A STEP IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION. At the meetingof the British Association at Exeter a startling, but not a novel, proposition was made by Mr. Brandon. He advocated a uniform low fare for all distances. His proposal was that Is. should he charged first class, 6d. second, and 3d. third. He declared his confidence that the adoption of the plan would remunerate the shareholders, benefit the public and bring profit to the State. But he was not for the continuance of half-ruined companies competing to their own destruction. The Government (he said) ought to unite all the railways under a general management. The number travelling under his plan would be increased six-fold. Those who wished to be exclusive could have the right to travel in a "special" carriage by paying £10 first-class, and j25 second per annum. Passengers should be re- quired to pay for all luggage that would go in the van. From that source an additional income of three millions might be obtained. He proposed that the Government should issue to the shareholders Govern- ment railway stock bearing a guaranteed minimum interest of 4 2 5hs per cent. From the known sta- tistics, and it the increase in the number of travellers was anything like u h.-it was anticipated, it was clear that most gratifying monetary results would ensue. Where a less than the proposed rate was at present adopted, the same would continue, he thought, under the new plan. Canon Girdle stone expatiated on the importance of the subject, especially to the poorer classes. He re- ferred to the penny post as an instance of what might be accomplished, though at first sight it seemed im- practicable and improbable of success. Captain Dalton opposed the argument of the paper. .He was inclined to think its calculations fallacious. Sir John Bowring thought the best results would ensue from the Government taking the railways, and combated the general impression on the subject. He thought, and the usual idea was, that a j mrney from London to Exeter for a shilling first-class, would be a highly pleasant and not altogether an improbable thing.
Whilst on the subject of railways it may not be out of place to mention that at the meeting of the share- holders of the London and North Western Railway, Mr. Moon, in speaking of the large sums the company had to pay in the way of damages for accidents, said that everything was done that could be done to mitigate the burden of compensations. The company had first- rate people to attend to that matter but the laws, and still more the administration of those laws, pressed most heavily upon railways. It had only been within the last year or two that judges had begun to be shocked at the grievous impositions to which companies were subjected. In America, where they were not too par- ticular about the li ves of the community, the principle of Lord Campbell's Act was not altogether ignored; but the law fixed a limit to the amount of the liability. (Hear, hear). The injustice of the present system in this country was patent to every one. The other day a blind man came into one of this company's stations. There was no one to take care of him, and he fell over a nail in the floor. An action was immediately brought against the company. In another instance a mischie- vous boy had chosen to climb upon a chimney-piece. It broke, and let him down. His arm was fractured, and the company had to pay JS150. However, as the subject had begun to attract public attention, there was some hope of a change. The Associated Com- Eanies, which included nearly all the railways in the ingdom, had the question under their consideration, and he hoped that their wisdom would be able to de- vise some remedy. Colonel Packe, at the Great Northern meeting, re- ferred particularly to the Warren" case, in which a lady obtained JEL500 damages for faliing on a carpet.
SIGNALLING AN EXPRESS TRAIN TO STOP. At the Hertford County Sessions, on Saturday, Mr. Hayes, a gentleman residing at fiertingfordbury, appeared to an- swer a charge prefeired against him by the Great Northern Railway Company ef unlawfully signalling a train to stop without reasonable or sufficient excuse for so doing. The proceedings were taken under the Act 31 and 32 Victoria, cap. 119, which requires that there shall be provided means of communication between passengers and guards and drivers of all railway trains travelling 20 miles without stopping. It appeared from the evidence that on the 12th inst. the defendant left King's-cross by the 2'45 express, to Manchester and Liverpool, which does not stop till it reaches Peterborough. He should have got into a slip'' carriage placed in the rear of the train, which is dropped at Hatfield, at which place he wanted to stop; but instead of doing so he got into a carriage labelled Bradford," placed nearly in the centre of the train. Just after passing Hatfield, Mr. Hayes pulled the cord of communication which runs outside the car- riages, and the driver and guard, hearing the gong on the engine sound, looked round and saw him at the window of the Bradford carriage, making signs to the effect that he wanted to get out at the station just passed. The guard signalled back that the train could not be stopped for such a purpose, and the defendant by a gesture intimated that he was satisfied. Shortly after the train passed Hitchen the gong sounded again, and on its being brought nearly to a standstill the defendant got out. Mr. Hayes, in defence, said he could not find a "slip" carriage on at King's-cross, and got into the Bradford carriage under the impression made upon his mind by looking at the time table that the train stopped at Hitchin. The magistrates havirg consulted for some time, the chairman announced their decision. They were, he said, of opinion that the offence charged had been committed,—that Mr. Hayes had used the means of communication without reasonable and sufficient cuse. It ought never to be used except in grave and impor- tant circumstances, such as murderous violence, sudden illness, a carriage being found on fire, or other serious circumstances of a similar kind. As, however, the Great Nortkern Railway Company had no vindictive feeling in this matter, and as this was the first case of -the kind that had come before the Bench, they would only inflict a penalty of 5s. and the costs. I Mr. Webb said he was afraid that the public would infer from the amount of penalty that the magistrates looked upon the offence as a very light one. Mr. Oppenheim, (who appeared for the Company) said the remarks of the Bench were of more im- portance than the amount of the penalty. Mr. Cherry: "The Press will give publicity to my remarks." Mr. Hayes is to be prosecuted at Hitchin for stop- ping the train in that district.
1 ANOTHER CASE. At Wakefield, Mr. Thomas Flocton, of Stockton-on. Tees, appeared to answer a charge preferred against him by the Great Northern Railway Company, of wilfully and without sufficient cause making use of the means of communication between passenger and rail- way servants. On the 9th of August the driver of the 10*25 a.m. express train from Leeds to London, when he had reached Sandal, some two-and-a-half miles beyond Wakefield, heard his gong strike, and on look- ing down the side of the train he saw a man gesticu- lating at a carriage window, beckoning that he would pull up at the next station. The driver went on until he reached Nostell, a short distance further. At this place the defendant alighted, and produced a ticket from Holbeck to Westgate, Wakefield, and said his 'intentions were to go to Kirkgate station, in the latter town, and finding that the train did not stop there, he thought he was perfectly justified in the step he had taken. As the express was leaving Nostell, a pilot engine came in behind, and there was the possibility that had the train been stopped outride the signals, a collision might have ensued. In defence, it was urged that Mr. Flockton had been telegraphed for to execute a deed, and as on previous visits to Wakefield he had been taken to Kirkgate station; he expected that the same course would be fol- lowed on this occasion. When he found that he was being carried out of his way, and being very anxious to get to his destination, he consulted his fellow travel- lers as to what he should do, and all being under the impression that the only result would be to bring the guard to them, it was considered that he was perfectly justified in touching the signal. Mr. Barratt, defendant's solicitor, complained bitterly of the insufficiency of the instructions in the railway carriage. The bench held that the case had been completely made out. The case being the first which had been brought before them under the Act they merely imposed a nominal penalty, which, including costs amounted to 50s.
