IMPERIAL PARLIAMENT. In the HOUSE OF LORDS, May 7, Lord Carnarvon stated, in eply to the Earl of Kimberley, that the Government had no reason to doubt the truth of the statement that the Transvaal territory had passed under British protection Lord Waver: Cy mo^ed an address praying that her Majesty would he pleased to invite the co-operation of the !}overriliie"¡ of the Maritime States, her allies, in maintain- ing the security of commerce in the Mediterranean and in the seaways leading thereto. The Earl of Derby intimated that practictl proceedings such as took place under the old Greek war of independence were not to be apprehended, and that with the introduction of steam all the old conditions had changed. No complaint had reached the Government in regard to a renewed out- break of piracy in the Mediterranean. The motion after this explanation was withdrawn, and thMf lordships adjourned. In the HOUSE OF COMMONS unusual interest was mani tested to hear Mr. Gladstone move his resolutions with re gard to the Eastern Question. As early as four o'clock the front galleries were crowded with peers, foreign representa- tives, and strangers of all ranks. The side galleries, too, were filled with honourable members aud noble lords, and so full a House is seldom witnessed. Mr. Gladstone entered from behind the Speaker's chair soon after the business had commenced, and was received with a party cheer When the Chancellor of the Exchequer had moved to sus- pend the Orders of the day, Mr. Trevelyan invited the right Honourable gentleman the member for Greenwich to accept an amendment modifying the second paragraph of his resolu- tion as follows "That this House is of opinion that the Porte, by its conduct towards its subject populations, and by its refusal to give guarantees for their better government, has forfeited all claim to receive either the material or the moral support of the British Crown." Mr-. Gladstone accepte i the amendment, and a lengthy fend animated discussion ensued upon the course to be adopted and the effect of the new proposal upon the motion as it stood on the paper of the House "Sir John Lubbock, too, expressed his intention of not moving the "previous question," and Mr. Glad- stone was challenged to say whether, in this ohange of circumstances, he would press the third and fourth paragraphs, to which such serious objection was enter- tained The right honourable gentleman explained the posi- tion in which he was placed and the reasons which induced him not to take a vote from the chair on the paragraphs ob- jected to. The House, however, was evidently desirous of hearing a speech, aud, the orders of the day b ring postponed, Mr. Gladstone rose, loudly cheered from the Opposition Benches, to move the first of his five Resolutions. After referring to the meetings of the past week, he proceeded to show that his Motion was rendered necessary by the conduct of the Government, which for the last 18 months, he said, had been more deploraule than the conduct of any Govern- ment since the Peace of Vienna, and also on aCC"6nnt of its ambiguous position. This he illustrated by a review of the conflicting declarations of the members of the Government and of the language of the Ministerially-inspired Press, of which last he said that it was deliberately intended to pre- pare the public mind for war. Commenting on Lord Derby's answer to the Gortcliakotf Circular, he said it was redolent with the old odious doctrine of "moral support." Against the policy of remonstrance and expostulation Mr. Gladstone protested with much force and earnestness, declaring that if he went no further than this the work must pass into the hands of others. In support of his first and second Resolu- tions, he reviewed the history of the atrocities, Lord Derby's) Despatch, and the present deplorable condition of the country, insisting that the guilt must be fixed, not on the minor instruments, but on the Turkish Government, which had caused and encouraged the massacres. The Government by its policy had led the Christian subjects of the Porte to look upon Russia as their only friend, and had forced upon Russia the task of redeeming them from oppression He contrasted with their conduct the vigour with which a Liberal Government acted in the caee of the Syrian massa- cres and, reverting once more to the true interpretation of the Treaty of Kainardji, he contended that the Crimean War deprived the Christians of a safeguard which we were bound to make good to them. Repeating that he did not intend to take a division on the third and fourth Resolutions, he declared, amid loud cheers from the benches below the gangway, that he adhered to all the Resolutions. Although he could not understand why Lord Hartington would not go the whole length with him, he did not wish to obtain from him a sanction to anything but that for which he voted. He deplored as much as any one the irregular methods to which the Opposition had been obliged to resort for influencing the foreign policy of the country but the necessity of the case was their justifica- tion.—Mr Gladstone thus concluded his speech, "It is a great crisis in which we stand. Legislative bodies are always engaged in the making of history, and it is a very grave pas- sage 111 hiBtory which we are now engaged in making. Sir, there is before us not one controversy, but two. There is the controversy between Russia and Turkey; there is the controversy between Turkey and her revolted subjects. I think the Government and their supporters out of doors in the Press are making a great error in this—that it is the first of these two controversies—that between Russia and Turkey, which after all is only symptomatic—to which they address their minds. In my opinion the other is the deeper and more important. (Cheers.) The other is a controversy which can have no issue but one, and I do not hesitate to say that the cause of the revolted subjects of Turkey against their op- pressors is as holy a cause as ever animated the breast or as ever stirred the hand of man. (Cheers,) Sir, what par.t are we to play ? Looking at this latter controversy—the contro- versy between Turkey and her subjects—the horrible massa- cres of last year, the proofs which have been afforded that they are only parts and indications of a system, that their recurrence is to be expected, and is a matter of moral certainty if they are now allowed to pass with impunity looking at the total want of result from Lord Derby's efforts at that mockery which has-been cast in our teeth in return for what I quite admit was'upon ordinary principles an in- sulting despatch, can we, Sir, say with regard to this great battle of freedom against oppression which is now going on, which has been renewed from time to time, and for which one- thiid of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina are at this moment not only suffering exile, but, terrible to say, absolute starvation, upon which depends the fate of millions of the sub- ject races that inhibit the Turkish Kmpire—can we with all this before us, be content with what I will rail a vigorous array of remonstrances, well intended I grant, but without result, as the policy of this great country ? Can we, I say ooking upon that battle, lay our hands upon our hearts, alild in the face of God and man, say with respect to it, 'We have well and sufficiently performed our part?" (Cheers.) Sir, there were other days when EnglaHd was the hope of freedom. Wherever in the world a high aspiration was entertained or a noble blow was struck, it was to England that the eyes of tlie oppressed were always turned—to this favourite, this darling home of so much privilege and so much happiness, where the people tlmt liad hiiilt np a noble edifice for themselves would, it was well known be ready to do what in them lay to secure the benefit of the same inestimable boon for others. (Cheers). You talk to me of the established tradition in re- gard to Turkey. I appeal to the established tradition, older, wider, nobler far—a tradition not which disregards "British interests, but which teaches you to seek the promo- ho of those interests in obeying the dictates of honour and of justice. And, Sir, what is to be the end of this ? Are we to identify the fantastic ideas some people entertain about this policy and that policy with British interests and then fall down and worship them ? Or are we to look not at the Sentiment, but at the hard facts of the case, which Lord j?erby told us 15 years ago—namely, that it is the popula- tions of those countries that will ultimately possess them—that will ultimately determine their future con- dition ? It is to this that we should look, and there is now before the world a glorious prize. A portion of those people are making an effort to retrieve what they have lost-I mean those in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Another portion a band of heroes such as the world has rarely seenstand on the rock of Montenegro, are ready now, as they have ever been during the 400 years of their exile from their fertile piani, to meet the Turk at any odds for the re-establishment of justice and peace in those countries. Another portion still, the five millions of Bulgarians cowed and beaten down to the ground, hardly venturing to look upwards, even to their Father in heaven, have extended their hands to you, they have sent you their petition, they have prayed for your help and protection. They have told you that they do not want alliance with Russia or with any foreign Power, but that they want to be delivered from an intolerable burden of woe and shame. That burden of woe and shame — the ifreateat that exists on God's earth — is one that we thought united Europe was about to remove, that in the Protocal united Europe was pledged to remove, but which for the present you seem to have no efficacious means of contributing to the removal of. But, Sir, the removal of that load of woe and shame is a great and noble prize. It is a prize well worth competing for. It is not yet too late to try to win it. I believe there are men in the Cabinet who would try to win it. (Cheers). It is not yet too làte I say, to become competitors for that prize; but be assured that whether you mean to claim for yourselves a part of the immortal crown of fame which will be the reward of true labour in that cause, or whether you turn your backs upon that cause and your own duty, I believe, for one, that the knell of Turkish tyranny in those Provinces has sounded. It is about to be destroyed, perhaps not in the way or by the means that we should choose but come the boon from what hands it may, I believe it will be gladly accepted by Christendom and by the world." (Loud and prolonged cheering.) The right hon. gentleman moved the first of the Resolutions, which was as follows :— That this House finds just cause of dissatisfaction and complaint in the conduct of the Ottoman Porte with regard to the despatch written by the Earl of Derby on the 21st day of September, 1876, and relating to the massacres in Bulgaria." The Speaker having put Mr. Gladstone's first resolution, Sir. H. Wolf moved as an amendment a counter-resolution declaring that the House declines to entertain any resolution which may embarrass the Government in maintaining peace and protecting British interests, without indicating any alternative policy. He objected to Mr. Gladstone s resolutions that they preached that subservience to Russia which had been Mr. Gladstone's object throughout, and his speech, if it meant anything meant war against Turkey. It was chiefly owing to the collusion of former Governments in the misgovernment of Turkey that the present Government ad been unable to take a more decided course. Mr. Chamberlain said he should have voted for the third and fourth resolutions, believing that the slight risk of war with Turkey was worth incurring to secure the righteous object in view. Ir. Cross (the Home Secretary), who was very warmly cheered from both sides of the House when he rose to reply for the Government, hought that, after the agitation of the last week, the eountry woultl be surprised to learn that Mr. Gladstone had totally changed his front. Although he sym- pathised with the autumnal agitation, he denied that the meetings of last week furnished any guide to the opinions