fjitkn Coraspntoiil 0 (We dlem it right to state that we do not at all tfcues Identify ourselves with our Correspondent's opinions.] Early in the year 1854, when it was seen that war with Russia was inevitable, some lines appeared in Punch, pointing to a famine of candles, and one stanza was to this effect The war with Russia, people say, Will render scarce our tallow fat, We'll make it up in another way, And bring some home from Kalafat." Now be it known that just then the name of Kalafat was very familiar in English ears. Standing en the Danube, directly opposite the fortress of Widdin, it was strengthened by the Turks, under Omar Pasha, when they crosscd the river on the 28th October, 1S53. In December Prince Gori.sehakoff, with the Russian armv. determine I to storm their entrenchments. The conflict^ lasted from the L-t December to the 9th Januaryj 1S54, when the Russians were corbelled to retire. Therefore, the reputation of that Danube town stood very high, although it was perhaps difficult to discover why we were to draw our supplies of tallow from it. The present struggle between Russia and Turkey does not so much affect our stocks of tallow candles as the prices of wheat. No war panic since the repeal of the Corn Laws has created so sharp and sudden a rise in the price of wheat as that of the r-t month. Speculation commenced in the beginning In of April, when the fact began to be recognized that Russia really meant to fight. The declaration of war raised the excitement in the grain trade to a climax, and prices went up with a rapidity almost unexampled. In New York the rise was even greater than in this country, for it was over 30 per cent., and. this is of particular significance at the present time, when we must depend to a considerable extent upon America for our supply. Southern Rus- aia has long been described as the granary of Europe, but that is now closed by the supension of the naviga- vl tion of the Danube, and we ase cut off from the ports in the Black Sea by the war precautions in the Bos- phorous. There is also the possibility that even on the reopening of the Baltic, the shipments may be limited by the continuance of hostilities. We may, it is true, look for an increased quantity from India, but not to such an extent as materially to affect quota- tions especially as our granary stocks are very light, and Aiuerica has not much to spare. Will a saying u. :en quoted in the country dis- tricts, now turn out to be true of "up corn, down horn," that is to say, if e price of bread is increased, that of animal food will be di- minished. It is likely enough that the saying just quoted was coined in the old and happy days when the cattle plague was unknown, and when there was no idea of meat reaching its present rates. Meanwhile it may be noted that the price of another necessary of life—coal—has steadily fallen since 1783, when there was such a panic over the threatened exhaustion of our coal beds, that the House of Commons appointed a Committee of Inquiry into the matter. The opening of the Royal Academy on the first Monday in May marks a distinct stage in the pEogress of the London season. The preliminary banquet always takes place on the previous Saturday evening, when our most distinguished statesmen, Scientists, artists, philosophers, and literary celebrities meet at the hospitable table of the Academicians. Since the Academy has been removed from the National Gallery into its own quarters at Burlington House, the exhibition has been improved in every way. There is more room and more light, and the public who throng thither can inspect the best works of our native artists without any of that inconvenience to which they were subjected in the structure which overlooks Trafalgar-square. A marvellous shilling's worth is that of the Royal Academy, for by the pay- ment of that familiar coin, the visitor may take his own time to wander through galleries filled with the productions of the most eminent painters of our age. For those who revel in what are called the Old Masters, there is of course the National Gallery; but for the brightness and freshness of to-day certainly there is nothing like the long ranges of pictures at Burlington House. country visitor to London who knows not Hy ? See it on an afternoon when the its height, and the spectator wMl wealth of the British capital. 1 by the Criterion, for a con- the Green Park and is a double line of 1 wo w ,1V ,1<.41'1.1(;0 seem to take the mind back to far-off times when the old quicksilver mails bowled merrily through hill and dale an occasional sIJÎll and the breaking of a passenger's leg being known only in the adjacent country town! Those were the days before the land had been covered with longitudinals over which express trains now rush along the valleys at a speed. faster than the wind, and anterior to the time when the shrill whistle of the locomotive aroused the echoes of the leafy arches of the silent forest. The iron horse it has been said, weighs! down all sentiment, and certainly his voice is now heard in sequestered spots where the quiet was so profound as to suggest the idea that it had up to that time been unbroken since the creation. So those who are sentimental, and to whom time and money are not much of an object, assemble in Piccadilly on those bright summer mornings, leave that fashionable thoroughfare behind them as the sun is shining upon the gold and the fancy work of the stately towers of Westminster, think no more of* the hurrying crowds, or of what the poet Gray has called their ignoble strife," and are borne joyously through the green lanes of Kent, or along the undulating knolls of Sussex at a time when vegetation is at its richest, and before the blending shades of greenery have either been "nipped by the wind's unkindly blast," or "parched by the sun's directer ray," embrowned by the scorching heats of July and August, and waiting only for the first westerly gale of autumn to strip the leaves from the trees, and to cast them drooping and withered to the ground. The Registrar-General has been furnishing the public with some interesting statistics showing the effect of commercial prosperity or adversity upon the marriage- rate. For several years previously to 1866, trade in all its branches was good, and in that year the marriage-rate was equal to 17 in every 1,000 of the population. Then came the disastrous financial panic, and with it a decline in the marriage-rate. This con- tinued until the end of 1870, after which it increased year by year until 1873, when coal and iron ran up to such a. price, blast furnaces were in full operation, and the greatest activity prevailed in the mining and manu- facturing districts. Since then it has again slowly de- clined. and the marriages of 17fi, in the last quarter nf which the prices of wheat and vegetables were rising, showed a falling off from those of 1875. Still, like the poor, marriage is an institution which shall never cease out of the land and it is recorded that during the siege of Paris, when the city was prostrated by bombardment and by famine, people married and gave in marriage very much: as usual, as though no enemy were thundering at the gates, and starvation did not reign in the streets of the capital. The discoveries of Dr. Schliemann on the site of ancient Troy have been followed with much interest by the scientific world, as well they might be, con- sidering that they tell of the existence of a place which was a scene of life and energy more than three thousand four hundred years ago. It was over 1,500 years before the Christian era that, according to Blair, Scamander arrived in Phrygia, and laid the foundations of the city the story of whose siege has been famed through- out all the ages of the world. At that time, according to some writings, the children of Israel were groanin^ under the Egyptian bondage, and while their task' masters hastecrthem over the construction of those very Pyramids which throw their vast shadows over the land to-day, Scamander was laying the basis of a city whose name has been as enduring as that of Egypt herself. To some minds there is a strange fascina- tion in unearthing anything which pre.sents them with evidence of an existence in a long-past epoch. To this hour the streets of Herculaneum retain the impres- sions of the chariot wheels which rapidly moved over them eighteen hundred years since, when the place was overwhelmed in an eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The scream of the cormorant is heard over the spot which marks the desolation of Babylon and upon the site of ancient Nineveh no voice is now heard but that of the melancholy wail of the bittern; but upon the banks of both the Euphrates and the Tigris antiqua- rian research has been at work and has carried the mind back to events which took place thousands of years ago, long before enlightenment and civilisation had spread westward to the European continent. If the question, lvhat went ye out to see" has been put to those members of the Municipal Council of Paris who have lately been over to London on a visit, thc-reply is at once obvious and ready. They saw a great deal during the few days they were in the British capital—its underground railways and its underground theatres, its docks, its public buildings, its immense practical works, such as the main drainage [jumping station at Crossness, and its arsenal-for Woolwich, being comprised in one of the metropolitan boroughs, is really a part of London. Nothing could more forcibly illustrate the great contrast between the two cities than an inspection of such objeats by the Municipal Council. The Seine, as it floiws through the very heart of Paris, is about the width, the depth, and the clearness of the Thames at Richmond, and in the centre of the stream, right opposite the Palace of the "Tuilleries, are baths and washhouses. Imagine such institutions upon the yellow tide at Blackfriars The river steamboats on the Thames are very matter- of-fact structures but if you went from the Pont la Concorde to St. Cloud, about the same distance as from London Bridge to Kew, you would be pla#ed under an elaborately'fini. heel awning as a protection from the rays of the sun. Pass along the Paris Boulevards on a summer evening, and you will see vast numbers sipping their absinthe underneath the shadows of the trees; in London such a spectacle is utterly impossible. Indeed the difference between the two is that the English capital is one of business, and the French capital is one of. pleasure and this is as perceptible in the hue of the two rivers which intersect the cities as in the contrast between the grimy dome of St. Paul's and the gilded dome of the Invalides, or between the pleasant open air trips of the Paris Circular Railway, and the bard stern tunnelled journeys which are made upon our own underground lines.
from Constantinople it is announced that the Sultan has received the title of "Defender of the Faith."
