TORYISM PAST AND PRESENT" I LECTURE AT TALYWAIN. In connection with the Abersychan Liberal Committee of the National Reform Union a lec- ture was on Thursday week delivered in Pisgali Chapel, Talywain, by Mr G. E. Lomax, of Man- chester, on the subject of "Toryism: Past and Present." Mr W. P. James, manager of the Abersychan Works, occupied the chair. The Chairman, in introducing Mr Lomax, stated that if his presence would in any way ad- vance the Liberal cause he should be glad to give it. It was needless to ask for an attentive hearing, as he was sure they would be delighted to hear the promised lecture. The Lecturer said he should have rejoiced if the weather had been more favourable and the chapel better filled. Viewing the matter from another standpoint, he might observe that he had been in a bad state of health for the past few days, and it would suit his purpose to take it quietly that night. In Ebbw Vale, at a charge of Is 6d for admission, the place was filled; and at Tredegar, when he lectured there, about 1000 people were present. True philosophy existed when a man's mind was ruled by his conscience. The subject they had met to dis- cuss, however few there might be present, and whatever might be his physical weakness, was a most important one and, next to our Chris- tianity, there were few subjects which bad a greater claim upon us than political subjects. He had passed the allotted period of three score years and ten, but he had never known a time when serious thought was more earnestly de- manded at the hands of the people than now. They appeared to be wrapt in clouds of dark- ness trade was declining, the revenue dimin- ishing, and war prevailing in foreign climes. It was time for the people to take the matter up. He frequently had occasioofo remark that there were few people who understood the word Toryism." Many who thought they were To- ries, when weighed in the balance, were found to be wanting. Professor Kogers declared his belief that there was not a working man in belief that there was not a working man in England who was a Tory, and stated that if he could find one he would put him in a glass case as a curiosity. He was aware that their Tory friends, on the principle that drowning men caught at straws, had made political capital out of the idea but with all their boasting and blustering there was not a workingman in Eng- land or Wales who was a Tory by honest con- viction. He believed if a working man under- stood Toryism, and knew anything of its past history, that it was as impossible for him to be a Tory as it was for pigs to fly, and they were not likely birds. (Laughter.) They had working men like the chameleon, who took their colour from the food they fed upon. They followed the same cause as the manager, employer, and those in authority over them. If he was in England he should say, "Such conduct is not Conservatism, but fully-developed monkeyism." In natural history there was nothing which de- veloped the faculty of imitation more than the monkey. Some of them might differ from him, for he should possibly say strong things before he had done. There were people who seemed to think that because they differed from you they had settled the question. Differences of opinion among men would never settle anything. In our country at present we have two political parties. One might be said to be virtually re- presented by William Ewart Gladstone, and the other by the great unknown," for there was not a man in the universe who understood Beajamin Disraeli. He could never be weighed or measured. If they added him up there was nothing to carry. He (the lecturer) would now for a few moments deal with the past of Tory- iisin. From the earliest history of Toryism, down to the time lie was then addressing them, they (the Tories) had in all their undertakings been antagonistic to human liberty. It was 50 years since he delivered his first political lec- ture, and he had Yer been a strong supporter of o Liberal politiciati in the the Liberal cause. N country ever took part in any movement for ad- vancement or progress, or the extension of li- berty, but found that he had invariably to fight against the Tory party. They (the meeting) had never read any speeches made by Tories in favour of the extension of freedom, nor had tI".y heard that any petition in favour of pro- gress had ever been made by ti, T I i,r tnlrl you in the present day that they were the friends of the working man, but be could show them what was their real regard for them. He (the lecturer) could remember the time when they were called the "great unwashed." The opposition of Toryism to liberty was not of re- cent date, nor was it exactly confined to our own country. To understand Toryism we must take a glance beyond our own little sea-girt isle. We had in this country what was called the national debt. It was a national property. Everything else belonged to the Queen, but the debt was theirs. That debt bad a tendency to lower their wages to-day. He had been toiling 50 years to teach working men political economy, but somehow or other they would not have it. Give them a pipe of tobacco and a pint of fourpenny, and they would vote for all the Jews in the country. A gentleman had published a pamph- let showing that if the national debt was thrown into commercial channels it would tend to revive the trade of the country. That debt was originally the King's debt. On the accession of William III., in 1689, the king's debt was £ 661,263 but when Queen Ann ascended the throne, in 1702, it had reached £ 16,000,000. Then it became more than kings or queens could bear, and it was charitably removed to the shoulders of the peo- ple, who have ever since been shareholders in it. In 1727, when George II. came to the throne, the debt was £ 52,000,000. In 1760, in the reign of George III., of blessed memory —(laughter)—a full-blown Tory of the first water, who had for many years William Pitt as the keeper of his conscience and approved ad- viser—the debt had swollen to £ 138,000,000. We now have a debt of £ 834,000,000. Every penny of the debt was spent in opposing liberty and defending despotism not one penny was spent in defending any nation under heaven. Take the American war. That cost this coun- try X121,000,000, in money, in the reign of George III., and under Tory rule. The Tory Government voted for the war, and the Ameri- cans gave us a good thrashing and sent us home, and we had to pay the expenses. That was Toryism. If the Y,121,000,000 had been invested at 4 per cent., it would have brought in about E5,000,000 every year, but now it was lost for ever. They need not have entered into the war with France, which they stated was to maintain the honour of England and defend the flag which had braved a thousand years. The man who believed in such nonsense was far beyond the generation in which he lived. That war cost six hundred millions of money. This was the Tory legacy, and the war was brought about to prevent freedom of thought. Burke, in his remarks upon the French Revolu- tion, took up the matter and William Pitt used language like this If the principles which are now obtaining in France 4e permit- ted to cross the Channel, then farewell to our monarchy, our aristocracy, and our nobilitv." This was to prevent the spread of Liberal prin- ciples. They could trace matters of this kind year after year. He now proposed to come a little nearer home. The Tory party had always been the Court and the Chuioh party. He never knew either of these two parties to fight in de- fence of freedom. Suppose they were to come down at once to the year 1815, when the war wqs over. They could remember, many of them, when they had to pay 6d a pound for flour, lOd to 16d an ounce for tea, and 15d per pound for sugar. For candles they had to pay 8d and lOd a pound, and 4d a pound for salt. TIle very light ot heaven was taxed—the rays of the sun could not get through the cottage window until they had passed through the Cus- torn House. He did not know whether they taxed dreams or not. If they did not, it was a Tory oversight. When peace was proclaimed in 1815, they anticipated cheaper food and bread. They forgot the Tory landlords and Tory members who governed them. When they expected cheaper bread, the Tories proposed the Corn Laws. When these were passed, thousands were clamouring round the House of Commons crying for bread. The Tory Government brought out the military, with cannon, and at that time they- were parsing a tax upon bread. The Tories told the people that if bread was dear, trade would be good and wages high. No one could remember good trade and high wages when provisious were dear. Lord Brougham said there was a tincture abroad, and its name