of the country. Mr. Cross said—" Now, as to those which were neld in the autumn, I can only say that I, for one, should nave been ashamed of my countrymen if public expression had not been given from one end of the land to the other to their utter detestation of the horrors which had been com- mitted in Turkey. (Cheers and counter cheers.) Do you think that because we, happening to be Ministers of the Crown, pursue a line of policy which you do not like, we have not the feelings of Englishmen ? (Cheers.) Da you sUPPose that we twelve men are the only persons in the country who have not been alive to the horrors Which have been going on in Turkey? (Cheers.) If you think that, or if you have let the country tliink that, you are grievously mistaken. And I am bound to say that you have misled the country, and led it to think that because we have pursued the policy that we considered right and just, we are more callous than you to the horrors of war. The right hon. gentleman says no,' but it is true. (Cheers.) I think these allegations against the Government are perfectly wise. (Continued cheering.) But when you come to the meetings that have been held during the last Week they are not the spontaneous feeling of the country. (Cheers.) It is a matter of notoriety that they Me meetings held for the express purpose of backing up those Resolutions which the right hon. gentleman disdains to put before the House. (Cheers,"and cries of Yes, and if the opiniflhs of those meetings are to be gathered as the opinion of this House is gathered, and if all the horrors Perpetrated in Turkey are to be paraded before the country, and if they are to be spoken of by the most eloquent man who can be found, and if you propose Resolutions con- taining some policy to stop these horrors, and if at tlie game time you strike out the j>ith of those Resolu- tions, I do not wonder at your getting any ex- pression of opinion at such meetings." (Cheers.)—After some observations as to the Conference at Constantinople, and -the meeting at St. James's Ilall, Mr. Cross proceeded :— The right hon. gentleman says we had determined that the Conference should fail, and that it must fail because we told Turkey that we were not going to enforce the decision of the Conference by arms, Now, I want to ask the right hon. gentleman if any gentleman who has taken any part in these meetings has ever put to the people of this country this question straight out—' Will you go to war?' (Cheers.) And that is the question which you shirk to-night. (Cheers.) ■inat is the one thing that you do not dare to put to the country and to this House. Are you prepared to go ™ war against Turkey as an ally of Russia ? (Cheers.) The !ight hon. gentleman will have all opportunity of answer- lng me. Let him answer that question if he can—not n a dozen or even a hundred sentences—but by a simple »es' or 'So.' (Cheers.) It is a simple question It is j* vital question. It is a question that admits of no deviation. It can only be answered in a monosyllable one Way or the other. (Cheers.) Are you prepared to engage tne country in a war with Russia as an ally against Turkey ? We did not get at the answer to that question in the long wrangle of an hour and a half, when we heard that the third and fourth Resolutions were to be withdrawn."—Mr. Cross then proceeded to reply in detail to Mr. Gladstone s criticisms on the Ministerial policy, and insisted that the two landmarks of that policy had been— not to sanction the invasion of Turkey by foreign armies, and not to acquiesce in misgovernment or oppression.in Turkey. He vindicated Lord Derby's Despatch, and main- tained that it was Russia which had scattered the European concert to the winds. Now that war had broken out, absolute neutrality was the rule of the Government, and neither side would have either moral or material support from us.—With respect to the course Russia had adopted, Mr. Cross said— Her Majesty's Government would willingly have refrained from making any observation on the subject, but as Prince Gortdfchakoff seems to assume, in a Declaration addressed to all the Powers of Europe, that Russia is acting in the interest of Great Britain and other Powers, they felt round to state, and I feel bound to state openly here, in a manner equally firm and public, that the Russian Government is not acting in concert with the other Powers. (Cheers.) If any Power has more than another prevented united European action, that Power is Russia. (Cheers.) Russia and Turkey are at war—war in a part of Europe which is the most inflammable you can conceive—in that part of Europe where every Power has an interest, and I am srory to say an almost antagonistic interest. Of that war we feel the effects in this our own country at the present moment in the rise in the price of bread. (Hear.) War having broken out, the landmarks of the policy of the British Government are as clear as they were before. They have nothing to do with the war. Great Britain has declared absolute and strict neutrality. What the result of the war may be God only knows, but all the efforts of the British Government must clearly be as far as possible to localize the war-to reduce its area to a minimum. The hon. member for Birmingham and the right hon. gentleman the member for Greenwich have talked about British interests, and the hon. member for Birmingham has challenged Her Majesty's Government to point out what are the British irterests which can possibly be drawn into this war. The policy of Her Majesty's Government is one of strict neutrality between the parties. We warned them as long ago as May, 1876, that they had nothing to expect from us. We. warned them at the Conference, and since there has been no loss of time in the issue of our declara- tion of neutrality. In the war between Russia and Turkey we are absolutely impartial. Whether that war will produce the results which it is supposed will be produced is another matter. Although our efforts will be directed to prevent that war from spreading, it is impossible for any one to say where it will stop. There are English interests, there are European interests, there are Indian interests, there are world-wide interests which may be concerned. We do not want additional territory—we want nothing. We wish this war had not broken out. Batoum and other places have beeu spoken of, but there is the Suez Canal in which not only England, but the world, is seriously con- cerned. Why the Suez Canal should be attacked by Russia in any shape I cannot imagine. (Hear.) Whether attacked by Russia or by Turkey, that is a question of not only English, but European interest. It is the road from the West to the East of the world. Take another place in which not simply England, but the world is interested. I mean Egypt. Well, what am I to say about the Treaties as to the Straits of the Dardanelles and the possession of Constantinope ? Is it necessary for carrying on the war between Russia and Turkey and for the protection of the Christians in Turkey that Constantinople should be either at- tacked, approached, or occupied? I say 'No.' These are questions which no country in Europe could regard with indifference and when I mention them I hope they are so remote that they will not practically arise. But they are questions which must be considered by any British Government and which any Ministry, even if the right hon. gentleman (Mr. Gladstone) himself .were at its head, w6uld not dare to neglect, or if it did, the country would very soon send it an answer which It could not mistake. (Cheers.) However, I hope, as I have said, these things are in so remote a future that we need not contemplate them. Let me quote the words which the Emperor Alexander used on the 2nd of November last to our Ambassador. His Majesty said, 'He had on several occasions given the most solemn assurances that he desired no conquest, that he aimed at no aggrandizement, and that he had not the smallest wish or intention to be possessed of Constantinople.' Let us see that his Majesty keeps to his words. (Cheers.) He continued :— f "All that had been said or written about the will of Peter the Great and the aims of Catherine II. were illusions and phantoms. They never existed in reality; and he con- sidered that the acquisition of Constantinople would be a misfortune for Russia. (Hear, hear.) There was no ques- tion of it, nor had it ever been entertained by his late father, who gave proof of it in 1828, when his victorious army was within four days' march of Constantinople." Our Ambassador further wrote that His Majesty pledged his sacred word of honour in the most earnest and solemn manner that he had no intention of acquiring Constanti- nople, and that if necessity should oblige him to occupy a portion of Bulgaria it would only be provisionally, and until peace and the safety of the Christian populations were secured. If the Bmperor keeps his word, thus, solemnly pledged, British interests will not be concerned. (Hear, hear.) But a victorious army is a difficult thing to deal with, and a country once aroused is not always so easily quieted. (Hear, hear.) All I can say is, that, as far as Her Majesty's Government are concerned, they sincerely trust that no action of Russia WIll ever require them to protect those interests which lie outside of this war but that if those interests should be affected, of course it can- not be expected that either Europe or England will not interfere to protect them." (Cheers.)—With respect to the Resolutions, Mr. Cross asserted that they either meant war or else the more undignified course of barking without biting. He concluded his speech by saying "As the right hon. gentleman seems to think the policy of the Government ambiguous, let me before I sit down state clearly what it has been and what it is. It has been not in any way to sanction oppression or tyranny in any part of the world. It has been to' preserve in- violate our treaty engagements, and to set an example which, if followed by other nations, would materially add to the happiness of the world. It is, deeply as they regret the war, to remain the strictest neutrality between the contend- ing nations. It is, outside the necessities of this actual war, to maintain, as they ought to maintain, and as any British Government would maintain, those interests of England which ought to be maintained. They have no thought of fear; they have no thought of gain. Before the face of this House, of England, of Europe, of the world, they are con- scious of the honesty of their own purpose. They are conscious of their own earnest desire for peace; they are conscious, if need be, of their strength. They have, I hope, the wisdum not to use their strength improperly, anù wher- ever the opportunity may offer to stop this war, to heal these wretched divisions, to improve the condition of these Christian populations in a way which will really improve them—and that way, in my opinion, is not by war,—to local- ize, to mimi!Í1ize, or to wipe away the effect of this war, there the Government will give their services." (Loud cheers.) After some discussion upon the date o which the debate should be adjourned, it was eventually adjourned to Tuesday. The Customs and Inland Revenue Bill was considered in Committee, and, some other business having been disposed of. thA 11m" £ 1