The Turkish newspapers at Constantinople exhort all Mussulmans to aid in their country's defence either by enlist- ing or by pecuniary gijts.
The Porte has officially declared that, In consequence of the remonstrances of the German Government, it will allow Russian subjects to remain in Turkey under the protection of the German Ambassador and Consuls. The Porte how- ever, reserves the right of expelling or removfng from points threatened by the enemy suspicious individuals. It also in- sists upon all persons formerly in the service of the Russian Govcrnmcnt leaving the country.
The Turkish authorities at Erzeroum here are actively engaged in collecting provisions. The inhabitants have to contribute whatever they may possess beyond the supplies necessary for six months' requirements. Prices are rising very rapidly, and the dearness of all articles of ordinary eonsumptien is seriously felt.
million sterling for war expenses. j The Paris correspondent of the Morning Pomtelegraphs j ,"I cau state the iv. 1nVT?^ th<7. GoI.nt of tin KMtrc, tIt" conwir wfth the SQe'" Forte, have determined to close the Suez Canal to Russian .ships of war, leaving- the passage entirely free to Russian commerce, excepting only contraband of war. commerce, excepting ollly contraband of war.
The following is from a telegram to The Timet, dated Bucharest, May 7 — Tlw Rnssian troops are pa."6i¡¡g h^re as rapidly fto railway transportation will permit. 1 have just returned from Chitilla, where I found a Russian general superintending the passage of the trains. The infantry and artillery go by rail, the cavalry by ordinary road. The transit is effected very quietly, and as the trains pass round the city of Bucha- rest the inhabitants scarcely realize that an army is going through their country. The troops passing to-day are destined for Giui-gevo.—To-day Prince Charles of Rouniania reviewed the troops stationed in Bucharest. TSiere were two battalions of cavalry, eight batteries of Krupp field artillery of four guns each, and five battalions of infantry. I was much surprised at the fine appearance of these troops. They are finely equipped in every respect, the horses are first-rate animals, while the arill of the various bodies was good, and evidenced careful training. This division will take the field at once in the neighbourhood of Oltenitza. If the Rouma- nian army is composed of the material seen to-day it should do good service in the campaign. The slight difficulty about the command of the Roumanian troops will probably be ar- ranged satisfactorily.
«v tele^TaP1 from Bucharest of Monday's date says yestenl.Hjri he Turks made a regular attack on the town andJibrtof Beket, on the Danube, following up several raids on the place made by Bashi-Bazouks during the last few days. The bombardment lasted some hours, and several houses were burned, as well as a number of grain ships lying in the port and in the river Ial. Five of the vessels destroyed were British. Neither Beket not Oltenitza, which were shelled yesterday, are garrisoned."
MR. CARLYLE ON THE CRISIS. The Times has published the following letter from Mr. Carlyle 8ir,-A rumour everywhere prevails that our mira- culous Premier, in spite of his Queen's Proclamation of Neutrality, intends, under cover of care for British interests," to send the English Fleet to the Baltic, or do some other feat which shall compel Russia to declare war against England. Latterly the rumour has shifted from the Baltic and become still more sinister, on the eastern side of the scene, where a feat is contemplated that will force not Russia only, but all Europe, to declare wlr against us. This latter I have come to know as an indisputable fact; in our present affairs and outlooks surely a grave one. As to British interests," there is none visible or conceivable to me, except taking strict charge of our route to India by Suez and Egypt; and, for the rest, resolutely steering altogether clear of any copartnery with the Turk in regard to this or any other Britjsl interest" whatever. It should be felt by England a a real ignominy to be connected with such a Turk all. Nay, if we still had, as, in fact, all ought to hav a wish to save him from perdition and annihilation God's world, the one future for him that has any he in it is even now that of being conquered by Russians and gradually schooled and drilled peaceable attempt at learning to be himself govei The -newspaper outcry against Russia is no j respectable to me than the howling of Bedlam, ceeding, as it docs, from the deepest ignorance, egoi and paltry national jealousy. These things I write not oil hearsav,'but on accur. knowledge, and to all friends of their country w recommend immediate attention to them while thei is yet time, lest in a few weeks the maddest and most criminal thing that a British Government could do should be done, and all Europe kindle into Sames of war.—I am, &c., T. CARLYLE. 5, Cheyne-row, Chelsea, May 4.
EXTRACTS FROM SPEECHES AT THE ROYAL ACADEMY BANQUET. The Royal Academy banquet took place at Bur- lington House- on Saturday evening, the chair being occupied, in the absence of the president through indisposition, by Sir Gilbert Scott, the eminent architect. A large and illustrious company were present, including 'their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of Coanaught and Cambridge, the Princes Christian and Teck, several members of the Min stry, and many of the most eminent members of both Houses of Parliament. In replying to the toast of The Army and the Reserve Forces, the Duke of Cambridge said- We have of recent years had great changes in matters connected with the Army and Navy, caused, no doubt, by the march of intellect, which has pro- duced most extraordinary results of various kinds and altered the position of the services from what it was in former times. But while these great changes have occurred, and I hope they may be productive of the most beneficial results, there is one point in which there has been no change, and in which I hope there never will be change—that is, in the spirit of tjje nation which gives us those men who form our Army and Navy. (Cheers.) The Army and the Navy are the reflex of the spirit of the nation, and I believe the spirit of the nation to be now just what it always has been, true, honest, and straightforward, with an amount of British pluck very advantageous when an emergency arises. (Cheers.) A true English- man is a quiet sort of person it takes some time to stir him up, but when he is once stirred up he hits very hard, and the harder the better, for it very much tends to shorten the contest. (Cheers.) The feeling of the Army and the Navy is very much what it has been in former times. You know what the services have been able to do in the history of this country, an I feel convinced if ever an emergency should arise the same spirit will be found animating them as before. (Cheers.) Lord Hampton (in the absence of the First Lord of the Admiralty, through illness) in acknowledging the toast of The Xa vy" said— The newspapers of this morning tells us that great efforts are being made in Her Majesty's dockyards to complete for sea the vessels and ships which are now in the hands of the shipwrights. I believe I speak the sentiment of every one who hears me when I express an earnest hope that England may not be involved in that .deplorable and, I venture to think, unnecessary war Efoduch has commenced. (Loud cheers.)' But if Eng- land should be involved in that war, in that case it is probable that Her Majesty's Naval service would be the first that would called into action; if that unhappy event should occur, I am sure these brave men -\llio constitute our Naval service will approach their duties, with whatever enemy they may have to contena, with that indomitable spirit with which, in another part of the world, their shipmates encountered and triumphed over the difficulties and the dangers of the Arctic regions. (Cheers.) I beg, on the part of the Navy, again to thank you. (Cheers.) The Chancellor of the Exchequer, who was most cordially cheered, in response to "the Health of Her Majesty's Ministers said Mr. President: It is a satisfaction to think and to see that in this country there is so great and so de- cided an advance in the cultivation of those arts which are so humanizing and civilizing to a people. It was asked at one time, Will the people of England ever have any taste ? Will they not rather devote themselves to the pursuits of wealth and of pleasure ? We are glad to say that is not the case. \Ve are glad to say that you maintain the standard of taste among the people and divert the minds of men from the mere sordid pursuit of wealth and teach them to aim ab something better. (Cheers.) Something there is more needful than expense and something even previous to good taste, and that is good sense (cheers); for good taste seems to me merely good sense in its highest developed form, with. a touch of genius. (Cheers.) And certainly never was there a time when we had more need, in politics at least, for good sense and good taste (cheers)-good sense which teaches us moderation, and good taste which teaches us to carry on the business of Parliament and of public life without offence to those with whom we have to do. (Cheers.) And if that is a fair rule that we may apply to the conduct of Parliamentary life at all. times, probably there never was a time when there was more need for good common sense and good taste than the present. (Cheers.) It is a time when we have to be careful every word we use, of every word we believe, Iffiay say, lest we do wrong to one another and inadvertently do mischief to the country. (Cheers.) I a™ n°t going to take advan- tage «f this occasion to talk politicsj but I do venture to say it is important that the people of England should keep their heads cool and be prepared not to believe too hastily the idle rumours of the hour. (Cheers.) We are startled every morning with some extraordinary telegram from abroad, or the still more remarkable communication from some politician at home, disclosing the fact that plans are formed to run the nation into some extraordinary enterprise which is to bring about a conflagration and when to lay down your newspaper and go into the street you meet a friend who has just come from the City with the announcement that the funds have fallen, that two members of the Government are going out, that a most