was" Hunger and hunger opened the eyes of the people. At this time, and previously, they were not allowed to hold public meetings to discuss public matters. If a householder per- mitted twelve people to assemble in hia house he was liable to a penalty of XIOO. Such was the will of the Tcry party, that they would not allow working men to obtain political know- ledge. They employed spies to carty out their purpose, and in 1820 they instituted a secret society in Manchester, of which 40 peers were members. Their object was to gag the Press. He remembered how his father and others used to meet to discuss political matters. They had then to search for knowledge under difficulties. In 1819, the public mind was excited. On the 10th of August he saw thousands of working- men—loom-weavers and others-coming into Manchester, their wives hanging on their arms, and wending their way to the place where the Free Trade Hall now stands—the only conse- crated ground they had in Manchester. In thousands they assembled, and humbly prayed the House of Commons to take into serious con- sideration the influence and results of the Corn Laws. They only asked the Tories to think of it. The power of a Tory magistrate was such that the starving people were dispersed at the point of the sword. Nine were killed and 600 wounded, and the chairman of the meeting got two years imprisonment. Their only object in assembling was to ask the House of Commons to think. They had a large amount of com- mercial depression in 1825, bankruptcy and bank-breaking being the order of the day. Just at that time they commenced an agitation for the repeal of the Test and Corporations Act, under which Dissenters were not allowed to carry out any duties for which salaries were paid by Government. At every step they encountered Tory opposition, but they ultimately conquered. They intended to get perfect religious equality. Whatever had been established by law, whether in respect to Bristol Cathedral or an Abersychan beershop, could be dis-established by law. In 1829 they had another great contest with regard to the emancipation of the Catholics. He re- membered clearly to what an extent the clergy raved on that occasion. They said that if we emancipated the Catholics the Throne would be in danger, the Pope would come over and take possession of the country, and the clergy would be burned at the stake. They repeated the same assertions as late as 1868, when Gladstone was in the field. We were told that Gladstone was in partnership with the Pope, who had offered him a million pounds to disestablish the Church, and that Cardinal Manning was god-father to one of his children. It was said even that if they returned Gladstone the Queen would be de- throned and the clergy burned. They returned Gladstone in 1868, but the Queen was not de- throned, the Pope did not come over, and the clergy were not burned. If Pope Leo XIII. came over to England to-uiorrow he would not come to Abersychan. The moment he landed at Dover lie would enquire for the next train to Oxford. There was no fear of the clergy being burned for the sake of principle. In 1832 they had a great struggle, and for a year or two pre- viously. In 1832 they obtained the first modi- cum of the Reform Bill. Prior to that year the county of Cornwall returned 24 members to the House of Commons Manchester, with a larger population than the entire county of Cornwall, had not a single member. The adjoining county of Devon sent 25 members—men who spent their lives in milking the cow with the crumpled horn—and Manchester, with a larger popula- tion, was not represented. The Tories said that to give the people in manufacturing towns a vote would be to ruin the country. When Gram- pound (Cornwall) was disfranchised it became a question in the House of Commons to what town this vote should be given. Some argued for Leeds or Manchester, but the Tories, led by Lord Eldon, opposed such a course, and decided to give the vacant seat to the City of York, with a Bishop, and a Minster, and a host of clergy. He was afraid the battles they had to fight were not yet over. In 1844 they repealed a portion of the sugar duty, but they were opposed by the Tories. The Tories told them at every election —and they made political capital out of it— that they repealed the corn laws. Wellington was in the House and Peel was Premier when the corn laws were repealed, but the Tories never petitioned for their repeal. When the measure was before the House lie remembered such names as Bright, Gladstone, and Cobden braving all opposition and encountering the antagonism of the Tory party in every town they visited. Because Sir Robert Peel hap- pened to be in office the Tories claimed the honour. There was no one who opposed the Rill «vith creater malignancy than Benjamin Disraeli, who was now Lord Beaconstieid. ir they had raised him to the land where the wicked cease to trouble, he (the lecturer) would have been glad. It would be an excellent thing for him (Lord Beaconsfield), and it would not be a bad thing for them. (Laughter.) He thought that ministers ought to pray for the fulfilment of scriptural prophecy. He thought they ought all to pray that the time might soon come when the Jews might be gathered to Jeru- salem. If so, Benjamin would be there. Alison, who wrote a history of Europe, also wrote a special pamphlet on the Corn Laws, and his ar- guments were as clear as London uiud. He said that if the Corn Laws were repealed, the far- mers would have to go to the Workhouse. Well, they repealed the Corn Laws, but the farmers did not go to the Workhouse, & the country was not a swamped district. One of the Tory mem- bers of the House of Commons said that work- ing men were created for the purpose of paying taxes and being governed, and it was declared if cheap education were given them, the country would be ruined, and the working man would be too proud to work. It had been the case at every step that Toryism (which, had always been a Gin and Church party)- had been and al- ways would be opposed to liberty, Disraeli carried the last Reform Bill which extended household suffrages, but^he (the lecturer) argued that it was not Disraeli s measure in any sense of the term. Every salient point came from the Liberals of the House of Commons. They were aware that in 1866, and also in 1864, there were agitations in the House relative to the Bill. In 1864 Edward Baines brought in his Bill for an extension of the franchise by re- ducing the qualification from £ 10 to X6. Dis- raeli declared that it would degrade the consti- tuencies, and that the House would be full of tinkers and tailors. He (the lecturer) would not objeet to a few tailors—heaven knew there were plenty of tinkers. When tho Tories came into power they knew they could not retain office unless they brought in a Reform Bill. Disraeli tried to move by resolutions—that is, to feel the pulse of the House—but they were literally born to blush unseen, and waste their sweetness on the desert air." He brought in a Bill which was laughed out of the House. The working men of England had been gulled. In the Bill which Disraeli brought into the House, and which was called his measure, there was one clause which made a two years' rate quali- fication for a vote. Gladstone moved an amend- ment that a twelve months1 residence should be sufficient. In the Disraelian Bill-mark the depth of this Jew—he had a clause marked "Dual votes," meaning that a man should have votes according to the extent and value of the property he possessed. Property would then have had a majority of 180,000. Gladstone moved the rejection of the clause, and it was struck out. Disraeli had no lodt/fir" frannhisp In large towns there were thousands of lodgers, and the Liberals moved the introduction of a lodger clause, which was carried. Disraeli in- serted a clause that every working man who voted should have a voting paper, and if he could not fill it up himself he could go to his master in the counting house, or else go to the clergyman of the parish, who would till it up for him. Always the clergyman, for the dis- senters were an abominable lot. The Liberals moved the rejection of that clause, and were successful. Benjamin had a clause that a man having £ 50 in the savings bank should have a vote, which the Liberals also rejected. In the Bill that was passed there was scarcely a word which was of Tory introduction. In tho present day their Tory friends were continually labour- ing to deceive them. They said sometimes that the Liberals were always calling them fotil names. If they applied epithets to them, the Tories knew the art of retaliating in kind. Some time ago, Sir Stafford Northcote was stumping Birmingham, Wolverhampton, and