if bees were or were not able to distinguish colours. He said he had taught a bee to come to a certain place for honey, and he had then placed a quantity of honey on some blue paper. He allowed the bee to come to this honey several times, and he then placed some more honey on a piece of orange-coloured substance. During the absence of the bee on one occasion he took advantage of the opportunity and shifted the posi- tions of the two lots of honey. The bee came as usual to the spot where the blue paper had formerly been placed, and stood, as if in doubt near to the orange-coloured, substance, and then it dashed over to the blue paper and commenced feeding from it as usual. The lecturer said he had experimented with a variety *f colours and found it was always the case, if they used a bee to take honey from a certain colour, he would always select that colour from among others. It was fortunate for them that bees enjoyed the same colours and like same smells as they did, as there were certain flo IVers which were fertilized by flies, who pre- ferred livid yellow, dingy red, and very unpleasant- smelling flowers, and they were invariably accompanied by a very disagreeable odour. Therefore, if the majority of flowers were fertilized by flies, they would find that their gardens lost many of their present charms. After referring to the physical action of flowers of the class fertilized by insects, the lecturer, went on to refer to the different plants which repelled the visits of insects. Why were some flowers sticky and some slippery, and what was the use of hair upon plants ? These condi- tions were to repel the visits of unwelcome insects who could not make use of the pollen they robbed the flower of for fertiizing purposes. He proceeded to explain the physical adaptation of insects to the flowers with which they were so nearly allied. Referring again to plants, he said that they found that at certain particular hours flowers closed. This habit of going to sleep was very curious, and different flowers kept dif- ferent hours. The reason for it, however, was obvious, for flowers which were fertilized by moths and other night flying insects would derive no advantage from being open by day, and on the other hand, those fertilized by bees would gain nothing by being opened at night. The closing of flowers, he be- lieved, had reference to the habits of insects, and it must be confessed that the opening and closing of tlowers was gradual, and that the hours varied greatly according to circumstances. Although it would be possible to construct a flower clock, he was sure in these days it would not be of very much use. The observations to which he had that evening called attention had given to flowers additional interest, arrd often showed that insects, especially bees, had an importance previously unsuspected, The arrangement of the colours, form, and scent of flowers-all had reference to the visit of insects, and were disposed in such a manner as to secure the great object for which these visits were destined, so that it came to pass that just as gardeners by selecting seeds from the most beautiful varieties of flowers, begat others as beautiful, so insects by the fertilization of the largest and most beautiful flowers unconsciously, but not the less effectively, contributed in a large degree to the beauties of our woods and fields. On the motion of the mayor a unanimous vote of thanks was passed to Sir John Lubbock for his interesting lecture.
MR. LOWE ON BICYCLING. On Saturday the bicyclists of the metropolis and suburbs held what may be considered as their great autumnal meet" on the terrace at the Crystal Palace, and carried on contests for prizes in the presence of the Right Hon. R. Lowe, M.P., the President of the West Kent Bicycle Club, who distributed the prizes and made a characteristic speech. The scene was interesting, and notwithstanding a somewhat cold north-east wind which was blowing, there was throughout the four hours of racing a good attendance. The raeen included a one-mile handicap open to members of the West Kent Bicycle Club only; a hundred yards slow race," and a three-mile handicap, these two being open to amateurs who were members of recognized clubs. The winners of the heats in the one-mile handicap were H. Tomkins, W. A. Oram, W. Looker, E. P. Weber, S. Withers, and R. J. Hoffman; and the final winders from among these were Looker, Hoffman, and Oram. The "slow race" was a most amusing affair, the racers having to go slowly, the rear one winning. The difficulty experienced was keeping the seat at a era vl, and more than one tumbled over in the attempt. The prizes fell to Dr. Rucker, jun., and to a lad named R. L. St. Alphonse, of the "Essex Wanderers." The three-mile amateur handicap was the great affair ot the day, and the first part of the race was run in six heats. The winners of these heats were C. T. i Turner, F. T. East, H. Osborne, H. Tomkins, C. W. Nicholas, and Dr. Rucker, jun., the clubs to which these belong being the London, the Waverley, the Surrey, the West Kent, and the Pickwick. The winners were Osborne, Rucker, East, and Tomkins. The whole race was well run, and the prizes were only won by a neck. Mr. John Keen, the7 champion bicyclist, then gave a two miles race against time, each mile being run in 3 minutes 27 seconds. Durinw the intervals between the races music was' played by the band of boys from the North District Surrey Schools (in return for the kindness of the Palace Company giving the school children a free ad- mission last Thursday) and