fearful catastrophe is about to occur, and you had better realize at once. (A Of course, ther-" is no rule vithout, exception, but I do find it is not safe to believe .anything^-ou hear on a Saturday. (A laugh.) There are generally two days' interval before a contra- diction can be given—(a laugh)—unless there should happen a favourable opportunity like the present. (A } laugh.) t-li* tor.it "The Interest-otJ *J3rtiature, s4ld I have been somewhat perplexed myself to think why the custom of the Academy places Science before Literature. I see, however, that it is quite right, for Literature is a member of our own family—our Sister, (Cheers.) I am old enough to recollect vhen Sir Martin Archer Shee, who united Art with Poetry, was elected President of the Academy, this epigram ap- peared in The Tivied,- "So Painting crowns her sister Poesic, The world is all astonished, so is She (0)." (Cheers and a laugh.) Many present will remember in more recent times how Charles Dickens, when re- turning thanks for this toast, expressed the same senti- ment of relationship by altering some words of Rob Roy's, and saying that when at our Academy he felt so much at home as to be inclined to exclaim— My foot is on my native heath Although my name is not MacGregor." (Cheers and a laugh.) Next to religion, literature in many of its phases supple the noblest subjects for Art, History, Biography and works of fiction all contribute their share; while Poetry enjoys the cumulative privilege of uniting in itself the incentives to Art wliicn are commanded by all other branches of literature as well as the enobling sentiments in- spired by religion, patriotism, and other affections of the human heart. An elevating mission; indeed, be it only directed my^°* £ xycourse. (Cheers.) Frivo- lity and license are alike the bane of literature and of art. Earnestness of and severity of moral tone are the stamina of both. (Cheers.) Shorn of these both alike,fin(I "their strength is gone from them." (liear, hear.) It is consoling to reflect hat, notwithstanding the laborious turmoil of Politics we have had three and I think successive Prune Ministers who have made Literature the solace «t their scanty leisure (cheers) and delighted the world by their writings on subjects extraneous to State politics. (Cheers.) I give you The interests of Literature," and I have the honour The interests of Literature," and I have the honour to connect the toast with the name of one of that dis- tinguished trio, the Right Hon. William Ewart Gladstone. (Loud cheers.) The toast was received with loud cheers. Mr. Gladstone, who was received with much cheering, in replying to the above toast said— During the present century the artists of this country have gallantly and nobly endeavoured to maintain and to elevate their standard. (Cheers.) And they have not, perhaps, in that great task always received that assistance which could be desired from the public taste which prevails around them. But no one can examine even superficially the works which adorn these walls without perceiving that British art retains all its fertntly of invention—(cheers)—and this year, as much as in any year that I can re- mber, exhibits in the department of landscape fundamental condition of all excellence, inti- and profound sympathy with nature. (Cheers.) -gards literature, one who is now beginning, at ate, to desccnd the hill of life naturally looks ards as well as forwards, and we must be becom- scious that the early parfc ()f this century has in this and other countries, what will-be d in future-times aa a splendid'literary age. The-elder amon" us have lived in the life- y great men who have passed to their j-iwt r have heard them familiarly spoken of,- e their works in their hands, as I trust continue to be in the hands of all genera- heers.) I am afraid we cannot hope for .-it would be contrary to all the experience r times were we to hope that it should be y sustained at that extraordinary high level belongs, speakingroiighly, to the first 50 years the Peace of 181o. That was a great period— great period in England a great period in Ger- many a great period in France; and a great period, too, in Italy. (Cheers.) As I have said, I think we tain hardly hope that it should continue oil a perfect ievel at so high an elevation. Undoubtedfy the culti- vation of literature will ever be dear to the people of this country; but we must remember what is litera- ture and what is not. In the first place, we should lie all agreed that book making is not literaturo. (Hear.) The business of bookmaking') I have no doubt, may thrive, aud will be continued upon a constantly extend- ing scale from year to year. But that we may put aside. For my own part, if I am to look a little for- ward, what I anticipate for the remainder of the cen- tury is an age not so much of literature proper—not so much of great, permanent, and splendid additions to those works in which beauty is embodied as an essential condition of production, but I rather look forward to an age of research. (Cheers.) This is an age of great research-of great research in science, great research in history—an age of research in all the branches of inquiry that throw light upon the former condition whether of our race or of the world which it inhabits (cheers); and it may be hoped that even if the remaining years of the century be not so brilliant as some of its former periods in the production of works great in themselves and immortal, still, they may add largely to the knowledge of mankind; and if they make such additions to the knowledge of man- kind, they will be preparing the materials of a new tone and of new splendours in the realm of literature. There is a sunrise and sunset. There is a transition from the light of the sun to the gentler light of the moon. There is a rest in nature which seems neces- saiy in all her great operations. And so with all the great operations of the human mind. But do not let us despond if we seem to see a diminished efficacy in -the production of what is essentially and immortally great. Our sun, if hidden, is hidden only for a moment. He is like the day-star of Milton. Which anon repairs his drooping head And tricks his beams, and with new spangled ore Flames in the forehead of the morning sky," (Cheers.) I rejoice in an occasion like this which draws the attention of the world to topics which illustrate the union of Art with Literature and of Literature with Science, because you have a hard race to run, you have a severe competition against the attraction of external 'pursuits, whether these pursuits take the form of business or pleasure. It is given to you to teach lessons of the utmost importance to mankind, in maintaining the principle that no progress can be real which is not equable, which is not propor- tionate, which does not develope all the faculties be- longing to our nature. (Cheers.) If a great increase of wealth in a country takes place, and with that in- crease of wealth a powerful stimulus to the invention of mere luxury that, if it stands alone, is not, never can be, progress. It is only that one-sided development which is but one side of deformity. I hope we shall have no one-sided development. One mode of avoid- ing it is to teach the doctrine of that sisterhood you have esserted to-day, and confidant I am that the good wishes you have expressed on behalf of Literature will be re-echoed in behalf of Art whenever men of letters are found. (Loud cheers.) The Archbishop of Canterbury, in acknowledging the toast of "The Health of Our Visitors," said- It is tolerably bright outside to-day, but the smoke- begrimed and bustling, busy world of east wind and leaden skies which has so long surrounded us outside these walls makes your kindness doubly grateful in thus inviting us to the quiet contemplation of the beautiful objects which surround us here. The con- trasts indeed, between the ordinary life of most men and those hours which they are at tirflfes privileged to devote to the study of the beautiful cause such invita- tions as yours to be doubly prized, and indeed, these- contrasts have their marked place in our thoughts in con- nexion with the whole purpose of this evening's celebra- tion. (Cheers.) There is a contrast between the bright scenes from sunny lands which are here depicted and much that is around us in England. Without Man- chester where would be our Athens ? I am afraid if there were no dingy manufacturing towns in England, with their superincumbent clouds of smoke, dulling the brightness of many a landscape which nature made to be beautiful, and no discordant sounds of the clash of machinery jarring the nerves of those who have a soul tuned to the beauties of harmony, there would be among us fewer colossal fortunes, out of the superabundance of which come the prizes whereby genius sustains itself amid many difficulties for ever-fresh efforts in the service of art. (Cheers.) And-there are other contrasts which we cannot but think of as we look around these walls. Consider the early strtiggles-often amid the most discouraging circumstances—through which the skill was acquired to produce these masterpieces. (Hear, hear.) Do we not read with a thrill of sympathy of the great writer of fiction,who has invested the home- liest scenes of ordinary English life with a halo from his genius, pasting the labels upon bottles for a bare subsistence in his childhood, and studying even then in the close atmosphere that surrounded him the scenes the reproduction of which was to be his passport to greatness? Cheers.) Did not the scholar and explorer who within the last few months, as if by magic, has oaused the bowels of the earth to reproduce the heroes of the Trojan War, when he was an errand boy in a small shop under the impulse of a genius which he could not account for or control, relieve the drudgery of the day by nights spent in mastering the elements of that Greek which was after- wards to be familiar to him as his mother tongue ? And do not most of the works of genius around us speak of like early struggles, often with poverty and the many disheartening circumstances of a lowly life ? Does not this Academy exist for the very purpose of lightening such difficulties that press on the struggling student of art ? Do not its prizes stir many, spurning vulgar delights, to pass laborious days, if perchance as time goes on their works may be welcomed here? (Cheers.) Do not its instructors