Too MCCFI TO EXPECT !—President Grant re- cently visited Newburg, in the United States, and replied to an adiress of welcome presented to him. He was afterwards entertained at a collation, and his health proposed. Upon this he rose and said, You don't expect any person to make two speeches in one day therefore you will not expect me to make a reply." I
THE GROWTH OF SILK IN ENGLAND. G. M. writes to The Times.- I beg leave to offer a few remarks on the cultivation of silk in this country, more particularly as my experiment has been lately noticed by the President of the Silk Supply Asso- ciation at Macclesfield and Coventry. Erom the excellent produce of eggs imported from Milan and Japan in this season, which has been unfavourable both to the growth of the mulberry and the silkworm, I have no doubt that, with good eggs, care, cleanliness, and perfect ventilation, silk equal to the produce of Italy can be grown in England in the five weeks of May and June, with con- siderable profit to the cultivator, and opening up a large field of industry, more particularly to women and children. The white mulberry is of rapid erowth in any soil, except- ing chalk and clay our lieht common lands, railway banks, and even hedgerows might be planted with profit, if the tenant had an interest in the produce of the trees. The wonderful exhalation from the silkworm in the last age, which makes thorough ventilation absolutely necessary, will also make the care of these insects in the cottage very dangerous to the inmates, but any brick barn or spare room can be fitted up as a laboratory at little expense. A village girl, aged fifteen, had charge of my room this year The rate of mortality, and of imperfect and double cocoons, did not exceed one per cent. There was very little refuse silk outside the cocoons, and all reel well at five to each thread. Although my winder only began the work lasr. season, the weight of silk is above the average drawn from the same weight of Italian cocoons. My trees, varieties of the Morns Alba, planted in rows about ten feet apart, occupy about two acres of land, and yield on an average 2"lb. of leaf each, some as much as 401h. They can be propagated by cuttings, or three-year-old grafted trees can be bought at 150s. per 10a My harvest of cocoons has been limited this season by the failure of eggs imported from Stettin. I had arranged to feed the produce of four ounces of eggs, which would have consumed 3 tons 4 cwt. of leaf. The quality of the reeled silk has been fully tested at Manchester. I shall be happy to afford further information to any one who wishes to try the growth of silk on a practical scale. The daily register of my hygrometer will remove the popular prejudice that this climate is too damp for the health of the silkworm. A specimen of cocoons and reeled eilk can be seen at the office of the Silk Supply Association, 3, Castle- street, Holborn. Any letters under cover to the hon. secre- tary will meet with attention.
REMARKS ON VACCINATION. It may be worth while, now that opposition to vacci- nation is assuming serious proportions, to inquire into the reasons of the comparatively great success of the agitation (remarks the Medical Times and Gazette). It is not the first time that the discovery of Jenner has had to contend with popular prejudice and popular dislike. When he first communicated the results of vaccioation to the public he was met with a storm of ridicule and "scientific" argument, which threatened at first to overwhelm the "little bark." But the people of that day were too familiar with the horrible disease that Jenner's discovery was to mitigate or altogether destroy. Every man and woman of that period had felt in their own persons, or seen in others, the disfigurement, the blindness, deafness, and other mutilations which resulted from the terrific scourge of smallpox. They were, many of them, willing to run some risk to ward off such a calamity from themselves and their kindred. Gradually the effects of the new operation became developed, and vaccination was soon generally resorted to. The "philosophical" writings of the learned, the sneers of the sceptical, the ridicule of the caricaturists, all failed to arrest the progress of the new discovery. In fact, the demonstrations of its beneficent usefulness were to be found everywhere. But at the present day the pock-marked face" is almost unknown, and the mutilations resulting from smallpox are almost a matter of history. The present generation has not been in a position to estimate the amount of evil which vaccination did away with. They see only that it is not a perfect prophylactic, and that occasionally evil effects follow its employment. They rush to a conclusion which has a few facts to up- hold it. and ignore the opposite one, which is sup- ported by facts innumerable. That some further in- quiry into the causes of the failure of vaccination and of its alleged inoculation of other diseases into the sys- tem is required we readily admit, but it must be a dispassionate, calm, and impartial inquiry. We do not believe the cause of vaccination is advanced by the enforcement of imprisonment and fines. Martyrdom" has always sympathisers, and generally disciples.
HARVESTING CROPS INDEPENDENTLY OF WEATHER. Mr. Robert Neilson, of Halewood, Liverpool, writea the following letter to The Times :— I am gratified to observe by your article of Wednes- day last that you are giving your powerful influence in directing the attention of agriculturists to the practi- cability of means for effecting this object, which is of so much public importance in our variable climate, and I will ask you to afford me space in your columns to give a brief detail of my experience in thiistmatter, which will be found to have anticipated to some extent the recent trials on this subject on a farm of undemo 300 acres, which I have held for some years as a tenant of the Earl of Derby. During the wet autumn of 1863 my friend and brother magistrate for this county, Mr. Gossage, of the well-known chymical and soap manufactory at Widnes, in this neighbourhood, paid me a visit to ex- plain and impress upon me some ideas he bad long en- tertained as to harvesting crops so as to be independent of weather. Mr. Gossage's notions were that if corn (however wet it might be) were placed in ricks in such manner that a current of dry or heated air could be forced through it, the superfluous moisuire would be speeddy driven off and the corn become thoroughly cured. He proposed to do thie by means of a centri- fugal fan driven by horse or steam power and if the latter were employed, to use the gases which were pro- duced by combustion of fuel under the boiler to yield heated air to be applied to accelerate the drying. After mature consideration, I was convinced the plan was a practicable one, and. to prove it, I set up a rick of beans in so damp a state that all my servants thought it could not fail of being utterly spoilt. This rick was 20ft. by 1.5ft. by 20ft. high, beinir twice aa large as the usunl size. Before forming the rick, I 1 placed a wooden trough or pipe 9in. square inside, extending from one end to the centre, and terminating in an aperture on the upper side 9in. square. In stacking the beans, I placed a sack (filled with straw) vertically over the aperture above-mentioned, and gradually as the rick was formed, I kept raising the sack, and forming a chimney of the same diameter, till within about six feet off the top. I then con- nected a centrifugal fan with the end of the air trough, and had it driven by two men acting on a large pulley from which the motion was con- nected, by means of a strap, with a small pulley on the fan shaft. I soon perceived evidence of moisture pro- ceeding from the rick, and, in a few days, employing cold air, and with these insufficient means of applica- tion, the rick of beans (which it had been predicted would be utterly spoilt) became thoroughly dried and was thrashed out and consumed on the premises. I was thus convinced that the use of artificial currents of air either cold or, by preference, heated, would, in the latter case particularly, render the agriculturist nearly independent of weather in harvesting his crops-and I have acted upon this conviction when needful in my I operations ever since the wet harvest of 1863. This year I formed four ricks of hay, under wooden covers (called Dutch barns), each 24ft. by 16ft. by 20ft. high, with a wooden air trough running the whole length under them, provided with slides to let on and cut off the passage of air, and each rick having a vertical channel formed as before described. One rick of this hay was mown, tedded, and rolled together by horse labour, put by hand into large cocks, and on the third day from mowing, without being pre- viously spread, was carted and stacked. This rick was so out of condition that my bailiff begged me not to let it be stacked, as it must, in his opinion, inevi- tably take fire. I put up the three other stacks in different stages of condition, but none thoroughly cured. I then applied currents of cold air to the whole by means of a fan driven by a steam-engine of one horse-power, and the hay in each stack (including the one above specially noticed) became so thoroughly cured that it has sold at the full market price of the day. By these means the four ricks of hay were har- vested with leas than one-fourth the expenditure for manual labour usually required. With regard to wheat, it has been customary with me to lhra,-h it by steam power immediately on carting it from the field, without putting it in ricks. On con- sidering the advantages of this mode of drying I erected an apparatus consisting of a double cylinder 8ft. high, closed at top and bottom, formed of perforated zinc plates, the outer cylinder being 8ft. in diameter, and the inner one 2ft., leaving an annular space of 3ft., which contained when filled upwards of 200 bushels of wheat. I applied, by means of a fan, a current of air warmed by passing over the steam boiler, to the inner cylinder, and the air, after passing through the perfo- rations, filtered through the wheat, causing it to be brought quickly into a fit condition for grinding. I have stated that I commenced these operations by the advice of my friend Mr. Gossage, in 1863, and have continually pursued them since that period. I consider that I have now so thoroughly proved the praticability and advantage of these operations, that 1 can recom- mend their uuiveisal adoption by my brother agricul- turists, in the full conviction that, by these means, we can render ourselves, to a great extent, independent of weather in harveating our crops.