by a military band. At the conclusion of the races, Mr. Lowe, who was warmly cheered, took the position of President on the band platform, and presented the prizes, giving to each of the winners, with the prize, some words of congratulation. In response to an urgent request by Mr. Coppin and Mr. Foreman, on behalf of the Com- mittee, that the President should address a few words to the company, Mr. Lowe said lie thought he might congratulate the ladies and gentlemen around—indeed, he thought they had reason to congratulate themselves —upon the very pleasant and rational manner in which they had spent the afternoon. They had had all the excitement which the most expensive race could have afforded, yet they would all go home with the satisfaction of knowing that no very alarm- ing amount of money had changed hands. Then there was another satisfaction-an equal sttisiaction-in feeling that in these contests of fine young men, in which each competitor had been doing his best, each was only disposing of his own energies, and dependent only upon his own strength, endurance, and training. There was in these races no calling upon horses," no whipping or spurring; they depended only on a gallant emulation,-find there was a pleasure in knowing that the amusement of the day was not tinged with any kind of cruelty or suffering. He had been from the first a very strong advocate of the bicycle indeed, he might claim to have been an ante-bicyclist. Perhaps a few there would remember that in the time of George IV. an attempt was made to introduce what was called a "dandy horse." This was made by having a small bar of wood, with a saddle on the top, over two wheels, and the rider had to propel himself by running with his feet upon the ground. He attempted in those long past times to ride upon one of those machines, so he might claim that he was then practising in anticipation of that which was to come at a remote time. Once, with the "dandy horse," he rode a mile race with His Majesty's Mail, and to his own great delight got before it. Having his own early experience in his mind of the prede- cessor of the bicycle, he beheld the introduction of the bicycle with pleasure, because he thought there were many advantages in it. He thought, for one thing, that it was a fine amusement for young men, and would keep them out of a good deal of mischief. He thought, too, that it would be a fine thing for the youth of the country in encouraging them to spend their evenings in a healthful exercise, rather than in many other ways which could be mentioned, and he was satisfied that if people who were not young would educate themselves to the exercise which the bicycle afforded, they would profit very much by it. For them the bicycle was about the best antidote which could be devised against attacks of the gout-and there were other advantages in its us, It was not his business to give advice there, but he would make a suggestion which might, perhaps, ba superfluous in most cases. This was to his young friends who were bicycle riders, and it was that they should remember that they were, when riding the bicycle on the public roads, under exactly the same control and responsibilities as were people riding horses; and, as no horseman would think of galLoping through a crowded thoroughfare, so no bicyclist should think of running his bicycle at full speed through streets. He mentioned this, not only on the score of humanity, which it was quite unneces- sary to do, but because he was sure that nothing could be more injurious to the noble pursuit of bicycling than the complaints of accidents to pas- sengers through misuses of the roads. Some of our fellow-countrymen disliked eve rything which was new, and bicycles among other things, and were not dis- pleased to find some grounds of complaint against the pursuit. He would just mention, for the benefit of those, who, like himself,, had lost the first bloom of youth," and who were, therefore, not quite so active in mounting into the saddle as those who bad taken part in the races of the day, that there had been invented a safety bicycle, which would not travel so fast indeed as Mr. John Keen had gone, but had the advantage of not requiring the rider to climb up to the top of a high wheel, and was as easy to ride as any other. He mentioned this fact, not for the benefit of the aspiring generation who had been contesting there that day, but for the gentlemen who had attained a period in life when they did not fall lightly, and in place of coming up smiling," as the young men had done that day, got up from their falls with rather rueful countenances, with a determination to retire to a resting place, where they might ineditite upon their seeming folly in attempting a pursuit "which was apparently meant only for those with fewer years and lighter forms. He should be glad if it could be arranged that the bicyclists could have a place where they could ride, say in some part of one of the London parks without disturbing any one. There was reasqnsble ground for asking for this concession which he thjught any Government might grant, and he said-this with the more confidence as he did not see any chance of being himself in a position to oppose such a prcposjl. (Much laughter, and a voice called out "Not so sure of that," at which there was cheering.) Mr. Coppin proposed a vote of thanks to the Presi- dent, aud hoped the time would come when the public of the streets would not show the lively dissatisfaction which bicyclists experienced in some parts. The vote was passed with cheers.