THE MARQUIS OF HARTINGTON ON THE NEWSPAPER PRESS. The Marquis of Hartington, in presiding at the annual dinner of the Newspaper Press Fund last Saturday, in pro- posing the toast of the evening drew attention to the con- nection between the daily press and our Parliamentary institutions. He said :— The vast modern developement of the Press, the power which it exercises over public opinion, the ubiquity of its reign, the power with which it treats the greatest subjects which affect the destiny of the human race, and the almost microscopic minuteness which it brings to bear upon even the minor details of our lives, and which made us almost suppose ourselves living and performing our every day actions in the sight. of the whole world—the complexity of the organiza- tion of the modern Press, the combination of the highest intellectual power with the application of many of the most recent inventions of science, these things had all been adequately dwelt upon, and well illustrated by those who had preceded him in that chair. He would therefore only ask those present to regand the Press in connection with an institution in which he happened, from peculiar circumstances, to take a warm and perhaps exaggerated interest. We were accustomed to speak and think of Parliament as omnipotent. It was said there was nothing Parlia- ment could not do in this country except make a man a woman or a woman a man—(laughter)—but it was scarcely too much to say that the omnipotence of Parliament is exercised now mainly and chiefly through the public Press. (Hear, hear.) It was true that Parliament could make laws which regu- late and affect the lives and actions of us all. It was true that Parliament made and unmade Govern- merts, and changed or directed the course of the national policy but how did Parliament do this ? It was in a great degree through the publicity which was given to its proceedings by the Press. (Hear, hear.) To the publicity it had given to the proceedings of Parliament, and the reasons upon which it acts, the force and binding effect, and the common consent with which the decisions of Parliament were received in this country were mainly due. (Cheers.) Let them suppose, if it could be supposed for a moment in these days, that the deliberations of Parliament were conducted in secret, and that a powerful Ministry had been displaced—or to take a humbler range of sub- jects, that a penny had been added to the income-tax, or half-an-hour cut off from the hours of drinking in public-houses. (Laughter.) If no one outside the walls of Parliament knew upon what grounds Par- liament had acted in making these changes, could it be supposed for a moment that the decisions of Parliament would receive the general, if not the unquestioned acquiescence and consent with which the decisions of Parliament are now accepted by the country? (Hear, hear.) It had been said, by one who was perfectly acquainted with the proceedings and character of Parliament, that he had often known opinions ta be changed in the House of Commons by speeches, but he had never known a vote to be so changed. Well, that perhaps was as true now as when it was said. Why, then, were speeches made in Par- liament ? Why did the great masters of oratory exer- cise the influence they do in Parliament over the poli- tical destinies of the country ? Because through the agency of the Press those speeches exercised a power- ful effect upon public opinion throughout the country, and because a speech, though it might not turn one single vote on the division following upon the question upon which it was made, might fo far to change the political character and opinion of 'arliament itself through the agency of the Press. (Cheers.) It was difficult to believe that an institu- tion to which Parliament owed so much of its power and influence is still to this day, in consequence of our unwillingness to alter our ancient forms and modes of proceeding, unrecognised by Parliament, and, in fact, only nominally tolerated. (Hear, hear.) It waa difficult to believe that any member of Parliament had to this day the right to summon the publisher of any newspaper to the bar of the House for venturing to report and publish the words which he had spoken in the House. The House of Commons the other day did not take quite the view which their fore- fathers seem to have done when they passed that standing order. They rather came to the Press in the attitude of suppliants, and addressed a humble prayer to the representatives of the Press that they would see whether they could not devote a little more space to fuller reports of the debates. (Laughter.) They were even driven to discuss what would be the alternative if the Press would not listen to that prayer, and would not report the debates more fully. The alternative was suggested that they should publish their own reports. That might be a remedy to which they might have to come, but it reminded him of the proverb which said something about one man being able to take a horse to the water, but twenty not being able to make him drink. (Laughter). It would be very easy to publish a full report of Parliamentary debates but he was afraid it would not be quite so easy to get the public to read them. (Cheers and laughter.) The sort of censorship exercised by gentlemen of the Press in the correction and abbreviation of Parliamentary re- ports was very valuable indeed to the tone and character of the debates. He could not recollect ever hearing of any rising young orator whose career was prematurely nipped in the bud by the refusal of the Press to report him at sufficient leagth; but he jdid believe that no grenter incentive could be held out to a young and rising speaker, not even the applause ol the listening senate which he is addressing, than the reward which it was in the power of the editor and reporter to bestow—the reward and honour of prominent type in the columns of a newspaper, and a report in the first person instead of the third. (Laughter.) It behoved those who were so much indebted to a profession so noble and useful to do what they could to assist its less fortunate members. Like all other profes- sions it was not exempt from vicissitudes, from calamities, and from evil fortune The labour was severe directly upon the intellectual faculties and in- directly on the physical system, and many broke down under the strain. It could not, therefore, be wrong to assist those who did what was in their power to assist those members of the profession who were accustomed to assist themselves by becoming members of this institution. It was not now merely the ordinary wear and tear of the profession which had to be encountered by some of their number. The insatiable curiosity and thirst for information of the public led the Press into more distant and more adventurous expeditions than were formerly necessary. Wherever in the civilized, or indeed in the uncivilized world, stirring events were taking place there was it necessary that repre- sentatives of the British Press should be found and at this moment on the banks of the Danube, the plams of Asia Minor, and in the mountains of the Caucasus there were representatives of this grat institution. In addition to the qualities necessary for the successful journalist at home, the special correspondent abroad needed many of those characteristics which we are ac- customed to look for in the soldier, the sailor, the traveller, and the explorer. He cou d not help think- ing that the gallant efforts of these men in the cause of information and knowledge threw something of a shade of poetry over the whole profession and as he knew that appeals to the imagination were more fortu- nate than those of the judgment alone, he was glad to think that upon this occasion he might appeal to their imagination as well as to their judgment to support this great and prosperous institution. The Hon. E. Pierrepont, the American minister, in responding to the toast of "The Distinguished Visitors," thanked the company for their warm greet- ing, and said that whatever difference might have existed between the United States and England in years past, he had constant and repeated evidence of their present friendly feelings. He deemed it auspicious that such relations existed between the two Governments at this time, for, as he listened to the murmur of a distant breeze which portended a coming storm, whose violence, extent, and unimagined dis- turbance no statesman could foresee, he thought it would be doubly .unfortunate if the two kindred nations which led the van of civil liberty in the world should be in discord. (Cheers.) He referred to the laws, the fashionable novels, and the leading newspapers as revealing, with unerring certainty, the true condition of a nation in modern civilization. Perhaps newspapers were the best test of a people's civilization. When the general tone of the Press was low the general tone of society was low. Successful journals reported public opinion, never made it, and hence there would be sometimes found a clever journal on two sides of the same question in an amazingly short space of time. (A laugh.) If we imagined all the news- papers in Christendom suppressed, we might form some idea of their priceless value. Civil liberty had never in any country survived the suppression of the newspaper Press. In modem times there was no civilization where there was no newspaper, and before the newspaper was invented liberty and general intelligence did not exist. Comparing American papers of General Washington s time and or the time of General Grant, he found them m the latter period far more temperate, more courteous, less per- sonal and abusive. The newspapers of England would no doubt also be found to be far higher ii> their charac- ter than they were a century ago. They had improved as civilization advanced, and nothing had done more to promote the welfare of mankind and spread Chris- tian benevolenee over the world than the newspaper Press. (Cheers.) „ In responding to the toast of The Travellers, Captain Burnaby, who was received with enthusiasm, said he paid a compliment to "the travellers" more intimately connected with that association who had sometimes on the shortest notice to travel to distant parts of the world.
THE POPE. The Correspondent of The Times, writing from Rome on May 6, says :— Prince Amadeo, Duke of Aosta and ex-King of Spain, has sent the Pope a magnificent chalice, richly ornamented with precious stones, accompanied by an autograph letter, in which the Prince begs His Holiness to accept the present as an offering oi a devoted son and sincere Catholic, and asks him to offer up a prayer for the repose of the soul of has deceased wife. On receiving the chalice and letter, His Holiness, moved to tears, exclaimed, This is the greatest consolation which I have ex- perienced in these moments. This gift, because of its donor, is the most precious I have received." Al- though the chalice, which is valued at 12,000f., reaches the 'Pope at this moment, it has not been sent as a jubilee present, but in fulfilmimt of a request made by the late Duchess to her husband. Yesterday the Pope gave audience to the pilgrims from all the dioceses of France. They filled the great Sala Ducale, many having to remain outside. Viscount de Damas, President of the National Pilgrimages of France, read an address, and pre- sented the united offerings of the pilgrims in a silk purse richly embroidered with gold. His Holiness, standing before the throne, replied in French. After words of affection to the pilgrims, he compas- sionated certain Governments which trembled ubi 1Wn erat timor, these religious manifestations of the peoples, mistaking them for reactionary. He told the pilgrims to give thanks to God that the Dragons had fallen through His omnipotent word, and to pray His Holy Ark might be saved and light be cast upon the present disordered state of things. After the audience, His Holiness sent the ladies of the pilgrimage beautiful bouquets of flowers from the Vatican gardens.
The rails Correspondent oi ine rones writes under date May 6.- The Pope, in his yesterday's address to the French pilgrim's, is reported by the Univers as saying :— You are witnesses of the persecution against the Church. The Governments abandon her, but she will prevail. We are under the reign of disorder. It has been said from a certain tribune that the Pope is a liar. I do not care to know what Government has said it, but it has been said. Let us pray God to revive the reign of order. Let us have confidence. The Pope's allusion was to the following passage in M. Jules Simon's speech on Thursday :— May I be allowed to say that it is not correct that the Pope is a prisoner, and that the reiterated declara- tions to be met with in many papers and letters and protests are declarations, shall I say fausses, shall I say memongires. ('Yes, yes on the Left.) 1 confine myself to saying that they are strangely exaggerated. (M. Deschanel.—'Entirely false.') And perhaps you will iudge them still more severely when I read you the text of the Law of Guarantees. The Pope is free, I say, and he proves it every day by his language and acts. I am right, then, in protesting against exaggerations which have the effect of exciting the population by deceiving them."