Dudley. He made a long speech at Wolver- hampton. and Capt. Burnaby, in proposing a vote of thanks to the Chairman, said that Glad- stone was nothing else than a political washer- woman. He had been called a Jesuit, a Judas, and all sorts of names, but now he was called a washerwoman. In his (the lecturer's) opinion it was an honour to Gladstone to be so named, for the Tories t urned out such a lot of dirty linen, that h.e said Thank God, we have Gladstone for a washerwoman." Sir Stafford Northcote said that within the past few years a great change had taken place in the disposition of political power in this country. The chief characteristic of the change was that a large amount of political power was conferred upon the working classes. He was not aware that the Chancellor of the Exchequer I ever had a claim upon the sympathy or the grati- tude of the people. He even said that if this Bill for the extension of the franchise became law, many prophesied that evil would be the result, and that if such power was given to the working man it would be used for disorganising the Con- stitution, and that the Crown, the nobility, and the church would be no longer safe. The lecturer proceeded to say that only one inference could be drawn from this, and quoted a speech made by Mr Disraeli, in which he alleged that the greater the capabilities of the working men were the greater the danger became. In every way did the Tories endeavour to gull them. They were told in a speech at Newport the other night that Gladstone did not leave a surplus of six millions behind. In a letter to a newspaper a Tory admitted that there was a surplus of five-and-a-half millions. Viewing it from another standpoint, were not the Tories always their oppressors ? In 1874, when Gladstone left office, the national debt was £ 773,000,000 now it was £ 785,000,000. It re- quired a Tory capacity to understand Tory arith- metic. The Manchester Courier, a Tory paper of the first water, said there had been an addition of twenty millions in the expenditure, but they qualified it by saying that sixteen millions were reproductive. It also said that the agitation of Gladstone tended to make disturbances with Russia. He wanted to ask the working men to exercise their common sense at the next election. When the present Ministry came into office Dis- raeli accused Gladstone of blundering and plun- dering. In 1874 they were at peace with the world there was no trouble in Afghanistan, and no war in Zululand. There was good trade, and there were good wages. In 1873 the national ex- penditure was not more than AC71,000,000, but now it was tR6,000,000, and the five or six mil- lions they had handed to posterity, making a total of at least £ 90,000,000. Now that this Jew had been at it for five years, and they had an absence of trade, he said, in his Jewish way, "Starve quietly, and say nothing about it." He (the lec- turer) thought it was time they should have a change. If they wished for a change, let them mind how they recorded their votes at the coming Election. If any of them had their claims for votes objected to-and the Tories objected to ail working men—let them not stay at home and say, Well, it is no use for for me to go, as I am only one." The Tories object to a hun- dred, believing that fifty would not take the trouble to contest the question. The wars in Afghanistan and Zululand had been of a most wicked and abominable character. They had no business in either place. A few months ago the subject was brought up in the House of Lords, and there were seven Bishops who voted. Six were against the war, and one voted in fa- vour of it. Bishop Ellicott defended his vote in a letter by saying that he thought it would prepare the way to Christianity. This was episcopal theology. Theie is not a people under heaven so humiliated as we arc. There was an infinite differency between Christianity and H Churchiauity." They gave a man zE5,000 a year for talking such nonsense as Bishop Elli- cott. He wanted his hearers to read and think for themselves. Some of them had fifty years to live before they came to his age, and it was their duty by their votes to endeavour to make those fifty years as happy, bright, and prospe- rous as possible. Toryism would dio without a resurrection if they would bury it. Let him thank the few who were present, and had kindly favoured him with their company, that inclement evening. He hoped Wales would show, at the coming Election, that it was true to Liberal principles, and that the electors, how- ever oppressed, would remember that a man's a man for 'a that." Let them show themselves at the next election worthy of tho blood of their sires, and record their votes in support and defence of that freedom for which their forefathers bled and died. By acting thus, in- stead of being inflated with inordinate pride, they would give honour to whom honour is due. They would learn at thesame time that princes and lords were but the breath of kings, while an honest man was the noblest work of God. The Chairman then called upon Mr Daniel to move the first resolution, and in doing so re- marked that they wanted to reverse the present misrepresentation of thE county at the next elec- tion. Mr J. Daniel congratulated the meeting that they had few objections to meet at the Revising Barrister's Court which was shortly to be held. He felt sure they would obtain from 80 to 100 votes. Ho begged to propose—" That this meet- ing, having heard the eloquent and lucid defini- tion of Mr Lomas with regard to I Toryism: Past and Present,' unanimously protest against its baneful influence upon progress, retrenchment, and reform." Mr G. Griffiths, in an able speech, seconded the resolution, which was carried with acclamation. On the motion of Mr W. Lewis, seconded by Mr Griffiths, and supported by the Rev. D. M. Davies and Mr Jones, it was resolved—" That this meeting 'pledges itself to support a Liberal candidate at the forthcoming election." A vote of thanks to the deacons of the chapel for the use of the building and to the chairman for presiding were unanimously carried, a.í1.d the meeting terminated.
THE RIGHT REV. F. ELZEAR, BISHOP OF ARMIDALE. The following short biography of the Catho- lic Bishop of Annidale, in South Australia, who was so well-known for many years in th is neighbourhood as Father Elzear, is extracted from the August number of The Franciscan Annals and Monthly Bulletin or the third Order of St. Francis." F. Elzear, if we may still use the long-familiar name, was born at Porto di Recanati, near Loreto, in the Marchian Province of Ancona, on the 28th May, 1830. His parents, Vincenzo Antonio Tor- reg ni ,incl Margarita Franceso,,i, Osimani were P,?? pl,3 full of piety,%nd devotion, whose chief ctre and delight was to bring up their children in the love and fear of God. They were at the time of his birth rather advanced in years, and they greatly desired to dedicate this their youngest born child to the special service of God. He wa,s baptized two days after his birth in the parish church of Porto di Recanati, receiving the name of Aloysius, and henceforth his parents .regarded him as a treasure they must keep spotless, and train up only for God. At six years old he was sent to school to a pious priest, F. Leopoldi Vel- luti, who lived near his home, and who duly ini- tiated him into the first elements of learning, secular and religious, and a few years later he was transferred to the care of a holy priest at Loreto, who was noted for training up his pupils to the priesthood and religious life. Here the little Aloysius was prepared for his first confession, and placed under the spiritual direction of F. Poggi, one of the Jesuit Fathers of the place; at eight years old he received the Sacrament of Confirma- tion from the hands of the Bishop, Monsignore Alessandro Bernetti, in the Cathedral Church of Recanati, and three years later, Easter, 1841, he made his first Communion during a retreat given by the Passionist Fathers, being then eleven years of aere. During his stay at Loreto, he used to rise very early every morning, and hasten to the Church of our Lady of Loreto, to serve mass at one of the many altars there in this great sanctuary of Her honour. From his earliest years he imbibed a great love and tender devotion to the Mother of God. From his very childhood he yearned for the way of the Holy Cross, and practised various mortifica- tions by way of fitting himself for the Religious state. His chief recreation was to gather all his boy companions together on the sea shore, and re- peat to them, with animated voice and gesture, the sermons he had eagerly listened to in Church. Often the fishermen and others would gather round the group, and