THE TICHBORNE CASE. Mr. Wm. Quartermaine East writes to the Standard, from Tavistock, as follows :— "Mr. Onslow, Lord Rivers, and myself accepted the joint trusteeship of a fund established three years since to procure evidence from Australia in this case. We readily realised that the discovery of Arthur Orton was the only chance of possibly benefiting the Claimant, and I am sure all the well-disposed will be pleased to learn that after many failings, incessant work, great expense, and. continued disappointment, the undoubted Arthur Orton has been discovered under the name of George Cresswell, fully recognised by several in Australia, and his photograph sworn to by many in England who knew him within this last. ten years. Although the only sister who has at present seen Cresswell cannot positively swear to him, she remarks: —' There is a most wonderful likeness to our family; in fact, I at once picked him out from several others and certainly, after a lapse of 25 years, although I have not sworn he is my brother, I should positively decline swearing he was not.' Upon the arrival of Messrs. Onslow, Haworth, and myself at Dartmoor, on Friday, the photograph of Cresswell was shown to the Claimant, who at once declared it solemnly as the same Alfred Smith sworn to by him on the sixteenth day of his examination in chief. Of course, this is of no legal value, nevertheless it is eminently satisfactory to his partisans. The Claimant looked in better health than on any of the previous visits. I will not intrude upon your space with the many details connected with this dis- covery, or dwell upon the causes which resulted in his conviction. Judges and juries must decide by the evidence and facts as they find them, whether true, untrue, perverted, or distorted, but I will simply observe" that the credit in the main is due to the un- wearied efforts of Mr. Onslow, and to the many kind friends who have from time to time so liberally sub- scribed, and thereby enabled us to trace Alfred Smith, alias George Cresswell, at the Paramatta Asylum, to be the undoubted Arthur Orton, son of George Orton, butcher, of High-street, Wapping."
SULTAN ABDUL HAMID. The Special Correspondent of The Times, writing from Therapia on Sept. 6, gives the following particulars respecting the Sultan:— I find that I telegraphed by pure inadvertence that Mrs. Layard was the first European lady with whom a Sultan had sat down to dinner at his own table. What I should have said was that Mrs. Layard is the first lady, not being of Royal rank, to whom this com- pliment has been paid. It has, in fact, been paid to at least two other "European ladies," so that my telegram was not strictly correct. But then they were ladies, and something more, the one being Empress of the French, the other Princess of Wales, who as such could not only treat even with a Sultan on equal terms, but were also receiving the hospitality they had already shown him at their own Courts. The dinner-party here consisted of the Sultan, the Grand Vizier, Mahmoud Damad Pasha, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, and the two Said Pashas, one the Chief Secretary of the Sultan, the other Marshal of the Palace, whose similarity of name causes them to be frequently confounded together, and each to come in occasionally in European Press for praise or censure obviously meant for the other. The dinner was served in the French style, and is said to have been a very pleasant one, the Sultan playing the host to perfection. Wine was put upon the table for the guests, but the Sultan only drank sherbet. He proposed the health of the Queen of England, expressing his gratitude for the kind interest which Her Majesty had shown in the Turkish wounded by sending bandages to be distributed by Mrs. Layard among the sufferers, and to Mrs. Layard herself for her indefatigable exer- tions in the same good cause. That the Sultan should have sat down at the same table with the wife of Her Britannic Majesty's Representative at Constantinople, though it may not appear anything very remarkable to people in England unfamiliar with the stringent rules of Oriental Court etiquette, is here considered something so startlingly unusual as to have excited more attention than would be bestowed on a Turkish victory or defeat. I was severely cross-examined this afternoon as to whether Mrs. Layard had dined in the Haremlyk or the "Selamlyk" by an English lady Ilong resident in this country, who seemed to find it difficult to believe that the Sultan could possibly entertain a lady in the "Selamlyk." Let me explain that by Haremlyk ia meant the portion of a Turkish house set apart for the women, and by Selamlyk" that for the men. No Turk would ever think of allowing a lady of his own household to come iato the Selam- lyk," and it is only very recently that the more ad- vanced and daring Radicals have ventured, to the disgust of the old Tory .party, to dine occasionally with their wives in the harem. In a Turkish house, in fact, there are always two dinners served, one for the husband and his guests, who, in the true spirit of Turkish hospitality, sit down to table as a matter of course when they happem to be in the house at the dinner hour, and another for the wife and her female friends, who could no more join the male dinner party in the "Selamlyk" them the husband's frieuds could join the ladies in the harem, the threshold of which even the wife's brother cannot cross. In spite, however, of all these cogent à priori reasons to prove the impossibility of so monstrous a departure from Mussulman custom—and custom to a Mussulman, like caste to a Brahmin, is the chief part of his religion—it nevertheless is a matter of fact that Mrs. Layard did dine in the "Selamlyk." It is doubtless the most striking, but by no means the first, proof that the present Sultan has given of his desire to emancipate himself from the tradition and pre- judices of the Ottoman Court. It may make English reader smile, but here it is noted as a matter of grave importance, that His Imperial. Majesty offers cigarettes to his favoured guests with his own hand from hIs. own case; that he allows Ministers to drive in the same carriage with him; that he actually returns the salutes of his subjects in the streets, and does not expect them to dismount from their horses or get out of their carriages when he drives by, nor to prostrate themselves on the graund when admitted to his presence. Some of them are even allowed to sit down before him. Your readers may remember that in a recent letter I described the surprise and gratitude of no less a personage than his Holiness the Armenian Patriarch when the Sultan prevented him from stooping low in humble obeisance to the ground and made him take a seat, and the contrast which he drew between this gracious condescension and the demeanour of the Sultan's predecessor, Abdul Aziz. More Liberal views than his would not always be found among the Statesmen of Constitutional countries, and they are simply amazing in an Oriental Monarch virtually uncontrolled. Those who see most of him declare his domestic life presents a still more striking contrast to the popular conception of a Sultan's well-stocked Seraglio, and that, whatever the number of his wives en titre, or slaves, he is in practice, if not in theory, as ardent an advocate of monogamy as the Vicar of Wakefield. This much at least, is certain—that His Majesty likes it to be declared that he is the husband of one wife—a concession to the European prejudice against poly- gamy which Abdul Aziz would not have deigned to make, or indeed, have understood. One might reasonably expect, as well as hope, a good deal in the way of reform fram Abdul Hamicl if a long and peaceful reign gave him a fair chance, and if European influence, judiciously brought to bear, could cause him to be surrounded with more enlightened advisers than the majority of those who are now predominant at the Palace, and whose strength is put to keep him in the old lines but that he is very far from being entirely in leading strings is shown by his numerous depar- tures from the stringency of Turkish etiquette, and by none more conspicuously than the last.