I DARING ROBBERY IN A RAILROAD TRAIN. A most daring robbery was recently committed on the New York Central Railroad, between Fonda and Albany. According to the account in the New York Tribune of the 12th inst., the robbers began their operations on the Pacific express train just after it left Fonda. The American Ex- press Company had no valuables in their car, except money in safes, which were in the care of a messenger. The story told by this messenger is as follows He and a baggage-man were in the front way-bag- gage car. Soon after the train left Fonda three men entered, apparently fr.im the rear baggage car, which contained the through baggage. The messenger was lying down at the time, but, seeing the strangers, at- tempted to get up. They pounced upon him and a struggle ensued. He was struck several severe blows over the head, and Cayenne pepper was thrown into his eyes, and he was fiually overpowered, pinioned, and gagged. His companion was more easily conquered, and was also bound and gagged. The messenger was also treated to a dose of chloroform, and a buffalo robe thrown over his head, so that he could not have any possible chance of seeing what was going on. The villains then got his keys, and commenced trying to open the safes. Finding some difficulty in this, they threatened to kill the messenger if they could not succeed with the keys. The way safe was finally opened, and its contents taken out. There was another safe in the car, going through from Chi- cago to New York. For this the messenger had no key, and it reacned its destination without being opened. The robbers tried to force it but failed. It will be some time before it can be known how much money the robbers got, as the packages were from various points, including Buffalo, where it started, and stations between that and Fonda. These fellows took charge of the baggage car, and ran it in the coolest m an- neiimaginable. When the train stopped at stations they put out the baggage. The conductor would sing out "all right there Charley ?" and the self-appointed baggage- masters would answer All right!' and shut the door. Thus matters went without any suspicion being excited until the train reached Albany. The robbers were not in the car when it stopped. The messenger describes his condition as being mot excruciating. He thinks he could not have survived half an hour longer. He was almost suffocated with the gag and the pepper. The first man who entered the car was an employ6 of the railroad company, and was so alarmed at seeingthe two men lying helpless on the floor that he fled precipi- tately. Next, a policeman came and liberated the suf- ferers. The condition of the messenger fully corro- borated his statements. He had a severe cut on the fore- head, apparently inflicted with a club his mouth was bruised and cut with the gag, and his whole face so in- flamed and swollen as scarcely to be recognised by his friends. His partner in trouble, though not so badly hurt, showed igns of rough handling. But these were not the only sufferers. The raiders entered first the rear baggage car, where they found one man in charge of the through baggage. They overpowered, bound, and gagged him, and he was found in this condition when the train reached Albany. Nothing was missed from this car. The time from Fonda to Albany is about an hour and thirty minutes. The messenger thinks he would hardly be able to recognise the faces of the men, as they were disguised, but he would know their voices. They gave him no opportunity to see any of their tran- sactions after they succeeded in binding him. There is still some mystery as to when the robbers left the train. The messenger is confident they got off at West Albany, while it is stated that papers and way-bills were found scattered along the track this side of Albany. A club and a set of false whiskers were picked up in the car. One of the scoundrels pro- possd to his associate to throw the messenger out of the car as the train was running at full Fpeed, but his horrid proposition was not seconded. The mes>eager was, however, several times reminde 1 that if he made any noiie lie would be summarily quieted. Of course the detectives have the nutter already in hand, and are searching for the present location of the thieves and burglars who were absent from their accustomed haunts on Tuesday night.
With regard to this occurrence the New York Tribune says in a leading article :— If the story of the robbery of the express car on the New York Central Railroad is true, it should be the incentive to a thorough reform in the manner of guarding, or rather neg- lecting, such important interests. No man save the sworn agents of the Express Company and the road should be allowed to enter express or baggage cars, and any attempt to get in by unauthorised persons should be considered an attempt at burglary. Here were three ruffians working for an hour and a half at the safes of the Express Company, and nnne save the bound and gagged messengers knew anything of it. The whole affair looks suspicious but whether a true thing or a concerted arrangement, the express and railroad companies ought to aisure the public against the possibility of repetition.
THE LAND QUESTION. A meeting of the working classes was held on Sunday morning on Clerkenwell-green, in London, under the auspices of the Holborn branch of the Reform League, for the purpose of hearing a lecture from Mr. C. Bradlaugh on "The Land and the People." There were about 1,000 persons present, Mr. Osborne being In the chair. The lecturer commenced by saying that to obtain life and happiness from the land was the right of all, and if there were any barrier in the way the attention of people should be directed to its removal. The land- owners of the country numbered but 30,000, and while in 1800 the land was taxed to the amount of 22,300,000, the rent received by the landed aristocracy being J322,500,000, in 1869 the rent received had increased to over 66,000,000, while the taxes paid had decreased to EI,750,000 in consequence of the redemption of the land-tax. Referring to Mr. Mill's statement that the landed aristocracy had "grown rich while they slept," Mr. Bradlaugh said that. it was not so, for the heads of families being provided for by the law of primogeniture and entail, the aristocracy had provided for the younger sons in other ways out of the country's earnings. The rights of property in land were different from those in possessions acquired by labour, and those who owned land now had no right to shut it up for pleasure when it would produce grain for the starving millions. He advocated reform in the land laws-firstly, because they had it in their power to reform them secondly, because it was lawful; thirdly, because, whether it was lawful or not, they could do it, meaning thereby that the happiness of the nation was higher than mere legal right. A personal attack on the Prince of Wales and others followed, and the fact that England is a monar- chial Government was denied, the Government being that of a landed aristocracy. He did not advocate the equal distribution of land, but he asked that the culti- vator of the soil should share in the profits of his labour. A eulogism of Mr. Gladstone closed the lecture. A vote of thanks was given to the lecturer, and other speeches terminated the proceedings.