listen, sometimes with tears, to the eloquence of the boy preacher," as they called him. As he grew older, he much wished to enter the Order of the Jesuits, but after due examina- tion and consideration his confessor decided that his vocation was for that of the Franciscan Capu- chins, and with his accustomed simplicity of obe- dience, he gave up his own inclination, and turned his thoughts in the direction indicated. His one thought and aim now was to prepare himself for the life to which he was called, and in this he was aided and encouraged by his good parents, who dearly loved this their precious offering to God. He was but sixteen years of age when, in Octo- ber, 1846, he bade farewell to his home by the blue waves of the Adriatic, and took his way, ac- companied by his father and eldest brother, to the Monastery of Camerino, in Umbria, there to be initiated into the life he had chosen. His vocation must have been well defined, for after only three days' probation he was clothed in the habit of a novice on the 20th of October, the feast of S. Elzear, whose name he then received. The fol- 10wila year, on the same date, he made his solemn profes' sion, and was then sent to the Monastery of Tolentino, from whence, a few months later, he was transferred to Apiro, and thence to Osimo, preparatory to beginning his studies. From Osimo he went to Ancona, and there en- tered the usual student's course of philosophy and theelo.- under the direction of F. Ludovico, of ly Ancona, and F. Mariano, of Civita Nova. He was ordained priest on the 23rd May' 1853, by the Archbishop of Ancona, Ivlousignore Anto- nucci, and was then sent to Sinigaglia to study sacred eloquence under the Very Rev F. Eusebio, of Monte Santo, now preacher of the Apostolic palace. After the completion of his studies, a strong missionary spirit took possession of his mind. He therefore offered himself to his Supe- riors for the work of foreign missions, and in 1856 he was called to Rome, where he passed the usual examination at Propaganda, and was on the point of starting for India, when his Superiors suddenly changed their plans, and decided upon sending him to England. He said later to a friend in Eng- land I knew it must be the will of God, because there was none of my own will in it." In June, 1856, he reached Peckham, and a month's sojourn there, ignorant of the language, of the way of the world in general, and of the English world in particular, did not tend to make the prospect before him any the more inviting. Three years previously, in 1853, a church and house at Pantasaph, near Holywell, in North Wales, had been given by Lord Fielding, now Lord Denbigh, to the Capuchin Order, with a view to their estab- lishing a monastery on the property, and thither F. Elzear, after his short stay at Peckham, was sent to form one of the infant community, and he remained a member of it from that time until May, 1860. For some months he had no opportunity of learning the language of this uncongenial land, and being unable to preach or hear confessions, or even to beg alms, the task alloted to him was to break stones, and make a road from the boundary of the property up to the door of the house, and many a time, as he meekly pursued his task, he ha4 to put down pickaxe or hammer, and raise his ^oil-worn hand, as some visitor from Downing or Holywell alighted from a carriage, and knelt to ask his? blessing. By degrees, however, he ac- quired a slight knowledge of English, and as soon as he could make himself understood he was sent out with a lay brother to beg alms for the building of monastery, and a little later he began his mis- sionary w°rk by assisting some hard-worked priests 1Jn .VerP00^ where he won the love and esteem of all with whom he came in contact. He was next iv?1 VT^SS:°ned se^ ou missi°ns at Flint and vT i former place a chapel had already been built through the exertions of F. Blackett o. J., but at Mold it was difficult to obtain even a room where mass could be said and instruction £ xyeQ* The poor congregation had to remove from cellar to garret, and back again, as in the days of persecution. Prejudice against the Catholics and their faith ran high, and every application for a piece of land met with a contemptuous refusal, until F. Elzear, bringing the wisdom of this world to bear upon the question, drove into Mold one fine day in Lady Fielding's carriage, accompanied by her ladyship, and again preferred his request for the desired plot of ground. The boon refused to the poor friar on foot was granted to him in such apparently improved circumstances, and he and his benefactress returned home rejoicing in the success of their expedition. F. Elzear now had charge of the missions of Flint and Mold, and his untiring zeal, with the re- markable union of energy and gentleness so pecu- liar to him,and his great power of sympathy,made him a most successful missioner. His work on Sundays was to say Mass, first at Flint, and then —still fasting, of course-to walk over the hills, a distance of six miles, to Mold, for a second Mass and other duties. In May, 1860, F. Elzear was sent by his Supe- rior to take charge of the mission of Pontypool, in S. Wales; and anyone who wishes to learn the de- tails of his work in that neighbourhood may find full information on the subject in a little work published a few years ago, entitled Franciscan Missions in Pontypool." It will suffice to say here, that when he entered upon his duties in that place, he found but one small church in an extensive district, containing about 7000 Catholics living in scattered groups, among the hills and valleys-no Catholic school, nor any provision for the instruction of the chil- dren that before he undertook the care of the mission its resources proved inadequate for the support of one priest, and that he entered upon it in absolute poverty, being even indebted to a friend for his railway fare thither, When he was removed from Pontypool in 1876 he left behind him a commodious monastery, with a community of Fathers and Brothers, an excellent school building at. Pontypool, with ten acres of land let out as cottage-gardens, a large school-chapel at Abersychan, and one in each of the outlying vil- lages of Blaenavon, Cwmbran, Risca, Blackwood, and Abertillery,* with four efficient schools under Government inspection, in which about 700 chil- dren were being educated. Surely in a short time he accomplished a great work. In 1876 the Superiors of the Capuchin Order, finding his talents and energy needed at Peckham, thought fit to remove him thither, and during the three years of his sojourn at that place, he has shown once more that, in any place, and under any circumstances, he will throw his whole heart into the work set before him. The two last-named were not quite completed, but the greater part of the work was done.
Epps's COCOA.- -GRATEFT, L AND COMFOKTINP.— By a thorough knowledge of the natural laws which govern the operations of digestion and nutrition, and by a careful application of the fine properties of well. selected cocoa, Mr Epps has provided our breakfast tables with a delicately flavoured beverage which may save us many heavy dootors' bills. It is by the judicious use of such articles of diet that a constitution may be gradually built up until strong enough to resist every tendency to disease. Hundreds of subtle maladies are floating around us ready to attack wherever there is a. weak point. We may escape many a fatal shaft by keeping ourselves well fortified with pure blood and a properly nourished frame.Civil Service Gazette.- Sold only in packets labelled "James Epps & Co, Homoeopathic Chemists, London."
Panteg Urban Sanitary District. I 1.—The present arrangement of closets, by which the privy pits communicate directly with the sewers, should be at once given up, and a proper water-closet system, with trapped pans and efficient flushing apparatus, be substituted. 2.—In places where, owing to absence of a sewer, or for other reasons, a proper water-closet system i i s Im possible, a dry system of excrement disposal should be adopted, founded on the report of the Local Govern- mentBoard on the Means of PreventingExcrementNui- sance in Towns and Villages. 3.—Measures should be taken for the more efficient flushing and ventilation of the present sewers. 4-The water supply derived from the wells now in use should be, as far as practicable, discarded; wells, so situated as to be liable to pollution, should be closed, and a supply from the Water Company's mains substi- tuted, wherever possible, for the water now in use. 5.—The recommendation made in the case of Ponty- pool (6), in regard to hospital accommodation and dis- infection, applies equally to Panteg.
