ON THE WASTE AND ECONOMY OF LABOUR. At the British Association for the advancement of Science, held at Exeter, in opening the proceedings of section F (Economic Science and Statistics), Sir Stafford Northcote read an address of considerable length. He spoke of the tendency-of statistical inquiry to take, year by year, a wider range. The statist was not animated by mere curiosity, nor was he content with the simple accumulation of facts. His objects l'ere at once nobler and more practical. He aimed at discovering the actual condition of his country, the causes of that condition, and the methods of improving it. The true condition of the country was not obvious to the superficial observer, while the causes of the phenomena exhibited lay very deep, and were discerned only by patient and extensive inquiries, conducted with skill, discernment, and most rigid exactitude. The investigation of metho Is for improvement imposed fur- ther and at least equally severe labour. The condi- tion of England was a question which did not lie in a nutshell. To him it appeared to be emphatically, in the high- est s-nse of the term, a statistical age-an age in which they were inquiring extensively and methodically into the facts by which they were surrounded, comparing themselves with their neighbours, measuring their pro- gress, and estimating their prospects with unprecedented care. Nor did they stop here, but, giving a practical turn to their inquiries, they studied not only to ascer- tain but to husband and to develope their resources. Pressed, it might be, by the increasing competition of foreign nations pressed, too, by the consideration that their wealth and their desires for enjoyment were in- creasing far more rapidly than the population, and con- sequently than the supply of labour and conscious, moreover, that the non-productive sources of material wealth, such as the minerals, were being very heavily drawn upon, they wore daily beating about to find how this competition might best be sustained, how the balance between capital and labour was to be pre- served, and how they could best economise those sup- plies which it was feared might some day faiL We were beginning to feel that the time for waste had gone by. It milht, perhaps, provoke a sneer from the cynic when he heard that England was becoming anxious as to the possible exhaustion of her coal measures, and was considering how and where she could find water enough for her population. One could not help being reminded of the sarcastic remark of the American tra- veller-that we had a tidy little country enough, but ho wai always afraid of tumbling over the edge of it. There was some truth at the bottom of the taunt but it was not to such considerations that he wished to direct their attention. Rather he desired to point to the satisfactory indications which such inquiries presented of the determina- tion of our people to make a stand against the bane of national prosperity-waste. He spoke not only of waste of raw materials, but of waste in all its forms- waste of power, of labour, of time, of health, and of life. Year by year we were beginning to make skill do the work of strength, to draw greater results from equal efforts, and to supply our labourers with every comfort, every advantage which science could devise for enabling them to tight the battle of life on better terms; and we were grappling, he thought, more boldly than we had ever done before with the difficult problems of our national life, and were advancing t@ their solution with greater breadth of view and greater confidence of step. It was sufficiently obvious that such economy must in the main b advantageous. At the same time they must not forget that the displacement of labour was often the cau-e of suffering, and sometimes, when it occurred sud- denly of very severe suffering. It might produce not only individual distress, but, under certain circum- stances, e yen political danger. If it were possible so to reconstruct society as to give every individual mem- ber of it a direct share in every gain made by society as a whole this particular danger would, of course, vanish. But this was the theory of Socialism, and they had no evidence that if Socialism were in the ascendant society would make these gains at alL Reasoning led them to the conclusion that it would not; and the time was probably far distant when England would accept a system which had so obvious a tendency to discourage private and individual enterprise. Nevertheless, i-t could not be denied thatEoglishmen were beginning to look to Government for assistance, and to distrust in- dividual action to a much greater extent than for- merly. Some years ago it was thought to be the ruty of Government to foster private enterprise by protective laws, monopolies, &c. The great Free Trade move- ment overthrew this theory, and left upon us the im- pression that the more private enterprise was left to it- self and the less the Government interfered with it the better. But, of late, the tide of public opinion had seemed to be settling in a son-ewbat different direc- tion. Not that we were going back to the pro- tective system, but that, on the one hand, we werelbeginning to invite or urge the Government to take upon itself work for which a few years back we should have deemed it utt-rly incompe- tent, and which we should have jealously reserved for private hands, while, on the other hand, our private enterprise was becoming more dependent on the assistance of the Government for its own proper or- ganisation and development. Thus in this matter of our merchant shipping, while we had been repealing our navigation laws and sweeping away every vestige of a differential duty, we had been creating a code of a'most Brobdingnagian dimen-ions for the regulation of every detail of our marine affairs. Nor was this paternal care confined to a single bunch of industry. Government concerned itself with many other branches, and was being pressed to do so with many more. The country was becoming accustomed to Government action in connexion with other classes of business, and was not unwilling to see that action extended. Could it then be that we were willing to siiik the idea of the individual in the idea of the State ? Did the mass of the people, as the Constitution became more democratic, begin to see in Government an organ better fitted to do their work than they found in the classes above them ? Perhaps, as monopolies were put down and privileges abated, and education was more generally diffused, and a closer approach to equality was effected, the tendency to deal with questions nationally rather than by the ac- tion of classes or of individuals might increase. Perhaps, as the competition of foreigners poured upon us with greater severity, and as we became conscious tLat it was only to be encountered by the aid of all the re- sources, all the education, all the organisation that we could command, it was natural that the desire to invoke the powerful aid of the State in gathering up all the elements of our strength and giving it the best possible direction should become more and more marked. Perhaps there might be something in the nature of things which rendered co-operation more and more accessary as we made greater progress in the work of subduing the universe. In the ruder states of society, when industry was in its infancy, the isolated labour of ;he individual sufficed to procure the simple necessaries )f life which he required. As civilisation advanced md greater results were sought, co-operation had to be be taken which only the State was competent to take in a civilised society. As they had lately been re- ninded, deaths by violence-or accident-were rapidly ncreasing in England, and especial precautions were leeded to render the applications of the vast forces of na- ;ure to the arts and industries of life which were now so Issential to our prosperity. It might be that, in the ncreasing struggle for wealth, the interests of the weaker classes, of the poor, of the young, of the female, were likely to be set aside unless the State interfered 'or their protection, and the acknowledged demand for mch interference might be another cause for the tendency to which he had referred. Such seemed at ill events to be the tendency of the age, and it was one which it was impossible to notice without some uneasi- ness. That we had hitherto. been somewhat too jealous )f the State, and that it would be wise to call in its aid rather more freely, might probably be true. But the greatness of England had been achieved by the self- reliant energies of individual Englishmen, and by the jnergies of individual Englishmen it would be best naintained.
THE TWO SUCKING PIGS. A protracted lawsuit about two sucking pigs, to which two railway companies and two French noblemen were parties, has just been the subject of a judgment which may perhaps yet be questioned on appeal. In July, last year, the Count de Montenol, of the Chateau de la Vacherie, purchased from his neighbour the Marquis d'Argent des Deux Fontaines a boar and a sow pig, of a special breed, for the handsome price of 160f. The Marquis wrote to the Count that the pigs would arrive at the Romilly Station of the Western Railway in the evening of July 25, and, in point of fact, they did not get there till the morning of the 26th. Hence the litigation. They had been duly sent from the Cloyes station of the Orleans Railway to be be transferred at the junction to the Western Railway, and a study of the time tables would have shown the purchaser that they could not by possibility have arrived earlier than they did. Bat the Count de Montenol, who went punctually on the day and hour fixed by the Marquis to receive his pigs was in great wrath at not finding them, and when two days later he had notice from the Western Rail- way Company that they were impounded, and waited for him he refused to have them. He had bought them, he said, for a prize show, and they must neces- sarily be deteriorated by their protracted railway journey. The railway company, while awaiting the interpleader, put the pigs in a stye, and in the course of time they throve so well that from little pigs they become great ones, and a huge litter of little pigs added to the expenses of the company. For these ex- penses, estimated at 750f., an action was brought against the Count de Montenol. After hearing and a rehearing the Civil Tribune of the Seine decided that the Marquis d'Argent des deux Fontaines must bear the whole of the expenses occa. sioned by his innocent mistake about the hour of the arrival of the train at Romilly. The count was justi- fied in not receiving the pigs, and the marquis must pay his costs, the costs of the two railway companies, and the claim of the Orleans Company for the keep of the prolific couple and their progeny.