THE TELEGRAPHS OF THE FUTURE. (From the Daily News.) The public is destined to hear much of sub-marine telegraphy during the next few months. The success- ful laying of deep sea lines for long distances being proved to be a mere question of capital, projects are on foot which, if carried out, will bring the whole world within the range of electrical communication, and that within a very short time. Messages to and from Eng- land and Bombay direct may be looked for in March or April of next year; while the spring of 1871 will probably see Australia and China connected with Eng- land by means of the Indian line. This last extension is one of the most important of all, for it not only pro- vides for the places named, but embraces Ceylon, Cochin China, Java, and Singapore. Starting from Bombay, the terminus of the British Indian line, it is to run from thence to Point de Galle, and on to Penang, Rangoon, and Saigon besidej spanning the Indian Ocean to northern Australia, touching at Sumatra and Java, bv the wjty. In anticipation of some such enter- prise, the Dutch have already laid land lines through Sumatra, and arrangements are completed for bringing the whole of their possessions into electric communica- tion with Hong Kong. Again, Tasmania and. the south-western portions of Australia are to have lines of their own, after com- munication has been established with the north- western division of that continent; and a recent glance at a map shows that every corner of this portion of the globe which is known to commerce is now included in one comprehensive scheme. Nor will there ba any great difficulties to surmount. The Brisbane Govern- ment is pushing lines to meet the cable at Cape York, and the financial authorities at the business centres of the different countries are giving it their strong sup- port while Post-office and other statistics prove the extent of, and necessity for communication between the various points, and between them all and India, Europe, and America. The distance to be traversed is considerable, amount- ing to several thousands of miles of submarine cable, and some hundreds of miles of land lines but this is split up into sections, as from Bombay to Point de Galle, 1,104 miles, from the latter to Penang 1,416 miles, and from Singapore to Hong Kong 1,696 miles. Throughout this line the soundings show the ocean bottom to be favourable to cable laying, and the only deep water sections will be between the extreme end of Java and Cape York, and between Penang and Point de Galle. The route described has been only selected after due consideration and after another scheme for connecting the Australian colonies with Great Britain had been examined and rejected. This was by a combined land and sea system of telegraphs from the frontier station at Rangoon, down the Malayan Peninsula to Singa- pore, and from thence through the Dutch possessions and by the Floris Sea to Cape York. The objections to this were valid, and will be readily understood. 1 here was, first, the inconvenience of carrying im- portant sections of the line through the dominion of a foreign power and, secondly, the character of the Floris Sea bottom, which is infested with coral, and would be fatal to cables. A coral bottom is neces- sarily irregular, ard it is found by experience that a cable laid on it hangs in bights from one mass of rock to the other, that the coral builds over it, and if a fault is developed prevents its being brought to the surface for repair. Coral seas are moreover full of live shells, which injure core when exposed, and the cables laid down for the Dutch Government about Java have been already more or less damaged by their means. For these sufficient reasons it was resolved to run deep sea lines, which will be, humanly speaking, safe from in. jury and the condition of making, and laying, by the Telegraph Consti uction Company, the expected traffic, and probable tariff for communicating to and from London and China and Australia, will probably be laid before the public before many days. It is curious to mark how speedily one gigantic tele- graphic enterprise of this kind begets another, and how closely the interests of the various lines are enter- twined. The one described is of course supplemental to the British Indian Telegraph and arising out of the latter is another cable, the work of which will be all important in facilitating communication with India. The Falmouth, Gibraltar, and Malta Telegraph completes the submarine communication, so that a message may be hereafter sent from London to Bom- bay almost without a repeat. This has been done on the French Atlantic line from Brest to Dux bury, a distance of 3.600 miles, at the rate of from four to five words a minute and though, even when the Falmouth and the British Indian are both open, there will be a short span of land lines through Egypt, it is already thought possible to organise submarine substitutes for these, and so to send and receive communications from India almost as quickly as a man can write. This would have been hopeless without the Falmouth line. The Anglo-Mediterranean Deep Sea Tele- graph had already united Malta to Egypt but before Indian messages reached the former place they would have had to traverse 2,000 miles of wires through France and Italy, and would be thus liable to the interruptions and delays which are inseparable from telegraphing through foreign countries when re- petitions have to be made. To obviate this a cable will run first from Faimouth to Gibraltar, a distance of 1,431 nautical miles, and then from Gibraltar to Malta, a distance of 1,025 miles. Thus the British Indian cable runs from Suez to Bombay, the Anglo- Mediterranean from Malta to Egypt, and the Fal- mouth and Gibraltar from England to Malta. All three companies are distinct, but have entered into arrangements for mutual help and protection—arrange- ments which will be participated in by the cable to Australia. But these enterprises are thrown into the shade—so far as length of cable is concerned—by one which is now engaging the attention of a committee sitting in New York. which aims at laying a tele- graphic line from San Francisco to Japan, a distance of 8,000 miles. We have, say our cousins, the longest railway in the world, and we mean to have the longest telegraphic cable as well; and so calculations have been made and estimates sent, and if the Committee report favourably a,-prosi)ectus will shortly appear. Another important project which has been recently brought before the public aims at laying cables be- tween Cuba and Porto Rico, and from Havana to Porto Rico, Mexico, and Panama, as well as between the West Indies and South America generally while the International Mid-Channel Telegraph, to which Sir Samuel Canning and Captain Knapp Barrow have been giving much attention latterly, is at last in hand, and will be working between Penzance and a tele- graph ship stationed by the Admiralty between Scilly and Ushant, fifty-five miles distant, in a few months from this time. This last line will enable ships to have messages to and from every part of the world which has electric communication with England. As the Government statistics show that 373,169 vessels entered and cleared with cargoes at ports in the United Kingdom in the year 1868, it is argued that the telegrams to and from underwriter?, owners, and conri,'nees will be considerable, as well as the tele- graphic traffic with distant ports. I Altogether submarine telegraphy seems dts tin ed to work many more of the changes which were scoffed at as visionary only three short years since. To talk with Hong Kong and Melbourne as easily as with Paris or York, to have America and Ta-m.iiiia speaking to each other through the ocean, and to have ships announcing th-ir arrival or asking for final instruction-! while miles and miles away frum shore, is all very wonderful. But the demand for telegraphic communication grows by what it feeds on. Thoile at the helm of the great companies already at work appear to lend their power- ful aid to all enterprises having a fair promise of success, and up to a certain po:nt, which is far from being reached yet., it seems certain that the more cables there are the better for those now laid. These last dovetail into each other, and promote their common interest in a very stl iking way. Indeed, co-operation is a leading feature in modern telegraphic ener prise, and as we have shown, HJO-t of the schemes bting de- veloped now are associated ones, and so seem to have inferentially a guarantee of success.
