IMPERIAL PARLIAMENT. In the HorsE OF LORDS, August 10, the Royal assent was "given by commission to numerous public and private Bills. The Commons' reasons for disagreeing to one of the Lords' amendments to the Metropolitan Street Improvements Bill having been considered, their lordships, with the concur- rence of Lord Salisbury, whose interests the amendment was intended to guard, decided not to insist upon the amend- ment. On the motion of Lord Limerick, the Fisheries (Dynamite) Ml was read a second time, the Duke of Richmond and Crordou reserving to himself the right to object to the Bill u he thought necessary, at a future stage. Lord Colchester asked Lord Derby whether the attention of the Government had been called to reports circulated by the Austrian Press to the effect that the policy of the British Government was to wait and take part in the parti- tion of Turkey. 1 Lord Derby replied that the reports in question had no tounaatiou Whatever. «mle^heSffs' Court (Scotland) Bill, the East India Loan .I risons (Scotland) Bill, and the Canal Boats Bill w ere read a third time and passed. Other Bills were then forwarded a stage, and their Lord- ships adjourned. In the HOU3E OF COMMONS, Mr. Monk asked the Chancellor -of the Exchequer to say whether the Government would deem the temporary occupation of Constantinople by Russian troops so far inconsistent with British interests as to dis- turb the relations of amity between England and Russia. The Chancellor of the Exchequer said, on behalf of the Government, that he felt it his duty to decline to answer the question. At this there was much cheering from the Ministerial benches, and Mr. Monk gave notice that he would raise the question in another form on going into Committee on the Appropriation Bill. Before the House went to the Orders of the Day, Mr. Wlialley read an explanation of his conduct at the previous sitting which had led to his being silenced by the application of the first of the New Rules. The purport of it appeared to be that he was unaware that he was transgressing the Rules of Debate, and that he disclaimed altogether any idea of disregarding the authority of the Chaft. ilr. Sullivan informed the House that he had received a letter from Sir J. Elphinstone, withdrawing the word "ruffiansI" by which, at a Farmers' Dinner, he had des- cribed the "Obstructives," and expressing his regret for having applied it to members of the House. After this gen- tleman-like apology, he said, he should not feel it necessary to persist with the notice he had given to call attention to the speech as a Breach of Privilege. The Chancellor of the Exchequer also read a letter which he had received from Sir James, desiring to apologize to the Speaker and the House for having used the offensive expres- sion. The Expiring Laws Continuance Bill was passed through Committee, and the Turnpike Acts Continuance Bill was read a third time. On going into Committee on the Appropriation Bill, Mr. Oallan called attention to the condition of the dwellings of the Agricultural Labourers in Ireland, and the difficulties placed by the Beard of Works in Ireland in the way of carrying out loans for purposes authorized by the Legis- lature. Sir M. Hicks-Beach, in reply, said that the improvement of Labourers' Dwellings must mainly be left to private effort and as to the conduct of the Irish Board of Works, it would come under the review of the Commission re- cently appointed. Mr. Monk, again referring to the relations between Eng land and Russia, thought it advisable before Parliament separated that the country should be made acquainted with the policy of the Government. He, therefore, asked whether they considered the temporary occupation of the Ottoman capital would necessitate our going to war with Russia ? Sir H. Wolf defended the Government in the course they had hitherto pursued; and he should not approve their answering the question put, the great danger of which would be to give encouragement to one or other of the belligerents. Mr. Forster deprecated discussion as inopportune and disadvantageous to the interests of the country, and this was the opinion in both Houses. The Chancellor of the Exchequer assured Mr. Monk that it was through no want of personal courtesy that he had declined to answer, his question, but simply from a feeling that it was inexpedient at the present time to raise any general discussion; and this view was supported by Mr. Charley, Sir G. Bowyer, Dr. Kenealy, and other speakers, after which the subject dropped, and the Appropriation Bill passed through Committee. The Local Taxation Returns Bill was passed through Committee (Clause 5 having been omitted), and the Municipal Corporations (-New Charters) Bill was also passed through the same stage. The Committee on the Bar Discipline Bill was postponed in order to make way for the Destructive Insects Bill, which was read a second time. The House was engaged in discussing the third reading of the Sale of Food and Drugs Act Amendment Bill, when it was counted out at ten minutes past 11 o'clock.
The HOUSE OF LORDS met on Saturday, Aug. 11, at two o'clock and disposed of all the business standing on the notice paper. The Appropriation Bill and other Bills were brought from the House of Commons and read a first time. Their Lordships then adjourned. The HOUSE OF COMMONS also had a Morning Sitting. On the third reading of the Appropriation Bill Sir W. Harcourt took the opportunity of replying to the speech of the Attorney-General on Tuesday, in reference to the Collision between the Huascar and the Shah. Referring to the circumstances in detail as related in the despatches of Admiral De Horsey, he contended that though the Huascar's acts were illegal she was not a pirate, and our Admiral had no right to send a torpedo expedition against her while '-ring in a friendly port. The Attorney-General, after remarking that Sir WilIhm appeared to have receded from his original views, pro- ceeded to argue that the Huascar, not being under the flag of any State liable for her acts, had no belligerent rights that she was a mere depredator-in strictness of law a pirate—though he had no wish to carry the case against her to that extremity. By her acts she had made herself an enemy of the (Aieen, and the Admiral had no means of putting a stop to her depredations except by levying war npon her, as, according to all the authorities, he had a light to do. After a few observations from Sir G. Bowyer,, Sir C. -Russell, and Dr. Cameron, the subject dropped. Mr. Fawcett, addressing Ministers, wished to VTVA^ whether. in the pvpnt oi ti>" xiaai-m question assuming a more critical aspeet, so far as the interests of this country were concerned, they would call Parliament together before the usual period. The Chancellor of the Exchequer repliel that the policy of the C, owrnr.,ieit had been clearly enun- ciated by Lord Beaconsfield, and that the Government were fully alive to their constitutional obligations, and were pre- pared to abide by them. The Appropriation Bill was thereupon read a third time, as were also several others, including the Destructive In- sects Bill, the Municipal Corporations (New Charters) Bill, and the Local Taxation (Returns) Bill. At the dose of the sitting Mr. W. H. Smith, the new First Lord of the Admiralty, was introduced, and resumed his seat for Westminster amid cheers, and the House adjourned.
THE PROROGATION OF PARLIAMENT. Parliament was formally prorogued by commission on Tuesday afternoon till the 30th of October next. The Lord Chancellor read- HER MAJESTY'S MESSAGE. My LORDS AND GENTLEMEN, I am happy to be able to release you from your attendance in Parliament. My relations with all foreign powers continue to be friendly. The exertions which, since the commencement of disturb- ances in Eastern Europe, I have not ceased to make for -the maintenance of the general peace have, unfortunately, not been successful. On the outbreak of war between the Russian and the Ottoman Empires, I declared my intention of preserving an attitude of neutrality so long as the inte- rests of this country remain unaffected. The extent and nature of those interests were further defined in a communi- cation which I caused to be addressed to the Government of Russia, and which elicited a reply indicating friendly dis- positions on the part of that State. I shall not fail to use my best efforts, when a suitable op- portmiity occurs for the restoration of peace, on terms com- patible with the honour of the belligerents, and with the general safety and welfare of other nations. if, in the course of the contest, the rights of my Empire should be assailed or endangered, I should confidently rely on Your help to vindicate and maintain them. The apprehensions of a serious famiue in Southern India, Which I communicated to you at the opening of the Session, have, I grieve to say, been fully verified. The visitation which has fallen upon my subjects in Madras and Bombay, and upon the people of Mysore, has been of extreme severity, and its duration is likely to he prolonged. No exertion will be wanting on the part of my Indian Govern- ment to mitigate this terrible calamity. S The Proclamation of my Sovereignty in the Transvaal has been received throughout the Province with enthusiasm. It has also been accepted with marked satisfaction by the native chiefs and tribes; and the war, which threatened in its progress to compromise the safety of my subjects in South Africa, is happily brought to a close. I trust that the measure which has been passed, to enable the European communities of South Africa to unite upon such terms as may be agreed on, will be the means of pre- venting the recurrence of similar dangers, and will increase and confblidate the prosperity of this important part of my dominions. GENTI<EMEN OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS, 1 thank you for the liberal supplies which you have voted for the public service. I have issued a Royal Warrant to give effect to the pre)- vision which you have made for ensuring adequate promo- tion to the officers of my Army. My LORDS AND GENTLEMEN, The measures which have been passed relating to the Prisons of the United Kingdom will secure economy and efficiency in their management, and, at the same time, effect a considerable reduction in local burthens. The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, under the Act to which I have gladly given my assent, will obtain power to extend more generally the benefit of the higher education. The Acts for reorganising the Superior Courts of Justice in Ireland, and for reforming and conferring an extensive equitable jurisdiction on the County Courts, will largely improve the administration of the law in that part of the United Kingdom. I anticipate the best results from the Act which extends to the Sheriff Courts of Scotland jurisdiction in regard to veritable rights In bidding you farewell, I pray the blessing of Almighty Jjod may rest on your recent labours, and accompany you in the discharge of all your duties.