train the youth who, amid many discouragements, devote themselves in early years to art? (Cheers.) And even when dis- tinction seems within the student's grasp, may not health fail, and with health, popularity and friends ? And is it not one great object of this Academy to stand to art students in the place of the ancient guilds, so that no man who tis a brother of the craft may ever feel himself 'deserted and alone, without friends and without prospects ? The patron of a hundred years ago, as described by Johnson, was a poor substitute for the brotherhood of the mediaeval guild. This Academy and you, Sir, at its head, fol- lowing in the steps of Sir Joshua and of Eastlake, will, I am sure, ever be ready to encourage and to raise struggling genius, to alleviate the disappointments of failure, and to comfort those whom poor health or ad- verse fate condemn to comparative inactivity. (Cheers.) Other contrasts, too, force themselves en our thoughts in connection with this subject. There is a great dif- ference, even a contrast, in these days between the moderate rewards even of the most successful genius and the princely fortunes which may be the resuk of speculation. It is the part of your profession, Sir, as it is of mine, in an age too much attracted by the vulgar show and glitter of wealth, to proclaim that the highest positions in a truly civilized society are those which are adorned by true refinement and the best culture. May I not ask this Academy to go nand in hand with the profession which I have the honour to represent, seeking to spread throughout the nation truer views of what constitutes the real excellence of man ? (Cheers.) Beauty, indeed, may co-exist with baseness, and a taste for the refined in a,' t may be found in those who have no taste for the hio-best moral and spiritual truths but yet there is an affinity between our professions both of us are engaged, nominally at least, in spreading the highest civilization, nominally at least, in spreading the highest civilization, and tin' work of iuk the clergy, will succeed the better through your help.. When the body is weakest and the miseries of sufering humanity most acute, it is ours to point to the ideal of a heavenly beauty, which in a higher life may Boon cheer the eyes of the most poverty-stricken sufferer, lying in the I poorest and most sordid cabin; and while this mortal life lasts we also, like you desiie to improve, by the f-lwbnrtlsJotioti oi what; is oeaunlxu,' the porrr rtrcum- stances of those among whom we labour. This Academy is, I am sure, engaged in the same crusade with UH. We shall work ii anything can be done to brighten the dinginesR of the hard life of our suffering fellow-citizens, to make their homes more happy, because more loveable, and to spread among them religion and good taste, which may not indeed be twins, but are very near relations.
The Correspondent of the Daily New., writing from Berlin on Monday night says: "The despatch of Lord Derby produces a profound sensation here, and, except among the friends of Turkey, a very painful sensation. A leading politician said that it bore marks of being written by Lord Beaconsfield rather than Lord Derby. The National Zeitimg concludes its observations on the despatch by saying that Russia will not reply to it at present, because the only possible reply would be a declaration of war. In general the feeling to-day, in view of the telegrams from various points, is that the prospect of an extension of the war to other Powers is tenfold stronger than it was last week."
The Paris Correspondent of the Daily News says :— "Lord Derby's answer to Prince Gortschakoff produced a panic on the Bourse. The careful Moniteur, the organ of the Foreign Office, says, If the telegraphic analysis be correct it is certainly most serious.' The analysis was correct, and the Courrier de France, with the text before it, says It is impossible to imagine a more alarming diplomatic document. It is an un- scrupulous apology for the conduct of the Porte respecting the Protocol, an unequivocal condemnation of Russia's conduct since March 31, and we cannot shut our eyes to the fact that it is a-perilous indication of coolness between England and Russia and Germany.
JONES v. THE GREAT WESTERN RAILWAY COMPANY." The above case has been heard before the Lord Chief Justice and Mr. Justice Jlellor in the Queen's Bench Divi- sion, and was a very remarkable one. It has already been tried not less than three times, and it illustrates very strongly the result of setting aside the verdicts or juries in cases admitted to be peculiarly for them to determine. It rose out of an accident which occurred in 187i, nearly six years ago, and it had, through repeated trials, been in litigation ev..r since. The question was whether a widow having twice recovered by the verdict of juries compensation for the loss of her husband by means of negligence, could be deprived of redress by the decision of a Judge, without taking the opinion ofajuryat all. On the 5th of August, 1871, the plaintiff's husband, master of a barge, was delivering a cargo of oilcake at one of the company's warehouses at a wharf at Brentford. The "cake "was in sacks or bags, extremely heavy, which wefre hoisted up from the barge by the company's men to a ware- house on an upper floor. The man who had, of course, to watch the delivery, and was accountable for the bags which he had to deliver, and for the barge of which he was master, stood below on the barge, and was in one of the compartments of the barge from which the bags had not been fully delivered, and, in- deed, could stand nowhere else. One of the sacks fell down upon him just as it reached the top and caused nis death. How it came to fall was not known, but it fell while in the care of the company's men, and the widow brought an action, under Lord Campbell's Act, for compensation, on which two successive juries —both of them special jurie* —found in her favour. On the first trial the jury gave a verdict'for £ 250, but this verdict was set aside by the Court, on the ground that in the opinion of the Court it was against the evidence, and a new trial was ordered. At the seoond trial the jury also found for the plaintiff and the jury, who were at great pains to investigate the case, gave this special finding :— The jury find that the system of raising the bags was dangerous, and was the primary cause of the accident: that, as the company do not appear to have taken any special steps by printed notice to prevent the bargemen from entering the compartmeut of the barge from which the sacks were being raised, Jones had a right to be in the position in which he was at the time ot the accident, and that he took care, as he supposed, to be in a place of safety." The Court, however, set aside this verdict, on the ground that the jury had given a 'wrong reason for it. Then the case went to a third trial before Baron Pollock, who directed a nonsuit, not leaving it to the jury at all. The ground on which he directed the non- suit was that in his view the man had no business to be standing just beneath the sack when it fell upon him which assumed that he was so standing contrary to the express finding of the previous jury, and possibly fif ^.heen left to the jury, contrary to the opinion of fk jury. This was an application on the part of t e plaIntiff to set atside the verdict and to allow a fourth trial. Mr. J. Powell, Q.C., and J. O. Griffiths, Q.C., were for the company Mr. Digby Seymour, Q.C., and Mr. Cook were for the plaintiff. Aft-i' a long discussion, which turned chief!v on the question as to the position of «ie man at the time the bag fell--ill the course of which The Lord Chief Justice observed that it appeared to have been assumed by the learned Judge that the man was standing just-underneath the sack, and, also, that he had' no business to be on the barge at all; but 'he certainly had a business and a duty to be on the barge, as he had to watch the delivery, and, as to whether he was standing in an improper position, or not, and, also, as'to whether, even if he was, the company'* men "ld see him there- were not guilty <>i neg'ig.-iiiv fall upon hiiu—'Lheae were entirely lerable time, d in opinion fourth trial i ■WBgment oo ■ceased man bags were n part of the watch the delivery f¡., LU:it I tt n-;lgh, l.-y thp course w token out of the barge by i the company, it was his business to see wiat it was duly taken ont, and that there was no ab- straction of any part of the' cargo for which he was answerable to his employers. He was, therefore, rightly and properly on, the barge, and not only had he .a right to be there, but it was his duty to be there. And as to hiii-being improperly at the spot over which the bag-was being, hoisted, it was a question for the 3ur7- It must be taken that the fall of the bag resulted from negligence in the manner of hoisting it, and, at all events, that, also, was a question for the jury. It may be that the hoisting of the bag was necessarily attended with danger, and that, again, raised a question for the jury, for it would be a ques- tion necessarily of degree and extent. And as to the man's having put himself improperly in a position of danger, it appears that the company's men saw, or could see, where he was standing, and it would be a question for the jury^whether, even assuming that he was imprudent in standing where he was, they were not guilty of negligence in letting the bag fall upon him. He, of course, desired to express no opinion upon these questions, being of opinion that they were questions for the jury and from what he had observed he was disposed to think that expense and litigation was caused by the practice of nonsuiting than by any- thing else. Mr. tTustice Mellor concurred, though, he said, he had been a party to setting aside the verdict for the plaintiff on a former occasion. Still, he could not for- get that the question of negligence, after all, was pro- perly a question for the decision of the jury, as had lately been laid down in the House of Lords and it was improper to withdraw a case from the jury, at all events, when there was any evidence for the jury. Therefore, he thought that a mistake had been com- mitted by the Judge in this case in directing a non. suit, and though he regretted that there should have been s. much litigation in the ease, and it was impos- sible to avoid directing a fourth trial. Rule absolute accordingly.