The Correspondent of the Daily News, writing from Rome on Sunday evening, says :— 'The Fifth of May.'—Under this date the follow- ing paragraph occupies in large letters the front page of last night's Osservatore Romano. On this day, sacred to Pius the Fifth, thy sons throughout the universe sing hymns to thy name, oh immortal Pio Nono, and raise ardent prayers to the Most High that, in renewal of the triumphs of thy holy predecessor, a second Lepanto may discomfit the modern Islamites, and crown the glories of thy memor- able Pontificate.' "For modern Islamites' read opponents of the restoration of the temporal powers."
The Pope on Monday received 4,000 pilgrims. Those from Clermont presented him with golden keys worth 9,000f., and those from Amiens with 70,000f.
TORPEDOES. It is certain that the conflict between Russia and Turkey will teach the world new and costly lessons in the art of war. Probably the strategy of the contend- ing armies will have few novelties to disclose to the military science of Western Europe, but we must remember that now, for the first time since the Austrian victory at Lissa, naval operations will have a potent influence upon events. During the Franco- German struggle the superiority of France on the seas was recognised by Germany, but the French Navy made no attempt to attack the coast defences of the enemy. The experience of 1870, therefore, added little or nothing to our knowledge of naval warfare as modified by the vast progress which has been made within the past ten years. We published on Thursday a telegram which reminds us unpleasantly that a new element, profoundly transforming all the conditions both of attack and of defence upon the seas, najist be taken into our calculations henceforward just1, as much as armoured ships and heavy guns. It i; asserted that a British merchant steamer, entering the harbour of Kertch without due precautions, struck upon a torpedo, and was blown up with her crew and cargo. The rumour happily is not yet confirmed, but it is quite consistent with probability. The Russian Go- vernment gave formal notice some time ago that the Black Sea ports were guarded with sunken torpedoes, and official warning of the fact was communicated to all the mercantile public in this country. What is said to have happened at Kertch to an innocent and friendly trader is intended to happen to the intruding enemy at Odessa, Sebastopol, and other Russian ports on the Euxine. Now, too, when the Russians have declared the navigation of the Danube to be closed, they have begun to secure their positions on the northern shore by lanes of torpedoes in front, and they will probably endeavour to block the mouths of the great river so as to prevent Hobart Pasha from bringing any effective assistance to the land forces of the Sultan. Some six weeks ago Lord Charles Beresford drew the attention of the House of Commons to the in- creasing power of torpedoes, and about the same time the performances of the Thornycroft at Cherbourg at- tracted the notice of everybody interested in naval affairs. Long before, however, the question how tor- pedoes of)uld be employed most effectively in the English Navy had been raised their use in coast de- fence is, in fact, intrusted to the Royal Engineers, but it is evident that the knowledge of such an important branch of naval warfare cannot be left in the hands of a few experts. All our seamen, as well as our coast pilots and coastguardsmen, ought to be familiar with the handling of torpedoes. Otherwise upon occa- sion it might be found that precious time was lost and great danger incurred by want of experience. At pre- sent a naval officer who is suddenly called upon to deal with torpedoes—to remove those of the enemy or to lay dawn his own—may be excused for being im- pressed by a vague sense of ftwe, not conducive to an even balance of judgment or to promptitude in action. Something has been done in the direction of this change, and the introduction of torpedoes to Jbe used from the decks of vessels is, as Mr. Reed said some time ago, a distinct step in advance. But much remains to be done, and there ought to be no delay about doing it. Of course there can be no question as to the com- pleteness of the preparations made by the Admiralty for the torpedo service in point of materiel and ma- chinery. We spend more upon our Navy than any other two Powers together, and as the wealthiest of nations with the largest maritime interests we are bound so to do. The First Lord of the Admiralty is not grudged anything that he asks Parliament for, if he gives an assurance that it is needed to keep the British Navy abreast with the Navies of foreign States. Therefore we cannot doubt that Mr. Ward Hunt has made ample provision for the offensive use of tor- pedoes if the necessity should arise for employing them, and for protecting our vast and costly vessels of war against their employment by an enemy. The Whitehead torpedo, upon the fearfully destructive power of which Lord Charles Beresford expatiated with an enthusiasm which amused and pleased the House of Commons, is but one out of many engines of this class. The Navy must possess also, we feel assured, the newest and most varied means of launching torpedoes of every kind against the enemy. No time is to be lost in training our seamen in the management of these new weapons, but the possession of the weapons themselves is indispensable to the training. Mr. Ward Hunt will doubtless be able to show that in torpedoes, as in ironclads and heavy guns, the British Navy is still far in advance of every other Navy upon the seas. Anything less than this would be bitterly resented by the English people, who, though they let high Estimates pass without complaint, are angry-and not unreasonable-when they do not get value fur their money. But no matter how complete may be the.destructive preparations of the Admiralty, the defensive efforts must be equally elaborate. The immense capital sunk in our armoured fleet and heavy guns cannot be left without protection in presence of a danger which seems not to have been clearly appre- hended by our Naval authorities till the other day. The Thorneycroffs terrible onslaught upon the Frenoh hulk at Cherbourg has given ground for the apprehen- sion that even the Devastation or the Thunderer might be sent to the bottom of the sea, or at any rate seriously disabled, by the stealthy attack of a little -vessel not much bigger than a steam launch. We must set the inventive genius of the nation to work at devising securities against this danger. The Whitehead torpedo can be directed against an enemy's ship from a distance of -1,000 yards, and in total er partial darkness the vessel bearing it would be able to approach any large ilhip without danger. The simultaneous attack of three or four torpedo boats of the Thornycroft or Lightning type would im- peril the safety of our most powerful and costly ironclads, and the only effectual method of en- countering the peril seems to be that of turning it against itself. Purely defensive measures, such as enveloping the ship with a skirting of wire nets, may be tried, and no doubt are being tried, though their utility is questioned: but the safety of oar men-of-war can probably be best insured by giving each great ironclad a couplefi23 satellites," as Lord Charles Beresford termed them, in the shape of fast steam toipedo-boats, armed with light guns and carry- ing the Whitehead torpedo. The Lightning, which was launched some weeks ago on the Thames, and which is the English representative of the Thornycroft, constructed by the same builders for the French Government, is the only vessel in Her Majesty's Navy as yet corresponding to the type which, if Lord Charles Beresford's theory be correct, ought t°. he multiplied immdiately. If> however, the Ad- miralty has not been able to decide whether this and complicated system is the only one by our ironclad fleet can be secured against the torpedo-and we see no signs of any such decision in the building orders—we may hope that every other precaution has been taken both for attack and defence. It would be wholly inexcusable if thought and labour have not been spent upon the problem of defending our,a!»I« of war against a danger that for some years r&raes beCn to ominous proportions. —The
■ MONDAY NIGHT'S DEBATE. TheTimes, in a leader on Tuesday, says. The J11 ^le House of Commons last night before Mr Gladstone moved the remains of his resolutions was *he most extraordinary, and was_ certainly one oi the least creditable, that have been witnessed within hvmg memory. It was more like the tumults of the r ri?T> 1Vonvention than the decorous calm of an Eng- r<l a f arn°at. Peace was publicly made between Mr. Gladstone and his late colleagues. But the declaration of amity-let loose an indescribable tempest. For two hours the House was in a state of wild confusion, Ministers taunting Mr. Gladstone with his change ? purpose, some of their supporters denouncing it, and some members of his own party bitterly oomplaunng 0f the feebleness to which the resolutions had been reduced. We fear we must say that the courtesies of debate vanished in the tumult. Cer- tainly nothing more could be desired in the way of planf fpeech. A few more scenes of the same kind and it will be necessary to provide the Speaker with ?UCT1 a oell as that which M. Grevy uses to keep order m the Chamber of Deputies. At the same time, it is impossible to deny that Mr. Gladstone committed a grave error of tactics. The chief gain of the debate ae wf-i admirable speech delivered by Mr. Cross. While he defended the policy of the Govern- ment with some arguments which might easily 1- r^enged, he made a statement of policy which would by itself justify Mr. Gladstone in moving his Resolutions. Mr. Cross emphatically con- demned the misrule of Turkey, and unequivocally de- clared that our Government would do nothing to pro- tect the Porte. Thus an end is put to the reports that the Ministry is inclined to let itself be made the instru- ment of the clamours for war. Mr. Cross added, of course, that the Government would defend the in- terests of England if they should be attacked, and, svh;v"o is far more important, lie gave a definition cf those interests. We should protect the Suez Canal we should guard Egypt; we should not permit any Power to interfere with the freedom of the Dar- danelles or the Bosphorus and hence we should prevent Constantinople from becoming the prize of "()l1fm.e8t.. All these ^"i^houlfi guard .A«sa attack for the sake, not meW of England, but of Europe and mankind. A similar declaration would have been made by Mr. Gladstone himself if he had been in power and that it is an essential part of our policy as first of maritime nations is as well known at St. Petersburg as in London. It is essentially also the pc; ;cy of Austria, France, Germany, and Italy. None of them could permit the freedom of the Medi- terranean and the Black S<» so he hampered. But to E;I; ;v^v.i i 0" t). uniteu i v of all those Powers Dy laying hands on Egypt or Con- stantinople is to assume that her statesmen are, in the medical sense of the term, unfit to be at large."