WAS IT A LOAN? At the Greenwich Police-court, on Monday, William Ball was brought up in custody of Langley, a detective-sergeant of police, charged with being concerned with another man, not in custody, in stealing French notes to the value of 350 not in custody, in stealing French notes to the value of 350 francs, belonging to Alfred Hollander, who described himself on the cftarge-sheet as a Doctor of Philosophy. Mr. Pook, solicitor, appeared for the prisoner, and the court was crowded with the friends of the accused. The prosecutor, who is about thirtyhyears of age, on being sworn, said, through an interpreter, he was a native of Berlin, and had only been in England a fort- night, having for two years previously been engaged as a teacher in Paris. On Thursday, the 19th inst., he was in Greenwich-Park, walking away from the Obser- vatory, when he met another man, who com- menced talking about the beauty of the park and asked him to take a trip with him by steamer to Blackwall. He said he had a bad foot and that he should ride home to London by train, when the man said he would show him the way to the railway station. As they went along the man asked him to go into a coffee-house. They entered a garden and sat down, and after a few minutes the prisoner came and requested to be allowed to join their com- pany. The prisoner then sat down and told them that he was a lawyer, and had inherited a good deal of money from an uncle. He said he had come from the Isle of Wight and was a stranger in London. By the will of his uncle he was compelled to distribute E5,000 amoDg the poor, not alone in England, but likewise on the Continent, and he requested the prose- cutor to name institutions in Germany among which he coul I distribute part of the money. The prosecutor said the best thing to do would be to apply to the Ger- man Consul in London. The prisoner then requested to do so through him, and asked him to go with him to the Alexandra Hotel, where he said he was staying. They then went towards the railway station, and when close to it, and after some protest, they entered the Portland Hotel. When there, the prisoner said he had a habit of testing who were his friends, and,he requested the prosecutor and the other man to give him a sum of money, for the purpose of seeing if they had confidence in him. He then requested the other man to give him a sum of money, and the man handed him a pocket-book, which contained money, and the prisoner having received it, requested the prosecutor to walk outside with him. He did so, and told him he thought the other man would be fright- ened at his leaving. He said it was only a joke, that he did not requit e the money, and at once handed the man his pocket-book. On handing the pocket-book back, the prisoner asked him if he was too proud to accept a sum of money to buy a ring i's a kind of remembrance, and requested him to have his name engraved on the ring. The other man accepted the money (a 210 note), and asked the prosecutor if he would share the money with him. He declined to have any of it, and the prisoner then asked him if he would show the same confidence in him as the other man had done. The prosecutor told him he took him to be a man of honour, who would fiot detain his money, and he took out of his pocket-book four French notes (three of lOOf. and one of 50f.) and handed them to him. The prisoner thA requested him to wait a few minutes and he would soon return. He and the other man then went outside, and he waited two or three minutes, but saw neither of them afterwards until the prisoner was taken into custody. In cross-examination by Mr. Pook, the prosecutor said in banding the prisoner the French notes he might have said he would lend him his money. Serjeant Langley said the prosecutor gave informa- tion of the robbery at Scotland yard, and witness was instructed to trace the men. On Saturday the prose- cutor accompanied him to a public-house in the Waterloo-road, and picked the prisoner but from 20 other men as being the man who took his money. The prisoner, when charged, said he was not the man, and never before saw the prosecutor. George Hassell, waiter at the Portland Hotel, Greenwich, identified the prisoner as one of the two men who accompanied the prosecutor to the hotel on the day in question. Mr. Pook contended that the money had been given as a loan, and that the prisoner was not criminally re- sponsible. The magistrate remanded the prisoner, and refused an application to admit him to bail.
THE HARVEST. Mr. Mechi, of Tiptree-hall, Kelvedon, has published the following letter, which he has received from an eminent and extensive Yorkshire farmer aud Mr. Mechi fears that his case might be multiplied very extensively :— "August 17. Dear Sir,—Last year I finished cutting corn on the 14th of August. To-day I have made a start for this year. Wheat Is much broken by a strong wind we had soon after it was sh, t, and from this day's experience I fear my own. and no doubt other crops in this neighborhood, wiil pr"ve very deficient. I have cut twelve acres white wijeat-my best pieca—it will not yield half as much as my best last ytar, sixty-eight bushels per acre. Barley will, I think, prove a fair crop, although the heads are short. 0 its and beans very bad. My mangolds were never such a failure; a regular plant, but too cold a summer. April and May sown swedea are a wonderful crop. 1 have cut, tied, stooked, and stubble raked the twelve acres for 51s. this is reducing harvesting to a min tnitm; reaper-back delivery. "J. J. Mechi, Esq."
UtistcIIiiitcoiis Ifntrlligcitte, HOME, FOREIGN, AND COLONIAL. FATALITY WITH FiitEARMS.-An inquest has been held in Liverpool, on the body of Michael Fearns, forty-two years of age, a pensioner from the 75th Re- giment. The deceased was cleaning a horse pistol which he had kept from the time he left the army, and for the purpose of melting a piece of lead he put the end of the barrel in the fire. It happened to be loaded, and as he was probing in the barrel with a piece of wire the charge went off, the bullet lodging in his right hand. He was removed to the Royal Infirmary, where he died on Saturday. Verdict-Accidental Death. BAD NEWS FOR WINE DRINKERS.—Great con- sternation prevails throughout the wine-growing districts of France. A new disease of the grape has made its appearance in the neighbourhood of Bordeaux where it has already caused incalculable damage, and is now beginning to spread to the vineyards of Bur- gundy. According to a paper published on the subject by M. Planehon, this disease is caused by the ravages of a hitherto unknown insect, which he calls the Philloxera vastatrix, and which all means usually employed in similar cases have utterly failed to ex- tirpate. M. de la Loy bre, in a report addressed to M. Drouyn de Lhuys, suggests that a reward should be offered for the discovery of a remedy that may serve to avert that which otherwise threatens to assume the proportions of a national disastei. It was lately asserted in the Acaddmie des Sciences that partially favourable results had been obtained in some parts by encouraging the propogation of a sort of woodlouse which preys on the Philloxera. A MEDICAL SCAPEGOAT.—At the last weekly meeting of the Board of Guardians of the Blackburn Union, Dr. Garstang, one of the medical officers, tendered his resignation, pending a charge of neglec; preferred against him, and now under the notice of the Poor Law Board. He tells the guardians, in his letter, with all due respect," that there is not one amongst them who knows anything of the actual condition of the sick poor of his district, and adds Taking into calculation the number of cased- medical, surgical, and obstetric—which I have attended, and the amount total of money which I have received, each case, of whatever nature and duration, averages the bewilder- ing sum of 2.3." Dr. Garstang thinks that the pauper doctor is the scapegoat of the Poor Law medical ser- vice." The resignation was accepted, without discus- sion. EXTRAORDINARY DISAPPEARANCE.