TERRIBLE DISASTER AT SEA. The Cunard mail steamship China reports (from New York) that on the 30th of April she was signalled by the steamer Sidonian, bound from New York for Bristol (England). The Sidonian was disabled and re- quired a surgeon, her boilers having exploded on the 29th ult., killing the captain, two engineers, three firemen, and injuring the cook. The remainder of the people on board were well and required no further assistance. The surgeon of .the China, who went on board the Sidonian, reports that he found Captain Edwards, Mr. Gray, first engineer, Mr. second engineer, and three firemen dead from the effects of the injuries they received. The explosion occurred while the machinery was being repaired. The Sidonian proceeded under sail, and was expected to reach her destination in a fortnight.
CHOLERA IN INDIA. The following horrible story is communicated by a corre- spondent in the Mysore District. He gives it as a specimen of the dreadful effects of the ravages of cholera in the dis- trict, and the shocking sights one m iy see, notwithstanding all care on the part of the authorities, and alleges that the truth of the story may be absolutely depended on. He Bays- The friend who told it to me was marching alon0, the main road from Hassan to Mysore, and early in the morning, some few miles out from Hassan, he was surprised to come across a string of five carts lying in the middle of the road, their bullocks detached and tied near; but not a soul near them A little further on he passed a sixth cart halted in the EaIlle manner, with a solitary Brahmir seated in it, clothed in little save his sacred tlu-ead, and evidently in a terribly frightened state. The mystery of the deserted carts, was, however, soon solved oil proceeding a few yards farther, five heaps, were seen lying on the roadside under a tree, on one of which a vulture was perched. At first my friend thought these were allfive corpses, but a nearer approach produced feeble signs of life in two of the five heaps.- these five were, orhadbeen, thecartmen of the five carts first passed, and had all almost simultaneously been at- tacked by cholera in its most virulent form. The nnrl d aPParently deserted them in his terror, tbem ^Tg °n- the carts a short distance, halted hiq own fnt!m-auie aTaitin° the fut"re, and perhaps fear- Three of these miserable ther.e' where their carts; ?n bodies a vulture was already gorging itself bef r t le eyes of the two wretched survivors, themselves already in a state of collapse and in momentary expectation of the same fate. Nothing could be done; they were past all mortal help, and must have expired before my friend had covered another mile of his march. As to burying the corpses, or indeed touching them or going near them, a hundred rupees w'ould not have' in- duced a man of his camp to attempt it. The villagers themselves about Hassan never dream of burying their cholera corpses. When cholera is raging in one village the corpses are taken up at night, just wrappedin the mat or cloth they died on, and silently deposited on the grounds of the next village. Of course, when that village gets cholera, the compliment is returned for revenge, and so merrily travels the pestilence throughout the land."
WAR NEW S. THE CZAR AT MOSCOW. The Emperor of Russia has met with an enthusiastic reception on his return to Moscow. At the Kremlin on Saturday he met a large assemblage of persona of all classes, whose representatives delivered addresses ef loyalty, and the chief officer of the town presented his Majesty with bread and salt. The emperor expressed his thanks, and afterwards saluted the dense crowd of people who had assembled out- side in the hope of seeing him. He subsequently held a parade of the troops. He is also stated to have made the following speech on the reception of the Estates "Six months ago I expressed a hope here that the Eastern Question would be peacefully solved. I wished to the extreme limit to spare my subjects blood, but my efforts have been fruitless. God has decided otherwise. The Kischeneff Manifesto announced to Europe that the fore- seen moment had come. Entire Russia, and Moscow amaB" the foremost, responded to my expectations. I am now happy to be able, in concert with the Empress, to thank the 3Ioscovites for their patriotism, whieh they have testified by acts. The spirit of sacrifice and devotion which Russia is giving proof exceeds my utmost hopes. tay God help us to accomplish our mission. May He deign to bless our troops, who go tofight for faith, Emperor, and country."
Turkish gunboats have bombarded Reni, below Galatz, under the probable impression that the Russians were pre- paring a pontoon bridge near the town. Little, if any, damage was done by the bombardment. The shells fired from the Turkish Monitors at Ibraila did not explode. The Russian hattery at 1hraila mounted five guns, and heloned to the 11th Corps. The Turkish gunboats were endeavouring to intercept a Greek vessel loaded with com, which was crossing to the Roumanian shore from the Turkish village opposite Ibraila. The captain of thQ vessel had previously crossed in a small boat, and asked protection. The Russian commander granted it, and fired upon the Turks when they bore down upon the Greek vessel.
At OdeS6a great dejection i8 said to prevail. All French, English, and Austrian vessels have now cleared out of the harbour.
A quantity of dynamite has been consigned to a Pole at Ibraila, and the Russians hfve arrested several Roumanians suspected of knowing wlier the explosIV IS concealed. This gave rise to the report that the Russians were arresting Roumanians as Spies.
The French Benevolent Society at Moscow has subscribed 50,000 roubles, and the German residents 25,000 roubles, for the wounded.
There are arriving daily in Vienna wealthy families who are fleeing from their estates in or adjoining the seat of war upon the lower Danube.
So Admirable are the Turkish defences on the DIJuube- (the Constantinople Correspondent of the Daily Telegraph has been assured by a distinguished authority)—that the enemy's advance is likely to be a tedioHS affair, if at all suc- cessful. (In Europe, the same correspondent says) the forces of the belligerents, having regard to their respective posi- tions, appear to be fairly balanced.
Orders have been given to the British ironclad squadron now stationed at Corfu to rendezvous at the Island of Crete.
The Turkish journals exhort all the Osmanlis to contribute to the defence of the Eatherland, if they are trained soldiers as voluntary soldiers, or else by pecuniary donations.
A telegram from Erzeroun of the 2nd inst., delayed in transmission, states that a body of 10,000 Kurds, under the famous Kurd chief Van, was then about to start for the Russian frontier.
The French Government has forbidden the enrolment of volunteers for the belligerent armies.
On Monday the Official Journal of France publishes a Note by which the Government, enjoins the observance of strict neutrality upon all French subjects at home or abroad during the present war between Russia and Turkey.
The Globe of Monday, under date Pera, May 5, 10.30 p.m., says Information has reached here that 50,000 Russians are round the walls of Kars, and that the Turks have been severely defeated in the vicinity of that place. It is also reported that 17,000 prisoners were taken by the Russians, and that a large Russian force is marching towards Erzeroum. No news of this defeat has been published by the Porte."
A German paper published at St. Petersburg, says that the taking of Bayazid, in Armenia, by the Russians, has great strategic importance. According to this authonty, it closes to a defeated army all retreat by the highway of the Euphrates Valley.
The Egyptian •contingent of troops for the Sultan is fixed A 12,000 m::t, including the troops already in Turk« y. National Assembly atCatro has voted a tax of ten piastres 1; every fead&n of land. This is calculated to produce half a }
An English steamer having quitted the roads off Poti last Saturday night, the Turkish monitors remaining there gave her chase, but under cover of the darkness the steamer escaped into the open sea.