HYDROPHOBIA SHOULD BE STAMPED OUT. The Medical Examiner says:—"We have again to announce the death of a patient from hydrophobia at the London Hospital. This niakes the third fatal case at this institution since the middle of February Ihe last case was a lad, admitted on April 23rd, and died on the 26th, the symptoms developing very gradually. A return, issued to the House of Commons, on the motion of 31r. Whitwell, shows that in the ten years from 1866 to 18V o inclusive, 334 Tiri8 ^r°m hydrophobia occurred England and Wales, of which 110 were in Lancashire, 62 in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 35 m London, 20 in otaiiordshire, and 20 in Durham, inuring the same ten years only one death from hydrophobia occurred in Scotland. The greatest number of deaths from this cause in England and Wales in one year was 61 in 87 there were 56 in 1871, and 47 in 187o. Surely it is time that some step was taken by the legislature to protect hufnan beings froin such a fearful death. Of all communicable dIsease, rabies is most under the control of man. We know its of propagation, and nothing but reprehensible siothfulnees prevents our adopting measures which will effectually guard man against a disease worse tnan anj' of the tortures to which animals liable to vivisection' are exposed. NVO would strongly insist that every dog found without a collar bearing the owner's name and address should be taken to the nearest police-station, and then and there destroyed, without being sent to the Home for Lost Dogs to be- come a possible disseminator of rabies. Every owner would be able to protect his own dog, we should have no vagrant curs, and rabies wouldgreatly diminish. In country districts where do-,s are used for sporting pur- pose, which prevent them wearing collars, some special provision might be made." -=:=:=:
RUSSIANS AND TURKS IN 1811. An episode in the Russo-Turkish campaign of 1811, an admirable suiiita/vry of which i? contained in the last number t tl1e.Ja,hrbücha fiir die Deutsche Armee una Marine, illustrates in a very striking manner the nature of the danger which an invading army incurs in attempting the passage of 11. river on tiu waters of which it is not supreme. In opposing xtussian and J urki^jj armies stocni facing Gach ottier on opposite banks of the Danube- During the night between the 8th and %pteml jr th., Turks succeeded, by p [ui so attracting the Russians to a spot soirie three fll^Mjfcelow the real point of passage, m throwing a force 5,000 mea aud four guns across the i'iver, a short distance above Giurgevo. The first attempts of th e Russians to drive this smallix dy back into the river verc successfully withstood rein- forcements were rapidlv brought over from the light to the left bank, until, finally, 30,000 men and fifty guns were assemble I on the northern shore. Every effort to advance further and drive back the Russian army, which had fallen back into an entrenched i)(Isi- tion, was, however, repulsed; Turks themselves being obliged after a time to construct entrenchments, to withstand the counter-attacks directed against thein. Unable to drive back the invading for-the Russians desisted from anv further active measures against it but, bringing a" strong flotilla of gunboats up the Danube, to prevent supplies being carried across the river into the Turkish camp on the left bank, they quietly awaited events The provisions of the Turk- ish force, thus completely isolated, unable to advance because of the Russian force in front of it, unable to re- treat because of the flotilla which effectually prevented any bridge being thrown across the river, soon began to run short. The weather became cold but there was no fuel with which to kindle fires. Under these circum- stances the sufferings of the men were very great. For some time there was horseflesh, but it had to be eaten raw, as even the tent poles had been cut up and burned. Hundreds died daily, and their comrades had not the strength to bury them. Disease was conse- quently soon added to famine, so that when finally, °n the oth of December, peace was concluded, but 4,000 men, who are described as being but living skele- ton with scarce sufficient strength to stand upright, were left out of the 30 000 who three months before had crossed the river.Pall Mall Gazette.
PREPARING TO "FLIT." The Special Correspondent of The Times, writing from Pera, under date April 25, says Prince G^rtchakoff's declaration, conveyed yester- •rcm^ Tewfik Bey, the Ottoman Charge d Affaires at St. Petersburg, came upon us like a sudden clap of thunder, but, when its stunning effect was over, We f0UTlr| t>iat it had cleared the air, removed an uncertainty which had become iotoler- able, and, although it ushered in all the evils of war, relieved us of the heavy burden of its anxious anticipation. This was, perhaps, the first time since my arrival in Constantinople, 18 months ago, tb,¡t a public incident seemed really to stir up the apathetic population of Pera, though we have had during this period the deposition of two Sultans, the tragic death of one, and the mental derangement of another, the scare of the Softa demonstration the assassination of two Ministers, the meeting of a Con- ference and the proclamation of a Constitution, hos- tilities with Servia and Montenegro, and the iall and banishment of a Grand Vizier. Mr. Layard arrived on Friday, and with him came the conviction that, so far as one could depend on the wisdom and power of the English Governmant, peace might be considered quite safe. Unfortunately, at the very moment that the commencement of the duties of Her Majesty's new Ambassador was to be formally demonstrated by his State vifit to the Sultan, every doubt as to the interruption of diplomatic relations between the Porte and the Cabinet of St. Petersburg was removed even from the most sceptical minds. For the whole of Tuesday and yesterday the stately iron gate enclosing the front garden of the Russian Embassy was beset by a motley crowd, staring at it with such breathless interest as the Romans may be imagined to have exhibited when standing at the door of Janus's Temple. There was not much to be seen at first. Hamals, or street porters, bent double under the burden of heavy trunks and boxes, would come now and then up one or the other of the two semi- circular avenues leading from the lodge to the Palace and enclosing a little plot of ground or garden now all fragrant with the early spring verdure. Now and then, again, an employ6 with bundles of papers in his hand bustled out and exchanged a few hurried words with a visitor who bustled in, as the two met each other on the broad carriage-drive. At times a couple of saddle horses waiting for somebody would be walked up and down by cavasses within the gates; at times, somebody's carriage standing outside stopped the way in that Grande Rue de Pera, which is here at its narrowest. The stout porter at the lodge, and his stouter wife, had enough to do to answer the questions of the well-to-do passers-by, who on seeing that unusual assemblage of people, whispered their "What's in the wind? Flitting ?"—' So it seems, Sir." "What all of you?"— "So we are told." 11 M. Nflidoff ? "—"Very busy, Sir." and upon this simple hint that something great was going on inside, and that a visit at that moment would be sheer cruelty, the questioner went his way, making room for another, whose curiosity was aroused and satisfied in the same manner. The entertainment went on thus from eleven in the morning till about four in the afternoon. By this time M. Nelidoff had assembled the personnel of the Embassy in the Palace chapel, where a Te Deum, or thanksgiving for the happy termination of long, laborious negotiations, was piously sung. Presently the Embassy carriages and a few hackney coaches drove slowly up the avenue to the Palace door, thfe Charge d'Affaires and his suite took their seats, and the carriages filed off. At the moment M. Nelidoff passed the threshold, almost by a coup de thidtre, a colossal, double-headed eagle, which rose on the loftiest part of the roof in front of the stately mansion, suddenly disappeared. I had always thought the Imperial bird was gray stone, but it is only painted iron, and so fixed on hinges that it can be raised or laid down backward on the tiles at pleasure. Precisely at this juncture a hodja, or Mussulman half-priest, half-schoolmaster, in a Cir- cassian garb, was seen at the gate leaning against the wall of tne porter's lodge and reading prayers or spells to call down Allah's wrath on the Moscovs,' and uttering curses against the enemies of Islam. The personnel of the Embassy having passed out, men who were in attendance for the purpose clambered up the railings of the iron gate and threw black tarpaulin or Ax-cloth covers over the two bronze eagles which ornamented the posts on either side, when the hodja, raising both his hands, cast one more wrathful glance, muttered one more withering curse at the now tenant- less edifice, and withdrew. The scene reminded one of King Edward and the Welsh Bard. ine crowd, ever wondering and ever shifting, thronged in the narrow street till late in the even- j11^'JI a J^e iron gate had been shut, and hardly a peep of the house and of the trees on the grass-plot and grove before it could any longer be caught through the railings. The same multitude encumbered the thoroughfare all yesterday from morning to night. The vague interest of the Perote being satisfied, new gazers and wanderers came up across the bridge from Stamboul. The departure of u wasi so say, an event incredible to all who had had no ocular demonstration of it. Indeed, many stood before the gate and shook the railings, as if to ascertain the grand fact that it was really closed. Trie mob—for mob it was—was marvellously well- behaved. The police had taken precautions, and even published exhortations, but nothing of the kind was needed. The people gazed their fill and loitered for a few minutes, but soon went their way upon the zaptiehs on duty on the spot giving them a gentle hint to move on. Not roach was said by the bystanders, but their thoughts might be made out from their faces. There were dark, scowling Osmanli visages mentally counting the cost of the struggle the shutting of those iron portals portended. There were bright, bold Greek countenances, shrewd, furtive Armenian looks, revealing vague hopes and struggling to hide rising exultation.