—Quite a panic has been created amongst parents of the working classes in and around Cork by the mys- terious disappearance of a number of children, mostly of tender years, during the past fortnight. So numer- ous are the cases stated to have occurred that an ex- tensive system of kidnapping seems the only possible explanation. Placards posted throughout the city state that two little girls of twelve and five years respectively, have been missing from Mayfield for the past week. No less than five children have disappeared from Blackpool within the last two days two are re- ported as missing from the neighbourhood of Lady's Well, two from Fair-lane, and two others from Ever- green. In the majority of instances the children were sent on errands by their parents and never returned. The police had their attention directed to the matter, but as yet no explanation of the circumstances has, in any case, been arrived at. VULPECIDISM IN CHESHIRE.—The following in- scription (n a piece of paper was attached to a dead fox found in a lane in Banbury on the 10th inst. "Gentlemen and sportsmen, our doom is sealed if the farmers' claims be not paid fur the fowls and lambs we have eaten. I am not the first who has paid the forfeit with my life. Mind, brother Reynard, what you eat, that you don't get poisoned, as we shall all be if the farmers' claims are not paid —To the Master of the Cheshire Hunt." THE JAGGANATH FESTIVAL.—The Friend of India says The Jagganath Festival at Serampore closed on the 19th instant after a pitiable fashion. The two great cars still stand on the road side, half in the ditch, because the people will not pull them back to their places. In spite of the num- bers hired to pull and to applaud, the cars were moved on the first occasion only half the usual distancp, and there they lie in the mud, with the idols oil them al;(1 tlags flying. As usual the Brahmins applied to the authorities to order the people to pull, hut of course in vain. The common peasantry were heard to reply to the miserable creatures wh.. from the car urged them to pull:—" It is all very well, but come and give a hand yourselves" The crowd, of which a rough census was taken, was never more than 75,000 at the highest, and rarely exceeded 35,000-a third of what it used to be. For one man there were 50 women and children. The police, under Mr. Kochefort, the energetic district super intendent, kept order well. There were no accidents and only three crises of drunkenness The spectacle presented ly the cars and idois on the Trunk-road outside of Serampore may be regarded as tjpical of the state of idolatory at least in and near the great cities-tottering but still defiant, with no enthusiasm and little faith. A NUKBING FATHER.—When a man believes anything absolutely, it is always pleasant to see him make an ocular demontration of his faith (>\JY3 a;J American paper). At Algona, Iowa, one Mrs. Ingham was appointed to deliver the oration last Independence Day. So she carried her infant and her husband into the assembly of the people, and while she occupied the platform Mr. Ingham meekly held the baby Probably arrangements were made which prevented the child from yearning for the" materTlal fount; or perhaps, as Mr. Chick observes in Dombey and Son, something temporary was done with a teapot." Mr. Ingham is said to have been very proud of his wife's t-uccess on the occasion. We think he had more reason to be proud of his own, for it was an essay in a harder field. THE AMERICAN SCHOOL SYSfEM. In a con- tribution to the Spectator, Mr. Robert Coningsby, who recently visited the United States in connection with the Society of Arts, makes some shrewd remarks on the American school system. He says that if there be a fault in that system it is that the children are made to study too hard. This he attributes more to the parents than to the teachers, for a large percentage of the children are expected, when at home, to apply tht-mselves diligently to study for a period varying from three and a half to seven hours. Notwithstand- ing every effort to instruct, the young members grow up in a state of ignorance. To reach these the Ameri- cans have devised an excellent system of night-schools, which are so cosmopolitan that Mexicans, Russians, Germans, Chinese—indeed, almost all nationalities— ma.y be seen under one roof. The cost of education varies from twelve dollars per head in New York to half that amount in Michigan. The systematic manner in which American youth are drilled into a sort of patriotic faith is also noticed by Mr. Coninfsby. In some States masters are required to read once a year to his pupils extracts from Washington's farewell address. At a school in Boston the child of a street hawker might be seen next to a senator's son. Know- ledge is, in America, a great leveller of social distinc- tions, and, indeed, a sure road to the acquisition of all that men deem valuable. THE SOLAR ECLIPSE.—The New York papers of the 8th and 9th, are filled with reports from various quarters of the observations made in various parts of the continent of the total eclipse of the sun on the 7th inst. Although in some places disappointment was ex- perienced in consequence of unfavourable weather, yet observations were made elsewhere under more favourable circumstances-, sufficient for the more im- portant purposes of scientific investigation. At Wash- ington the observations are reported to have been a failure, owing to causes beyond human control. At Boston, too, great disappointment was experienced, and from Philadelphia only a partial success is re- ported. But at Des Moines, Indiana, which had been selected by a large number of observers as affording the most favourable spot for observing the totality, the weather appears to have been more propitious. THE NEW LAW OF EVIDENCE.—The first use of the new law of evidence, which admits as witnesses the parties in cases of adultery and breach of promise of marriage, has been made at York. One objection to the new law was, and is (remarks the Law Time.) that pretty plaintiffs will wheedle tender hearted juries. Oh. too convincing, dangerously dear, In woman's eye the unanswerable tear, That weapon of her weakness she can wield To save, subdue at once her spear and shield. Avoid it; virtue ebbs, and wisdom errs. Too fondly gazing ou that gi ief of hers." The wisdom of a common jury is not likely to be proof against it, nor, for that matter, of a special jury either. MINING ACCIDENTS IN GERMANY.—In reference to the late explosion in the Plauenschen Gruud, the National Zeitung of Berlin comments on the necessity of legally compelling the owners of mines to support the miners who are disabled, and the families of those who are killed by accident. Private charity, on which alone the unfortunate sufferers have now to depend, is insufficient and particularly apt to be exhausted when two or three great calamities follow each other at short intervals. The owners might be protected against sudden and unavoidable loss by a mutual assurance society, for which the statistical basis already exists. In 1861, 167 miners were killed in Prussian collieries, and 235,189,996 cwts. of coala raised a tax of 1 pfenning the cwt. for insurance would have made up a sum of 653,000 thalers, or 3,900 thalers for each family. That journal adds :— In England the owners of steam works are obliged to cover the damage done by any accident that may occur, and associations have been formed for mutual inspection and assurance. The number of explosions in the establishments thus united has decreased. According to Prussian law, the owner is only responsible if the accident is c mBed by his own fault or that of his agents on the other hand, he ought always to be held responsible when it is not proved th&t the miner has fallen a victim to his own carelesness alone. AUSTRALIAN PAPER.—We (Brisbane Courier) have received a sample of paper from the Liverpool Paper Company, New South Wales, and have much pleasure in finding that so excellent an article is manu- factured in these colonies. It is rather heavier than the English paper we are at present using, but it is equally well dressed, and possesses as much toughness We believe the Sydney Mail and Herald are at present being printed on this colonial-made paper. It is most gratifying to find new industries and manufactures taking hold in these colonies, and pushing out of the market, as they should do, the foreign article. We shall be glad to see the Liverpool Paper Company, New South Wales, go ahead. AN ANTIQUE FLoeR AT OXFORD.