THE BURNING OF THE STEAMER "LEO." A few days since intelligence was received in Liver- pool of the burning of the steamer Leo, whilst on the. voyage from Savannah to Nassau, but it was not stated how many persons were lost and who they were. Captain Daniels, who commanded the ill-fated steamer; now re- ports that he left Savannah on the 12th ult., at three a.m. On the following day the steamer encountered a heavy gale, and about four o'clock she was discovered to be on fire in the fore hold. It was found impossible to save the ship, and two life boats and a raft were launched, the flames spreading so rapidly that the remaining boats could not be reached, and the lady passengers could not be rescued, the flames-having taken'possession of the saloon. One boat, containing eight people, got away from the steamer, but- it was never seen afterwards. The captain succeeded in o-et- ting on the raft, on which were several of the crew but the stewardess and the men failed to reach it before it had drifted away from the burning vessel. The disaster occurred about eighty miles south of Tybee, and thirty miles from the shore. The sur- vivors were afterwards picked up and taken to Savannah. The following is a list of those who perished Miss Farrington, passenger, Nassau; Miss M. Farrington, passenger, Nassau; Mr. Papperdick, passenger, New York P. M'Donald, chief engineer, Glasgow Thomas F. Henderson, carpenter, Glasgow James M'Laughlin, oiler, Liverpool Daniel Regan, fireman, Liverpool Christopher Lee, fireman, Manchester Patrick M'Gough, fireman, Dublin; Peter Olpensen, A.B., Sweden Samuel Hurst, A.B., London Ann Brown- stewardess, Glasgow Wm. Mitchell, cook, Glasgow Henry Harris, ordinary seaman, New York Richard Gethnig, ordinary seaman, New York; Henry O Keefe, ordinary seaman, Cork John Savage, ordi- nary seaman, Belfast. -o
THE EARL OF DERBY'S REPLY TO THE RUSSIAN CIRCULAR. The following despatch from the Earl of Derby to Lord A. c Loftus, containing the reply of Her Majesty's Government to the Russian Circular, was communicated to the Imperial Chancery at St. Petersburg on Saturday Foreign Office, May 1, 1877. My Lord, I forwarded to your Excellency in my despatch of the 24th ult. a copy of Prince Gortcha- koff's circular despatch of the 7-19th ult., announcing that the Emperor of Russia had given orders to his armies to cross the frontiers af Turkey. "Her Majesty's Government have received this communication with deep regret. They cannot accept the statements and conclusions with which Prince Gortchakoff has accompanied it, as justifying the reso- lution thus taken. The Protocol to which Her Majesty's Government, at the instance of that of Russia, recently became parties required from the Sultan no fresh guarantees for the reform of his administration. With a view of enabling Russia the better to abstain from isolated action it affirmed the interest taken in common by the Powers in the condition of the Christian populations of Turkey. It went on to declare that the Powers would watch carefully the manner in which the promises of the Ottoman Government were car- ried into effect; and that should their hopes once more be disappointed, they reserved to themselves the right to consider in common the means which they might deem best fitted to secure the well-being of the Christian populations and the interests of the general peace. "To these declarations of the intentions of the Powers the consent of the Porte was not asked or required. The Porte, no doubt, has thought fit- unfortunately, in the opinion of Her Majesty's Government—to protest against the expressions in question as implying an encroachment on the Sultan's sovereignty and independence. But while so doing, and while declaring that they cannot consider the Protocol as having any binding character on Turkey, the Turkish Government have again affirmed their intention of carrying into executions the reforms already promised. ''Her Majesty's Government cannot therefore admit, as is contended by Prince Gortchakoff, that the answer of the Porte removed all hope of deference on its part to the wishes and advice of Europe, and all security for the application of the suggested reforms. Nor are they of opinion that the terms of the Note necessarily precluded the possibility of the conclusion of peace with Montenegro, or of the arrangement of mutual disarmament. Her Majesty's Government still be- lieve that, with patience and moderation on both sides, these objects might not improbably have been at- tained. "Prince Gortchakoff, however, asserts that all opening is now closed for attempts at conciliation; that the Emperor has resolved to undertake the task of obtaining by coercion that which the unanimous efforts of all-the Powers have failed to obtain from the Porte by persuasion and he expresses His Imperial Majesty's conviction that this step is in accordance with the sentiments and the interests of Europe. It cannot be expected that Her Majesty's Govern- ment should agree in this view. They have not con- cealed their feeling that the presence of large Russian forces on the frontiers of Turkey, menacing its safety, rendering disarmament impossible, and exciting a feeling of apprehension and fanaticism among the Mussulman population, constituted a material obstacle to internal pacification and reform. They cannot be- lieve that the entrance of those armies en Turkish soil will alleviate the difficulty, or improve the condition of the Christian population throughout the Sultan's do- minions. But the course on which the Russian Government has entered involves graver and more serious considera- tions. It is in contravention of the stipulation of the Treaty of Paris of March 30, 1856, by which Russia and the other signatary Powers engaged, each on its own part, to respect the independence and the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire. In the Conferences of London of 1871, at the close of which the above stipulation, with others, was again con- firmed, the Russian Plenipotentiary, in common with those of other powers, signed a Declaration affirming it to be an essential principle of the law of nations that no power can liberate itself from the engagements of a Treaty, nor modify the stipulations thereof, unless with a consent of the contracting parties by means of an amicable arrangement.' In taking action against Turkey on his own part, and having recourse to arms without further consulta- tion with his allies, the Emperor of Russia has separated himself from the European concert hitherto maintained, and has at the same time departed from the rule to which he himself had solemnly recorded his consent. "It is impossible to foresee the consequences of such an act. Her Majesty's Government would willingly have refrained from making any observations in regard to it; but, as Prince Gortchakoff seems to assume, in a declaration addressed to all the Govern- ments of Europe, that Russia is acting in the interest of Great Britain, and that of the other Powers, they feel bound to state, in a manner equally formal and public, that the decision of the Russian Government is not one which can have their concurrence or approval. am, &c., The Times thus concludes a leader commenting upon the above Despatch:— Looking back upon the last twelve months, it is im- possible to overlook the fact that both in Servia and on the Turkish frontier Russia has been constantly acting in a manner which could not fail, in point of fact, to aggravate the danger of war. That the Russian Government may have been urged to this course of conduct by the fanaticism of its popu- lation is possible; but the conduct itself is not the less reprehensible. When at the last moment, abandoning all reserve, it launches its forces against Turkey, and assumes that it is acting with the con- currence of Burope and in the interest of other Powers, it becometb-imperative to make a formal Protest against its pretensions. Lord Derby's Despatch makes this Protest with effect and with dignity. The Emperor of Russia, by a singularly hasty determination, has at length separated himself from the European concert, and the whole responsibility of his decision must be left- with himself. Our hands, at all events, are free."
A CURIOUS. SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY. Some twenty-five years ago a certain M. Burq, a doctor of France, announced a discovery at which seience looked with little favour (says the Daily News). He declared that the application of certain metals to the human body relieved the malady of anaesthesia, and restored the faculty of sensation. Some patients could be helped by the touch of gold, copper agreed better with others, and zinc suited the constitution of a third set. Very lately some members of the Societe de Biologie have given M. Burq's practic trial, with results which seem satisfactory enotlgh. For example, a patient of the Salpetriere, a girl of about sixteen, subject to hallucinations, and,unable to feel on the right side of her body, was treated with a gold bracelet. It is said that before the application of the bracelet she allowed herself to be pinched, and pricked with needles, with perfect indifferenee. Fifteen minutes after the ornament was clasped round her wrist the skin became of a more healthy colour, and the slightest touch of the needle drew blood, and provoked ejaculations from the sufferer. Her right eye, which had been blind during her illness, now distinguished colours, and her right ear detected sounds. On other patients gold had no effect, but zinc or copper restored, for the time, the lost senses. It is to be noticed that in a few hours the deadness to feeling returned in these hysterical subjects, and it is also said that what the right side of the body gained, the left side lo«t.' So, on tfie whole, the discovery seems rather curious than profitable. The metal does not create a new force,/but distributes the existing force in different proportions. Experiments were made on a patient whose insensibility was the result of an actual cerebral lesion, and after gold, zinc, and copper failed, the application of iron produced a magical effect. It is even averred that the apparently more serious cases have permanently improved, while the hysterical characters have relapsed into their former condition. As the sameresults can be obtained by the passage of an electric current, the whole success of the experiments lies in the-distinction of the electric value in certain conditions of certain 'metals. The effect of each metal acts as an indicator of the quantity of electric force necessary in each instance. The fortunate results of the exhibition of gold ornaments in certain cases of prolonged insensibility of the heart have already been noticed, as for example by Goethe, in the well-known and often-quoted case of Marguerite. Science, as frequently happens, is only following in the wake of unscientific observation.