Abersychan Urban Samtaru District. 1.—It is desirable that the progressive sanitary work, which appears to have been lately interrupted in this district, should be again entered upon with as little delay as practicable, and systematically pursued throughout the different villages and hamlets. 2.—The Local Board should obtain the advice of a competent engineer as to the works of sewerage, both as regards the necessary extensions, the general arrange- ments for flushing and ventilation, and the disposal of the sewage without fouling the water-courses. 3.—Houses with deficient closet accommodation should be dealt with under clause 36 of the Public Health Act; and where it is impracticable to supply such houses with properly constructed water-closets, a dry system of excrement disposal, founded on the prin- ciples set forth in the Local Government Board's Re- port on the Means of Preventing Excrement Nuisances in Towns and Villages, should be adopted. This rpcommendatipn especially applies to such places as Varteg and the Tranch, 4.—The Local Board should adopt measures for en. suring that all water supplied by the Company is effi- ciently filtered before delivery. 5.—Steps should be taken without delay to provide Garndiffaith and the Tranch with an adequate water supply. 6.—The bye-laws relating to the ventilation of house- drains and cesspools, and to the prevention of damp. ness by eaves-troughing, &c., should be enforced. 7.—The recommendation made in the case of Ponty- pool (6) applies equally in this case. Amongst the matters with which the above recom- meudations are concerned, are some which could pro. bably be dealt with more efficiently and more economi- cally by the combined action of various sanitary autho- rities in the Afon Llwyd valley, than by each acting separately. Such, for instance, is the provision of hospitals and disinfecting apparatus; such also the adoption of which_ means of supervision may ensure the efficient filtration and purity of the public water supply; and such, especially, the disposal of the sewage in such way, whether by purification or diversion, as may put an end to the present wholesale pollution of the river. In all Engl? nd and Wales, of every 1000 persons, 513 are females, 487 are males. But in Pontypool sub-district the Jiales are 522, the females 478. Males, it need hardly be said, have invariably a higher death-rate than females.—In all Eng- land and Wales, of every 1000 persons, 511 are engaged in in- dustrial occupations and 198 in tigticijHure. But m Pontypool district (and the difference would be still more marked in the sub-district), the industrial population rises to (528, and the agricultural sinks to 127. i I tried with the aid of the Inspector of Nuisances to follow up this clue and:find how far this milk may have propagated the disease; for it may be noted that this lad was the lirst per. son known to have had sefirlet fever in the town of Pontypool. Inquiry was made at all the houses round about this milk. man's cottage as to where they got their milk, and whether they had had the fever. In seven milk was taken from this milkman, and in three of these, or 43 per cent., there was scarlet fever. In 84 milk was got from elsewhere, and in eight of these, thatis in only 9 per cent., was there foier
RIFLE SHOOTING AT NEWPORT.. On Saturday, the shooting for the return match between Bristol and Newport Volunteers took place at the Marches range, Newpoit. The Bristol team were again victorious. The scores were:—Bristol, 754 Newport, 724. The shooting was at 200, 500, and 600 yards, ten men on each side.
CYPRUS. A letter from Cyprus, written with no political object, says the business activity which, prevailed in the island a year ago has entirely collapsed, and Englishmen who hurried to the place of arms expecting to make fortunes have returned home sadder and wiser men. A large English house is abandoning the island in despair, as there seems to be no hope of improvement in the local trade, and the Government has not carried out, even partially, its promises as to constructing railways, roads, and harbours.
CETEWAYO AT CAPETOWN. We learn from Madeira that Cetewayo arrived at Capetown on the loth September. He came in the transport Natal, which actually arrived in Simon's Bay on the 9th, but was detained there by warrant until the 14th. The ex-Zulu King, who is in good health, was conveyed in a car- riage to the Castle, where he is now detained, awaiting instructions from England. Cetewayo is said to bear himself with dignity, and to have made a good impression. Three wives, it seems, and a girl accompany him.
Hereford Cathedral had a narrow escape of destruc- tion by fire on Friday, but fortunately the fire brigade got promptly to work, and the flames were extinguish- ed before much damage was done. It is supposed that the fire was caused by the spontaneous combustion of a large quantity of coals used for heating the building. BRISTOL COUNTY COURT.—Mr Goodeve, of the Western Circuit, whom the late judge of the Bristol County Court appointed his deputy a few days before his death, has been requested by the Treasury to dis- charge the duties during this month, withthepay and allowance of a county court judge. SHOCKING FATALITY.—Mr Phillips, farmer, of St. Blazey, returning home from church on Sun- day afternoon, noticed that a waggon in his farm- yard was overturned. On raising it he was horri- fied to find the dead bodies of his two sons. The children had apparently overturned the vehicle in their play. FATAL ACCIDENT.—A farm labourer, named Thomas Simpson, whilst working on a farm at Maidstone the other day, lifted up the board of a threshing machine and put his hand in the hubber to clear out some accumulated barley ears. The consequence was his hand was nearly torn off, and had to be amputated. He afterwards died from lockjaw and exhaustion. THE Sheffield Independent says that the under- ground duke"—the Duke of Portland-has inti- mated his resolve to remit the whole of the half- year's rents due at Michaelmas. This applies to the whole of his estates in Notts and Derbyshire. We believe this favour extends only to those far- mers who have not sent in notices to give up their farms. At the present time the Duke has upwards of thirty farms on his hands. FATAL NEGLIGENCE.—At Chesterfield, on Friday, a coroner committed for trial three contractors and the borough surveyor. The contractors were con- structing a deep drain in the street under the sur- veyor's superintendence, and not having properly fenced it, a little girl, eight years of age, fell into the excavation, which was 14ft. deep, and partly full of water, while crossing the road at dusk on the previous Tuesday. When extricated, she was dead. LORD ABERDARE ON INTEMPERANCE.—Opening a coffee tavern at Neath on Saturday, Lord Aberdare said these taverns only touched one phase of the evil of intemperance, as the very class of persons to be reached were those who would not attend such houses. He could not concur with Sir Wilfrid Lawson in a scheme which was likely to lead to the absolute sup- pression of publichouses, but he thought they should be regulated on the Gothenburg system, which had resulted in a gain to the Treasury in one town in Sweden of at least X10,000 a year. THE Hertfordshire Express points out one way in which capital is driven off the soil by game-pre- serving landlords in that county :—" Only a few weeks ago a farmer's wife and children, while walking round her husband's farm, accompanied by a little pet dog, were rudely accosted by a gamekeeper, who asked if she knew whose land she was on. One would think she did, as her hus, band paid XDOO a year for the farm, and lost nearly X2,000 in two years." Her husband, who has now given up possession of this eligible property, says that he could not walk across the farm without being watched by a gamekeeper or a policeman. AUSTRALIAN OF.ANGES.-By the steamship Lusi- tania a novel importation, a consignment of oranges and lemons from an estate near Adelaide, South Australia, where they are now in season and cheap, reached Messrs Howcroft and Watkins, of 14, Tavistock-row, Covent-garden, on Friday. A few of the oranges with paper wrappings showed signs of a minute brown mould in bruised places; those packed free in the sawdust were in perfect condi- tion. As fine oranges are at present being sold retail in Covent-garden Market at 3d and 4d each, it is believed that the venture will yield a fair re- turn to the grower, and the success of the; expert ment may lead to the development of a regular trade which will increase the variety of our autumn fruits. WILLIAM HABRON'S CASE.—According to the Manchester Courier, the Government have forwarded to Mr Francis Deakin, of Chorlton-cum-Hardy, the £ 1,000 granted by the Home Secretary to William Habron in consideration of the injury he sustained In being yrrongly convicted of the' murder of Police- constable Cock at Whalley Range. Mr Deakin in- tends to communicate with the Roman Catholic Bishop of Salford as to how the money shall be appropriated for the benefit of Habron, but it i$very likely that • £ 200 will at once be handed over to him to recoup him for the expense he incurred at the trial. Feeling that it was especially due to the efforts of Mr Hugh Birley, M.P., that he obtained his release from gaol and the grant from Government, Habron has person- ally thanked the hon, gentleman for his services. PONTYPOOL Printed by HUGHES & SON, at their General Printing Offices, for the Proprietor and Publisher, HENRY HUGHES, Junior, of Penygarn, in the parish of Trevethin, and published at the FREE PUESS Office, Market St.—October 11, 1879
ADVICE BY THE WAY. Act kindly to all, for to-morrow May cloud o'er your sunshiny day; Or the star you have seen in some sorrow, May to-morrow reflect a joy ray. A spiteful, ungenerous sneer, If it blights not a hope, makes it bleed But a frank, manly word of good cheer Will spur a bright thought to a deed. Tho' we feel every day we get older, Glowing impulses smoulder and fade, And while growing yet colder and colder, Like their case, sinking fast in the shade Still, the soul that is warm with good deeds" Sown broadcast, flames on to the last, la the winter of life the bud seeds The harvest of good that is past. While you may, do the good that you can, For life is a shiftable thing, Like to poor Birds of Passage is man— And who knows, you next may take wing. When you do take that wondrous flight, May the goal of a heaven be won May your balance sheets turn out all right, 'Twixt the good you've received and have done. BOB C. HARRISON (T.J.J.)