EXECUTION AT HORSEMONGER-LANE GAOL. Caleb Smith, who was convicted at the late Croydon Ateizes, before Mr. Justice Grove, of the wilful murder of a woman, named Eliza Osborn, with whom he cohabited, was executed on Tuesday- morning at nine o'clock, within the walls of Horse- monger-lane Gaol, the county gaol of Surrey. The deceased was a married woman, but she left her husband, and went to live with Smith, about two years ago, and notwithstanding the fact that he de. stroyed her life in the most determined manner, the evidence at the trial left no doubt that the prisoner was fondly attached to the unhappy woman, and that he was to a great extent actuated to commit the crime through a belief that she intended to leave him. They resided at Croydon, and on the day of the murder they went out together and drank freely at several public- houses, and when they returned home they were both very much influenced by liquor. For some time they appeared to be very friendly, but after a short interval the prisoner appeared to have brought up the subject of the deceased's leaving him, and this led to a violent quarrel, during which the deceased threw a glass of beer at the prisoner. He did not attempt to return this act of violence at the time, but after a few minutes had elapsed he went to a shelf and took a razor from it, and then deliberately walked up to the deceased, put his arms round her neck, and cut her throat in such a frightful manner that death took place almost in an instant. The pri- soner then attempted to cut his own throat, but the in- jury he inflicted upon himself was of a very trifling character, and when he had recovered and was about to be taken away by the police, he earnestly requested to be allowed to kiss the deceased woman, and when he had done so he exclaimed that he loved her and was prepared to die for her. There was a rather shocking incident in se, that the principal witness against the prisoner was one of his own children by his former wife, an intelli- gent little girl ten years of age, who was in the room, and who detailed, in a most artless manner, the cir- cumstances under which the terrible deed was com- mitted, evidently without the slightest notion of the dreadful consequences likely to result to her unhappy parent from the statement she was making. "Since his conviction the prisoner has sent a petition to the Home Secretary, praying for a remis iion of the capital punishment, but the reply was unfavourable, and no one else seems to have interfered in the matter.. Indeed, the prisoner would not have had any counsel to defend him at the trial but for the interference of the Rev. Mr. Jessop, the chaplain, and the High Sheriff, who provided the necessary funds. The prisoner slept very little on Monday night, and in the morning he asked Mr. Keene, the Governor, to allow him to have half a pint of beer, which request was, of course, at once granted. During the operation of pinioning, the prisoner did not utter a word, but he pl* previously several times made use of the expressions that he loved the deceased dearly, and that he would die for her like a man. He had a last interview with his four children, one aged sixteen, and three other younger ones, including the one who had given evi- dence against him, on Monday, in the presence of the Governor and the Chaplain. It was most distressing. The younger children clung round their wretched parent, and it was with difficulty they could be sepa- rated. The execution took place in presence of the Tender Sheriff of Surrey, one of the justices of the peace for the county, Mr. Keene, the governor of the goal, the Rev. Mr. Jessopp, the chaplain, three representatives of the press, and some of the prison officials. Mar- wood was the executioner and, Smith being a man about 5 feet 8 inches high, he arranged that the drop should fall between six and seven feet. The convict emerged from his cell a few minutes before the hour appointed for his execution, and was pinioned in the corridor leading to the yard. He was pale and haggard, and submitted very quietly to the operation. There was a wild and inquiring look in his eyes, and his mind was evidently occupied with thoughts of other things than his dire surroundings. He had come out of his cell with a checked scarf round his neck, but Marwood speedily divested him of this garment, and turned down the collar of his shirt as also that of his coat. A procession was then formed to the scaffold, the prisoner walking pretty firmly, but still deep in contemplation; and the chaplain reading, as he proceeded, I am the resurrection and the life," In the midst of life we are in death," and other passages of Holy Scripture. Having taken his place on the spot where he was to expiate his crime, a cap was drawn over the doomed man's face, the fatal noose was adjusted, the bolt was withdrawn, and the body fell with a heavy thud. There were a few convulsive movements for a minute or so, and then—all was over. A black flag was hoisted outside the prison to inform the few persons who had gathered in front of the gaol that the dismal rtrama had been enacted and the body, after having been allowed to hang the usual time, was cut down and buried. Smith was a man of about thirty-eight years of age, with well-shaped features and a clear and intelligent countenance. During the period he passed in Horse- monger-Une Gaol, his demeanour is reported t > liave been quiet aud resigned. He never entertained any hope that mercy would be extended towards him, and he employed his time in reading the Bible and in writing to his relatives.
ALL SIMPLICITY and RUDE PLENTY. I A Military Correspondent" of The Times, in his letter from Tirnova, says :— -v.. u.^ v ac-iived from books are tested by facts, some of them become stronger, others are much modified. The impression of Bulgarian fear and hatred towards the Turks increases day by day, but on the other hand the idea of their p >verty diminishes. There seems w be plenty of food both actual and in prospect. Though the villages are little.more than collections of huts, there is no sign of actual destitution, and the Turks have not destroyed the crops. The people of Tirnova seem to have all the necessaries of life in abundance, though the quality is deficient, and they are wealthy enough to provide food fur a large portion of the Russian troops passing through. Though there is no bank there is plenty of gold, but not a form of bill to draw on a house elsewhere is to be found. Barbarism and civi- lization touch very closely. My hosts here have a plentiful table and appear well to do, yet the family dive with forks into the same dish for the morsels they chose, and both the mother and daughter, named Maritza, occasionally fish out a tit-bit from the dish or plates, to put into the stranger's mouth. It is decided that the daughter is to be married in about three months, and I am invited to the/Ste, but the bridegroom has not yet been appointed, and neither the girl nor her parents have the least idea who he is to be. The house is large, and downstairs is a fine room which makes both hall and kitchen, with deeply recessed fireplaces, yet the presence of a guest causes the mother, Maritza, and a grown up son who is active as a guardian of the peace, and always carries a gun about with him—to sleep in the same room, there being meanwhile a large divan in the sort of corridor dining-room where I am now writing. Both the people of the house- hold and visitors think nothing of setting both elbows on the table to have a good stare at the stranger, and the old mother with tender care, visited hi, bed last night to save him from certain creatures whose disturbing presence she discovered by his tumbling. That they exist there seems to her no offence, but as a young mother is always awake to the movements of her baby, so is this old one on the itch during the night lest the slumbers of the guest ° disturbed. Maritza has her dog and her doves, n which she* takes great delight and acts in every respect as a servant, helping to cook the meals, bringing everything up, and then sitting down to her share. She is full of life and energy, and waits meanwhile the inevitable husband with the same unconcern that she awaits the arrangements of the supper the day after to-morrow. Concealed in cellars and the like are many good things, including worked silver plate, one of the productions of Tirnova. On a loom downstairs are made what we call Turkish towels, and Maritza works handkerchiefs with gold threads, :,s well as producing some good worsted work, probably for her future home. There is no tinge of self-consciousness among the family. All is simplicity and a kind of rude plenty.
BARON KRUDENER. The Commandant of the 9th Russian Army Corps, Baron Krudener. is descended, according to an Austrian paper, from an old Protestant and noble family in Livland. He was born at Riga in 1811, and studied in the gymnasium in that fown. In 1829 he began his military career as an officer in the Grenadier Regiment of the Guard. A year afterwards he entered the school of engineering, and six years later on was appointed a captain on the general staff. In 1848 he served, with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, as quartermaster-general on the staff of General Rudiger. The following year he took part in the Hungarian campaign, in which he won the "sword for bravery," In 1850 he was appointed colonel of the Kexholm Regiment, and in 1853 was promoted to the rank of major-general. Baron Krudener also took part in the Crimean campaign, receiving the First Class of the Order of Stanislius and the Vladimir Order of the Second Class, with diamonds and swords, for his behaviour during the defence of Sebastopol. During the Polish insurrection he was continually engaged, and distinguished himself so greatly that the Em- peror 0 bestowed upon him the White Eagle aiiil an estate with a rental of 1,500 roubles. Iiii 196 he became a lieutenant-general, and was nominated commandant of the 27th Division of infantry. General Krudener is one of the very few Russian Generals who have received any practical military education else- where than in the Caucasus. When the present Russian Army of the South was organised he received the command of a corps, and the other day, after the storming of Nicopolis, was awarded the St. George's Order of the Third Clss. -Pall Mall Gazette.