—A curious discovery has been made in one of three old house-t in Broad-street, between Kettall-hall and Trinity Col- 1.. e, now undergoing repair. Upon the removal of the fo 'ring boards, in a room on the ground floor, having unl rneath them a considerable depth of earth and IOJJ rubbish, the original floor of the room, which is "ll feet square, was brought to light. It was laid with trotter bones," in a pattern of squares arranged angle-wise, within a border. The pattern was defined by bones about two inches square, rubbed or sawn to an even surface, and tilled in with the stna,ll bones of sheep's legs; the knuckles uppermost, closely packed and driven into the ground to the depth of from three to four inches. It has been hastily aud needlessly des- troyed. Floors thus'composed full two centuries since are now not unfrequentlv discovered during the altera- tion of the timber and plaster edifices of the early part of the 17th century. Oxford has supplied several examples. THE GRFATEST MAN IN THE FRENCH ARMY — General Leboeuf, the new Minister of War in France, is, like his predecessor, Marshal Niel, an Engineer of- ficer, and, like him, won his spurs in the wars ill AI- geria. He took a prominent part in the battle of the Alma, and was in supreme command of the artillery in the Italian campaign of 1859. It is alleged that but for his timely aid in the battle of Solferiuo, the army of Victor Emmanuel would have been crushed. Since then he has commanded the camp at Chalons, and in 1866 he was deputed to receive the province of Venetia from the Austrian Government. From that time he has commanded the Sixth Corps d'Arm^e, but it is said tha,t he is in favour of abolishing these large ILili. tary commands, which afford little scope for adminis- trative ability. The new Minister is sixty years of age, and is said to be physically the biggest man in the French army. A LIGHT ON H.ULWATS AT NIGHT.—Accord- ing to the American journals a novelty in railway man- agement is to be introduced by the Erie Company, who propose to illuminate the whole line of that road at night by electric lights at the ferries, in the tunnels,on all dangerous curves, and on every engine. Mr. Morse, who has charge of the matter, etates that he has made several important improvements, among others a plan for preserving the carbon points from wasting away anù keeping them for months in good condition, a self-sus- taining battery, and an invention by which the turning of the wheels of the engine shall collect electricity for use in illuminnatioE. There will be a light at each end of the ferry, which it is believed will make a collision practically impossible on the darkest and foggiest night. Even with the diminution of light caused by the jarring of the locomotive it is estimated that the head-lights will show the track to the engineer on a straight line for three mile. — [More welcome, however than any announcement of material improvements would be a notification in the cause of public morality that the managers of this line ceuld be brought to a condition of responsibility for the pecuniary claims of the shareholders]. nAVY LOSSES BT THE PHILADELPHIA FJRE- The losses by the fire at Philadelphia will fall heavily on the English insurance offices. The Imperial of London had an aggregate insurance on the whisky of 319,000 dollars the Liverpool and London and Globe, 180,000 dollars the Royal Insurance Company, 152,500 dollars the North British and Mercantile, 12,000 dollars; the Queen, of London, 56,000 dollars. This gives an aggregate of five British companies im- volved for 719,500 dollars on the whisky alone.witbout considering the insurance on the building, which is valued at 500,000 dollars. The American offices do not lose more than an average of 20,000 dollars each. THE RABBIT IN AUSTRALIA.—The Melbourne Argus of June 19 says :— The wild rabbit, which has for some time been regarded as the bane of the agriculturalist, ha3 become a useful article of food, and is now going to be turned to account in another way. An attempt is being maCe by Mr. Grey. of 164, Little Collins-street, to establish a felt manufactory, and the venture ought to be Successful, seeing that the chief material required is furnished by the too plentiful rabbit. The soft, silky undercrowthof hair on the rabhit's back is the material of which the light grey felts used hy hatters is chiefly com- posed, and the" down" from the Victorian rahbit is declareù by experts to be decidedly superior to that obtained in France, England, or America, while its price is Is. d. per lb. as against the English price of 8a. per lb. DYING HARD.—I never heard a more striking instance of strong men dying hard than one that is given in last night's papers (writes a Paris Corres- pondent). A wsll-known # wrestler and athlete of Avignon, bearing the illustrious name of Meisf-onnier, caught, a few weeks ago, his death illness by carrying a little girl across a swollen ford, which she was ohlged to traverse in order to take to her father his dinner. This action was performed in the most good-natured way. Meissonnier seeing the child, who was to him an utter stranger, trembling and weeping on the brink, said to her, "Take heart, little one. I'll nerve as a ferry for you." Swinging her on his nhoulder, he carried her over. On returning to the bank, whence he started, he i-lipped, and was thoroughly submersed. A cold, which led to a virulent fever, was the result. As his end approached Meis-onnier literally stiuggled with the malady, and his labt words were, Death, if you were a man what short work I'd make of you." FEARFUL PIT ACCIDENT.—A dreadful accident has happened at Hillhead coal-pit, near Airdrie. Four miners, named Taylorson, Ashwood, James Reid, and his son William, who all resided in Airdrie or its neighbourhood, were being lowered down the shaft, which is ninety htboms in depth, when the "tow" parted, and the cage, with its unfortunate occupants, w.:s urecipitated to the bottom from a height of 8ixteen fathoms. They all sustained severe injuries from the fall. Taylorson's legs were broken Ashwood's jaw- bone was splintered; the elder Reid fell on a pick- shaft, which penetrated his abdomen, while the youth had Lis thigh cut in a shocking manner. They like- wise received internal injuries from the dreadful shock. Three of the men are married, and it is f> ared they will not survive. Work was not resumed that day. THE TOMB OF HE. RY VrL-The well-known central monument in the chapel of Henry VII., West- minster Abbey, has been cly insed and revived. The omb itself is seen to be of blaek marble; th" dfigies and other met-d adjuncts are ilt. Tue B'ltidtr says The gilding is for the part. in an excellent state preservation. The subjects of the sculptured groups in the circular panels round the tomb are now >bviou3, and the inscription is legible. The dark metal screen around the tomb would prevent its licwiy-xtfoiureu ¡;rlHI..J1t't'M inmi III C( icimg witu \.il'CJ sombre 111umony of the chapel as & whole. even wertl that brightness more garish than it is. 1 Nothing has yet been done to the t-creen but doubtless it will be cleaned and the small portions that are gilt brougLt out. Looking at the tolerably complete appearance of the monument at first sight, it is somewhat starthrg to hear that 1,5;)0 pieces are wanting to make it per- fect, yet such we bdieve is the CHRONICLES OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. —The Deputy-Keeper of the Public Records reports that the six volumes published in 1868 of the chronicles and memorials of Gre tt Britain and Ireland during the Middle Agesmake a total of 92 volnme,and that more than 20,000 copies of these volumes have been sold,and more than 3,000 copies have been presented to home, foreign and colonial librarirs. This great national publication has materially contributed to the assistance of historical inquirers. Nineteen more volumes are now in the press. MONKS AND NUNS IN AUSTRIA.—Austria pos- sesses at present 263 nunneries and 4,390 nuns. Th-y are thus distributed:—Tyrol has 103; Bohemia, 53 Austria proper, 47; Moravia, 19; Salzburg, 17; Styria. 17; and Carinthia, 8. Besides these there ar-i 287 monasteries in the empire with 5,318 monks, 3,441 of whom are priests and 1,877 lay brutheis. Th<-y are thus divided :—Bohemia has 78; Tyrol, 66; Austria proper, 66 Moravia, 34 Styria, 28 Salzburg. 9 and Carinthia, 6. Thus 10.208 persons in Austria have devoted themselves to a religious life. A CLEVER DETECTIVE.