WIT AND HUMOUR. • WVvMix was made from man's ribs, eh? Then that accounts for her love of rib-bon(e)s. LADIES are like violets the more modest and re- tiring they appe ar, the more you love them. CAUSE AD EFFECT.—The lady who made a dash has since brought her husband to a full stop. THE new style spring hats are so taU that they entirely obstruct the view of the sermon on a Sunday. I'? -? :& I-,A-T-)Y says tjiat the difference between a silk dregs *vtwico gown is niaterial ;but that is. aU stuff. 4k$ g oid thing which men are universally willing t4?* up Yor a rainy day is other people's umbrellas. IF a man can be happy and contented in his own company he will generally be good company for others. A MA'S great ambition is to be credited with some great feat; a woman's to be credited with some small feet. THE reason why some boys can't keep straight is supposed to be, because they're bent on some mis- chief. A PHILADELPHIA paper says: 'Rag gathering is the only business in this city which is worth pick- ing up.' THE lesson of the present hours-Sixty seconds makes one minute, and sixty minutes makes one hour. A Corkonian, on being asked at breakfast how he came by that black eye,' replied that he slept on his fist.' THE puzzle which careful mothers try to solve is how to train the girls, and how to restrain the young boys. UNDER the laws of France no girl can marry her uncle, but a nephew can marry all his aunts if he wants to. THE girl who succeeds in winning the true love of a true man makes a lucky hit, and is herself a lucky miss. THE class of people which are most valued as cus- tomers by tradesmen in a new country are the ear- liest settlers 'THEY fired two shots at him,' wrote an Irish re- porter the first shot killed him, but the second shot was not fatal.' A SPANISH proverb says, The man who on his wedding-day starts as a lieutenant in the family will never get promoted.' A WITNESS in a court of justice declared that he was acquainted with all classes of men from lawyers up to the most respectable people. AN Aberdeen pundit has found out what makes the Tower of Pisa lean. He says it is the want of good food in Pisa. A YOUNG lady says she dosen't see why, even if times are as hard as people say, the young men can't pay their addresses promptly. A- School Teacher, who was recently kissed by r" t!we dark, explained her omission to use any light tor nearly a month afterwards on the ground ol hard times ? SEE, mamma. exclaimed a little one, as puss, with arching 8pine and elevated rudder, strutted around the table see, Kitty's eat Bo mach, she c ,set shut her tail down." is a question which any train our qiri- are,,Asmai,,er s iL?.vvays f?app? iu t-.? tlte satisfaction of the fashion-loving girls, if not of their bill-hating papas. A SITAIZP little girl got Out Of t* 'th her ck la,,lence wi bashful lover's ba wirdness, an o she brought in?ttters to a favourable climax by saying to him, ? I reallv belie-e you are afraid to ask me to marry yoiiv for you know I would say yes.' THEY were fishing off the coast when the fair one of the party pointed to a sail in the distance, and asktd I George, what kind of vessel is that F' He leaned over, stole a kiss from her lips, and answered calmly, That's a fishing smack.' 'WOMAN,' said an ancient writer, 'can never be- come an orator.' But he had probably never seen a housewife looking out of the second-storey window at 7 a.m,, arguing with the milkman about that quart he overcharged her for in last month's bill. A MAN* who had filed a petition for divorce was in- formed by his counsel that his wife had filed a cross petition,' as lawyers call it. A cross-petition!' ex- claimed the husband,' that's just like her. She never did a good-natured thing in her life. Did Eliza and James go out to ride this morning ?' 4 asked a gentleman of his wife. Yes was the reply, 'we saw them as they rode by.' 4 And did the children go out to slide down hillr' Yes,' said the 3er\ant, 4 we saw tiiem as they slode down.' CONNOSIAL DIALOGUE.-Fond mother: 'Do you not think, my dear, that our Adolphus has a great talent for saying things which nobody else ever says ?' —Unfeeling father Yes, and also for saying things which nobody ever ought to say.' A fellow coming from the top of the Alps to New York in winter was asked whether it was as cold there as in this city. < Horribly cold,' said he for they have no thermometers there, and of course it gets just as cold as it pleases. A lady of experience observes that a good way to pick out a husband is to see how patiently the man waits for dinner when it is behind time. Her husband remarks that a good way to pick out a wife is to see whether the woman has dinner ready in time. A traveller stopping overnight with a Texan farmer whose estate was miles and miles in extent, 3aid to him, TL ou must have begun life very early to accumulate such an estate as this.' I Yes,' replied the farmer, I began life when I was a mere baby.' SCENE country inn. Traveller (distrustfully) Have you got any decent port, waiter ?'—Waiter: Oh, dear me, yes, sir, some very excellent port wine.'—Traveller I suppose you don't make less than a bottle.'—Waiter Lor' bless you, no sir. Blaster never makes less than four or five gallon.' 'THAT'S a stupid brute of yours, John,' said a Scotch minister to his parishioner, the peat dealer, who drove his merchandise from door to ( oor in I" a small cart drawn by a donkey; I never see you but the creature is braying.' I Ali, sir,' returned the peat dealer, hearts warm when frien's meet!' BEFORE AND AFTER.-NVomen before marriage want nothing but husbands, and when they get them they want everything else,' said an old bachelor. How different it is with you men,' reported a lady, When a man gets a wife he just settles down con* tented 'feeling that the has secured the best blessing that Heaven could bestow.' Ax ignorant and pretentious soldier, who was fond of big words, was placed on guard to watch a certain post. The adjutant of the regiment came along and attempted to pass. The soldier cried out, I Halt! I'm a century here, and if you don't dismount and give the counterpin, I'll make you reform the whole revolution of the tictacs.' It is needless to say that the solitary horseman' came down. FULL ENOUGH.—Walker went to a Dutch tailor, and had his measure taken for a pair of pantaloons He gave directions to have them made large and full Walker's a large and heavy man, and likes hii clothes loose, and when he came to try on the new unmentionables, found they stuck tight to his legs whereat he exclaimed, 'I told you to make these panti full.' After some objugatory expressions of an ir. ritable nature, the tailor ended the controv b3 !rilly declaring, I I dink clese pants is full enough f, ?d 3 vv,q..q anv fiillpr flpv wniild shT)Iit!' I