SHEEP-FARMING IN JAPAN. The civilisation of the. West has, in many ways, been able to repay the various benefits which we have derived from the more ancient culture of Oriental nations, and the esteem in which such innovations as railways, steamboats, and telegraphs are held by the exclusive Chinese and Japanese, to say nothing of the minor domestic improvements which we have brought to their knowledge, is amply shown by the increasing readiness of these nations to enter into commercial relations with the "outer barbarians." In return for the rich silks, for instance, which we have derived from Japan and China, we have probably conferred no greater benefit on the snhabi- tants of far Cathay than in the introduction of, in the first place, woollen fabrics, and, in the second place, of the animal from which we derive our supplies of wool. Until within the last few years the Japanese Archipelago, though possessing large quan- tities of horses and cattle, did not contain a single sheep or goat. Silk and cotton fabrics were alone known to them, and when, after the opening up of commercial relations with them, Western civilisation brought to their knowledge the useful woollen stuffs, they eagerly bought them up. For many years this trade has gone on increasing enormously; but only recently has it occurred to any one to introduce the sheep itself into the congenial climate of Japan. Ac- cording to the Tokio Times it is to a Californian sheep farmer of the world-renowed name of Jones, and to Messrs. OkubJ, Minister of the Interior, and Jwayama, Japanese student in America and England, that the honour of practically carrying out this idea is due. On the shores of the Bay of Jeddo, a spot admirably, adapted for sheep cultivation, with undulating grassy land, and sloping upwards to the foot of the Tsnkupa mountains, has been chosen for the rearing of the first flock. This locality was originally a natural plateau, adapted by one of the Taikouns in the twelfth century for the pasturage of horses destined for the native army now it has been turned to the more profitable uses indicated above, a portion of 7,500 acres having been set apart for the experi- mental farm established by the Minister of Agricul- ture and his Californian instructor. Twelve hundred sheep of various kinds, including merinos, South- downs, Cots wolds, Lincolns, and Leicesters, have been imported, and are thriving admirably on the rich pasturage provided for them. There seems no reason why the experiment should not prove entirely successful and, if so, the day is not far distant when the hill sides of Japan will be covered with flocks of this most useful animal. Gl,-)be.
OPENING THE NEW HOTEL DIEU IN PARIS. In Paris, last Saturday, Marshal MacMahon officially opened the new Hotel Dieu, which stands close to the dismal old hospital of the same name. The ceremony derived some interest from the fact of the building now inaugurated having beeu ordered by Napoleon III., who in a decree, much commented upon at the time, declared that the new opera and the new hospital should be opened at the same time—one building for the rich, the other building for the poor. His Majesty no doubt had in mind what Napoleon I. exclaimed on ordering the erection of the great central markets: The people shall have their Louvre." Napoleon III. did not live to witness either the opening of the new opera or that of the new hospital; Marshal MacMahon presided over both ceremonies. There was a large crowd gathered in the square in front of Notre Dame, by which he was saluted with cries of "Vive MadMahon mingled with others, fewer in number, of Vive la Ré- publique On entering the building the President was received by the principal officials of the hospital, but only a few words of welcome and courtesy were exchanged. The Marshal examined every part of the establishment, complimenting the Sisters of Mercy on the success of their efforts, encouraging the officers, and speaking words of consolation to the Eatients. He seemed to be in a peculiarly good umour, and interspersed his observations with lively anecdotes and reminiscences. On the celebrated Dr. Gueneau de Mussy being introduced to him, the Marshal presented him with the officer's rosette of the Legion of Honour, remarking, "I have owed such a distinction to the doctor for a long time. We are acquaintances of twenty years back. Up to that time I never had need of a doctor, but then I fell ill, and asked to have the bprt physician in Paris. M. Gueneau was at once pointed out to me, and he paid me a visit. He told me to remain quiet, and that the cure would work out itself. However, I did not. get any better, and that annoyed me all the more, as I was invited to a great hunt. I mounted my horse all the same, and while I was crossing a frozen pond the ice broke, and I got a thorough duck- ing. The next day I [found myself perfectly cured." To this conclusion of the Marshal's story Dr. Gueneau added the observation, "Of course, it was hydro- therapie."
THE NAVAL ENGAGEMENT IN THE BLACK SEA. An Occasional Correspondent of the Daily News writes from Sebastopol This morning having received an invitation from Captain (now Lieutenant-Colonel) Baranoff, the com- mandant of the Vesta, I went on board, and was most courteously shown everything connected with the late engagement. The captain, like many gallant man, is excessively modest and is idolised by his men. The battle began at twenty minutes past eight in the m Drn- ing, and the last shot was fired at forty minutes past one. During the whole of the time this little cargo- boat, about, I should say, 150 feet long by 25 broad, manoeuvred in such a manner that her monster enemy never succeeded in running into her, and, finally, having received some injury, at present un- known to us, the double-turreted ironclad sheered off from] the fight. The Vesta is a screw steamer, I u about 500 tons. She was purchased by the Company in 1859, and has been employed, I believe, between Constantinople and Poti. She carries five 6-inch mortars, and two 9-pounders, and on each side of the bridge are two pretty little steel guns about 3 feet long. They are called anti- torpedo breech-loading cannon, and are on a Swedish system. A Greek gentleman, who was on board, worked one of these with great success during the action. He was introduced to me by the captain as having evinced a coolness and bravery worthy tu p,raise- His name is Spiripoulo. He told me that he had served with the French army during the Crimean War. The engagement was not wanting in the comic element. A shot passed through the galley (which is on deck) while the cook was engaged in an operation with two large knives, called chopping cut- lets. This is a most scientific and self-absorbing per- formance, well known to everyone who has visited Russia, and its importance in the eyes of the Chef may be imagined when I state that though the shot passed close to his head, never for an instant did the vv ^ie knives cease or the performer take the slightest notice of what had occurred. The saloon servants in the thick of the fight prepared the breakfast as if nothing unusual were going on, although an immense shell ricochetted playfully through tha Cfrv.m' an<^ blew up alongside the powder magazine. When the Vesta found that the Ottoman ship was beyond the reach of her guns, she headed for Sevastopol with all speed to obtain succour ft)r the wounded, and to bury the dead. I have now to chronicle the last act in this brilliant naval episode. Ere the blood had dried on the deck, or the mortally wounded had passed away, honours and rewards came froni the Czar. Aide-de-;amp to the Emperor, a pension of five thousand roubles a year, the Cross of St. George, and the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, l'Uph were the rewards of the gallant commander. Every officer, man, and boy on has been treated iu a similar spirit.
A RECOLLECTION OF SINOPE. A Correspondent of The Timet recalls he following recollection of Sinope :— It was here at Sinope, 00 +,1.n. revoke*, ht. xoci juadron of seven frigates and five small corvettes and brigs was totally destroyed by an overwhelming Russian force. The enemy's fleet, after hovering about the place for several days, suddenly entered the bay, under the oover of fog and rain, and immediately opened a most destrictive fire. There were six line-of-batde ship», two frigates, and four steamers, and the poor Turks had not the slightest chance. They were short of powder, and could not move nevertheless, they did their best to return the enemy's fire, and died hard, their vessels blowing up or sinking under them. It soon became a mere butchery, for the Turks en- deavouring to escape to the shore in their boats were slaughtered by hundreds, their Christian foes not ceasing their fire for a moment, but continuing to pour in shot and shell upon the poor wretchos as they were struggling in the water. Over 3,000 officers and men perished in this affair, which excited at the time the indignation of Europe, and, in addition to the destruction of the ships, a great portion of the town was reduced to ashes, although Q°t a shot had been fired from the shore. Sinope forms a splendid naval station, and was formerly used as such, but it has been neglected since the Crimean war, though there is still a small dockyard kept up and a ship is occasionally built here.
WISE IN THEIR GENERATION. A special course of musketry instructior has been opened at Spandau for German offioer.' from all parts of the Empire, -and it is understood (tm.;TB tb Evening Standard), that the chief task assigned b those in attendance will be to study and make experments on the different patterns of breech loaders in us-, so as to arrive at a final decision as to which to adipt. The Manser rifle, it is stated by those who annen with it, leaves much to be desired. These who lawe, had ex- perience with the Dreyse far and away refer that weapon, and raise three objections to tb Manser. The first seems hardly valid, but the wo others are not ro be slighted. They say that it is too light, that it becomes over-heated after a certain I number of shots, and that the recoil h e ceasively painful to the shoulders. The Germans set a example to other military nations—in their hour of sueess they I' do not neglect precautions having won the ace, they endeavour to preserve the lead. Thus, istead of pooh-poohing any hints they may receif; as to deficiencies, and "procrastinating through ti idity or fltlse cunning, they set about rectifying mist kes and making improvements on the spot. We may beure that the recommendations which will emanate fronr-pandau will be adopted forthwith, and that the entre army will be supplied with the rifle ultimately appnved by I the council of officers. Greater uniformity ( feeling will be secured, and that bond of amity and oc fidence known as esprit de corps will also be strengthened by bringing together the leaders of Saxon and N urteni- burg, Hessian and Prussian regiments, tc per fee; themselves in their profession in communit. The establishment of this school at Spandau is not the only sign of the untiring activity and vi j-ance of the Prussian authorities. The headquarters-stag is about to send a commission of superior ofirs to draw up an exact report on the number aad civilities of the railways and the matiri-el and staff of the various companies throughout Germany. The prin- cipal object these officers will have in view will be the arrangement of a system of temporary stations at every important junction on the line, with adequate depots of third-class carriages, so that in case a mobilisation were precipitately ordered, men would not have to be sent to their destination in open waggons and baggage-trucks, as in 1866 and 1870-71. The Germans are taking time by the forelock, it will be perceived: but they were always wise in their generation, and exceedingly provident.