The Constantinople Correspondent of the Pall Mall Gazette. in alluding to the visit of Mr. Layard to the Sultan, re- marks :— Mr. Layard's audience with the Sultan on Wednes- day was satisfactory both to the Sovereign and the Ambassador, suui ceremonial part of it was. more emphatically stately than usual. Mr. Layard W&P provided with a State coach-and-four ai.a two out- riders, and four state carriages followed. Theaudienee took place at Yildiz Kiosk, and afterwards, in the course of official visits at the Porte, the procession traversed all the main strec-.ts of Oalata. Stamboul, and Pera. and produced a favourable ia?.presf»ion after the j-Ikcstsn fntfft of detwiatic.n of the previous day, which had a depressing effect and set all the Greek old I W'iaen crossing £ hejsiselves, as thev still continue, to o» when they pass the. Russian embassy aud see the agles wrapped in their shrouds of tarpa-Jin. U_
THE FAMINE IN CHINA. The Si-ar><Istyd reinart* • The brief tele- .nam.- «nr. -ing iti 1 "?■ are now supple- mented by more detailed information. We gather from these fuller statements that terrible as is the famine in India, it is transcended in fatality and horror by that which prevails in the Celestial Empire. What gives to the visitation a still, more fearful character, is the insouciance which obtains amongst the Chinese authorities, who allow the people to die in their thousands without, apparently, the slightest concern. The condition of the Chinese peasantry at the present moment is represented as being most deplorable. It appears that large districts in the north and east of China suffered last summer from extreme drought. The crops were in consequence nearly destroyed, and what was gathered in was insufficient, even when supplemented by the gram which still remained in store, to supply the wants of the population. The food supplies having been exhausted, the inhabitants are no w reduced to the very last stage of want. The accounts furnished of the effects of the famine read more like the exaggerations of the novelist than the sober records of eye-witnesses. Unfortunately, how- ever, no room is left to doubt their accuracy. Mr. Richard, a Protestant missionary in Shantung, states that the people in his district are eating the stalks and leaves they usually reserve for fuel, and the following facts will fully attest the fearful nature of the suffer- ings caused by the famine. Thousands are eating fuel leaves, says Air. Richard, and thousands die because they cannot get even that. They sell their clothes and children. Having no clothing left to protect them from the cold, many take refuge in pits built underground, to keep them- selves warm by the fetid breath of the crowd. In the east suburb of Chingchow City there are four such pits. One-third of the number (240) originally put into them are now dead within six weeks, and no sooner is a corpse carried out than a crowd are struggling for the place. Villages of 500 families report 300 dead of starvation villages of 300 report 100 persons dead.' This percentage of deaths extends through eight large districts. In striking contrast to the efforts made to cope with the famine in India is the supineness of the Cliinese Government. Where the famine rages at the worst, the authorities supply relief for only a fraction of the population, and the consequence is that famine is killing the people by thousands, and pestilence is looming in the dis- tance. Nor has the Chinese Government the excuse of being taken unawares by this visitation; last autumn, it appears, it received ample warning, but being destitute both of a knowledge of financial economy and strength of character sufficient to take time by the forelock, it buried its head in the sand, like the ostrich, and ignored its dangers. The Chinese are consequently now reaping the whirlwind."
WONDERFUL DISCOVERY. The following interesting experiments made with bees, by Herr Donhoff, are recorded in the Archiv fur Anatomie and Physiologie. He took some bees from the hive, just as they came out of the entrance hole, and placed them under a glass bell at a temperature of 19 deg. C. (66 deg. F.) First they ran hastily up and down the sides of the glass and flew about in the jar. Later on their move- ments became less hasty, and after 45 minutes they all sat quietly together, moved slowly and clumsily. They were no ganger able to fly about. He let a few crawl upon a pencil, and by giving it a jerk threw them into the air they fell down perpendicularly without giving a humming sound, i.e., without moving their wings. He killed and opened one or two and found their honeybags empty. To the others he then gave a solution of sugar, and after they had fed for about 3 or 4 minutes he again threw some into the a:r. They no longer fell down perpendicularly, but a little further off, and also moved their wings. A minute afterwards they did not fall down at all, but flew to the window; they had become the same lively insects as before. If the temperature is under 19 deg. C. they lose the power of flying even sooner, and a longer period elapses before it returns after they are fed on sugar-water. In higher temperatures the power returns sooner. Herr Donhoff thinks it pro- bable that the bee loses the power of flying because it does not possess the necessary strength to be con- verted into muscular action, and that this strength returns to its system because in sugar it finds the necessary vital support. ,-Nature.
EPITOME OF NEWS, BRITISH AND FOREIGN. A Belfast journal estimates that there are at present 70,000 spindles idle" in the Irish linen trade district The Mark Lane Express of Monday night says the cold wind which prevailed throughout the greater part of the week has quite crusted the surface of the soil, and growing crops and vegetation generally have made very little pro- gress. Under the influence of drier weather the appearance f the wheat plant has improved. The Grand Duke Nicholas is forty six years of age, in the full vigour of life, a strongly made, muscular, soldierly- looking man, with a melancholy Romanoff face. He is general of Engineers and Aide-do-Camp General to the Emperor, Inspector-General of the Engineer Corps, of the Imperial Guard and of the Cavalry, Commander-in-Chief of the Military District of St. Petersburg, President of the Supreme Committee on the Organization and Instruction of the Army, Chief of a Grenadier regiment, of the regiments of Dragoons of Astrakan, of the Alexander Hussars, and of the 1st Battalion of Sappers of the Caucasus, Proprietor (Colonel- in-Chief) of the Austrian Hussars, No. 2, and Chief of the 5th Regiment of Prussian Cuirassiers A friar when preaching recently in a nunnery ob- served to his female auditors: "Be not too proud that our blessed Lord paid your sex the distinguished honour of ap- pearing first to a female after the resurrection for it was done that the glad tidings might spread the sooner. It is stated that the Government have given orders for 500 of Whitehead's torpedoes at £500 each, and have already paid the patentee £15,000 in cash. His factor)' is in Anstria, but the torpedoes will be made in piecemeal there and put together when brought to England. David Allardice, in* the employment of the Cale- donian Railway Company, while crossing the line near the Dundee West Station, on Saturday, was knocked down by a passing train, and the wheels of several of the carriages went over him. He died in the Infirmary. So anxious are the Admiralty to have the Temeraire —the only ironclad ship now preparing for sea at Chatham dockyard—completed by as early a date a8 possible, that the. workmen are employed on board extra hours. A meeting of miners' delegates, representing from 30,000 to 40,000 colliers, was held in Manchester on.Monday, to consider the masters' proposal for a reduction of 10 per cent. in the amount of wages. Mr. A. Macdonald, M.P., was present, and said that although he should not advise the men to strike, yet if they should, after dtte consideration, determine to resist the reduction, the National Association (of which he is the president) would be bound to assist them, seeing that the masters had refused to submit the matter to arbitration. The notices of the masters expire on the 17th inst., and it is estimated that the strike, should it tkjte pi ice, will throw 10,000 men out of work. The Wrexham stonemasons, having struck for tm advance of wages and a reduction in their hours, hare re- sumed work at an advance of a farthing an hour. A Bill has been printed bearing the names of Colonel Chaplin, Mr. Charles Praed, and lIlr. Samuelson, which has for its object the "regulating the use of locomo- tives on common roads, and consolidating the variouS statutes relating thereto." The Bill proposes to repeal former Acts on the subject, some of the provisions of which, the preamble sal's, "having reference to locomotives of a kind now obsolete, are so applied as almost to prohibit the use of all locomotives on common roads "—and to make new regulations. Strawberries, cherries, and asparagus from Algiers are now plentifully arriving in the Paris markets. A hundred miles bicycle race took place on Monday afternoon at Lillie Bridge, the first prize being £DO, second £ 10. Keen won, doing the 100 miles in ih. 20sec.; S, Rawson, of Derby, a most promising young bicyclist, being second, seven miles behind. David Stanton, who has done the best time on record for 100 miles, (6h. 40sec.), did not start. A weekly report on the state of the Sheffield trades mentions a fact which deserves to be pondered over by trade union leaders who deny that foreign eompetition really affects our trade. It is stated that but for the "strike clauses" which English manufacturers are compelled for their own protecton to have inserted in their contracts an order for a large portion of the plates required in the con- struction of two Italian war ships would have come to Shef- field; as things are, the entire order has gone to the Creuzot Works of Messrs. Schneider. "Bangle. Miles and miles apart now. Do please let me hear from and write to you soon. Sad beyond ex- pression. Still it is we two till death now. A Dieu".