AN ACTRESS'S LIFE. Miss Neilson spoke with agreeable frankness of her- self to the reporter of The Sa7 Franciso Chronicle. My daily life," she said, is bare and simple enough, though it may seem smooth and pleasant to one who looks at it from before the footlights. [With a sigh] I feel sometimes as though I would like to go out into the forest of Ardennes" far away from this incessant toil, and study and trouble. An artist lives a life of drudgery and slavery. She has no rest, and scarcely time to eat or sleep. My path looks as if it were strewn with roses, bat it is rather beset with thorns. This is my daily, routine In the morning I rise between eight and nine o'clock. I first attend to my business letters, and I study for an hour, if not upon a part that I have in hand, upon some miscellaneous subject. Then I walk to rehearsal which lasts from two to four hours. This is particu- larly trying. It the play is new to the company, then I have to tell them all about the business and if it is not new, my business' is different from that of the star that has preceded me, and much that they do has to be changed for my convenience. It is very hard upon members of the company sometimes, but it cannot be helped. The company here is one of the best in the country.and they are very kind and good. The rehearsal over, I come home and receive callers for an hour, after which I dine and take a shart nap, when I have to get ready for the evening performance. This is the mere work; but there are the cares and annoyances besides. When I am about to play a new character for a fortnight before the opening night, I get so ner, vous that I can neither eat nor sleep. I generally- walk to and from the theatre for the benefit ot the air and exercise. The evening performance once com- menced, if I am acting a part whose emotions carry me away, I enter fully into the spirit of it, and think no more of myself until the curtain falls for the last time. I get warm and excited, and take cold from the draughts. The wonder is that I am not often seriously ill iustead of merely getting these colds frQln which I soon re- cover. The play finished, I come home in a state of nervous excitement which sometimes continues for hours and prevents my sleeping. I would like to ride or drive to the beach, but I have no opportunity. I am in love with this State, but I have no chance to see it. I return to England, and people say :— Oh, tell us about California tell us about the Geysers, or Y osemité or the Big Trees,' and I am compelled to tell them that I have never seen them. And this kind of thing continues for a long season, until my Summer vacation comes—an incessant mental and physical strain."
A COMEDY OF ERRORS. Here is an amusing comedy of errors with a Parisian edge (says the Court Journal). Mme. de V. was very jealous, and determined to watch her husband. One day he told her he was going to Versailles, and when he went out she put on her bonnet and followed him. She kept him in sight until he turned into a passage which shortened the way to the railway station, where she missed him. She stood for a few minutes in the passage looking about, and suddenly saw a man coming out of a glove shop with a rather overdressed lady. From the distance she made sure the man was her husband, and without a word of warning she gave him three or four sounding boxes on the ear. When the gentleman turned round to confront his assailant, she perceived that she had made a mistake, and at the same time she caught sight of her husband who had re- plenished a cigar case at a tobacconist's, and was crossing the street. What could she do ? She fainted in the arms of the stranger whose ears she boxed—while the other lady ran off as fast as she could to avoid scandal. The stranger, who was a comedian, was astonished to find an unknown lady in his arms; and, while his ears were still tingling with the blows, he was again startled. A gentleman collared him, and shaking him roughly asked him what he meant by embracing a lady on the street. "Why, she boxed my ears and fainted screamed the actor. She is my wife," shouted the irate husband, and would never have struck you without cause." The infuriated gentlemen shook their fists until the lady, who had been carried into a shop, recovered sufficiently to explain how it happened. ———————.