THE REV JOHN SHEWARD, of Milton, Kent, writes October 29th, 1878 My nerves were so shattered that I dreaded the simplest duties, and lost all energy and pleasure in the performance of them. The despondency I endured became almost unbearable. Since taking COBDEN'S PILLS the change in my health for the better is very marked. I have lost that horrible depression, my nerves are much stronger, and my general health very greatly improved. I cannot express how truly thankful I feel for the remarkable and pleasing change." COBDEN'S QUININE AND PHOS- PHOROUS PILLS give strength, energy, and vigorous vitality. Infallible in Neuralgia.—Ask for COBDEN'S PILLS," 2s. 9d. and 4s. 6d., and have no others. Any Chemist will get them if they are not in stock, or they will be sent, Post Free, on receipt of 33 or 54 stamps (great saving), by the Sussex Drug Co., 135, Queen's Road, Brighton. Local AgentE. B. FORD, Chemist, George Street, Pontypool
REVISING BARRISTER'S COURTS. During the week the Revising Barrister for thg county of Monmouth, Richard Holmden Amphlett, Esq., has bsen holding various courts for the re- vision of the lists of voters. No question has ari- sen in the immediate neighbourhood, with one trifling exception, in which any particular point of public interest has been argued. The exception was at Blaenavon, and although the point raised is one agents will do well to remember, little was said upon the matter, and the Revising Barrister re- served his decision, which he has however since given. The details will be found below CROESYCEILOG.—The Revising Barrister sat at the Upper Cock Inn, on Friday, and revised the lists of voters for the parishes of Llangattock- juxta-Caerleon, Llanthewy Yacb, Uanfihangel- Llantarnam, Llanfrechfa Upper, and Llanfrechfa I Lower. Mr Justice, of the firm of Messrs Davis i and Justice, Newport, and Mr Christopher, from the office of Messrs W. J. and H. G. Lloyd/ New- port, supported the Conservative interests; and Mr David, Newport, those of the. Liberals. For the parishes of Llanfrechfa tipper and Lower and Llanvihangel-Llantarnam. a. great many new claims were made, and the objections on either side were few. It was impossible, from the nature of things, to gather which side really obtained a majority, as many claims were allowed which both sides held as their own. BLAENAVON.—At the Prince of Wales Inn, on Monday, the Revising Barrister sat to revise the lists of the parishes comprising the Blaenavon polling district, namely, Llanover Upper, the Blaenavon portion of Llanfoist, Llanwenarth Ultra, and Trevethin, and also of that part of Trevethin comprised in the Abersychan pollino- district. Mr Justice and Mr T. Watkins repre- sented the Conservatives in the first-named pollino- district, and Mr Hier Jacobs, Abergavenny, assist^ ed by the Rev Evan Jones, Blaenavon, represented the Liberals. The Conservatives made 12 new claims, all of which were sustained, and the Libe- rals 44, of which 36 were sustained. The objec- tions to voters already on the list were 20 in num- ber, and all emanated from the Conservative nn.rf.v -r-J. They were disposed of as follows In 7 cases the objections were sustained; in 6 cases, which only referred to the addresses of the voters, proper evi- dence of their present abode was furnished and the addresses were amended; and the remaining votes were also held good. Mr Jacobs, iij one instance apT plied for costs, but they were refused on the ground that it was a proper case for investigation. The Abersychan polling district was then taken, when Mr Justice and Mr R. Greenway appeared on behalf of the Conservatives, and Mr Jacobs, assisted by Messrs John Daniel and Wm. Lewis, of Abersychan, on behalf of the Liberal interest. -Mr Justice took exception to three notices of ob- jections given by Mr Daniel, on the ground that he had stated he was on the list for the parish of Abersychan, whereas he should have said Treve- thin.—Mr Lewis contended that the districts of Abersychan, Pontnewynydd, and Trevethin, were ecclesiastical sub-divisions of the parish of Treve- thin, and that the objection would not stand.—Mr Justice said the notices were filled up in respect of the parish of Abersychan," whereas Abersy- chan was no parish at all.—The Revising Barrister said the question was a novel one, and he would take time to consider his decision. At the same time, he had a decided feeling that the objection was fatal. He would deliver his decision at New- bridge,—We have been informed that the learned gentleman has decided in favour of Mr Justice's contention. PONTYPOOL.—The Revising Barrister held a sitting at the Town Hall on Monday afternoon, for Llanvihangel-Pontymoile, Mamhilad, Panteg, and the remaining portions of Trevethin not included in the Blaenavon district.—Mr Justice and Mr M. Edwards were for theConservatives, and MrJacobs for the Liberals.—The proceedings were of an un- interesting character, and extended only over the time required for legal formalities. For the Pan- teg district there were 23 new claims (one only by the Conservatives), and no objections. For Ponty- pool there were 65 new claims and 26 objections, 19 of which were struck out, thus leaving 58 sus- tained new claims.