ATTAR OF ROSES." The Daily Telegraph remarks :—There will be no plums worth speaking of, and very few apples, so authorities in promiculture dolefully tell us, this autumn. We may console ourselves under the threatened deprivation by the thought that we can procure plenty of fruit from abroad. But no such nattering unction can we lay to our souls when we learn that, owing to the devastating war in Bulgaria, total ruin and annihilation have overtaken the rose-crop in the valley of Kazanlik, and the neighbouring districts of Cirpan Giopca, Karadshah Dagh, Kofun- Tepé, Jeni- Saghra, and others. All these places are devoted to this peculiar and beautiful husbandry; the reses are grown by the field-full, and in ridges like unto the growing of potatoes, while the intervals between the rose-bushes are heaped high with fallen leaves, useless for the staple manufacture of Kazanlik, but very good for the making of pot pourri and tooth paste. The roses of Kazanlik, when plucked, served other purposes than to be worn in the buttonholes of peace- able Turks. The region was the head-quarters of the manufacture of the delicious perfume called attar of roses,' a universal favourite throughout the East, and extensively patronised in Europe, although by some its overpoweringly sweet odour is objected to. Kazan- lik and the valley of the Tundja have been called the Cashmere of Europe, the Turkish Gulistan, the Land of Roees;' but it seems only too probable that for a long while to come we shall get no more roses from the Balkans, or indeed from any part of Turkey, European or Asian, since the demand for soldiers and more soldiers must, by suspending the labours of the peasantry, have been as destructive to the rose country in Asia Minor and in Syria as in the districts actually ravaged by the war. So far as the yield of attar of roses is concerned, the mischief may not be irreparable, if it be thought worth while to foster the growth of roses and the manufac- ture of attar in other countries. A-udalusis, Granada, and Valencia were all, in the time when the Moors held sway in Spain, important centres of the cultivation on a large scale of flowers and the fabrication of perfumes; and even at the present day there are many flower farms round Tangiers and Tetuan in Morocco, where roses are grown in enormous quantities for manufac- turing purposes. It is, finally, a curious fact that some seventy years ago an ingenious French emigrant in this country got together a large capital, and ob- tained the patronage of the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV., for a scheme, the object of which was to cover the then open district lying between Brompton and Fulham with rose farms, the final cause of which was to be the making of 'attar.' The hypothesis of the ingenious emigrant was that as the soft and marshy soil of Putney was notoriously favourable to the growth of asparagus, the land on the opposite shore would prove as propitious to the culture of roses. He accordingly established more than one flower farm, but the scheme eventually same to nothing still, to even the partial triumph of the Frenchman's abortive ex- periment has been ascribed the existence at the pre- sent day of such a multitude of nurserymen and florists, aU doing, seemingly a most prosperous business in the neighbourhood of Brompton and the Fulham- road."
A CURIOUS INCIDENT. A Berlin paper reports the following curious inci- dent, which has happened on the Potsdam line of rail- way :—The driver of the engine, upon the train near- ing the station of Steglitz, was surprised to observe three ladies standing upon the rails, gesticulating vehemently, for the purpose, it seems, of causing him to stop the train. The driver made good use of the engine-whistle, to induce the ladies to step off the rails. But all in vain the ladies remained immovable upon the line of the approaching engine, and thus left the driver no alternative but to run over them or to give the signal for the train to stop, though there was nothing upon the line to justify such a signal. The ladies, as soon as the train had come to a full stop, ran hurriedly towards a carriage, out of which a gentleman was looking, with surprise marked in his face, called him papa, and requested him to alight from the car- riage (the train having stopped exactly opposite the residence of the ladies), so as not to be compelled to finish the journey to the station of Steglitz and travel back unnecessarily. The officers in charge of the train, surprised by such impudence, thought different, how- ever, and not only would not allow the gentleman to leave the train, but compelled the ladies to enter a carriage and in company with their papa took them to the station of Steglitz, there to answer to the station- master for their audacity, and probably to pay a heavy fine for delaying the train and infringing their bye- laws.
DEATH of a MEMBER of the LIVING- STONIA MISSION. The melannboly nowo oommuiiiualed by telegraph through Reuter's Agency, announcing the death of Dr. Black, the head of the party in connection with the Free Church Mission sent out to Lake Nyassa last summer, was received in Edinburgh on Sunday even- ing. Dr. Black though a youngjnan, was well-known in Scotland, and more particularly in Glasgow and the west, where he studied, and where his worth and work could be best appreciated; and, by the large circle of his friends and by all interested in the progress of the Livingstonia mission, the announcement of his death will be received with feelings of the mbst poig- nant regret. Not one of those who formed the expedi- tion set out with a firmer determination or brighter hopes. He was prepared for any sacrifice at the same time was sanguine of success attending the work of those with whom he was acting. It may be remembered that the reinforcement to the Free Church Mission, of which Dr. Black was the head, left this country towards the end of May, 1876, along with the party of the Established Church, and two gentlemen in the interests of nmmerce, art, and natural science, and that late in autu an they joined Dr. Stewart, of Lovedale, who ccnduc ed them to their destination. Only a few months age letters of the most encouraging kind were received fr< n Dr. Stewart and Dr. Black regarding the pros pec'3 ef the mission, but one of Dr. Black's early epieti s showed that even on the journey out his health uffered. In a communication to Dr. Joshua Pat raon, of Glasgow, describing his arrival at Livingstonii, he said:— We all fcilt the change when we arrived. All were able to be up, except myself, but I had heart enough and strength enough to get up from the deck of the steamer and join in the hurrah three time tcld, with which our friends greeted our coming. We found them well, and well favoured this says a good deal for the Nyassa climate, compared with the Shire Valley. If we had tarried much longer down there, some of us would have left our bones; and as it was, we suffered a good deal. At one time so many as 15 were off duty. I was the first to take the fever. This was in the Quaqua or Quillimane river. The attack, though severe, was very short. My second began a week ago, and now I am convalescent. Some of our men have suffered very long with it, but all of them have come through well. Only five out of the 23 who left Port Elizabeth have escaped without it." When the second Livingstonia expedition was being organised, Dr. Stewart selected Dr. Black, and by all who knew him the choice was regarded as a particu- larly happy and fortunate one. Dr. Black, after the completion of his medical and theological studies, was ordained by the Free Presbytery of Glasgow, the service taking place in Free St. Matthew's Church. Before taking his departure from this country he was the recipient of many thoughtful acts of kindness by gentlemen in the east and west of Scotland. A meeting, largely attended by influential citizens and presided over by Principal Douglas, was held in the Free Church College Hall, Glasgow. At this gathering the most cordial wishes were expressed for l)r. Black's welfare, and as a token of interest in his work and respect for himself he was presented with a valuable case of surgical instruments, the gift of Dr. Joshua Patterson, Dr. Black was also honoured <swrtb a farewell meeting in Edinburgh, at which the venerable Dr. Duff presided, and on that occasion the youiig missionary spoke in hopeful terms of the undertaking with which he had connected himself, re- marking that the mission would be a fitting memorial of Dr. Livingstone, and, by the blessing of God, would bring light, liberty, and salvation to the tribes around Lake Nyassa. The telegram containing the sad news of Dr. Black's death is dated Cape Town, July 24th.-Edinhurgh Daily Review.
ARMIES FED ON DATES. Midhat Pasha is reported to have said that an Asiatic soldier, to remain completely capable for marching and fighting, requires only one pound of dates every day. This statement must, it appears to us, be an exaggeration. The nutritive value of dates is well-known, and, judging from published analyses, which, however, are not very concordant, the nitro- genous or flesh-forming constituents are present ia them in fair proportion to the sugar and other non- nitrogenous or heat-producing constituents. But if we take the most liberal estimate, one pound of dates cannot contain more than an ounce and three-quarters of flesh-formers, ten ounces of heat-producers (chiefly sugar), and some fifteen or twenty grains of fat. Now, Dr. Lyon Playfair, from very extensive study, has es- tablished a¡¡ the daily minimum necessary for bare sub- sistence two ounctes of flesh-formers, twelve ounces of starch and sugar, and half an ounce of fat. This re- presents the lowest of workhouse diet, and is absolu- tely incompatible with work of any kind, and yet it is considerably better than the pound of dates. Asiatics are undoubtedly frugal and abstemious, and, living in a warm climate, can work on food that would not content an Englishman. But war is hard work, and hard work can no more be done upon insufficient food than a steam-engine can be driven without coal. Let us take an instance common enough in war. A man, weighing with his accoutrements 1501b., marches 20 miles on level ground. The work he does is the same as if he had raised 850 tons a foot high. To do this work a certain quantity of the substance of the body must be oxidised,, and the waste so occasioned must be replaced by extra food. If the extra food were bread, 21 oz. would be necessary; if beef fat, only 5 oz. if. potatoes, 46 oz. some foods being more and some less valuable as ftiel.-Lancet.