THE AGRICULTURAL LABOUPER QUESTION. At the meeting of the British Association at Exeter, on Monday, the above subject was discussed-Sir Stafford Northcote in the chair. The Rev. J. E. Thorold Rogers said that to doubt that the wages of the agricultural labourer had fallen within the last twenty or thirty years would be to fl in the face of facts. In considering this question of wages it was important to take into account the power possessed by the agricultural labourer of purchasing the secondary necessaries of life-such as butter bacon, and cheese. This power had, he held, con- siderably diminished within the last twenty years. He would put this question-why is butter Is. 6d. per lb. ? Twenty years ago butter in summer was 9d. or I Od. per lb. In towns the prices for thes- secondary necessaries were more uniform than in the country, and in this respect the"- agricul- tural labourers suffered. Coming to the question of improving the condition of the agricultural labourer, he touched first on the proposal to encourage emigra- tion. He must confess that he had looked with regret on the fact that an exodus had been gcing on in Eng- land, not amongst the poorest classes, but. amongst the most enterprising. Long ago he ventured to predict that the emigration system prevalent in Ireland would be extended to England but he did not think that the remedy of emigration was likely to meet the case. He thought that farmers would find it advantageous to give their labourers better wages the latter would then have better food and grow stronger, and consequently be able to do more work. The Rev. Prebendary Sanders, Earl Nelson, and Canon G-irdlestone followed. Earl Fortes-cue joined iisue with Mr. Rogers on what he bad taken as "undisputed facts." He could not allow that secondary comforts" had been raised in price so as to depress the condition of the agricultural labourer lower than it was twenty years ago. His im- pression was that it was improving, and that there was a tendency to raise wages. Taking piece-work into consideration, he knew from what he paid himself the wages ran from 12s. to 13s. weekly. Then it must be remembered that in this county the agricultural labourers had a less number of hours' work than those in otber counties. He should not from his own ex- perience be inclined to say that Devonshire labour was cheap, though the rate of wages was certaiqfy below that in some other districts. He thought that the build- ing of cottages was a question of demand and supply. He pointed out that the improvement in the sanitary condition of the country during the last twenty years had greatly diminished death-rates, and that bad as was the overcrowding ascribed to the cottages of agricultural labourers, it was nothing to the systematic increasing overcrowding in the large manufacturing towns. His lordship referred to the test of marriage signatures on the point of education, and showed that the agricultural districts bore favourable comparison with the manufacturing districts of Lancashire aud elsewhere. Lord Halifax did not believe in the excess of agri- cultural labour, and, regarding the wages, set them down at 16., 15s., and 14s. weekly. He submitted that this question of wages would always depend upon supply and demand. He did not think that •' payment in kind" was, as a rule, a good thing still it was in some cases convenient and very acceptable to the labourers themselves. Dr. Farr spoke on the marriage signature test in reference to education. Mr. Acland, M.P., who said he was a pupil of the late Philip Pusey, reminded the meeting of the modesty of the plain yeomanry of this country, whose opinions on the points in question were very import- ant, but in consequence of the said modesty wete seldom expressed. He should much like the benefit of their experience. Mr. Acland could see nothing to be done without increasing the capital of the land. One way to elevate the labourer was, he thought, to remove every discouragement from the employer, who should have plenty of capital, and sufficient confidence to use it. Professor Leone Levi having replied to the criticisms offered. Sir Stafford Northcote summed up the discussion. The debate, though not an exhaustive one, had been very suggestive, and that, he thought, was ttte great merit of this kind of debate. All would agree that in this, as in other matters, the great law of supply and demand must prevail. They would defeat their own object by telling the farmer to increase his rate of wages unless they at the same time showed him that it was his own interest to do so. And the farmer ought to consider whether he could not improve his own condition as well as that of his labourers by raising their remuneration and getting more work out of them. That was not to be done in a day; it involved the education and improvement perhaps of a whole generation of labourers. There were other modes of improving their education besides teaching them the three r's." Skill in cookery and in needle- work, and a little more apprehension of the common things about him, enabled the labourer to live in com- fort with much lower wages than he could in the ab- sence of such acquirements. On the purchasing power of wages Mr. Rogers must allow him to say that he only scratched the surface of an important question. When he asserted that the purchasing power of the labourer's wages had decreased, and rested his assertion on the price of butter he built upon a foundation that was not very safe. The evil was pretty gene- rally admitted. With regard to the remedy, legislation would be no doubt necessary for certain matters but he would say-" Don't be in too great a hurry, don't trust too much to legislation; we have a great deal more work to do for ourselves, and we ought to do it without expecting Parliament to do it for us." In conclusion, Sir Stafford said it was recommended that a committee of the section should be again appointed for the purpose of further investigating the facts as to the wages of agricultural labourers at different periods within the last 150 years, and their proportions to the prices of the necessaries of life. Their duty would be simply to collect facts and to avoid drawing inferences from them.
HOMES IN THE NEW WORLD. SIR,—I beg to solicit your favourable consideration to an snterprise 1 have endeavoured to set on foot, for the good of many persons in England who wish to make themselves com- fortable homes or find profitable employment In the United States. Its spirit, principles, and objects are set forth in the enclosed circular; and if you can tully approve of them, I hope yeu will be disposed to introduce them favourably in a few lines to your readers, and that some of them may avail themselves of the facilities offered by the Agency in some form of service to them — I am, etc., ELIHU BURRITT. International Land and Labour Agency, Town-hall Chambers, Birmingham, August 19. The enterprise bearing the title of the International Land and Labour Agency has been set on foot with a single eye to the good of persons of different classes and conditions in the United Kingdom who may wish to make themselves comfortable homes, or find per- manent and "profitable employment, in the United States. At no time in the history of America have so many favourable openings and practical inducements presented themselves to such persons for settlement in that country as at the present moment. The whole Continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from the great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, is now opened to European agriculturists, mechanics, and men and women of all occupations, as it never was before. T1. extinction of slavery has opened the great and pro- ductive States of the South to free labour and free men. The Pacific and other great railways, traversing almost boundless regions of fertile, prairie soil, are ready to convey settlers to the cheapest of productive and easily-tilled lands, that have never been furrowed by the plough. In all the old States cultivated farms, of any size and quality, may be bought at a reasonable price. Any farmer, manufacturer^ or tradesman in England who wishes to establish himself, or his son, or ward in the dignified comfort and independence of a home and landed estate of his own, may have his choice in any State, society, climate, or soil in the American Union. One department of the operations of the Interna- tional Land and Labour Agency is the express effort to facilitate the settlement of such persons, in the safest, cheapest, and most comfortable way. For this purpose, it will obtain lists of farms for sale in all the old and new States of the Union, directly from the owners, with accurate and detailed descriptions of Boil, size, character, production, location as to market, condition of fences, price, best terms of payment, &c. Thus when an intending purchaser has fixed upon a State which he would prefer, the Agency will supply him with a list of the farms for sale in that State for the small charge of 91 to meet the expense of adver- tisements and correspondence in obtaining such a list, and the detailed information embraced in it, from America. If he is willing to intrust the Agency with the commission, it will secure the purchase for him of any farm on the list he may choose, direct from the owner, at the charge of 1 per cent. on the cash price of the farm so that he may go directly to it by the shortest and cheapest route. Should the farm not be equal to what was represented, or unsatisfactory to him in other respects, the purchase will fall to the ground, and half the money advanced to the Agency will be returned to him. Should the sale be effected, the purchaser will pay the owner for the property according to the terms agreed upon, on taking posi-ession of it. The Agency will Lave gentlemen of well known standing, who will acc thoroughly in the spirit of the movement, as agents in the different States, and who will r:ot only procure lists of farms tor sale, but visit them personally, and see that the English purchasers obtain good titles, and assist them in settling upon their properties. Only the 1 per cent, mentioned will be charged wh>n a farm is bought through one of these agents. These small chaiges for intelligence, and for buying farms in the United States for English settlers, must prove that their benefit and the equal good of both countries are only embraced in the spirit, principles, and objects of this new enterprise. One great object will be imme- diately realised to the advantage of persons buying farms or obtaining situations. Both will go directly to their accepted destinations without spending time or money in drifting about in search of land or labour. The second department of effort undertaken by the Agency is to obtain good places and employment in the United States for English labourers of every occu- pation mechanics of every trade, farm labwurers, gar- deners, grooms, waiters, clerks, engineers, railway servants of all grades also female house servants, in- cluding cooks, chambermaids, nursemaids, dairymaids, &c., also, sempstresses, ladies' maids, female clerks, and governesses. To meet the necessary expenses of advertising in American newspapers and corresponding with American employers, j21 will be charged by the Agency for obtaining a situation for a male labourer, and 10s. for a female servant. In all cases, written and verified testimonials, or satisfactory references will be required. On the other hand references will be required from American employers, especially those writing for female servants, so that confidence may be mutual, as some moral responsibility will be involved on both sides. Among other objects comprehended by the Agency will be the introduction into use in England of A me- rican agricultural implements, and of all kinds of im- proved tools and labour-saving machinery also our small, cheap cooking stoves for the working classes, and other conveniencies for them which are' practically unknown in this country. On the other hand, com- missions will be executed for Americans desiring any English improvements of a similar character includ- ing best specimens of farm, garden, and flower seeds, and cuttings from fruit trees for grafting, so that English horticulturists may introduce into their or- chards the Baldwin, Seek-no-farther, Greening, and Northern Spy in exchange for their Blenheim Orange, Ribston Pippin, &c. In a word, all transactions de- signed to benefit the two countries, by promoting a cheap and easy interchange of their skilled industries, labour, and productions, natural, mechanical, and mental will be undertaken by the Agency; including the transmission of small sums of money between im- migrants in America and their relatives in Europe the forwarding of books and periodicals by post or otherwise obtaining patents or copyrights for useful inventions or literary productions, &c. It will also endeavour to promote an interchange of the song birds of the two countries, so that the American bobolink, robin, and bluebird may sing their best songs in Eng- land, and English robin, lark, thrush, and linnet sing theirs in America so that the same street musicians of the heavenly city may be common to both nations, to give morning and evening tongue to the spontan- eous symphonies of the perpetual peace and brother- hood existing between the two great families of the English-speaking race.