AMERICAN HUMOUR A fashionable lady recently went into a Broadway store for a pair of gold-sprinkled stockings. WheR she saw them she said they were so high priced that she would take only one. An American pnrjer announces that a well-known vocalist is conccrtisinig through the Western States, Out. in Montgomery County, Oregon, there ib a lady lawyer. She i, or Wlls. maiTOd. And the other day a client went to iier office and found the door locked, with the following notice pinned on the out-side Gone to my hus- band's funeral, back in thirty minutes." Bishop Pnttpi- nf York, in excusing from making a speech at the luncheon after a church dedica^l tion at Boston the other day, told the story ->i' a man win, was always bragging of any speech he made, and accordingly once told a friend ih-vt he had iiift been down to Boston, where he made a speech. "Oh did you said the friend, 1 am glad to hear it. I always did hate those Bostouiaiis." A New York paper says the will of the righ in ail of the future will read To the respective attorneys of my children I give my entire estate and worldly goods of all descriptions. Personally to the; children and to my beloved wife I give all that remains." This instrument will satisfy the familv and save the trouble of proving the old man insane.
iltisrcflaneous Intcdigcna, HOME, FOREIGN, AND COLONIAL. CATCHING A WAsp. -The following bit of doorstep comedy, enacted last Saturday before one of our brown stone fronts up town, shows that our sharp-faced street urchins are in no da.iger of losing their reputation for repartee (says a San Francisco paper).—Servant (an- swering door-bell rung by a little ragged boy): Come, go right away we have got nothing for you." Boy: Haint asked for anything yet, have I ?" Ser- vant (bantenngly) Well, what would you have asked for ?" Boy Didn't know but this house was for sale, and if it was I wanted to buy it." THE NATIONAL BALANCE SHEET.—The account of the public income and expenditure of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the year ended the 31st day of March, 1877," shows that the total income for the year was £78,565,036 Os. ld., and the total expenditure E78,125,227 16s. 7d., showing an excess of income over expenditure of £ 439,808 3s. 6d. The balances in the Exchequer on the 1st of April, 1876, amounted to R5,119,587 2s., and the 31st of March, 1877, they amounted to 25,988,650 Is. 9d. THE ANTI-INCOME TAX LEAGUE.—The annual feneral meeting of the National Anti-Income Tax league was held in London on Monday at the offices in Piccadilly, and was attended by representatives from many provincial associations. The secretary read the fourth annual report, giving a detailed account of the year's proceedings. The report men- tioned that it had come to_ the knowledge of the council that a wide-spread discontent existed at the great number of surcharges, and the manner in which the income-tax was now levied, and in face of a decline of the prosperity of the country, a feeling was ex- pressed that some means should be devised to raise the revenue other than by an income-tax. It was re- solved that measures should be taken to organise in every parliamentary town (in view of the next general election) a body of electors who would make the abolition of the income-tax a vital question on promis- ing their votes. ENGLISH OFFICERS IN TURKISH SERVICE.—Writing from Pera, a correspondent of the Whitehall Review, says Hobart Pasha, I hear, seriously intends to bombard Odessa. He believes he can fish up or ex- plode the torpedoes without very great difficulty. At any rate, he says he will try to do so. The gallant Admiral, whose abilities have never been fully recog- nized before, is at length so highly thought of that he has received from the Sultan's own hands the com- mission to command both the Mediterranean and the BIacR Sea fleets. He will thus have to place the ships as he thinks best, and so time his attacks, if possible, as to command either in any great action- a task by no means so easy as it may seem to the Turks. AN INTERESTING POINT, -A correspondent writes With regard to your very interesting question whether the kick' which, it is said, the leg of Billoir gave to the coverlet thrown over his body after execu- tion by the guillotine was an evidence of pain, may I say that this movement was certainly, as you put it, a spasmodic one, but not by any means necessarily an indication of suffering 1 Not to mention that the same thing is noticeable in fowls after decapitation (because it proves nothing either way), I have, doubt- less in common with many others, repeatedly observed it in fatal cases of cholera; especially where death has supervened rapidly after the attack, and where muscular movements of sufficient power to elevate the limbs have occurred as late as twenty minutes after all other signs of life, including, of course, sensation, had entirely disappeared—the vitality pervading the muscular system, so to speak, appearing in these instances to survive all the rest."—The World. MR. LOWE AND THE BICYCLISTS.—Mr. Lowe, M.P., has sent the following reply to a member of the Kent Bicycle Club, who wrote to ask the right hon. gentle- man what would be the best course to pursue in en- deavouring to obtain a reduction in the various railway companies' high charges for conveying bicycles, when accompanied by their owners :—" May 4,1877.—Sir,— The only remedy which is open to you that I know of is an application to the Railway Commission.—Your obedient servant, ROBERT LOWE. A 25-POTJND SALMON AT WESTMINSTER.—Late on Saturday evening (says Land and Water) there was ushered into the big tank at the Westminster Aquarium a salmon of 251b. weight, a hen fish that had just completed a successful trip of four hours by rail from Christchurch, Hants, near which town the fish had been caught. In the depth of the tank, and with the glare of gaslight, so peculiar in its effects on submarine objects, it was difficult to see whether it re- tained that bright silvery hue of the scales that characterises the fresh run fish. The fish was at first very sluggish, probably from the absence of sufficient aerating through the water during the journey, but Mr. Frank Buckland, who assisted the officials, re- commended fresh water to be pumped in at once, which, by bringing down air in suspension, revived the fish considerably; and if it can escape getting fungus, and the jolting of the journey, the public may have the pleasure of seeing the king of English fish domesticated in a tank. The small salmon fry, char and trout hatched out at Mr. Bucldand's museum and transferred to Westminster are doing well. THE REASON WHY. —A good many people are puzzled when asked the reason why the President's residence at Washington is called the" White House." The origin of the name is as follows :—When the British, in 1814, took Washington, they destroyed the public buildin, including the President's mansion, which, like the capitol, was built of grayish sandstone. The burning of the woodwork smoked and discoloured the stolls walls, the natural appearance of which cduld.ndt b restored. Uniformity was secured by the application of white paint. The changed appearance from grey to white attracted attention, and gave it the appellation of the 'White House,' which it has since borne." ILL-TIMED.—A Scotch correspondent says:—"With war and high prices, an untoward entry into this world would seem to have been made at Dundee where there has been born a male child with two stomachs."—The Times. CHEMICAL WARFARE.—The Pall Mall Gazette say that an ingenious plan by which a large army may be destroyed by one person without danger to himself has been devised by a French chemist, who intends pro- ceeding to Constantinople with the object of obtaining the Sultan's permission to try the effects of his scheme, in the first instance, on the Russians in Roumania. He proposes to effect- his purpose by a system of land torpedoes concealed beneath the ground over which invaders must march as they advance towards Turkish territory. These torpedoes will all be connected together by wires, and will be exploded simultaneously at the proper moment by means of an underground wire carried to a convenient distance. If successful he will make no charge as regards the destruction of the Russians in Rofimania, but he will require a large sum (to be paid in advance) for performing a, similar service as regards the Russian hosts in Asia Minor. THE SPECULATION IN CORN.—Corn-merchants are making fortunes, and the fortunes come out of thekets of bread-eaters. I know a dealer who cleared £3,000 last week upon a cargo he never saw, and he might have made another £;3,000 if he had kept it another three days. There are doubtless thousands of such cases and the consumer pays. Bread is already twopence per 41b. loaf dearer than it was a fortnight ago, and the mis- chief of it is that all other edibles go up in sympathy. Potatoes are 3s. 6d. a sack dearer; meat is a penny per lb. higher, notwithstanding the supplies of American beef and mutton, dead and alive even green-groceries have, like Punch's footman's postage- stamps, riz '*■ and the Very hens seem to know that there is a war on, for-there is less cackling and fewer eggs than there ought tO be. Perhaps the east winds have something to do with the poultry-yard; but we must thank the villainous gunpowder for the other | advantages Western Christians are already reapinft *j from the war in behalf of the Eastern Christians. May fair. '.f DEATH OF AN AMERICAN INVENTOR.