James Drummond, R.S.A., died at his residence in Edinburgh last Saturday evening. He was the son of an Edinburgh merchant, and was born in 18W. At the age of 19 he had a picture hung on tha walls of the Royal Scottish Academy and from that time until the present year no exhibition has been held in this city which did not contain one or more of his worfes. Mr. Drummond was distinguished in the depastment of historical painting. Two of his pictures which were exhibited in the Royal Academy, London, were purchased by the Prince Consort
r ■ ■ ■ — A QUESTION TO BE DECIDED. The civil tribunal of Melum, in the department of the Seine-et-Marne, has decided that a landowner is not entitled to destroy upon his own property' birds which feed on animals and insects injurious to his neighbours. The plaintiff in this case alleged that M. de Segonzac had ordered his gamekeeper to place upon posts not far from his (the plaintiff's) lan i snares, in which owls, bats, and other night birds were fre quently caught; that, in spite of the repeated com- plaints made, the destruction continued, and that in consequence the mice and other vermin had increased to such an extent as to spoil his crops. The tribunal, holding that these facts, if proved, would render the defendant liable for damages, have appointed three neighbouring farmers as experts to ascertain what damage, if any, has been done to the plaintiff's crops, and whether it has been caused by animals whose presence on his land is due to the destruction of birds of prey by the defendant. In the event of their answering these two questions in the-affirmative, they are to assess the amount of damage done and report to the tribunal.-Pall Mali Gazette.
THE COLORADO BEETLE SCARE. A. M. D." writes to the Mark Lane Exprem:- Sir,—Much of the present excitement about the Colorado Beetle may be traced to exaggerated notions as to the extent of the damage done by it to the American potato crop. In order to correct the notion, I send you the follow- ing facts The potato crop of 1876 was a fair average one. In many of the States, as in Maine, for instance, the yield was far above the average. In a few localities only it fell below that average, more on account of unseasonable weather and other causes than that of the beetle. From the report of the Agricultural Bureau for 1876 I extract the following:- The potato crop was extraordinary. Exclusive of sweet potatoes the estimate is 166,000,600, the area increasing 200,000 acres on 15 per cent., and the yield advancing from 67 to 110 bushels per acre. The result was a price too low in many places to pay for cultivation and marketing, the total value being less for the large crop than the small one." The American farmers have little or no dread of the insect, and have substantially checked its depredations by various efficient means—the principle and most effective of which has beea Paris Green with flour. It is quite a mistake there fore to regard the destructiveness of this insect as likely to equal that of the potato-rot. If it should come-of which there is good reason in my opinion to doubt-we can give it as warm a reception as the Americans have done.
MR. MECHI ON THE CROPS. Mr. Mechi writes from T'ptree Hall, Kelvedon, Essex :—"Harvest, which commenced in this district on the 1st inst., is interrupted by a soaking rain, that has, however, greatly improved the second crops of clover and grass, and will continue the previous favour- able prospect of an abundant root crop. It also enables us to plant cabbage as a second crop. The wheat crop varies considerably. Owing to the long wet winter and cold spring, the crop is thin, especially on un- drained soils. The ears are however, large and well filled with plump kernels. The general opinion is that it will not, or will barely, reach an average. Spring crops went in late on many soils, and are backward, but much improved. They are generally considered under average. Peas and beans are not well filled. The hay crop has been a good one, and the stock food is generally very promising. Labour is in sufficient supply lis. to 12s. 6d. per acre is paid for cutting, cartimg, and stacking the corn crops beer is given in addition. I pay for cutting, carting, and st&cking fifty acres of wheat and thirty acres of barley and oats 12s. 6d. per acre, and beer, deducting Is. per acre for use of the reaping machine. Pea-picking and fruit- gathering have afforded much gain and employment to the labourers' families. I paid more than J650 on this small farm for pea-pieking.
THE TASTE FOR SHOOTING. In an article on the 12th of August, the Standard re- marks :— The 12th of August has been said to be held as sacred by the English1 sportsmen as the 15th of the same month is by Frenchmen, or the date of the flight of the Prophet by the unspeakable Turk; and the sacredness is easy of comprehension by the healthy mind, free from crotchets, prejudice, and fanaticism. The 12th of August signifies to several hundreds of the hardest worked men in England that the holiday they prize most has begun A dead set has been made in our time by philoso- Ehical philanthropists against this particular sport; ufc their morbid efforts have failed absolutely when brought into contact with ineradicable national, and, we might add, ineradicable human, instincts. No- body desires to turn every man he meets into a sportsman; indeed, the complaint among sportsmen is that their ranks are too crowded already. But the vast majority of Englishmen would have a moor if they could, and only limitation of soil and deficiency of means prevent the country from being one vast shooting ground. To represent the taste as one con- fined to the upper or upper middle classes is to display an ignorance of national peculiarities, perhaps not un- common among persons deemed specially benevolent. If we except a certain portion of the community who would be found to inhabit provincial towns and to be occupied with the smaller branches of trade, we may say that every class of English society is fond of sport. A dog and a gun are the ideal of a country bumpkin; and the sprightly mechanic of our large towns cherishes a like notion of perfect happiness. Game preserving in the neighbourhood of our large towns has become so difficult, and in fact not worth the candle, simply be- cause the denizens of these crowded centres are themselves incurably addicted t° sport. When it is asserted that poaching springs from hostility to game preserving the real truth of the matter is absolutely travestied. A pc.-tcher is only a sportsman enjoying sport which does not belong to him, because it belongs to somebody else. If he were rich enough he would pay for it. Since he is not, he tries to get it gratis, so passionately fond is he of this paiticular pursuit. If the class that contributes most of our poachers were as fond of silver spoons as of shoeting birds it would be by no means safe to leave spoons about. Man in his most civilised con- dition retains enough of his original self to love the chase of wild things above all other occupations.
SHODDY VINEGAR. It is no exaggeration," wrote Baron Leibig, to say that we may judge with great accuracy of the commercial prosperity of the country from the amount of sulphuric acid it consumes." When he wrote this Liebig probably had no reference to such consumption of this fiery liquid as appears to be now going on in America, and just possibly here in Eng- land also. Vinegar, as most people are aware, may be obtained trom various sources. In this country most of our manufacture of it is from malt—presum- ably at least. In France the grape is the principal source, and so it is in Germany, where, however, beetroot and potatoes are also employed. In America most of the home manufactured vinegar has hitherto been supposed to have been derived from either apples or grapes, but the Board of Health of the district of Columbia has had the inquisitiveness to test the accuracy of this Supposition. They to ik samples representing 1,000 barrels, a consignment from the enterprising town of Chicago, and they found that every gallon contained about 5q grains of an- hydrous sulphuric acid in combination with lime, and another five grains of free sulphuric acid. The acid and the lime together formed gypsum a form of sulphate of lime which only wants mixing with water in proper quantities to constitute plaster of paris. Of this substance every gallon contained 117 grains. Sulphuric acid is what is commonly known as oil of vitriol, of which most people know enough to be able to form some idea of the effect of imbibing a solution of it instead of vinegar. It is employed very largely in making superphosphate of lime for manure, m the production of other acids, in the preparation of sulphate of iudigo, in the purification of oils, and so ID on. It may he purchased at three farthing or a penny a pound, and says the Columbia Board of Health, a pound of it would l ender a barrel of fluid as acid as the strongest vinegar." Hence, with all its other functions, oil of vitriol has been dragged into the manufacture of a liquid which will do duty for good vinegar for every purpose to which vinegar is applied, and will yet be little better than a virulent poison diluted.—Globe.