VELOCIPEDE FEATS IN GERMANY. A Berlin correspondent reports the following two feats of ▼elocipedism, both of them extraordinary, though in dif- ferent ways, but neither of them to be recommended for imitation:— Several members of the Berlin Velocipede Club have lately been staying atWarmbrunn, near the foot ,f the Scbneekcppe, which is the loftiest peak of the Giant Mountains, and 4,990 feet above the level of the sea The summit consists of a very sharp cone, about 600 feet high, and is ascended by a steep and rugged zigzag. Herr Langer, who enjoys a great reputation for his skill in riding the iron horse, sent up his machine without the knowledge of his friends, and then ascended the mountain in the company of three other gentlemen. As soon as he had reached the top, and before his friends are able to interfere, he vaults into the saddle and rolls down the first portion of the zigzag. At the first turning he and his machine tumble over but, nothing daunted, he mounts again and rolls down the BKCond_ portion, coming to similar grief at the end of it. Here his friends overtake him, and oppose his appa- rently suicidal intentions with such good effect that at hst he promises to walk as far as the Riesenbaude, at the foot of the cone. Here, however, he mounts again, and rushes off at a perfectly breakneck pace. The little brake applied to one of the wheels had hardly any effect, and the machine flew over stones, water-chaniieli, and bushes, so that he prooably spent quite as much time in the air as on terra-firma, He afterwards effectually jammed the bind wheel with a piece of wood, and then things went on better. In this man- ner he reached Seydorf, at the foot of the Schneekoppe in an hour and a half, a distance which requires about six hours, or rather more, on horseback. Herr Langer had three more falle in the course of his expedition, and at one or two particularly steep places he was obliged to dismount. His friends, who followed in his track, never ex- pected to see him alive again but, neverthe- less, he reached his destination without any other damage to himself or his machine than breaking one spoke of the hind wheel. Some other members ot the Berlin Club went from the Josephinenhiitte to Warm- brunn. a distance of eleven English miles in 47 minutes. The first six miles and a half, which is all down hill, was done in 23 minutes. And now for the second feat, which is not so much one of velocipedism as one of raising the wind. Large posters announced last week that Malmstrom, a Swedish velocipedist, would drive his machine along a tight rope ninety feet from the ground. On Sunday afternoon, a few hundred people paid their money for the best places to see this wonderful performance, which was to take place near the Alsen Briioke, and a few thousand others looked on from outside. The exhibi- tion that followed was certainly a bold one, not from a velocipedistic point of view, but as an attempt to swindle the Berlin public with such an arrant piece of humbug Attached to the velocipede was a S!Tt of pendulum, weighted with about five or six cwt., which made it almost physically impossible for the machine to diverge from its vertical position. To make the chances of an accident still more improbable, there were iron bars at each side as a sort of balustrade, so that under no circumstances could the machine fall over altogether. It was then drawn along the slightly inclined rope at an elevation of about thirty feet, by five or six men, by means of cords, and then allowed to descend slowly with the bold velocipedist upon it. The people were so enraged at the imposition that had been prac- tised upon them, that the exhibition was received with groans and yells, and the police had the greatest diffi- culty in saving the principal actor from being lynched on the spot. A little rioting followed, in the course of which one unfortunate young man was mistaken for the real offender, and experienced some very rough treatment. Eventually, however, a small party of soldiers was called in to assist the police, and quiet was restored without any serious injury to life or limb.
BREACH OF PROMISE OF MARRIAGE. An action was tried at the Liverpool assizes on Mon- day, before Mr. Justice Hannen, for breach of promise of marriage. The case was Barry v. Tod." The plaintiff, a young lady twenty-six years of age, resided with her father in Newcastle, county Down, Ireland and the defendant is a partner in the firm of Hyland and Tod, brush manufacturers, of Upper Duke-street, Liverpool. Mr. H) land was married to the plaintiff's sister and the plaintiff used to visit at the house. In April last she was in Liverpool, and she was there in- troduced to the defendant, who became much attached to her, and ultimately made her a proposal of marriage. The young lady went to Ireland some time afterwards, and it was arranged that Mr. Tod and Mr. Hyland should go to Ireland to make arrangements for the marriage. Subsequently the defendant wrote to plaintiff announcing that he had settled to go over to Ireland at a certain date, and the plaintiff replied asking him to postpone his vitit. This letter appeared to have offended the defendant, but ulti- mately Miss Barry came over to Liverpool, and she and the defendant became conciliated and were ap- parently as good friends as ever. The intended marriage was freQuen: ly spoken of, but the defendant at length broke off the engagement very suddenly and shortly afterwards married another lady, who was a widow. The only question the jury had' to consider was as to the amount of damages which should be awarded to the plaintiff. The jury after a short con- sultation, gave a verdict for the plaintiff for £400.
FATAL ACCIDENT TO A SCHOOLBOY. A number of gipsies have been encamped outside the walls of York, between Walmgate liar and the Red Tower, and near to the Foss Islands. The lads attending the Walmgate Church I fistrict Schools are in the habit of going on to this wall, which bounds the school grounds, and overlooks the camp of the gipsies. Shortly after one o'clock last Friday several boys went on to the wall, as usual, and noticing the gipsies they abused them, and threw stones into the camp. After threatening to tell their master, one of the tribe, a young man named William Smith, about twenty years of age, with a small stick in his hand, mounted the wall and pursued the boys. He overtook them close by the school-yard, and one of them named William Durham, aged between nine and ten years, the son of thesexton at the cemetery, in his endeavour to get out of the way, slipped and fell over the wall into the school-yard, alighting on the asphalted ground on his right. He died a few minutes afterwards. It appears that Smith had not struck him, but was aim- ing a blow at him when he fell, an t a boy named Gibson received the stroke instead, but it was not at all severe. Mr. Hood, surgeon, was sent for, but he could render m assistance. The lad had sustained congestion of the brain. Smith returned to the camp, and was shortly afterwards apprehended by the parish constable, and taken to the police station. He was brought before the Lord Mayor, and charged with causing the death of 'William Durham. He was re- manded. The inquest on the body was opened on Saturday afternoon, when the evidence of three boys, named Henry Wright, Thomas Gibscn, and Thomas Smith, who saw the affair, was taken, and they alleged the above facts, although on some points their statements were somewhat contradictory. The whole of the evi- dence went to show that great aggravation had been given, and also that Smith did not strike the deceased, although he aimed a blow at him. The inquiry was adjourned.
AN ECCENTRIC WILL. The following (according to the Toronto Glohe) is the will of Dr. Dunlop, at oue time a member of the Legislature for Upper Canada:— In the name of God. Amen. I, William Dun- lop, of Gairhread, in the township of Colborne, county of Huron, Western Canada, Esquire, being in sound health of body and mind, which my friends who do not flatter me say is no great shakes at the best of times, do make my last will and testament as follows, re- voking, of course, all former wills. I leave the property of Gairbread and all other pro- perty I may be possessed of to my sisters, Helen Boyle Story and Elizabeth Boyle Dunlop, the former because she is married to a minister who (may God help him) she henpecks the latter because she is married to no- body, nor is she likely to be, for she is an old maid and not market rife. And also I leave to them and their heirs my share of the stock and implements on the farm, providing always that the enclosure round my brother's grave be reserved, and if either of them should die without issue the other is to inherit the whole. I leave to my sister-in-law, Louisa Dunlop, all my share of the household furniture and such traps, with the exceptions hereafter mentioned. I leave my silver tankard to the oldest son of old John, as the representative of the family. I would have left it to old John himself, but he would have melted it down to make temperance medals, and that would have been a sacrilege. However, I leave him my big horn snuff-box—he can only make tem- perance horn spoons out of that. I leave my sister Jenny my Bible, the property formerly of my great-great-grandmother, Betsey Hamilton, of Woodhall, and when she knows as much of the spirit as she does of the letter she will be a much better Christian than she is. I leave my late brother's watch to my brother Sandy, exhorting him at the same time to give up Whiggery and Radicalism, and all other sins that do most easily beset him. I leave my brother-in-law, Allan, my punch-bowl, as he is a big gaucy man, and likely to do credit to it. I leave to Parson Chevassie my big silver snuff-box I got from the Simcoe Militia as a small token of my gratitude to him for taking my sister Maggie, whom no man of taste would have taken. 1 leave to John Caddell a silver tea-pot, to the end that hp may dring tea therefrom to comfort him under the affliction of a slatternly wife. I leave my books to my brother Andrew because he has been jingling wally, that he may yet learn to read with them. I leave my si- wer cup, wi'h the sovereign in the bottom of it, to my sis'er, Janet Graham Dunlop, be- cause she is an old maid and pious, and therdore neces- sarily given to horning and also my grandmother's snuff-box, as it looks decent to see an old maid taking snuff.