—Ross Winans, engineer, inventor, and millionaire, died on the 11th of April at Baltimore in his 81st year (says the York Times). He took great interest in railroads, and invented the friction wheel, by which the friction of axles in the boxes was reduced. When the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad found its engines not strong enough to take trains across the heavy grades of the Alle- ghanies, Mr. Winans overcame the difficulty with his camel back locomotive, which for freighting over mountains has never been excelled. He was the first man to construct eight-wheeled cars. Thirty years ago the Russian Government invited him to take charge of railroad construction in the Empire. He declined, but sent out his sons, who resided there many years. He was a man of in some respects re- markable abilities, although some of his ideas and uudertakings were decidedly Quixotic. He was partly the inventor of the cigar-shaped steamer that was to cross the Atlantic in four days, and which has for years lain rotting away at her dock. A LAMENT FOR OUR ARMY.—-The World says When the chances of war are discussed, some of our older officers, who remember our army before the Crimea; shake their heads a little dubiously over the quality of the troops we should send into the field. The regiments which embarked for the East in 1854 were certainly magnificent in physique and discipline. The private men, able bodied and well grown the non-commissioned officers of long standing, reliable, experienced, and thoroughly well trained. Now, thanks to short service, there are few old soldiers serving with the colours the ranks are filled with striplings, weedy lads often, who would be sorely tried by the hardships of a campaign. As for the good old non-commissioned officer of the past, he has nearly disappeared. However, lest the patriotic Spectator should crow, it may be said on the other hand the 1st Reserve, which would be called up, is sufficiently numerous to furnish a strong leaven of better material; while the Mediterranean garrisons, which would be drawn upon first, are composed of regiments better acclimatised and prepared for active service than the bulk of those at home." ANTI-RUSSIAN DEMONSTRATION. — The Times of Monday says :—"The trea open-air meeting which is to be held on Sunday next in Hyde Park, under the auspices of the Manhood Suffrage League, to condemn the policy pursued by Russia, promises to attain very large proportions. Not only have a number of promi- nent working class leaders taken the movement up warmly, and considerable sections of various organiza- tions given in their adhesion, but it is also stated that nearly all the London Irish societies will march in procession with bands and banners to the place of meeting. Sceral members of Parliament, whose names are not yet announced, will address the demon- stration. The placard which announces the aliaif commences with 'Down with Russia,'and concludes with Long live Poland. GETTING A GOOD HAND. —The London School Board 113 laying great stress upon the necessity of itN scholars good style of penmanship. This is quite proper. Many a young man has got (from bankers and others) large sums of money by means.of clever handwriting. It is true that some of these young men have also got a term of penal servitude afterwal-ds- but that was because they did the write thing the wrong place.—Judy. < LADY SILK WORKERS.—The first report of the Australian Silk Growers' Depdt has been issued to the subscribers of the fund with which the institution was started a year ago (says The Times). Among other objects, the Depdt is intended to provide ladies with work in knitting silk goods, and the report states that the work thus provided can either be executed at the rooms of the Depdt or occasionally may be taken to the homes of the workers, and thus the necessity for seeking a market for their goods is avoided by the iff" v, '^le Promoters of the institution have found that the special kind of employment offered is most acceptable to ladies who are willing to work, and that a practically unlimited -market can be found for the articles manufactured by them." The resources of the institution are, however, at present so small that the manager finds it impossible, for want of sufficient capital, to give employment to more than a. very feW of the large number of ladies who have applied to her for work and subscriptions in aid of this medium for enabling poor ladies to help themselves are asked for, and will be thankfully received by the manager, at the 7, Charles-street, Grosvenor-square, Lon- don. It appears from the report.. that the Depdt has been honoured by an order from her Royal Highness the Princess of Wales, which was executed to the satis- faction of her Royal Highness. THE INTERNATIONAL PRISON CONGRESS.—At the special desire of the King of Sweden, and on account of the outbreak of war on the Continent, the Inter- national Prison Congress which had been arranged to be held in August this year at Stockholm has been postponed. This decision was arrived at very reluctantly by a representative committee convened at Brussels, and presided over by Baron von Holzendorff, of Mumch, who writes as follows to Mr. Tallack, secretary of the Howard Association of Great Britain:—"Englishmen and Americans may feel secure under the pressure of the Eastern crisis, but the peoples of the Continent are sadly depressed and eX- cited by tha recent events and the outbreak of war. As to Germany, Italy, and Austria, there is, for the present, not the slightest interest taken in prison matters. A Congress during the course of this year would be a decided failure, at least in the eyes of the Continental nations. Indeed, under present circum- stances, this Congress would not be international at all." THE VENUS OF MILO.—The discoverer of the Venus of Milo, Colonel Voutier, has died at Hyferes. When a midshipman in the French Navy, in 1821, he landed on the island of Milo to search for antiquities, and no- ticed a peasant digging for stones in the ruins of an old chapel. The peasant had unearthed part of » statue in a very bad state of preservation, and, as it was useless to him, was beginning to cover it up again. M. Voutier, however, at once saw the value of the discovery, and bribed the man to excavate the figure completely.—Graphic. No WINE AT THE PRESIDENT'S DINNER.—An inci dent which occurred the other day, on the occasion of a dinner given by the President of the United States in honour of the two Grand Dukes of Russia on their visit to Washington, will interest the advocates of temperance. It was (says the Wasliington corres- pondent of the New York Tribune) noticed that by the plates of President and Mrs. Hayes there were no wine-glasses. It has been learned from those having charge of the arrangements for the dinner that Mrs • Hayes at first absolutely opposed having any wine at the dinner at all, as she is a strictly temperanc e woman," and the President himself is equally abste- mious but Colonel Casey, master of ceremonies at the White House, and the officers of the State Depart- ment accustomed to have charge of like ceremonials, explained to Mrs. Hayes that the Russian guests had really little conception of what a cold-water dinner might be, and would probably misconstrue the absence of wine. Mrs. Hayes reluctantly consented that wine should be provided for the rest of the guests, but she positively informed Colonel Casey, who i3 Commis- sioner of Public Buildings and Grounds in place ot General Babcock, and who will have charge of all State ceremonials at the White House, that hereafter when citizens of the United States are entertained at the White House the arrangements must be made to exclude wine. THE POSITION OF THE TOWN AND FORTRESS OF BAYAZID. — Bayazid, or Bayesied, the Turkish fortress reported as having been captured by the Russians, is situated in the Pashalik of Erzeroum, in Armenb about 15 miles south-west of Mount Ararat. It has always more or less suffered in wars between Russia and Turkey, the result of which has been that while prior to 1830 it had a population of about 15,000. and a brisk trade, there are not now over 5,000 people in the town, and these mostly Kurds, whose commerce does not figure largely in the returns of the Turkish Empire. It is situated on the side of a rugged moun- tain—one of the angles of the Aladagh Range. In addi- tion to its two churches and three mosques, it possesses a monastery, called Kara Killeesea, renowned for its beauty and antiquity. On. the summit of the moun- tain stand the ruins, of a palace built by Mahmoucl Pasha, whose tomb—a building of some richness- stands in a neighbouring mosque. Standing, as Bayazid does, on the high road between Armenia an Azerbijan, it has always been a place of importance- an importance, indeed, fatal to it, for it has already more than once experienced the inconveniences whicn attach to prominence in the world. In 1829 the Russians took it, and again in 1854, when after battle fought before its walls, they destroyed the forti- cations and departed. These seem to have been r built—only, however, to share the fate of their preae" cessors.—Echo,