SELECTED ANECDOTES. A ENfIIB OF REBPOXSIBUJTT. A distinguished Southern gentleman, dinirw at a New York hotel, was annoyed at a negro servant continually waiting upon him, and desired him one day at dinner to retire. Excuse me, sir," said Cuffy, drawing him- self up, but I'se 'sponsible for de silver." WOMEN'S PRIVILEGE.—To a lady who had ventured to oppose Dr. Parr with more warmth of temper than cogency of reasoning, but who apologised by saying "It was the privilege of women to talk nonsense, he replied, "No, madam, it is not their privilege, but their infirmity. Ducks would walk if they could; but nature suffers them only to waddle EXTEMPORE PROVERBS.—Swift had an odd humour of making extempore proverbs. Observing that a gentleman in whose garden he walked with some friends seemed to have no intention to request them to eat any of the fruit, Swift observed, It was a saying of his dear grandmother, Always pull a peach When it is within your reach and helping himself accordingly, his example was fol- lowed by the whole company. At another time he framed an old saying and true," for the benefit of a periOD who had fallen from his horse into the mire:— The more dirt The less hurt. The man rose much consoled. SMOKING IS HOLLAND.—" Smoking in Holland," said a traveller, is so common that it is impossible to tell one person from another in a room full of smokers." How is any one who happens to be wanted picked out, then?" asked a listener. "Oh, in that case, a waiter goes round with a pair of bellows and blows the smoke from before each face till he recognizes the person called for." His VIEW OF IT.—An old Marquesan chief, on being told by a missionary that in heaven there was no war, or hunger, or thirft, or sickness, or death, replied "That will be a good place for cowards and lazy folks, who are afraid to fight and too lazy to climb bread-fruit and cocoanut trees." RATHER TALL — A Transatlantic contemporary works up to a climax in a complimentary notice, in the following cautious manner :—" The large blue eyes of the bride seemed brighter than ever; and, with her light hair, formed a suitable contrast to her hus- band's extremely black hair and eyes. This matri- monial alliance has not been entered into unadvisedly; it has been in contemplation for about two years, and meets with the most cardial approval of all the rela- tives and friends of the newly-married couple. The bride's mother regards her new son-in-law as if he were her own son. He will continue, as heretofore, to be employed in the vegetable-ivory button factory." THE RAINT DAT.—A gentleman travelling in one of the Southern States of Asierica, during a storm, took shelter in the cabin of a negro. through the broken roof of which the rain poured down in torrents. 11 I-Xhy don't you mend your roof, Cuff ? said the gentleman. "Oh, um rain o, massa, ('<¡'l't," ¡Iid the negro. "But why don't you meiid it when it doesn't rain?'' asked the gentleman "Yah, massa," s^idthe negro, with a grin den um dohn want mendin' TAKIKG IT LITERALLY.—A countryman in the depths of dyspeptic despair called on a physician. The doctor gave him some plain advice ti1 hisfood, making a thorough change, and ended by waiting a prescription for some tonic, saying, Take that,, and come back in a fortnight." In ten clays Giles returned, blooming and happy, the picture of health- The doctor was delighted, and proud of his skill. He asked to see what he had given him. Giles said he had not got it. Where was it? "—" I took it, sir." —" Took it! what have you done with it I ate it, sir You told me to take it! A RUNNJNG FOOTMA.N.-The Duke of Queens- borough, who died in 1810 is said to have been the last nobleman who kept running footmen: he was in the habit, before engaging them, of trying their paces, by seeing how they could run up and down Piccadilly, he watching and timing them from the balcony. They put on his livery before the trial. On one occa- sion, a candidate presented himself, and ran. At the conclusion of his performance, he stood before the balcony. You'll do very well for me/said the Duke. 'Your livery will do very well for me,'replied the man, and gave the Duke a last proof of his ability as a runner by running away with it. AN EXTENSIVE TRADER.—A gentleman observing the name of a clergyman in the Gazette, as a bankrupt, expressed his astonishment, and inquired, "What article oould he deal in ? To which a wag replied, What article ? why in no fewer than thirty-nine "ISB NOWHAP xxam DE Top.It is generally supposed that the "average American" beats the world in hitf love of big titles, and in his use of them but the freed Southern negro beats his white fellow citizen all hollow. We hear from Texas of one who is Head Centre of a Lodge—exactly of what sort we don't know, but we suppose that it must be a lodge in the wilderness or perhaps, in Solomon's phrase, a lodge in a garden of cucumbers. This culled pusson will spend two months' wages to report" at a grand junction "jainberee" of his "lodge." The titles of the officers of these associations are something wonderful. A negro office boy down there asked leave of absence for a day to attend a meeting. Why," said his master, Scip, I didn't know you belonged to a lodge." "Oh, yes boss, "replied Africanus, Ise Supreme Grand King, an' Ise now- har near de top nuther." Who shall say that the abolition of slavery was not worth all that it cost ? WHAT A NOSE Not many years ago, in the village of Eatonton, Georgia, a man made his appear- ance and stopped at the tavern. He had a most -to- markable nose, one which almost monopolised his entire face-red, Roman, enormous. The glances cast at it and the remarks made about it had rendered its owner somewhat sensitive upon the subject. A half- grown negro boy was summoned by the proprietor to, carry his baggage to his room. Cuffee was much taken with the nose. As he came out of the room, unable t@ contain himself longer, he exclaimed, Golly, what a nose Our traveller overheard him, and went to his m&ster with a demand for his punish- ment. Cuffee was called up, and at the suggestion of some bystanders, was let off on condition that he would apologize to the offended gentleman. This he readily agreed to do. Walking to the room where our traveller was, and touching his hat and humbly bow- ing, he said, Massa, you ain't got no nose at all ARE THERE EQUESTRIAN ANGELS ?—An old farmer, a crabbed sort of fellow, used to give his minister a load of hay every summer as his yearly present. Whenever he came with his load, the hay somehow or other used to be very low on the scaffold, and it gave him a good opportunity to scold. "How you do waste your hay, Parson 1) ? You have too muck company; you shouldn't ask everybody that comes along to stay all nieht. Do 2s I do when it comes dark, lock your door and go to bed."—" But," replied the minister, you would not turn a stranger away, would you, Mr. B- ? The Bible commends hospi- tality and you know it says that in entertain- ing strangers, some have entertained angels, un- awares!"—"Ay! ay!" returned the old gentleman, but angels don't ride on horses JAW-BONE AND BRAINS.—John Hunter, the great teacher of anatomy, in demonstrating the jaw-bone, observed that the bone was known to abound in pro- portion to the want of brains. Some students at the time were talking instead of attending to the lecture, when Hunter exclaimed, Gentlemen, let us have more intellect, and less jaw. THE DUTCHMAN'S BARGAIN.—A Dutchman let his lands to an oil company on condition of receiving one- eighth of the oil procured. The well proved to be a pretty good one, and the farmer began to think that the oil men should give him a better chance, and ven- tured to tell them so. They asked him what he wanted. He said they ought to give one twelfth. The agreement was finally made, with the understanding that the Dutchman was not to tell anyone. All went smooth until the next division day came, when our friend was early at hand to see how much better he would be off under the new bargain. Eleven barrels were rolled to one side for the oil men and one for him. This did not suit him. How's dish ? says he. '*1 think I was to get more as before. By jinks, you make mistake The matter was explained to him, that he formerly got one barrel of every eight, but it was his own proposition to only take one of every twelve. This revelation took him aback. He scratched his head, looked cross, and relieved his swelling breast of feelings of self-reproach by indignantly remarking—" Well, by dunder, dat ish de first time as ever I know'd eight was more as dwelve