A HINDOO STUDENT. We have a little story to tell which we think our readers will admit is creditable to all concerned (writes a corresjjiindent of the London Scotsman). In the eailv part of last year a young Hindoo, of Calcutta, a youth of very high caste and a medical student, animated with a craving for a wider career than seemed possible to him as be was, threw his caste and his nobility to the winds and embarked for England. He arrived in July, and immediately went down to the Edin burgh University medical classes, where in a few months he took his degree of M. D. with honours. Bearing an introduction from a Scottish clergyman to a brother clergyman here, he re- turned to London, and lived during the winter in the house of the latter, studying for the Indian medical ser- vice. He went into the examination in April last, and his talents and acquirements were such that his friends never dreamt of his not being successful. He passed e isily in the oral examination, but did not do well in the written examination, from sheer manual inability to write fas; enough to cover the ground. His distress wa" pitiable when he learnt his failure, and, but for a good Samaritan, he might have succumbed to the blow. Our countryman, Mr. Dougall, the gunmaker of St. James's-street, who had become aware of the circumstances, took the poor forlorn lad to the India- office, and obtained an interview with thp. Maiauis of Lorne, the private secretary of his father, the Duke of Argyll, Secretary for India. The heart of the young Scottish nobleman was touched, and although Mr. Dougall's request that the Baboo should be main- tained at the public expense till the August examina- tion was altogether irregular, MacCallum More's son pro- mised he would see what could be done. In the course of a few days the young Hindoo was apprised by the India-office t' at his case had been considered by the Cabinet, and that £100 had been placed to his credit, with the condition that he should compete again in August. Last week the examination was held, and lo the voung Baboo had come out sixth upon the list. Were ever £ 100 better bestowed in a political as well as a personal sense ? Such an act will do more to bind the Hindoos to us than costly but hollow pageants. It is indicative of Mr. Bright's thirst after information, from whatever source, that he sent for the young Hindoo and pumped him dry and it is no less a tri- bute to his generosity and warmth of heart that, with real delicacy, he offered him a considerable present. The young man, in the enjoyment of the State grant, firmly declined the proffered assistance, but his grati- tude, we may be sure, was none the less. Apart from the question of colour in the army," have we not ful- filled our promise of telling a story creditable to all concerned?
THE DUKE OF RICHMOND ON LARGE FARMS. The Duke of Richmond, who presided on Friday at the dinner of the Strathbogie Farmers' Club, in pro- posing the toast of "Success to the Club," alluded to the Irish land question. He said it had often struck him, in connexion with a question which was likely to be advocated next Session, that it was very odd the people of Ireland should be so totally different from those of Scotland. His eyes were somewhat opened on this subject in the course of the summer. In talking to a large landed proprietor in Ireland, a friend of his, he spoke to him of the disagreements in Ireland, and men- tioned the prosperous state of matters in Scotland. He asked his friend what was the size of his estate, and he said 20,000 acres. Now," he said, "will you excuse me in asking you the average size of your farms ?" "They average," he said, "from 10 to 15 acres." There was the answer to him of the state of things in Ireland. How that state of things was to be altered he was not prepared to say, but the subject would probably be brought into Parliament next Session. Until they got some alteration in Ireland they could not expect rapid improvement there. He merely mentioned this as a reason for the advanced state of agricultural matters in this country, which, he believed, was in a great measure due to the great number of large holdings oc- cup^pd, as they necessarily were, by men of large minds, great influence, intelligence, energy, enterprise, and capital.
JURORS IN TRALEE. The first stage of a coroner's inqury at Tralee into the circumstances of the death of John Almau, who, in the words of a local reporter, was struck on the head with a stick at Ar. ifert far," closed with an amusing scene. After certain evidence had been given, the coroner (Mr. Harnett, of Listowel, announced the inquest adjourned, and directed the jury not to sepa- rate until re-bound to appear again. A Jurcr I'll stay no longer. (Laughter.)—Mr. M'Carthy: We have something else to do. (Hear, hear.) Coroner Timothy Griffin, do you acknowledge yourself bound to our Sovereign Lady the Queen in the sum of L10 to appear here on next Thursday 1-Grtffiu: I am bound to a farmer, sir, in service. (Laughter.) Coroner (excited): Do you hear, air?-Grififtii I do, air.- M'Carthy: Yerra, I won't come here any more (Laughter) Coroner: Do you acknowledge ) ouraelf bound ?—M'Carthy I do if you order up a gallon of whiskey. (Ljud laughter and confusion.) Coroner: These things I am not accustomed to, Mr. M'Carthy. Do you acknowledge yourself bound, sir. —M'Carthy Very well, fine me if I do not be here. Coroner: You are on your oath, Mr. M'Carthy, and I would expect something better from a person of your appear- ance upon your oath. (A laugh.)—M'Carthy Yes. Coroner (very excited): Do you acknowledge ysurself, sir? —M'Carthy: I don't say. Coroner: Do you acknowledge yourself, sir?—M'Carthy: I do, sir.—(Laughter.) Corcner: John Mounsell, do you acknowledge yourself? — Mouusell: You know well I do. (Laughter). Coroner! Bartholemew Vl'Gillicuddy, do you acknowledge yourselt ?—M'Gil'icuddy Begor, 1 don't know, will the coro- ner be here? (Laughier). Coroner (out of temper): Come, sir, answer. Do you ac- knowledge yourself bound?—M Gillicuddy: Well, if I am bound I will (Laughter). Coroner: 'Tis a shame for you, Pat Brousnan.-Pat Brons- nan (awaking out of his sleep): Here, sir. (Loud laughter) The Coroner (very angry:) Turn here, sir. Upon my word, I'll put yi-u ilitottie hands of the police if you don't answer-Pat Bi-obnan I hear you, Sir; I will, sir. (Great (laughter.) Coroner: Do you acknowledge yourself bound in the sum of ZIO.-Pat Brosnan I do. A Juror Will the Queen pay us for coming here again ? (Laughter.)—Another Juror: Iler Majesty will. Coroner You are all to be here at eleven o'clock.-A Juror Take care, don't forget sending to the Queen for our pay. (Laughter and confusion, amid which the jury dis- persed.)
MAD FOR THE STAGE. An Eastern correepondent of The Sacramlnlo Union, after examining a bundle of 200 letters received within a year or two by a leading theatrical manager, writes, as follows :-Every class in society was represented in this package. One is from a refined and cultivated young U«4y,who bad fallen in love directly with Edwin Booth another from an awkward, uneducated,rustic boor,who having seen a troupe of strolling Thespians in some country town, instantly decides that he was born to histrionic fame. Most of the letters, especially those from the ladies, are very long, with long exordiums and long perorations. In many cases the fair writers adopt fictitious names of aristocratic sound, like De Forrest Montmorency, and the like. Some of them strive to excite the manager's pity; one is a "poor orphan,"and pines for sympathy and encouragement another is fading under the blight of a stepmother's cruelty. &e. One girl of 16 fiends the following :— Dear Sir,—You will Pardon the Presumption of an Inexpe- rienced young girl in thus Addressing you But Sir What I Wish to Say to you is this, I have Become Completely infatu- ated With the desire to become an Acttress ami s>ir, ihinkmg your experience would give mean Answer I have appljeu t.) you I Would-not wish to Be Connected with the Ballet troupe, But assume the Charicter at first of Page or some Lover in Connection with Some Comedy or farce. I flatter Myself I am Very well Read and have a Very good Memory Witch I Presume is Requisite, for A New Beginner Now Sir I Shall Expect a Reply to this at the Earlyest opportunity and direct to Miss MAGGIE etc. P. S. Discription-Hight, four feet five inches light Auburn hair B'ue Eyes and Some Say good looking age Sixteen Sum- mers—Answer Soon. A young gentleman in Springfield, Massachusetts, evidently expects to be engaged at once Dear Sir,—Thinking of adopting the Profession of an actor i take this meathord of assertaining if you would wish to receive eney new men I should wish to enter as a walking Gentleman if this meets with yourapprovel pleas address and oblige HARRY P S) pleas state the salery that you give to new hands and all the partickulars if yoo can reletive to a new beginner. A girl who is smart, and knows it. writes from Fitchburg I now write to see if you do not wish for two smart girls to act upon the stage. I am A good speker, and am not afraid to speeke before ten thousands. I can tell you we are real smart girls and are good looking and we would like to come first rate and can raise ned and keep folks A laughing be- sides put on a long face that would reach from here to Boston and we could be as sober as noah when he went into the ark in the time of the flood just sey come and tell us where and we will be there and 1 will now say that our names are and pleas write soon and direct it to Fitchburg-good evening. A man in Haverill desires to secure a star engage- ment for a performer evidently fitted by nature to shine in the sensational drama:— S!r,-I have got apig that has got 5 legs I dont think thare ever was one like him before I have had old men here to see him that say thay never see such a sight before they advise me to send to you and sen if you would like him he waighs about one hundred and 25 pounds I send this by express and if you would like it I should like to have you write as soon as you get this. A Boston gentleman struck a happy, thousrh rather ghoulish idea, just after the assassination of President Lincoln. Even the modern stage has hardly reached his conception of the "sensational" Dear Sir,-As the country is now excited over the assassi- nation of our late President, and everything connected witn it, or that will give any information of the affair, is caught up with great interest; I would suggest to you the propriety of bringing Our American Cousin on the stage, and as nearly as possible at the same place in the plav-have a shnt fired from a representation of the box occupied by the Presi- dent, from which a person should leap personating Booth To heighten and add effect to the scene, scenery representing mournful drapery, or his funeral, or the procession, or all combined, or whatever might be deemed most appropriate could be introduced, the characters on the stage assuming an appropriate tableau, and the orchestra play a dirge. At its conclusion everything could past along as though nothing hed happen,ed.-Respectfully yours
GERMAN ADVERTISEMENTS. An English newspaper often contains very amusing advertisements, but we doubt if we quite equal our Gei man friends in this respect yet. We take up, for example, Joan ordinary number of a very high-class German newspaper, the Gazette de Cologne. When young folks in England exchange their plighted troth, they are generally too glad to keep the engagement a delicious secret from all except a few favoured frinnds. Not so our German cousins for here is one of the first advertisements which present themselves:— Wilhelmina Johanna v. Froreich, Wilhelm Muller be- trothed.—Blankenberg and Attenbach, August, 1869. Immediately beneath this stands the following E. G. Modes and wife hereby announce the betrothal of their daughter Mathilde with Mr. Paul Scwarze engineer Stoll'erg, near Aix^a-Chapelle.— Freiberg, August 15, 1869. When the heart of u British parent has been delighted by the birth of a boy, we all know the modest adver- tisement, in the midst of a host of others, by which he announces the event. Here is a specimen of how they do these things in Germany :— Early this morning we were highly gratified by the birth of a strong, lively boy. Iserlohn, August 17, 1869. Arnold Wintzer, Marie Wintzer, maiden name Kiinig. Again— I have the honour politely to announce to myrelations and friends the happy delivery of my dear wife Jul-e, maiden name Saatmam, of a healthy, strong boy. Cologne, Aug. 17 18G9. Eduard Fomm. c- < In another corner of the paper an enthusiastic and imaginative gentleman advertises thus A threefold, thundering cheer, which ehall resound from Bonn to Streitzeng street and Hammer-street, Cologne, to fat Benard on this his birthday. Congratulations, also, on the new business which you have established.—A friend well known, but anonymous.