DR. W. OGLE'S REPORT To the Local Government B >ard on the Prevalence of Scarlet Fever in the Pontypool Registration Sud- Dist-iict, and on the general sanitary condition of that Sub-District. Owm? to the very large number of deaths from Scarlet Fever reg-istered in the latter ha,K of the year 1878 in the Pontypool sub-district, I was in- structed by the Local Government Board to visit that locality, and report on the circumstances under which this mortality had occurred, and generally on the sanitary condition of the sub-dis- trict. This sub-district is an aggregation of five pa- rishes, with boundaries that have no reference to those of sanitary areas, but intersect these in so irregular a manner as to render the statistics as published by the Registrar-General unavailable for sanitary purposes. Three Sanitary Authorities, however, namely, the Local Boards of Pontypool, Panteg, and Aber- sychan, have areas that fall entirely within the sub-district; and as it appeared, on going through the register, that the Scarlet Fever mortality of 1878 was entirely confined to these 3 sanitary dis- tricts, I limited my inspection to them,leaving the remaining fragments of the Registration sub-dis- trict] alone. The sub-district contained in 1861 a population numbering 22,633, which in 1871 had grown to 25,287. If the increase had gone on at the same rate, the population should now be 27,410; but it is believed that no such increase has occurred, owing to the depression in the iron and coal trades, and this opinion is supported by the statistics of births,the number of which has in fact somewhat diminished. The population in. 1871 was thus divided:-Panteg Local Board District, 2,761 Abersychan do., 14,569; Pontypool do., 4,834; Mamhilad, Llanhilleth, Llanvi- hangel-Pontymoile, 1,876. The average death-rate on an average of 20 years (1851-70) was 22.65; and on the assumption that the population has remained stationary since the last cen- sus, has averaged 22.0 for the last eight years (1871-8). This, doubtless, is a high rate, especially as the popula- tion is one in which there is a comparatively small pro- portion of persons over 60, and also as the Workhouse is not situated in the sub-district, so that pauper deaths are omitted in the calculation. When, however, we take into account the fact that males preponderate largely in the population,* and that they are almost all m'n'n puddling, the death-rate, though high, cannot be looked upon as excessively so. Moreover, the infantile death- rate, or proportion of infant deaths to 1000 births, is not high. In the 20 years, 1851-70, it was 167 as against 179 for all England and Wales, and for the last six years it has only averaged 130. When, however, we turn from the total mortality to the mortality from special diseases, it appears that cer- tain of these have caused much more than their average proportions of deaths. This has notably been the case with scarlet fever. For the last eight years there has been but one quarter in which no death was registered from this cause in many quarters the number regis- tered has been very high, and in the last three quarters has been successively 39, 38,19. Moreover, in the 20 years, 1851-70, the published statistics tell the same tale. They show also that not only scarlet fever,but also other catching disorders, as small-pox, measles, whoop- ing-cough, have on an average of a long period of years destroyed more than their due share. Pontypool sub-district is in this matter not excep- tional among large industrial communities; and like causes contribute to swell the mortality from these diseases there, as they do in similar communities else- where. First and foremost amongst the causes comes, of course, close packing or aggregation of the population within a narrow area. Again, in all these industrial centres, togethel with closely-packed houses, goes almost certainly hand-in- hand the overcrowding of individual tenements. Again, the influence of unwashed bodies and clothes, and generally of filthiness, whether of persons or bodies, in the propagation of infectious diseases cannot be questioned. I Nor can it be doubted, I think that the constant ha- bituation to filthy surroundings breeds a reckless in- difference to all ills, physical or moral; a recklessness with which the adoption of the most ordinary precau- tions to escape infection, or to avoid infecting others, is quite incompatible. I was told again and again that in the late outbreak peeple behaved as though the disease were not infectious at all that sick and healthy inter- mingled as freely as ever; that goods were sold in shops and delivered by persons still visibly in process of des- quamation; and I was shown in one instance a little close room in which milk was kept and sold, while alad lay all the time in it with scarlet fever, the scales detached from his skin, no doubt,floating in the air and dropping,into the fluid.§ In short, then, so far as I can judge, the prevalence of scarlet fever and other infectious diseases is due to conditions which this sub-district shares with most other industrial centres. The close aggregation of the population within a small space, in houses often ill- ventilated and overcrowded the large proportion of young persons in the population caused by the constant influx of lads from the country parishes very general filthiness of bodies, clothing, and houses reckless in- difference on the part of the working classes to ordinary sanitary precautions; neglect on the part of the autho- rities to provide means of isolation, disinfection, or cleanliness; and on the part of school managers to keep out infected children from their establishments. RECOMMENDATION?. Pontypool Urban Sanitary District. 1.—Ihe Local Board should obtain the aid of a competent engineer, in order to ascertain in detail the actual state of the sewerage of the town, with a view of remedying^ such defects as exist in regard to struc- ture, ventilation, or flushing; of making such exten- sions as may be required; and of depurating the sewage before it reaches the river, or of diverting it altogether from the river and utilising it. 2.—Houses without any, or with insufficient closet accommodation, should be dealt with under the powers conferred by the Public Health Act (s. 36); and mea- sures should be taken for furnishing water-closets, now hand flushed, with proper flushing apparatus, and for giving them a due supply of water. 3.—Houses in which the air is necessarily foul, owing to the want of proper means of ventilation, should be dealt with as unfit for human habitation until efficient ventilation has been provided. 4.-More efficient supervision should be exercised over slaughter-houses, and generally over such trades as are likely to cause nuisance; and the bye-laws re- lating to slaughter-houses, and to nuisances generally, should be strictly enforced. 5.—Measures should be taken by the Local Board to ensure the due and efficient filtration of all water deli- vered by the Water Company for domestic use. 6.-It is necessary that hospital accommodation should be provided for the isolation of cases of infec- tious diseases, as also an efficient oven for the dis- infection of clothes and bedding; and that the provi- sions of the Public Health Act against the spreading of infection by the exposure of infected persons or things should be enforced.
REFORMATORY BOY STABBED TO DEATH. A boy named Albert Cox, an inmate of Hardwicke Reformatory, near Gloucestershire, was lately stabbed by another boy named Wheeler. The two quarrelled on Wednesday week, and Cox drew his knife and threatened Wheeler, but they were separated for a time by a boy named Batty. Afterwards the two fought with knives, and Cox was stabbed in the ab- domen, despite the interference of Batty, who unfor- tunately stumbled, the fatal blow being given before he could recover himself. Cox died on Friday, and the inquest was held on Saturday, resulting in a ver- dict of manslaughter sgainst Wheeler. It seems that both boys were well-conducted.
A COLLIER'S RECKLESSNESS. On Monday afternoon, the Barnsley magis- trates adjudicated upon what they considered one of the most important mining prosecutions they ever heard. John Gough, 16, a hurrier at Woot- ley Colliery, was committed to one month im- prisonment, without being given the option of a fine, for unlocking his safety lamp with the lamp- hook, and lighting it. The Bench expressed sur- prise at this, as hitherto they believed lamps could only be opened by the authorised lamp- men. It was admitted that any lamp could be opened and relocked by the men. The Bench communicated with the Mines Inspector imme- diately on the matter.
ACTION BY A FIREMAN AT DINAS COLLIERY. At the Pentre police-court, on Monday, before the stipendiary (Mr G. Williams), Benjamin Lewis, Dinas, formerly of Hirwain, sued Mr D'Arcy Hunt, proprie- tor of the Dinas Colliery, for a month's wages alleged to be due to him.—Mr Thomas Phillips appeared for plaintiff, and Mr D. Rosser defended.—Plaintiff said he was engaged by the manager (Mr Price) as fire- man; he had heard no complaint against himself, and the work had gone on well. The manager had given him permission to go to Hirwain on Saturday, July 28, and return on Monday. When he returned he was told by Mr Richards to go and cut coal. He said he was not there to cut coal. He had gone with Mr Price to see Mr Galloway, and Mr Price wished that witness should have a month's notice or a month's wages. Mr Galloway would not hear of this. His wages as fireman were X7 a month.—Mr Rees Price said he had left Dinas after being there only three W6iu S encmgh of Mr Galloway the first day. Mr Galloway and Samuel Hughes were examined for the defence.—The Stipendiary gave judgment for plaintiff for the amount claimed, and all costs.