THE MARKETS, MARK-LANE.—MONDAY. There was no feature in the grain trade at Mark-lane, the market being more or less nominal. Scarcely any English wheat was on sale. There was not much demand, and quotations were much about the same. A few samples of new were received, but not sufficient to stamp quotations. Foreign wheat was in moderate supply. Business was on a quiet scale, at about late rates. Barley was scarce, and sold slowlv, but at extreme currencies. Malt sold at late prices. Oats were in fair supply and quiet request. The tendency of prices was rather in favour of buyers. Maize, though quiet, was firm and quite is dear. Beans and peas sold at previous quotations. The flour market was quiet and without feature. METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET.—MONDAY. The cattle trade showed no particular alteration. Supplies were short, although equal to requirements, and the level of prices was much about the same. The receipts of beasts from our own grazing districts were short. The condition and quality were, on the whole, tolsrably satisfactory. Generally speaking, the trade was quieter, at late rates. The best breeds sold at 5s. lOd. to^ 6s. per 81b. From Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, and Northamptonshire we received about 1,500, from other parts of England about 250, and from Ireland about 40 head. On the foreign side of the market was a fair show of beasts, including about 200 American, and some Danish and Spanish. The demand for them was quiet, at previous quotations. The sheep pens were rathersparingly filled. The show of English breeds was, however, fairly satisfactory. There was no feature in the market, sales progressing quieter, and prices ruling about the same as last week. The best Downs and half-breds sold at 6s. lOd. to 7s. per 81b. Lambs were quoted 7s. to 8a. per 81b. Calves add pigs sold at about late rates. At Dept- ford there were about 1,700 beasts, chiefly Tonning, and about 8,000 sheep and lambs. Coarse and inferior beasts, 4s. 6d. to 5s. second quality ditto, 5s. to 5s. 6d. prime oxen, 6s Sd. to 6s. 10d., prime Scots, Ac., 5s. lOd. to 6s. coarse and inferior sheep, 5s. 6d. to 6s.; second quality ditto, to 6s. 6d. prime coarse woolled, 6s. 8d. to 6s. 10d. prime South downs, 6s. 10d. to 7s. lambs, 7s. to 8s. large coarse ealves, 5a. to 5s. 6d. prime small ditto, 5s. 6d. to 6s. large hogs, 2s. 6d. to 4s. 4d. and neat small porkers, 4s. 6d. to 4s. lOd. per 81b. to sink the offal. METROPOLITAN MEAT MARKET.—MONDAY. There was a moderate supply of meat, the demand for which was dull, at the following prices :—Inferior beef, 3s. to 3s. 8d.; middling ditto, 4s. 4d. to 4s. 8d. prime large ditto, 5s. to 5s. 4d. small ditto, 5s. 4d. to 6s. 8d.; veal, 5s. to 6s. 4d. inferior mutton; 3s. 6d to 4s. middling ditto, 4s. 2d. to 4s. 8d. prime ditto, 6s. 4d. to 6s. 4d. large pork, 4s. to 4g. 6d.; smail ditto, 4s. Sd. to a. 4d.; lamb, 6s. to 6s. Sd. per 81b. by the carcass. POTATOES. There is a steady market for potatoes of all descriptions not absolutely diseased, and the following are the quota- tions Kent Regents, 110s. to 150s Essex ditto, 110s. to 1458. Shaws, 90s. to 100s. kidneys, 60s. to 180s. early rose, 88s. to 100s. per ton. HOPS. There is nothing xpuch doing in the hop market, but prices may be quotod moderately heavy, the reports as to the progress of the bine being conflictinc, aud on the whole hardly so good. Foreign markets are in much the same state. GAME AND POULTRY. Live quails, Is. 6d. to Is. 8d. fat ditto, 2s. 3d. to 2s. M.; live ortolans. Is. 9d. to 2s.; fat ditto, 3s. lOd. to 4s. 4d. leverets, 3s. 9d. to 6s. small ditto, 38.. to 3s. 6d. rabbits. Is. 6d. to 56. conies, 10d. to Is. 2d. puUets, 5s. to 6s. 9d. chickens, Is. Cd. to 8s. Sd. ducks, 2s. to 4s. ducklings, 2& 9d. to 4s. 6d.; young turkeys, 5s. 6d. to 9s. haunches of venison, 80s. to 60s. each; forequarters of ditto, 7>1. to 9d. per lb. FISH Fresh herrings, 4s. 6d. to 6s. roused ditto, Ss. 9d. to 6s. Cd. red ditto, 3¡¡. to 4s. 6d. pickled ditto, SSe 9d. to 7s. kipper ditto, 5s. to Ss.; bloater ditto, 6s. to 8s. Gd. native oysters, 18s. to 21s. common ditto, 6s. to 10s. 6d. per hundred; mackerel, 2s. to 6s. 6d.; mullet, 3s. 9d. to 5s.; lobsters, 8s. 9d to 30s. crabs, 6s. Gd. to 27s. 6d. per dozen salmon, Std. to lOJd.; grilse, lOd. to Is. trout, 9d. to lid.; eels, 6d. to lid. per lb. PROVISIONS. LONDON, Monday, August 13.—The arrivals last week from Ireland were 213 firkins Butter and 4,132 bales Bacon, and from foreign ports 19,546 packages Butter and 3,409 bales Bacon. The Butter market continues in the same aullstate except for the very finest quality, for" hich there is rather more enquiry, Norniandys ranging from SOs. to 120s. accord- ing to qualities. Best Dutch 110s. to 120s. In the Bacon market there is no change to notice in prices or demand. Butter, per cwt.: s. s. Cheese, per c\i't. s. s. Dorset 130 to 140 Ctieshire 48 to 70 Friesland 112 120 Double Glocester 66 74 Jersey 84 90 Cheddar 74 89 Fresh, per doz. 13 15 j American 44 58 Bacon, per cwt.: Hams York 0 0 Wiltshire 74 7i Cumberland 0 0 Irish, green, f.o.b. 80 84) Irish 96 104 HAY. WHITECHAPEL, Saturday, August 11.—At the market to- day a fair supply of Hay and Straw was on offer. These was a dull trade, and prices were steady as follows Prime old Clover, 100s to 140s. inferior S5s. to 95s. good new, 100s. to 126s. Prime old Meadow Hay, 90s. to 124s. in- ferior 70s. to S5s.; good new, 80s. to ll>0s.; and Straw 44s. to 60s. per load. TALLOW, s. d. s. d. Town Tallow, per cwt. 42 9 Rough Stuff, per cwt. 15 6 Rough Fat, per 81bs 1 10 Greaves 12 0 Melted Stuff, per cwt. 30 6 Good Dregs 6 0 Yellow Russian, new. 43s. 6(1. per cwt. Australian Mutton Tallow. 43s. od. Ditto Beef Ditto. 42s. Od. LONDON. Monday, August 13.—Nothing yet passing in Clover seeds, the prices being still too high for the views of the buyers Trefoil was held for rather more money, and fine qualities met a fair sale. White Mustard seed was in moderate request at former rates. Nothing passing in Brown for want of supply. New English Rapeseed was in good request at 70s. to 74s. for fine dry samples. New English Rye, in' good condition, sold at SSs. to 40s. per qr. Fine new winter Oats commanded 2ss. per qr. Tri'olium Incarnatum was offered at very moderate rates, but Lùi. yet being wanted few sales were effected. Foreign Tares realised previous values with a fair sale. Large Imperial Peas were very dear, up to 68s. per sack, but inferior samples are worm-eaten, and offer low
f In the HOUSE OF LORDS, Aug. 13, the Appropriation Bill, the Expiring Continuance Bill, the Local Taxation Returns Bill, and the Turnpike Acts Continuance Bill, were read a second time, and the Standing Orders having been suspended Were also read a third time and passed. The Commons' Amendments-to the Municipal Corpora- tions (New Charters) Bill were considered and agreed to. Lord Stratheden and Campbell presented a petition from the kinsmen of the Chief of Palttana, in the Province of Kattywar, under the Presidency of Bombay, complaining that the Chief had imposed new taxes, had appropriated villages which they claimed, and had imprisoned several families. Lord Salisbury assured Lord Stratheden that there had been no neglect in the matter, the greatest care having been given to the investigation of the case, and the decision come to by the Government erf India was that there had been no injustice in the matter. In reply to Lord Shaftesbury, who called attention to the question of the limitation of the kinrs of labour in Indian mills and factories, Lord Salisbury stated that a Commission was appointed about two years ago to inquire into the subject, and the majority of the Commission were in favour of the existing system; but he assured Lord Shaftesbury that the matter should not be lost sight of. Lord Truro, after alluding to the outrages which had occurred in the vicinity of Blackheath, and referring to certain recent disclosures concerning the Police, asked Whether the Government intended to take any steps to inquire into the condition and administration of the Metro- politan Police Force. The Lord Chancellor, in answering the observations of Lord Truro, stated that steps had already been taken for making the inquiry which Lord Truro desired. Their Lordships then adjourned.
A WEAK INVENTION.—The keeper of a luncheon bar, a careful man, one day broke a tumbler. He stood for a moment gazing at the fragments, with a Pained look, as though sudden ruin had happened to •Una; and then, turning to the barman, said, "Tom, Put a pint of water into the old Cognac."
DETECTIVES IN AUSTRIA. In an article on "Foreign Detectives" the Standard remarks On the Continent, detectives, or, as they are there known, secret police, have been established as a State institution far longer than in England; and Austria claims to have been the first to organise a regular force. During her many revolutions, her troubles with Polish, Hungarian, and Slav conspirators, she had need of shrewd agents, who could watch and cir- cumvent each little plot in its early stage. There were great rewards for the successful agent. By a large party he was not regarded as a spy, but as a loyal servant of the Crown and a friend of peace. Among those agents were many persons of education and great ability. They were only known to the Minister of Police, and even the most trusted Was very seldom instructed to act in concert with another. A dozen might be sent to discover the same secret, but all went singly and unknown to each other. Even at the present time the head waiter of every hotel in Austria is one of the secret police. He is under the orders of the Minister and is obliged to report every event of interest which takes place in his hotel. In this way the Minister can discover all that his agents are doing, who they mix with at the hotels, where they stay, and every place they visit. These hotel agents are the most faithful agents, and for this reason all over Germany, and especialiy Austria, hotel keeping is looked upon as a trade which must be studied like any other. The sons of rich tradesmen are sent as apprenticed waiters, and after arriving at the stage of "head-room waiter," which is like a general manager of the house, they look out for an hotel of their own, and in such cases the friendly con- sideration of the Minister of Police is of great value. This system .of check and counter check, as might be expected, often leads to some little comedy, and two agents dog each other about for days, each reporting to head-quarters the suspicious doings of the other. In such cases one of them is usually recalled, and being thanked for his labour is sent to some other quarter. To instruct one not to watch the other would, of course, divulge the secret.