MARRYING AT THE LAST MOMENT! Marriagea in extremis are not unfrequent in France, and the plot of many novels turns upon them. The validity of an union of the kind at ihe very last moment is nowawalt- iug the decision of the Civil Tribunal of Tounerre. The fol- lowing is an outline of the case A few months ago the Procureur-Imperial of that town was roused up in the dead of night by a man on horseback, who said he had ridden at full speed from the country house of M. Humbert, who was at the point of death, desired to be married immediately, and begged the Brocureur to allow the civil officer to cele- biate the marriage at his bed-side without the usual preliminary formalities. The Procureur an- swered out of his window that he could not do what was asked at the mere instigation of a messenger whom he did not know, but that if a certificate were brought from the Mayor of the village in which M. Humbert lived he would grant the dispensation. The messenger "spared not for spoiling of his horse," dashed back, woke up the mayor, returned to Tonnerre, and was so successfully active that before day-break there were assembled in the death-chamber a member of the municipal council, elegated by the Mayor, to perform the civil mar- riage, the cure of the parish, and two witnesses. Kneeling down by the side of the bed, in an agony of grief and suspen-e, was a lady who for eighteen years had lived with M. Humbert (one of the wealthiest landowners in the neighbourhood) as his mistress. A young girl, the issue of the irregular union, was also in the room, and the object of the marriage was to confer upon her the status of legitimacy, as the French, like the Scotch law, allows per svbscquens matrimonium. The marriage was gone through and two hours afterwards the husband expired. He left behind him a fortune of OO, OOOfr., every sou of which will go to the widow and daughter if the marriage be held valid, as in all probability it will be. The dis- appointed blood relations, who had taken it for granted that the inheritance would come to them, have brought an action to have the marriage declared null and void. M. Allou, for them, argued that the marriage was bad, first as clandestine and second, because M. Humbert was too near death at the time to be able to give a valid consent. M. Lachaud pleaded for the widow and child. The Court at once over-ruled the objection on the ground of clandestinity, holding that the dispensation of the Procureur-Imperial was sufficient, but it reserved final judgment until after an enquiry as to whether at the moment of the marriage M. Humbert had sufficient consciousness to know what he was doing.
GALLANT CONDUCT OF A BOY. We (Scotsman) have learned the following particulars of an accident that occurred in Leith harbour. On Sunday forenoon, two boys, aged eleven and four re- spectively. children of Mr. Coutts, detective officer, Leith, took a walk down the West Pier, when the younger brother, going too near the quay edge, was blown into the harbour by a squall. The elder boy, named Ernest, in a simple, eloquent manner, thus narrates the accident and his rescue of his brother When I saw Alfred fall over the pier, I rushed to the place and looked to see if any one was in sight. There was only one gentleman, but he was a good way off. I then gave one loud scream, and jumped in after my brother. I had to swim about three or four yards before I got near him. He was on his face when I got near him, and I knew he wouid soon choke. I therefore dived in below him, and got him on to my back. When I got this done, I let him slide off on to his own back I then put my arm round his neck and made my way for one of the posts which support the pier. During this time Alfred had spoken to me once. He said, Where are we Ernest 2 11 I answered, "In the water." He did not speak again, nor make any motion whatever. When I reached the post T clasped my arms around it. I had Alfred in my arms between the post aud me. My clothes were getting heavy with water, and so was my brother's. It was about half high-water, for the tide was going back. Alfred slipped from my arms, and floated away about two yards from me. I again laid hold of his clothes, and kept him above the water. Mr. Fyfe, who had been walking on the pier, and heard Ernest's scream, procured the Rob Roy ferry- boat, and rowed up the harbour to the Lord Aberdour berth, where he found Ernest with one arm clasped round a post and supporting his brother with his dis- engaged arm. It was with great difficulty that the gallant little Ernest could be induced to let go his hold of his brother, in order that he might be lifted into the boat; and even after both had been rescued, Ernest, labouring under the impression that his brother was still in the water, had to be restrained from again jump- ing into the harbour. Both boys were conveyed to the infirmary in a cab, and, recovering shortly, were there- after taken home.