—Ad- vertisement in The Timet. A shocking accident took place on Monday afternoon at Kilburn station. As a down train from Euston was leaving the platform, Mr. Thomas Merry, the station-master, went to speak to the guard, and ran alongside the train, holding the handle of the van door. His foot slipped, and he was twisted round, and fell between the platform and the train. The wheels of two trucks in the rear of the guard's van passed over his body, causing death instantaneously. Mr. Merry was only twenty-five years of age. In the London Corn Market on Monday there was a fair sale for wheat at last Monday's rates, the depression experienced during the week having been recovered. Grinding barley was 6d. to Is. cheaper, and maize dull. Secondary oats were 6d. lower, but fine sorts were steady. The China papers state that there is still great suf- fering from the famine in some of the northern provinces, and people are said to be dying by thousands. The Celestial Empire hears" that the distress in Shantung has reached such a pitch that the unfortunate people are throwing them- selves down wells and poisoning themselves with arsenic, unable aay longer to bear their sufferings. At Tsi-nan Fu they are bringing their children to the Roman Catholic bishop, saying that if he will not take them into his orphanage they will kill them." Last Sunday morning, in the Sunday school belong- ing to the parish of St. John the Evangelist, Westminster, an interesting presentation was made to Lord and Lady Hatherley, whose ministrations in that school have during the past forty years been widely appreciated by a dense popu- lation. The gift consisted of a gold pencil-case and seal, engraved with the letter H., to Lord Hatherley, and a hand- some gold and ruby glass smelling bottle to Lady Hatherley. The subscriptions were entirely confined to the teachers and children of the schools. The Roman correspondent of The Times telegraphs that the French and Austrian Governments, to which the Pope had more particularly turned for protection, have con- fidentially informed the Vatican, in most respectful terms, that it would be absolutely impossible for them to open negotiations in the Pope's favour based upon the question of temporal power. To these communications the Holy See has repiied that, without renouncing its proper rights, the assistance it invoked was strictly on behalf of the independ- ence of its spiritual authority. Prince Bismarck, it is announced, will shortly pro- ceed to Kissingen to take the waters. Cardinal Cullen, in a pastoral to his clergy, which was read in the Dublin chapels ou Sunday, said that it was not their business to undertake the defence of the s, who have acted so barbarously towards the Christians of Late years or of the Russians who, with a skill worthy of Julian, the Apostate, in his hatred of the true religion, have carried on a cruel and destructive persecution for so many years against the Poles. If Russia be allowed to take possession of Constantinople and of Turkish provinces, there is every danger that, under her influence, C-vs&r. u-aruy wf 1 be 1 widely spread, that go^vniraents niil b«o^aie despotic, that | individual a-.d family liberty will Mi destroyed, and God's Church placed in jeopardy. Her Majesty the Queen, accompanied by Princes? I Beatrice and Prince Leopold, and attended by 'adiee 1 and gentlemen of the suite, is expected to leave Wiuisor 4 j for Scotland about the 13th i:1st.. t. When the Emperor ive« ft ¡;¡\)<hlrg tt: j other 'ay, a peasant PS j.ors 6i age*. served tuidcrihij I Xapoieou, and took pan in Dht < --rta, w&s Introduced a i to him. The Emptmr waif ir.'eh rested with ium, and |» i chatted with him 01; old tiiu. ^$ In repiy to am invitr.ti'm tojpsist at a craad UeinvB "f i .tratlon* demanding the release^ tne 'Claimant," Lord I Ktvers, who througImu ha* LÚ6n1ÍlH: of hiE Stäù.D cheÃ par j tisans, writes a* follows :—" In reply U. your rooueBt for alO ir carryntg out the proposed demonstration demanding thc rei«tse of-Sir Roger Ticfcbojrne, j best tc state that neither now nor at aD) future time WIll I aid or a*ev t any deui • tfi.ratioa having PUCII an It is reported that the gorilla which is to arrive in London, and be the sensation is as like a little negro boy in the faoe as a being not absolutely human can be, and his hands are almost startlingly human. A block printer, near Accrington, has died from hydrophobia, only six days intervening between the time that he was bitten by a dog and the date of his death. A stray dog, which was said to be mad, and had a any rate bitten a little boy in the left arm, was on Saturday morning shot in Southampton-street, Strand, London. The boy was taken by a police-constable to Charing-cross Hospital. Herr Krupp is at the present time supplying the Russian Government with a number of 11-inch steel breech- loaders, weighing 27i tons each.-Iu connection with the fact that Russia has purchased the 56-ton Krupp gun shown at Philadelphia, it may be mentioned that the SultaifTias obtained from Herr Krupp a duplicate gun for the defence of the Bosphorus. An inquest has been held in London, at the Buffalo's Head Tavern, Marylebone-road, concerning the death of William Jackson, aged 54. The evidence showed that the deceased, a carpenter, had for some years been ad- dicted to habits of intoxication. On Tuesday he went into the surgery of a friend and took out of a desk a bottle containing hydrocyanic acid used for poisoning dogs. About nine at night he retired to bed, and upon his wife going into the bedroom a few minutes afterwards she found him lying dead while on the washstand was a glass that had con- tained the poison. The jury returned a verdict that de- ceased committed suicide while of unsound mind through drink A picture painted by a young artist who has been studying at Rome is expected to make a great sensation at the Paris Salon. It represents Herodias carrying the head of John the Baptist in a dish. The wife of the gentleman who had been sitting as a model fainted away on seeing the finished picture.—Court Journal. Rumour says that the Red Sea is losing its ruddy hue, which, as is well known, is due to the presence of a microscopic plant. Many spots in the open ocean are similarly discoloured. Recently it has been discovered that the dark green colour of some portions of the Arctic Ocean is due to the abundance of a minute species of plant of the seaweed order. It is believed that the "whales' food"— very minute animals—live on this microscopic vegetable. Whales congregate in localities where the dark green dis- colouration is observed; so that an important branch of commerce is probably dependent upon the existence of a minute plant not known until recently. A fire broke out at four o'clock on Monday morning in Metz Cathedral, probably caused by the illuminations. At 5 a.m. the woodwork of the roof was in flames. The Em- peror William, the Crown Prince, Count von Moltke, and the Bishop of Metz were on the spot superintending the exertions being made to extinguish the conflagration. An alteration is about to be made at Portsmouth with reference to the professional education of engineer students. They will be required to serve a certain period afloat in addition to their duties in the steam factory, and the old Marlborough, ship of the line, is to be surveyed for the purpose of ascertaining the cost of converting her into a training ship for the students. Dr. Hardwicke has held an inquest in London at the Islington Coroner's Court, concerning the death of Louisa Kewson, aged 38, of 51, Hilldrop-road, Holloway, who died from injuries that she had received through a fall. The evi- dence showed that the deceased, a housemaid, was engaged on Saturday week in cleaning a window at the side of the house, standing on the lead at the top of the bath-room, when in stepping off the sill she stepped on to the skylight and fell through the glass into the room beneath. The de- ceased, on being examined by Dr. Clarke, was found to be sutTering from severe injuries to the spinal cord, and expired on Friday last. The jury returned a verdict of Accidental Death." The Prinee of Wales, who left Paris at eleven o'elojpk on Sunday night, arrived in London shortly after seven on Monday morning. In the afternoon his Royal Highness held a levee at St. James's Palace, and in the even- ing took the chair at the jubilee festival of the Licensed Victuallers' Asylum at Willis's Rooms. The subscriptions announced amounted to £5,000. On the occasion of a speech publicly delivered at Athens in honour of the memory of a Greek general killed during the war of independence with Turkey, a large number of those who had attended the meeting paraded the city shouting War! They afterwards proceeded to the residence of M. Deligeorgis, the Prime Minister, and renewed their cries beneath his windows. The Minister addressed the people, and said that, while he comprehended their enthu- siasm, he must earnestly urge upon them the necessity of prudence. The number of foreign cattle, sheep, and lambs im- ported into this country during the year ending March 31 last was, according to a return which has just been pre- sented to Parliament, 1,275,579, the numbers for the two previous years being as follows Year ending March 31, 1875, 995,589 and year ending March 31, ls7C, 1,300,934. The number of cargoes of cattle and sheep landed at ports in Great Britain during the three years ending March 31, 1877, was 12,380 of these 1,458 cargoes were found to have diseased animals on board, which were in consequence ordered to be slaughtered at the port of debarcation. The foot-and-mouth disease was the most common among the imported animals, no fewer than 1,381 cargoes being thus affected. Of the others, one cargo was found to be affected by cattle plague, thirteen by pleuro-pneumonia, two by sheep-pox, and sixty-one cargoes were affected by sheep- scab "A murder which took place at Boston, Massa- chussets, on the 21stf April has excited an unusual sensa- tion in that city, the murderer being a boy, by name Kim- ball, aged four years, and his victim another little boy, named Cox, only six years old. The two children quarrelled while playing together, and Kimball, who seems to be a most precocious child and known among his compaIllons as his intention of fixing Cox. Having uttered this threat, young Kimball hastily went home, and getting his father's revolver coolly walked up to Cox, who was leaning against a fence, and shot him through the head, blowing his brains out. Directly after the shooting Kimball returned to his fathers house, wheTe he quietly waited until the arrival of the police. tpon being taken into custody he exhibited some emotion, but considerihg that he has only numbered four summers' his nerve and self-possession were surprising. Little Cox's mother was quite overwhelmed at the tragedy, and notwithstanding the extreme youth of Kimball his thoughtless conduct meets with general reprehension,"—PaU-Mall Gazette During last week four stealers arrived at .n erooo from the United States and Canada, bringing coUectrVe-, 6,347 quarters of beef and 760 sheep. A meeting of booksellers has been hed in to receive a deputation from the Edinburgh trl,.I, in re- ference to underselling, which has for a long time ..een rife in Scotland. No definite resolution was arrived s. hut Jt was understood that the subject was to undergo fui-, ci*- cussion at a future time. The Morning Post has authority for conli :t:i in its entirety and in every detail the statemeiwv ap- peared in The Time*, dated Rome. May 1, i.t "the ex-Queen of Spain has requested Pius IX. t U6( L15" influence with her son, Don Alfonso, in order to '!5i'ul'.ck him from contracting a marriage with a Princesf- i' f of the Catholic faith. But it would appear that the POJK IS m-im- posed to attempt any interference with the King of 'pair's liberty in this matter." Thece were twenty-seven wrecks reported lu-ing the past week, bringing up the total for the present year to 767. The United States' Government has received infor- mation to the effect that Professor Mitchell, who was cap- tured by Abyssinian banditti while engaged in a geological survey of Egyptian territory near the Abyssinian frontier and carried off to the mountains some time since, is not dead, as reported, but alive and well in the hands of his '-aptors at Adowa. At the request of the United States' Government, the Governor-General of the Soudan has sent a special mes- senger demanding his release.