THE DEATH OF AZIZ PASHA. The Correspondent of The Timet with the Turkish army, in writing from Rasgrad, gives the following particulars of the death of Aziz -Pasha:-an event, which he says, is a grievous visitation indeed for the army In the person of Aziz Pasha were united the fine qualities of the Turkish soldier with the best military education which Western Europe could bestow, and which he had acquired in the course of a lengthy residence at Vienna, Berlin, and Brussels, both in the quality of student and of military attacM. The result of this training was that on every occasion calling for the display of administrative ability or action in the field his brilliant talents became conspicuous, and he was universally regarded as a worthy aspirant for the highest military honours. His personal bravery, too, and genial manner made him the idol of his men and tfte favourite of all who were fortunate enough to make his acquaintance. It will readily be believed, then, this gifted man, who was, I need not say, filled with most glowing patriotism, was sorrow- fully afflicted with the thought how the military affairs of his country had been previously conducted. Still he felt impotent to avert the pitiless fate which seemed to threaten his race, and he was mortified to think that his Corps Commander, Ahmed Eyoub Pasha, turned a deaf ear to all his counsel and advice. On this account he is said to have fallen into a deep melancholy, from which at last his brain became seriously affected. According to another version his ailment was the result of a sunstroke. Be that, how- ever as it may, it is agreed by all who had any inter- course with Aziz Pasha during the latter days of his life, that he bore traces of mental derangement, which openly showed itself in the engagement of the 26th, and finally was to blame for his death. But whatever was the cause, the effect was clear and cer- tain, and this alone can explain the fact of such a man as Aziz Pasha, a highly skilled soldier, venturing on a fool-hardy act which never could succeed, and which could only have the effect of uselessly wasting the lives of the men under his command, and frustrating the task they were appointed to perform. Such a blunder ~r, ultl have liuVttJ. 1.o, ,"vLLu.1LL",ll 1.oJ' do .1lia..1.I lUie AzlZ Pasha unless he were influenced by causes beyond the control of his will. His military and moral qualities would otherwise have saved him from such a mistake. A short description, however, of the affair of Esirdje will threw some light on the sad occurrence. On the 26th inst. a divisiog in Rustchuck had re- ceived orders to join the army at Rasgrad, but as the heights of Kadikoi and Turlak were known to be occupied by the Russians and as Cossacks has approached the railway not far from Rustchuck, it was foreseen that the flank of his division would be threatened. It was therefore intimated that its march would be protected by a force from the direction of Rasgrad, and Fazuli Pasha's Brigade, belonging to Aziz Pasha's Division, and consisting of six battalions of foot, one battery, and two squadrons of horse, was appointed to protect the flank of the advanc- ing column. Early on the morning of the 26th this bri- gade, which was joined by Aziz Pasha himself, set out and continued marching as far as Bazin and Pisanca, where it came to a halt in order to await the advancing column, throwing out, meanwhile, horse patrols to explore the country. At one o'clock word was brought to Aziz Pasha that the wood to the west of Turlak was occupied by the enemy, and that heavy columns were advancing from Turlak. With an air of confidence, however, wholly inexplicable in the circumstances, Aziz Pasha replied to this by affirm- ing that cowardice must have dictated such tidings to the officer in command of the scouts, smiting him at the same time with his sabre. Straightway, however, he ascended an elevation near, and was then convinced of the truth of the announcement. Hereupon he ordered half a battalion to advance in skirmishing order, one battalion to act as sup- ports, while the remaining four and a half bat- talions, with the Horse and a half a battery, formed the reserve, which never came into action at all. The three other guns Aziz Pasha ordered to advance and engage as many of the enemy's cannon; and these, speedily un limbering, began to pound away vigorously at the foe. The Brigadier advised him to let the whole of his battery advance and open fire, but to this Aziz Pasha retorted by curtly remarking that he wanted no more guns than were at the service of the enemy. Dismounting then, with revolver in hand he pressed forward to the line of skirmishers, who had already been driven in and were now reinforced, and began to incite his men to charge. Fazuli Pasha and the other officers con- jured him not to expose himself so recklessly, but he answered their remonstrances by charging them with cowardice, and the Staff at last were compelled to acquiesce in his foolhardy course. Scarcely, how- ever, had they advanced a few paces when Fazuli Pasha was struck by two bullets, and fell seriously wounded from his horse. Two officers of his suite and two battalion commanders were likewise wounded. Once more an officer implored Aziz Pasha to retire, but he was shot down for his pains. But now the General himself met with his fate. A bullet struck him in the very centre of the forehead, it is said, and he fell dead. This was the signal for his men to abandon the use- Jess struggle, thuugh they retired skirmishing all the way in order to finish their alloted task, and in about two hours all firing ceased. Not a single superior officer came off scatheless, and the troops, therefore, were led back to Rasgrad by Ahmed Eyoub Pasha, who had hurried to the front on being informed of the fight. The body of Aziz Pasha could not be taken along owing to the rapidity in which the retreat had to be effected, but the sword and revolver of the de- ceased General were picked up and brought bafck to headquarters. The affair cast the Turks 85 killed and 215 wounded.
THE FUTURE OF ENGLAND. The Paris Correspondent of the Daily Telegraph writes The Russian St. Petei-sburg Gazette devotes a long article to the question of the future of England, which is not remarkable for the newness of the ideas it contains so much as for the calm and deliberate way in which it indirectly instils into the minds of its readers the simple fact that England's downfall is Russia's mission and Russia's glory. It begins by remarking on the change which is taking place in the field of politics, and by pointing out how the policy of intrigue and diplomacy is gradually giving way before the policy of nationalities. With this change England will lose one of the chief instruments of her power-namely, intrigue. The article then goes on to discuss the weakness of the British Empire, and, quoting Mr. Bright's speech at Bradford, it argues that the various possessions of the United Kingdom are not bound to it by any moral or material bonds, and are consequently maintained in their integrity by the force of arms only, and any of our colonies might any day follow the example of the United States and declare its independence. The obedience of India, the writer says, is retained by force of arms, but mainly by intrigue; the English have never done anything to attach themselves to the native population, and the precarious state of our domination is proved by Lord Beaconsfield's having recourse to such theatrical expedients as the journey of the Prince of Wales and the proclamation of the Queen as Empress of India. The article con- cludes that England's power exists chiefly by reason of her prestige—a prestige the tradition of which is so well established that England may yet long retain the faith of the rest of the world,^ which alone con- stitutes her security. England's ruin, he thinks, will come from simple decomposition. Russia has nothing to fear from her; it is England's own business whether she listens to the counsels of prudence or not. As it is an active, though an unavowed, assistance which she lends to the Turks, it will serve Russia as an example to be followed when the time comes. The writer con- cludes as follom Let us, then, neither despise nor exaggerate the forces of our eventual enemy. We must thoroughly grasp the idea that England is not what she was formerly, and that her fleet even is not what it was in the old days before the torpedo appeared
BIRDS' PRESERVATION ACT. Mr. Prank Buckland writes in LanA and Wate, Wednesday, August 1, was the first open day for the London and suburban birdcatcliers. The close time began in March, so that the birds have had a fair chance of increase. The birds this year have never previously had such a chance, as the fanners and land- owners have prohibited the birdcatchers from trespass- ing on their lands. Air. Davy, the bird dealer of Camden Town, hag brought me his monthly report. He informs me that the Act has not caused any not-kmbhs increase in the soft-meat, that is insect-eating, birds. The blackcaps and nightingales arrived unusually early this spring, owing to the genial weather. The weather having changed to cold easterly winds, caused these birds to go to nest very late; insect food was very s £ a?ce- He has spent much time in looking round their old haunts, where there used to be abundance of insectivorous birds. Few are now to be seen, and the young are very poqr, and late in moulting. Out of five young nightingales caught to-day, only one had started moulting, and two old male bird* had but just commenced to moult. These birds take their de- parture at the end of the month, any to a certainty they will be much later in leaving this year, as they never go away until clean moulted. August and Septem i>er ave the silent months of the year, as the birds are jp&tl moult. The butcher birds had large nests of voung, and, un- usually abundant and strong, they can be heard in most of the hedgerows round London. These birds prey largely upon the willow wren, chiffchaff, and larger and lesser whitethroats. The butcher bird watches his opportunity, and with a sudden dart rl springs upon his prey and strikes it in some vital partil at the back of the neck. The willow wren, &c., are greedy insect-devourers and do a deal of good, and are an easy prey to the butcher bird. The catcners will« make havoc in the Western counties among the young goldfinches by the ead of this week, these Deing the only parts in Saff'.and where they nioat abound. This year they are veryfecarce, and prices run very high. The catchers are getting double the price of ten years ago. The reason of the scarcity is on account, principally, of the barren thistle- growing lands being brought under cultivation, and this par- ticular bird being such an easy prey to the catchers, and such great favourites as home petf. Few of these birds are now to be taken in Berkshire and Wiltshire, where they were a few years ago plentiful, and no doubt, from the same cause. Woodlarks appear plenti- ful this summer, but were very scarce ii the early spring. Thrushes, blackbirds, and stalling! are largely on the increase, owing to the fear of the aw among the country lads, who generally supplied the haycart men with nests and eggs when coming to ;he London markets."