FROM BROAD TO NARROW GAUGE. The following account of the operations In changing the broad to the narrow gauge between Gloucester and Hereford will be read with interest:— The Great Western Railway Company, having de- termined several months since to render perfect its communication between Bristol and the North, via Hereford, commenced at once the works necessary to that end. These works were :— 1. The mixing of the gauges in the extensive Glocester station-yard, a work of peculiar difficulty, in consequence of that station being a single-platform one. 2. The mixing of the gauges from Glocester te Grange- court, where the Glocester and Hereford Railway branches .the Glocester and Hereford branch being a single line on the broad gauge. These two preliminary portions of the work having been completed early in the month, it became necessary to close the Glocester and Hereford in order to narrow its gauge. Accordingly, it was announced that the traffic would be entirely suspended for a fortnight by rail between Grange-court and Hereford, the passen- gers would be conveyed by coach. To meet this, the most complete arrangements were made by the general manager of the Great Western Railway, Mr. Grierson, assisted by the general superintendent, Mr. Tyrrell, and the local superintendent, Mr. Burlinson. Ten first-class coaches were put on the road by Mr. Hughes, owner of the well-known Bayswater line of omnibuses, and on Monday, the 16th inst., they commenced run- ning between Hereford and Ross, that being the section of the line first taken in hand, the passengers being still conveyed by broad-gauge rail from Ross to Grange-court. It had been determined that the work of narrowing should be done by the men in the regular employ of the company on the permanent way accordingly, a force of 450 men was selected from the gangs regularly at work on the Hereford division of the Great Western Railway, a section nearly 700 miles long. These ar- rived by three special trains at the Barrs-conrt btion on Saturday night, being so timed that the one from the north came in first, that from the Aberdare district second, and the broarl-gaue train from Milford Haven, which had picked up men the whole way to Grange- court, last. It was arranged that the whole of these men should lodge during the execution of the work in a broad gauge train of covered waggons, carefully whitewashed and supplied with an abundance of clean straw and new sacks. The train that arrived from Milford was a part of this sleeping train, the other part having arrived early in the day at Hereford the sleeping train, with waggons for water casks, lorrys, &c., consisted of 40 broad-gauge vehicles. The men, with all the necessary tools and appliances, having been unloaded, were quickly transferred to the sleep- ing train, the staff occupying a first-class carriage for the night. At four o'clock on Sunday morning, the 15th inst., the sleeping train was in motion, and an engineer had gone ahead setting up a flag-pole at the end of each gang's length of work for the day. The train stopped at each flag-pole, and a ganger and gang of twenty-two men, furnished with a day's provisions, jumped out with all the necessary tools, also a cask of water, "devil," iron crock, and fuel This process was con- tinued throughout the whole length of line 450 men could be spread over. Soon a line of smoke was to be seen ascending, and the work of getting breakfast was actively going on. The men brought their own food —a week's supply—as it was arranged that should the work extend beyond that time through bad weather or any unforeseen circumstance, they were to be allow ed to stop for a day to get fresh supplies. Fry's cocoa seemed the favourite beverage, the food various -cold bacon, meat, or bread and cheese. The con- ditions of payment, as well as the general arrange- ments, had been conveyed to the men in print. As to payment-each man was to have the rate of pay he got on his regular part of the line and overtime. A day to be 9 hours, and two hours a quarter. Also 15d. each man per day for ration money. The men were not long over breakfast, and soon the work of narrow- ing was going on. It took several hours to lay out the whole fence, so that lengths first taken in hand were much more forward than others. Advantage was taken of this to keep up the communication with Hereford by means of the narrow-gauge train that was to pick up the men and bring them as near as possible to the sleep- ing train at night. By six p.m. on Sunday this narrow- gauge train was able to come close to the sleeping train at Holm Lacey, and the men having got into it with their tools, the train was set in motion and the tools only put out at the flag-poles for the Monday's work. The first night's halt was called at Fawley. At four a.m. on Monday the men were on their way back to Holm Lacey, and by the close of Monday evening the narrowing had reached Fawley. It now became evident that Ross would be reached on Tuesday, and bills were issued announcing the commencement of traffic by rail between Hereford and Ross on Wednes- day. Ross Was actually reached on Tuesday night, and the sleeping train put into a loop line at that station for the night. A consultation having been held, it was decided to make an effort to accomplish the narrowing the whole way from Ross to Grange-court next day, and on Wednesday it was announced that traffic by rail from Hereford to Glocester, by narrow gauge, would be opened on Friday. Proceeding as before, the men were laid out to Grange-court on Wednesday morning, and by seven p.m. the narrow-gauge train had gone one mile beyond Mitcheldean-road station. As this train had to return for a force of 200 men still working behind and could not be put in forward motion for Grange-court, where the sleeping train now was, until late, it was decided to pick up the men behind and return with them to Ross, which was accomplished at half-past ten on Wednes- day night. A few of the men out of provisions were provided for, and the whole force dispersed through the town to look for lodgings. It may be here stated to the credit of these men that a gentleman who arrived at the Royal Hotel, Ross, at twelve o'clock that night, said the streets were as silent as if not a single stranger was in the place. At four on Thursday morning the narrow-gauge train again left Ross, and, proceeding at almost walk- ing pace, while the engineers examined the previous day's work, actually reached Grange-court by about ten a.m. In its course strong working parties were dropped out to put the line into permanent working order, and a force brought into Grange-court Junction, where certain alterations were in hand, that could not be touched before the sleeping train had passed en- tirely off the broad gauge. By Thursday night the whole work was accomplished, and the narrow-gauge trains, worked by the proper platforms at Grange- court Junction, taking throughout the proper lines for Gloucester. Thus in five days the whole line, twenty- two miles long, was commenced and finished. The permanent way of the Great Western Railway is well-known to be the most perfect in England. For not only is it composed, like the London and North- JVestern and some others, of the heaviest rails made and best timber employed in permanent way, but the iron and timber parts are bolted together with the three-quarter inch bolts, screwing into large nuts below the timbers, while other railways have the iron parts only spiked down to the timbers, a mode of con- struction attended with danger when the timber begins to decay. It will be seen at once how much this prac- tice of bolting added to the labour on the narrowing of the Glocester and Hereford. On each mile 3,800 bolts had to be withdrawn, or 83,600 in 22 miles, and the same number of auger holes bored through the sleepers, then the bolts put through and the nuts drawn up by turning the bolt round by its head with a hand span- ner. There was the labour, too, of moving 22 miles of rail, a distance of 28 inches sideways, of changing sides three times with the narrowing, in consequence of the stations not being all on the same side. The permanent way, too, is composed of no less than four distinct kinds, requiring different sorts of tools, which had to be so looked atter as to insure their always being in the right place-no easy matter, where they were handled by 450 men. Three tunnels, of an ag- gregate length" of a mile and a half, added to the difficulty of the work. Recently much sensation was occasioned by an announcement that American engi- which time they had never had their clothes off, and had only three-and-a half hours' rest each night, not a single instance of disobedience, intoxication, or display of bad temper occurred but on every side the engi- neers directing the work met with the most cheerful obedience. Of the efforts the men made the result is the best proof. Such men are the right arm of the engineer's skill, seconding his efforts, and keeping abreast with him in the many practical expedients that become necessary to improvise in the execution of every great engineering work. On the Wednesday night some of the working parties between Mitcheldean and Grange-court camped out in preference to walking down to Grange-court. Gathered round their camp fires they whiled away the night with such amusement as singing or nigger" performances, and conspicuous amongst these was a ging in charge of a noted railway foreman on the Great Western, called Tom Green. It was not hard to tell when you were near an encampment of Welshmen, for the Psalm tunes they are so fond of were to be heard far away in the stillness of the niht. The organisation of the system for carrying out this exceptional description of work and the personal charge of it during its execution were in the hands of Mr. J. Ward Armstrong, divisional engineer, Hereford divi- sion, Great Western Railway the whole having been previously revised by Mr. Owen, of Paddington, the engineer-in-chief to the Great Western Railway Com- pany. Mr. Armstrong was most ably assisted both in the organisation and execution of this work, by Mr. W. Lancaster Owen, district engineer, Glocester district, who also carried out the preliminary mixingofthegauges in Glocester-yard and the main line from Glocester to Grange-court. Mr. J. Leon, district engineer, Neath, also rendered able assistance, and came on the ground with 150 men. Mr. Brokenbrow, Great Western Rail- way, Worcester district, contributed valuable aid in men and materials as did also Mr. R. Chapman, of the Salop district. Mr. G. Wells Owen, of 7, West- minster Chambers, London, and Mr. Reichenbach, C.E., assistant district engineer, likewise rendered valuable assistance. The energy of the permanent way inspectors—Messrs. Joseph Folly, John Morgan, James Scutchley, John Hart, John Richards, and George Holker-deserves especial notices.