-Erho. I met yesterday a near connection of the King of Spain, who confided to me that both France an iTussia were warmly bidding for the young monarch's matrimonial alliance. "France, however," said my informant, "is 80 sbooibb,i in party questions, that she seems far more alive to chimericfti fears lest the Orleans family should derive added importatiM. fh.;m the marriage of the King wifct his cousin, the daughter of :'be Due de Montpensier, than to the far more serious fo-r all parties and shades of opinion ir France, should the k ,q yielding to the influence of his favourite counsellor, contr^.0^ an alliance witli tht. cliild of that prince who conquered Flce at Metz. Ttu Wond. Dr. Brewer, chairman oi the. Metropolitan Asylums Board, in presiding ever the meeting" Of that body on Satur- day, laid before it a summary of ft* proceedings during the year. In this it was stated that the small-pox epidemic in London is now on the decline. The return (?rnai.)03[ patients in the hospitals under the coirtrol of v'ie Board showed a decrease of 68 under treatment, as compared with the number that day fortnight. I heard it said the other night that' in the Royfli Family the Prince of Wales was the best gentleman, the Dake of Edinburgh the best musician, the Duke oi Coimaugfifi the best public speaker, and Prince Leopold Lhe beet scholar.' Apropos des bottrs, have you ever not?'- j l the strong likeness between some of the Bourbons and our ow- Jiovxl Family? Prince Arthur and Prinoe Leopold hare bx\ them a Bourbon look. "-The Tatler," in Pictorial Worlti Favoured with fine weather, the fete and demonstra- tion held in ú ndon on Monday evening in the Surrey Gardens for the benefit of the widow of the late George O iger was success, financially and otherwise. A meeting wao held i the great hall, presided over by Sir John Bennett A trial shipment of foreign meat will shortly lea Australia for England in the ship Northern. Mr Mort, thr promoter of the scheme in Australia, has purchased I head of cattle, and engaged 7,000 cubic feet of space Oil board the vessel, which will be specially fitted up for the purpose Princess Christian was delivered of a stiil-oom son at Cumberland Lodge on Monday afternoon. Her -h ,,i High- ness is going on satisfactorily. It is understood that her Majesty, who has more in London this spring than at any previous period Fince her widowhood, was greatly pleased with her reception by the public at the Horticultural Gardens fete. It is not im- probable that her Majesty will pass some day? ,aiii in London before the close of the season. All; ,ther f»rawing- room would be a boon to many who were deterred by the fearful weather from paying their homage last vrtth.—Thc World. A shocking fatality occurred on Saturday afternoon near the Atherton Station on the Trent "V aliey Railway. Some boys while on their way to school had to cross tbt- 1'" by a footpath, and while doing so a train came up at rate. It appeared to be unobserved by a lad QMoe 13 years of age, who was struck by the engine, Iiis hi completely severed from his body. Death was, of instantaneous. A testimonial, consisting of a handsome sih-e with a tea and coffee service, and a purse ponta gunieas, was presented at Portsmouth on Monday the Mayor) to the Venerable Archdeacon Wright, chaplain in the army, as a memento of his valuable services, and especially for his untirin for the restoration of the Royal Garrison Chur mouth. The Archdeacon, who is about to lefcyt Vaucouver's Island, in accepting the testimoni." always had the welfare of the soldier at hf striven to serve him. The Bishop of Lichfield, seeing the futiF means of arousing from religious indifferenr of boatmen in his diocese, has constitut kind of water parish, and appointed a spei missionary or chaplain for their spiritual Graham, a clergyman of Sedgley, is chos. floating church will be provided. Potatoe disease is reported to h sive proportions in some parte of the Armagh. The Observer savs :—" In Sat it was announced that Mrs. Brr Cannes, in France Upon inquir. evening, our reporter was idfor- the report had been received. A communication has ro dent to the effect that the excited state. They are stat' war with somebody or othe whom. The correspondent from document.iry videm should jt-Iuiv war with instigation cf ilussia. A telegram despa+ Saturday evening to Sir illness oi ius brother, Co ;ever. This intelligence E whv, it is mid iga»ei-iii Constantinople, r' Profeasel. £ awcett, 1h.n ■iflg. aad many are the v9»ed rod in hand by "ttirough S»hsbury. H* ,betwr-n fllfl I after some ftne spon, I was caught with a tly. ardent sneU-r some fiut Professor Feweew to th, whose I- uid invitation fishing A. tv" Victoria Sta*. fl parture of the main body lies of England, who are to Pope on the occasion of hi" inst. There were in all betw*. for the Eternal City, conspicuous astics of various grades and a g, 1" 0 distinctive badges were worn case of those who went to Lourdes traiii moved out of the station the p:. friends who had come to see them oft.
THE MARKl MARKJ There has been a return of firmness The supply of English wheat as slioi brisk, but the market was decidedly su were made to obtain a further advance 01 but buyers were not willing to give more J. wheat, of which a moderate supply Nv" On firmly held, and higher prices were asked. manded more attention, and the reactIonal1 in- prices was checked. Malt sold at full quotations. more sought after, and Friday's decline ot is. per recovered. Maize also was steadier in tone, vitn inquiry. Beans and peas sold at about late rates. was very firm, and all descriptions were held for exi quotations. METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET.—MONDAY The cattle trade has been altogether disarranged by tl commencement of the order compelling the slaughter of al beasts with calves once exhibited in the market at the im- mediate adjacent houses. In consequence the trade for beasts has been reduced to a state of stagnation On the foreign side of the market was a moderate show ot beasts, including 150 American. Trade was altogether ii- regular, and it was impossible to give quotations. The l._i' pens pens were rather thinly filled. Xi1 a;-theV<» the demand was inactive, and prices ruh lower. The best Downs and half-breds clipped made 68. to 6s. 2d., and ditto in the wool 7s. to 7s. 2u. per Sib Lambs sold at about 8s to 8s. 6d. per Sib. The calf market was a nominal affair. Pigs quiet. At Deptlor • there were 100 beasts and 11,000 sheep. Coarse and infer; beasts, 4s. to 4s. 6d. second quality ditto, 4s. 6d. to --s. 2d prime large oxen, 5s. 2d. to 5s. 4d prime Scots, &c. 4,1 to Bs. 8d. coarse and inferior sheep, 5s. 2d. to 5s. 6d r con quality do., 5s. Sd. to 5s. lOd. prime coarse woollec. yg. Jvd. to 6s. prime Southdowns, 6s. to 6s. 2d. lambs, 8s. t, I Ss. 6d. large coarse calves, 5s. to 5s. Cd. prime small ditto 5s. Gd, to 6s. large hogs, 4s. to 4s. 6d. small porkers, 4s oct. t« 4s. lOd. per. lb. to sink the offal. METROPOLITANS MEAT MARKET.—M( TC AT. There was a full supply of meat this morning, which met with a limited demand at about late rates. Inferior beef 3s. to 3s. 8d.; middling ditto, 4s. to 4s. 4d.; prime larjre litt r 4s. 6d. to 5s. prime small ditto, 5s. to 5s. 4d. veal, 4; Ml > 5s.; inferior mutton, 3s. to 4s.; middling ditto. 4s. 4d. to/ prime, 5s. 4d. to 6s.; large pork, 4s. to 4s. Sd.; small <iitt«- 5s. to 5s. 8d. and lamb, 7s. to 8s. per 81b. by the carcass SEED. LoKDO, Mondnv, May P.— There was a limited si r English Cloverseed, as well as of all foreign qv Holders generally were anxious sellers, wishing to hi stock prices were lower and irregular. Trefoil was b f, former terms at recently reduced rates. Canary seed t good request at advanced prices. Hempseed realised qUIt as high rates, with a steady sale. hite Mustaid se> steadily, at very full rates; brown scarce and very Rapeseed: English samples were in demand, at rather 1"IIr money than last week. Grass seeds realised fully as :ucu money as previously, with a good sale. PROYlSIO.1 LONDON, Monday, May 7.-Tlie arrivals last week Ireland were—138 firkins Butter and 4,065 bales Bacon u- from foreign ports, 27,450 packages Butter and 3,708 ,n Bacon. Increasing supplies of foreign Butter caus- decline in the market on the finest Normandy of about 4*. and on inferior sorts 10s. to 12s. per cwt. Du: ch early in th* week dropped to 100s. to 106s., but at the close rallied t.- 106s. to 110s. In the Bacon market there was little or i. change to notice during the week, a fair amount of busines- transacted at previous prices. M Butter, per cwt. s. s. Dorset 138 to 140 Friesland 104 106 Jersey ,84 IOC Jersey ,84 102 Fresh, per doz. 14 16 Bacon, per cwt. "Wiltshire. 76 73 Irish, green, f.o.b. 76 80 Cheese, per cwt. Cheshire 64t.,> Double Gloucestei 62 Cheddar 74 1 American 56 Hams ork 93 Cumberland 98 Irish 1. 94 lo HAY. WIIITF.CHAPEL, Saturday, May r,Tlie market to-day Hay and Straw was moderately supplied. The trades brisk, and prices were very firm as follows :-Prinie Clo- 100s to 13Ss inferior, 85s. to Prime meadow lla 90s. to 132s.; inferior, 70s. to 85s. and Straw, 40s. to 58s. per ioad. HOPS. The trade for hops continues very quiet, and the supply having increased, prices are not very well supported. Foreign markets are much in the same state. GAME AND POULTRY. Pea fowl, 9s. to 12s. Cd. guinea ditto, 4s. to 5s. Norway ptarmigan, Is. to Is. 6d. Dutch pintail, 2s. to 2s. (d. ditto teal, Is. to Is. 3d.; leverets, Ss. to 7s. hares. 3s. 6d. to 4s. wild rabbits, 9d. to Is. 3d. tame ditto, Is. Cd. to 2s. Cd. pigeons, 9d. to Is. 3d.; wood ditto, Sd. to Is. 4d. live quails, 9d. to Is. fat ditto. Is. 6d. to 2s. ducklings, 3s. to 6s. each plovers'eggs, 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. per dozen. FISH Soles, IS. 6d. to 4s. 6d. per pair; salmon, Is. 6d. to 2s. per Jh. mackerel, 2s. to 4s. per dozen turbot, 8s. bd. to 17s. 6d. each cod, R2 10s. 6d. to E5 5s. per score bloaters, -88 to 10" z per hundred kippers, 5s. 6d. to 6s. 6d per box crabs, 60s to 75s. per kit lobsters, Ss. Gd. to 30s. per dozen; tiout. Is. 4d. to Is. 9d. per lb brill, 2s. 6d. to 6s. each; native oysters, £ 12 to £ 13 per bushel; common ditto 5s. to Ss. Cd. per hundred; escallops, Is. to 2s. ùd. per dozen kipper haddock, 18s. to 30s. per barrel; sturgeon, Is. to lb. 6d per lb. POTATOES. Good potatoes, of which there were short, supplies, continue in moderate request at previous quotations. Kent regents, 96s to 120s. i Essex ditto, 85s. to 120s. Scotch ditto, 90s. to 110s. Yictorias. 110s. to 160s. flukes, 140s. to per ton