EPITOME OF NEWS, BRITISH AND FOREIGN. Twelve fires took place in London in the forty-eight hours ending at six o'clock on Monday morning. At a recent marriage at a Ritualistic Church at the East-End of London, the service lasted exactly two hours This included a sermon and the celebration of the Holy Com- munion. The Earl Delawarr has proceeded to Prussia to study on the spot the strategy of the campaign of 1866. His lord- ship likewise visited the battle-fields of Lombardy after the French campaign of 1859. The death of Robert Campbell, the champion sculler of Scotland is announced. Deceased burst a blood vessel. He was born at Kilbarchan, ;n Renfrewshire, on 20th July, 1824. He died at Glasgow. The physician of the Prussian Admiralty has pro- posed the adoption by all civilised states of a flag of distress, to be used on every occasion, both in peace and war. It is suggested that the flag should be of a dark yellow colour, with a red cross upon it. Through the aid of an emigration society formed at Bristol in the spring, which has not received very general support, 63 persons, including children, have emigrated, at a cost to the society of £ >73. Forty-seven went to Canada, six to Queensland, and ten to the United S' ates. Others have been sent out by private efforts. It is contemplated to start an emigration club, and to send out a ship direct from Bristol early in the spring. Satisfactory letters have been received from some of the emigrants. So far from the invention of the bicycle being a novelty, it was known in China two centuries ago. The poor people in Skye have the prospect of com- parative comfsrt this year. The price of cattle is good, the potatoes are as yet free of disease, the corn will be a heavy crop, and if they get fish there will be no want."—John o'Groats Journal. "It is not easy to estimate the demoralising effect on the youth of Europe of the cigar, in enabling them to pass their time happily in idleneu.The Queen of the Air. By John Rutkin, LL.D. A Trades Union Congress opened on Monday at Birmingham. One of the first papers read was upon courts of arbitration-a subject which is expected to engage a large proportion of the time and attention of the Congress. The paper in question was read by Mr. Owen, of the Potteries Trade Society, and was followed by a protracted and inter- esting discussion. Some short graves or kists have recently been ex- plored in Stronsay, in which were found urns containing ashes on some of the urns the finger-marks of the potters were distinctly visible. The Rev. Peter Grant, a Roman Catholic priest, committed suicide on Sunday morning at Dundee. The rev. gentleman had been insane for four weeks, and was to have been removed to an asylum the day he committed suicide. Sir William Armstrong believes that the total quan- tity of coal in England will prove practically inexhaustible. The sentence of death passed on William Pullin. convicted of murder at Bristol, has been commuted to penal servitude for life. Cross.-Come back quickly. I am abroad for a few days. I am miserable at the idea of the friend who is with you. For God's sake don't change. -'St. A.' "—Adver- tisement in The Times. The shocking occurrence which was recently brought to light in the Carmelite convent at Cracow, has already been dramatised for two of the Florence theatres. The sheets, blankets, towels, &c., used by Prince Alfred during his recent visit to New Zealand were advertised for sale by public roup. The Society of California Pioneers of San Francisco have purchased a cane, valued at 1,000 dols., for presenta- tion to Wm. H. Seward on his return from Alaska. The head of the stick is composed of 41 triangular pieces of gold- bearing quartz, from the principal mines in California, set in gold. A sample of very fine new hops, a specimen of early goldings," grown by Mr. Alfred White, of Maidstone, was exhibited in the Leeds Corn Exchange the other day by Mr. Joseph Tebbs, hop merchant, of Leeds. A shower of frogs at Henwick, near Worcester, is reported in a local newspaper. A young lady at Troy, New York, has a photo- graphic album containing male friends, labelled "Book of Rims George Francis Train has been airing his annexa- tionist theories in British Columbia. This is what he calls an epigram :— On, Fenians, on! The hour has come to take San Juan! No swindling nation shall contract our powers This boundless continent, by Jove is ours One day last week two small mushrooms were found growing in Shaw-street, one of the busiest thoroughfares in Liverpool. Mr. Childers and Vice-Admiral Dacres have gone on another cruise. They arrived at Plymouth last night, and immediately went on board the Agincourt, which shortly afterwards sailed for Gibraltar, accompanied by the Minotaur, Northumberland, Hercules, Monarch, Belerophon, and In- constant. The death of M. Salvador Patti, which took place last Friday, is announced from Paris. M. Patti was father of Adelina Patti, of Madame Strakosch, and of Carlotta Patti. A new volume of poems by Mr. Gerald Massey entitled "A Tale of Eternity, and other Poems," will shortly appear. Letters from Wildbad state that the Princess of Wales is shewing a material improvement in health under the course of waters. The inflammation, the recurrence of which appeared in the knee-joint, has mainly subsided, but the want of flexibility is still very apparent. The accounts connected with the annual fite in be- half of the Widows and Orphans' Fund of the Great Western Railway Provident Society, held this year in Nuneham Park near Abingdon, have just been made up, and the result is most satisfactory, the large sum of 41, 100 being placed to the credit of the fund, as the proceeds of that popular gathering This is the greatest sum yet realised for the charitable obiect by means of a fete. The anthem at Exeter Cathedral last Sunday, when that venerable edifice was crowded with the savans attending the Congress of the British Association, was Boyces-" Ob, where shall wisdom be found "At half-past twelve o'clock this morning Philip Gil- martin, proprietor of the Lake View House, shot and in- stantly killed his son, Thomas Gilmartin, while the latter was attempting to enter the house. The father mistook his son for a burglar. Mr. Gilmartin has been arrested and is held to await an investigation of the matter.New York Tribune, August 10. The City of Paris which sailed from Queenstown for New York with Prince Arthur on board, occupied only six days twenty-one hours and a half in her passage, which, after allowing for difference of time, is at the rate of thirteen and a half knots or fifteen and a half miles per hour. The Empress of the French has given up her in- tended visit to Jerusalem. The Empress is still expected to reach Constantinople about the 1st or 2nd of October, there to remain for eight days. The Imperial party will then pro- ceed by sea to Smyrna, going thence to Rhodes and on to Cyprus, delaying some time at each of those places before continuing the voyage to Alexandria. Of the Empress's in- tended movements in Egypt, from the date of her arrival until the opening of the Suez Canal on the 15th of November, nothing is yet known. A duel took place in Georgia on the 5th. J. D. Cresswell was accused of the seduction of a young lady named Addison, and w hile on his way to this city, accompanied by his brother Charles, he was met by George B. and James Addison, brothers of Miss Addison. Nothing is known regarding the unfortunate rencontre save that Charles Cress- well was shot dead and J. D. Creswell dangerously but not mortally wounded. The brothers Addison gave themselves up to the authorities. "-New York Paper. Eddystone Lighthouse is to be connected with Ply- mouth by means of a telegraph wire. The distance from the shore to the lighthouse is fourteen miles. A procession of total abstainers, numbering pro- bably about four thousand, and accompanied oy perhaps an equal number of sympathising onlookers, attended the re- uains of William Scott, a temperance advocate, to Forest- hill Cemetery, London, on Sunday last. There has been a heavy failure in New York-the suspension of Bowers, Beckman, and Co., dry goods com- mission merchants, with liabiiities of 2,500,000 dols.—and it has been the theme of extensive comments. The failure was caused by the steady depreciation in value since the war closed of wool and woollens, a loss which the house, though esteemed one of the strongest in New York, could no longer carry. They claim to have assets greater than their lia- bilities, and ask for an extension to arrange their affairs. The mayor and corporation of Deal went to Walmer Castle on Monday, and presented an address to Mr. Glad- stone, congratulating him upon the fact that his health had been partially restored, and expressing their hope of his complete recovery. Mr. Gladstone in reply thanked the cor Soration for the honour they had done him spoke of the istorical reputation of the Cinque Ports, praised thn SOPHM-V of that portion of the coast, and dwelt on the national im- portance of the commerce ever floating in the Downs in view of Deal, and the almost exceptional prosperity which pre- vailed In East Kent owing to the fertile character of the land. Mr. Gladstone afterwards conducted the deputation through the grounds of the castle. The North German Correspondence of Saturday says that the cattle plague has broken ont in East and West Prussia, at Elbing and Rosenberg, in the district of Marien- werder, where 214 head of cattle have been slaughtered, and in the neighbourhood of Muhlhausen. The places in question were at once surrounded by a military cordon. In the Neu- mark this system has proved so effectual that it has already been found possible to modify the regulations in some re- spects so as to facilitate traffic. William Henry Hall, a man who gave himself up to the London police last week, stating that he had killed a man at Highgate, and that he was the man who committed the Cannon-street murder, was brought before the Highgate magistrates on Monday. As it appeared that there was no truth in his statements, and the medical officer at the prison pronounced him to be perfectly sane, he was discharKed Colonel Jeakes remarked that the magistrates wished they had the power to send theprisonertothe House of Correction M a rogue and vagabond, and to order him a good whipping. The railway embankments in England should Le utilised as in Belgium, by the planting of trees—trees yield- ing timber, if necessary-trees yielding iruit, if possible. All recruits joining the Royal Marines are hence- forth to be taught to swim. It is odd that the idea should never have been entertained before A clergyman in Tennessee was recently shot dead in his pulpit. Mr. Spurgeon recently introduced velocipedes in a sermon, in the following manner:—" These new inventions which the lads were riding down our streets, would not keep up unless they are kept going the momtnt they stopped they fell down and in this they were exceedingly like the Christian Church, which would fall unless it was kept con- stantly moving on.' It may not be out of place to remind our readers that the Hon. Emily Eden, whose death was recently chro- nicled in the papers, was a sister of Eleanor Eden," Wm. Pitt's first and only love. A gang of thieves in Memphis, noticing the extreme care a gentleman was taking of his baggage in the cars, re- lieved him of it, and when at a safe distance opened it,to find only a sermon apiece. The Czar has published a ukase abolishing the here- ditary character of the Russian priesthood, which is now a caste, comprising 700,000 families. The rizht to obtain ordi- nation is now extended to all, while a priest's son can betake himself to ordinary life. It will scarcely be credited that the first theatre of the capital of Italy-the Pergola, at Florence—is not yet lighted with gas; but the fact remains. One of the attractions in the London shop windows just now is a collection of plate in Messrs. Elkinston's shop, Waterloo-place. It consists of a silver vase, goblet, and other articles, which were taken from Magdala by the army under Sir R. Napier. They have been awarded to one of the Bom- bay native regiments. The famous oyster-tanks in the bay of New York are being devastated at the present time by a singular fish known as the drum-fish. The damage already done is esti- mated at a million of dollars. A tombstone in the cemetery at Dixon, Illinois, bears the suggestive inscription, "Gone up." A fatal termination to a quarrel between a man and his wife occurred on Sunday nigbt at a public-house in the Oldham-road, Manchester. About half-past ten a factory operative named Shandley was visited by his wife, and after a few words struck her a severe blow, from the effects of which she instantly expired. The man gave himself up to the police before midnight, and charged himself with com- mitting murder. The young son of a tailor was with his brother play- ing on Stepney-green. He tried to jump over an iron post, by placing his hands on it. While leaping his hands slipped, and he fell on the top of the post. The turned iron at the top truck his stomach with great violence. He screamed loudly, fell upon the ground, and died in two days after from the effects of mortification of the intestines, the result of ex- ternal violence. An enterprising native firm in Calcutta are adver- tising a lamp that burns" without oil or any other sub- stance." From another advertisement in a Calcutta paper it appears that a young man, a cultivator of indigo, is anxiou3 to cultivate the acquaintance ot a nice young lady, pretty, with money, and offers her in exchange, a share of his bunga- low in the jungle The Commissioners of Inland Revenue have notified their intention of enforcing the penalty against all persons known to have killed game without a license, in the forth- coming season. The Gaulois records the little bill which France will have the pleasure of paying for the sham fight given in honour of the Imperial visit to the camp at Chalons. The items are curious: Gunpowder, 41,000; luncheon, £320; retreat by torchlight, 160 guineas. The demand for the reform of the land laws has been made the basis of an association. Mr. John Stuart Mill is the chairman, and the provisional committee includes several prominent members of the Liberal party in and out of Parlia- ment. The primary objects of the association are to promote the free transfer of land, to restrict within the narrower limits the power of tying it up, to preserve the rights of the public over commons, and to enable the tillers of the soil to obtain an interest in it. "Prince Napoleon is accused of scandalising the good people of Havre by bathing in the costume so generally patronised by our British fellow-countrymen when swimming -namely, that of Adam previous to the adoption of the cele- brated apron.Paris Correspondent. A Mr. Warren, a retired farmer at Madron, Corn- wall, died on Thursday, leaving alive 14 children, 66 grand- children, and 30 great-^ftandehildren. Deceased's age was 87. It seems to be thought in the United States that the Empress Eugenie proposes to pay a visit to that country. The New York papers state that, 111 the evejit of her doing so, the naval authorities, on receipt of advices from the com- manding officer of the American squadron in Europe, will make preparations for her reception, and that the French fleet convoy ng her Majesty across the Atlantic will probably be escorted by the Franklin. The Great Northern Railway Company have agreed to give the amount formerly paid for church rates to Institu- tions for religious instruction, and to a benevolent (per- manent) fund which it was now proposed to raise for the officers. The company have also determined to increase the amount for churches, schools, and hospitals from 4365 to 4600 a year. At an early hour last Saturday morning a widow woman, named Hannah Tennant, was found lying dead upon the floorof her house in Clive-street, Liverpool, "ith her throat cut in a frightful manner. She had been drinking to excess of late, but it is thought that the injuries of which she died could not have been inflicted by her own hand, as about two inches of her windpipe was found at some distance from the body. The affair is being investigated by the police. At Brighton there has been exhibited an immense conger eel, weighing 231b,, and measuring upwards of five feet in length. It was caught with hook and line by Mr. A. H. Walker, a brother of the celebrated cricketer of that name. It was half an hour before Mr. Walker managed to get the creature on board the boat from which he was fish- ing. "An alligator was caught in the North Branch River, about four miles from S imerville, last Friday. The monster measured eight feet in length, and was a most for- midable and dangerous-looking beast The excitement in the vicinity was intense, and on the alarm being given that it had teen seen in the river, hundreds of people assembled on the banks. It was taken alive, and will be preserved as a show. The monster had escaped from a eollecth n of thirteen brought from the South by a speculator in that sort of pets." —Newark (N J ) Daily Advertiser. "A girl in Pitsfield was struck dumb by the firing of a cannon. A number of married men have, in consequence, invited the artillery companies to practise near their pre- mises."—American Paper. A 'cute Yankee made the Boston Jubilee a means of advertising. In the hands of the chorus he placed IS,000 boxes of his cough lozenges, at a cost of 3,750 dollars, and then boldly proclaimed that to his lozenges and to them alone, the success was due, for which he deserved to be patronised by Boston in particular, and by the State in general. Out of evil good sometimes springs, as in the unfor- tunate death of General Faunce. The Bombay army will have reason to look upon it with far other feelings than those of regret. The Qazztte calculates that, by his demise, one colonel will be made a major-general, 47 majors lieutenant- colonels. 45 captains majors, and 45 lieutenants captains. Of the lucky lieutenants who will thus be promoted, 14 belong to the general list, which would appear to be more fortunate in Bombay than it is in the Madras presidency. According to the Journal Officicl the news of the French amnesty produced considerable effect in Geneva, and at once called forth from the French subjects and foreigners established in that city" unequivocal demonstrations of gratitude and sympathy towards the Emperor Napoleon and his Majesty's Government." In virtue of the amnesty M. Felix Pyat, the well-known Republican, is stated to have re- turned to France. A telegram from New York by Atlantic Cable announces that the Duke of Edinburgh has been cordially received at Honolulu, in the Sandwich Islands. By Atlantic Cable we also learn that the city of Halifax, in Nova Scotia, is preparing a brilliant reception for Prince Arthur. The financial editor of the Bennington Banner re- ports marriages dull, engagements depressed, courtships good and prime, scandal overstocked, belles plenty, beaux scarce and of poor quality. According to a despatch from Suez, dated the IGth inst a splendid flte took place there on the previous day The waters of the Mediterranean and of the Red Sea met in the Bitter Lakes, and the filling of the lakes is wow said to be secured. An Indiana town boasts a thief who certainly touches bottom in his meanness. His peculiar talent is taking the crape from the doors of houses where a person is lying dead. Lord Broughton has left his papers to the British Museum, with strict injunctions that they are not to be opened tilh the year 19u0, and that even then they are not to be published except with the consent of the reign- ing sovereign. Although the title of Lord Broughton is extinct, still the baronetcy of Hobhouse remains the pre- sent baronet, Sir Charles Hobhouse, is a Judge at Calcutta. A young lady of great beautj has recently died at Angers under very melancholy circumstances. Her lover made her a present of two magnificent earrings, and as her ears had not been pierced, she decided to undergo the opera- tion. Owing to the size of the earrings, a larger incision than usual had to be made. The ear unfortunately became inflamed, erysipelas ensued, and the unfortunate girl rapidly got worse and died. Another nunnery scandal" from Cracovia is re- ported. A young Jewish lady at Konsocice was carried away from her father's house by a score of disguised men, and on inquiry it was found that some person, in order to prevent her marriage, had procured her admission into the convent of the Visitadines. The father of the immured lady applied for her release, bet was informed that an order of the bishop was requisite. He then, at the head of a large body of students, invaded the convent, and succeeded in carrying oft the young lady, notwithstanding the protests of the lady superior.
THE MARKETS. MARK-LANE.—MONDAY. Fresh up to Mark-lane this morning the receipts of English wheat were on a fair average scale, and a moderate quantity of Dew produce came forward. In both red and white parcels the demand was heavy, and prices gave way from 3s. to 4s. per quarter. The market was tolerably well supplied with foreign wheat. Next to nothing was doing in any de- scription, at a similar reduction in value. Moderate sup- plies of barley were on offer. Sales progressed slowly, but the value of all qualities was supported. For malt the inquiry continued heavy, at late currencies. The show of foreign oats was good, of English limited. The trade was dull, and Russian qualities were rather lower. Beans were in short supply. The demand was very firm, and ex- treme rates were realised. For peas the sale was only to a moderate extent, at the prices current on Monday last. The flour market was very dull. Country marks and American barrels were Is. to 2s. lower than on Monday last. Maize experienced a moderate demand, at late rates. Linseed and rapeseed were quiet. Agricultural seeds were inactive, but firm. Cakes were neglected. METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET.—MONDAY. The market was fairly supplied with foreign beasts and sheep. The trade was quiet, but prices ruled nrm. From our own grazing districts the receipts of beasts were on a fair average scale. The business doing was very moderate. Nevertheless, the quotations were steady, the best Scots and crosses selling at 5s. to 5s. 2d. per SIb. The receipts from Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, and Northamptonshire com- prised about 1,900 shorthorns,&c.; from other parts of England about 250 various breeds, and from Ireland 50 head. The show of sheep was more extensive than on Monday last; bus it was still below the average. Transactions were limited, but full rates were realised. The best Downs and half-breds sold at 6s. 4d. to 5s. 6d. per 811). L unlis were very dull, at from 5s. 4d. to 53 lod. per SIb. Choice veal was scarce ati,t dear; otherwise the demand was heavy. Prime small were in moderate request, but large hogs were dull of sale. HOPS. With more genial weather the hops during the pas week have made considerable progress towards maturity, and tlu accounts may be considered favourable cn the whole. Tha trade has ruled quiet, and prices have been nominal. Quo- tations: Mid and East Kents, A:2 lOJ. to £6 10s. Weald of Kents, £ 2 5s. to £ 4 Sussex, £ 2 to £ 3 15s. Farnhams, 10s. to £ 6; Country, £ 3 10s. to £ 4 10s.; Bavarians, £ 2 to a 10s. Belgians, £ 2 to kS Yearlings, 42 to oeJ 10s.; American, £2 5s. to L3 10s. per cwt. WOOL. The public sales of colonial wool, now in progress, have been well attended by both home and foreign buyers. Biddings, generally, have progressed steadily, and the open- ing quotations have been maintained. English wool sold quietly, but at full prices:—Fleeces: Southdown hogsret^, Is. lid. to Is. 2!d. half-bred ditto. Is. 4d. to Is 5d. Kent fleeces, Is. 3d. to Is 3Jd. Southdown ewes and wether, Is. Id. to Is. lid. Leicester ditto, Is. 2!d. to Is. 3d. Sorter Clothing, Is. to Is. bid. combing, lid. to Is. 6d. per lb. POTATOES. Fair supplies of potatoes have been on sale. The business doing has been limited, at our quota ions. English shaws, 751 to 90s.; regents, 85s. to 105a. French 70s. to 80s. per on.