—At the Ilford Petty Sessions, three boys were charged with stealing four live pigeons. The prosecutor stated that he missed the birds on Tuesday evening. He mentioned his loss to a friend, who was a spiritualist, and a medium and his friend stated that the spirit miyht discover who had got the birds, and the next day the medium informed him the birds would be found at a bird shop at Poplar. Witness went to the place indicated, and there fouud one of his pigeons, which he identified. The keeper of the shop said he had bought the pigeon from one of the boys, who stated it was given to him by the other two. The spirit did not disclose the whereabouts of the three other missing pigeons. One of the boys was sentenced to six weeks' hard labour, and the other two were discharged. THE USE OF LADY-BIRDS. — A correspondent writes :— This morning T placed five lady-birds (which I collected from a great number in my garden) under a wine-glass, and with them about two hundred green flies on some leaves. In about a quarter of an hour the lady-birds had made an excel- lent breakfast of the unfortunate flies. The expeiiment was to me interesting to witness. That the creatures may con- sume all the green flies in the country before they return whence they came, is the sincere wish of, yours, etc.—CON- SERVATORY." Another correspondent writes :— "For some weeks the choicest apple-trees in my garden have been infested with 'American blight.' A few days since myriads of lady-birds alighted in my garden they im- mediately set to work on the blight, and now, after one week, the trees are perfectly free, and looking as healthy aa prior to the disease. The lady-birds are all gone." SHOCKING ACCIDENT.—A Custom-house officer, named Coates, has just met with his death in a very extraordinary manner. He and a friend named Ash- field occupied a floor in a house in Bedford-row, Lon- don. Some time ago a strange pigeon flew into their rooms, and for some time they kept and fed it. Owing to the bird's habits they tried to get rid of it. They gave it away several times, hut it always came back ayain, and recently it returned with five or six joung pigeons, and settled on the rill of a blank window next to the window of Mr. Coates's room. Fearing the landlord might complain of the birds being kept there, the two friends had resolved to catch the old one and put it in a cge. A few days ago, Mr. Coates, in ful- filment of his intention, nearly fell out of the window, and said he would never make the attempt again. Next night Mr. Ashfield left him lying on the sofa, and went to bed and a short time afterwards Mr. Coates was found lying dead in the area with some birds' feathers in his hand, and a pigeon walking round hia head. A surgeon who was called in stated that the deceased had probably struck his head against a pro- jecting brick ledge when drawing himself back after catching the pigeon, and this had caused him to losa his balance and fall out of the window. An inquest was held on the body, and a verdict of accidental uenth returned. NOT LIKING WORK — An illustration of the demoralising results of workhouse life is to he found in a scene that occurred at the meeting of the Limerick Board of Guardians the other dty. An able-bodied fellow, applying for admission to the workhouse, was asked why he uid not look for work, of which th"re is plenty to be had at present in the country. Hia reply was that he had trud work, but did not feel comfortable at it—that, iu fact, he was untit for labour, having been reared in the house. The fellow felt no shame at living on charity. He had been a pauper all his life, and the idea of illdependnce or the obligation of earning his bread had never entered his blurred and degraded mind. Nor was this an isolated case. In a few minutes afterwards a young woman, equally capable of working, came before the board for admis- sion, aud in reply to the question whether she had sought for employment, gave exactly the same answer, that she had betn reared in the house, and was unequal to the task of t-uppoiting herself. FEARFUL LEAP OF A COACH-HORSE—A sin- gular accident happened one day last week to the coach that runs daily bt-eween Ballachulish and Inver- arnon. On reaching Glenorchy bridge, a stray to startled one of the It-adicg horses—which had been restive during the journey from Inverarnon—that it leaped over the low parapet of the bridge, and after dangling for a moment, slipped from the harness aud f -11 into the river from a height of 30 or 40 feet. The accident happened so suddenly that it was impossible for the driver to prevent it, and the passengers, as may be gmss-d, were considerably alarmed. The horse was not kille0, but was so severely injured as to be un- able to proceed on the journey. A Two fous HERO.-A little boy ten years old was, the other day, takeu to an hospital of Lyous with a two sous piece stuck firmy in his throat. The child, it appears, had gone to the mayor of his locality to wish him a pleasant fete, and in return he received the coin in question. Two other boys, to whom he showed his windfall, wished to take it from him, and he found no better method to avoid that result than to place the piece in his mouth, and in the struggle it went down. At the hospital, just as the operator approached him, the instrument in his hand, the child manifested some anxiety. Ah, ah said the sur- geon, "are you afraid, my little man?" no, sir," was the reply, I have no fear; but will you give me back my two-soua piece?" "You shall have it certainly, if you are steady." The operation was successful, hut in place of the penny the boy received a piece of silver. EDUCATION IN CONNECTICUT.—Children under ourteen, in Connecticut, by a recent law, cannot be employed to labour in any manufacturing establish- ment, or in any other business, unless each child shall have attended for three months out of the twelve some public or private day-school, under the charge of a teacher qualified to instruct in orthography, reading, writing, English grammar, geography, and arithmetic. Any person employing any cnild under fourteen, con- trary to the provisions of this act, is liable to a penalty of 100 dollars for each offence. This law is a revival of the provisions of three months' schooling each year, which were required to be inserted in indentures of apprenticeship. It will be observed that the child must be allowed to attend a day school. In old times a night school was considered sufficient. A CHARCOAL FLOWER-POT.—A "scientific flower-pot" has just been brought out, and is thus de- scribed in the Scientiifc Opinion :—"The object of it is not only to purify the water which is supplied to the plant—a process we should certainly question the advisability of,—but to condense ammoniacal gases. It is from this aspect that we think the new flower-pot deserves attention. Agriculturists are well aware of the effect of porous substances, like cinders, in, as it were, accumulating ammonia in the soil. There can be no doubt that charcoal absorbs ammonia in very large quantities, and possibly, hy afterwards allowing it, when converted into a salt, to be taken up by the water of the soil, it may stimulate the nutrition of the plant." It may also affect the colours of the flowers either for good or for ill. Red colours it will f robably intensify. The hues of white or yellow flowers it may totally change. OUR. OFFICERS AT CHALONS.—A correspondent of one of the Paris newspapers, Le Peuple Franfiis (the emperor's personal organ), writing from the Camp at Chalons, says :— "General Codrington, Colonel Claremont, and a third English military officer attached to the Eneltsh embaasy at St Petersburg, are in the camp. General Codrington it an exact type of those admirable English officers whose stern c urage, energetic, calm, and heroic tenacity have sometimes balanced on the battlefield our irrisistible ardour and le- gendary impetuosity. Sixty years old, and riding well. General Codrington looks like a simple citizen. Dressed in a dark military jacket, his spyglass swung over his shoulder, he advances like an intelligent observer, whom nothing escapes Un ier his large blue cap with gold band ia lIMn his IJtrge head white whiskers, small mouth—which laat la frequently tormented by a strong square-shaped hand-IO dear to sculptors. He converses of ten m English with Colonal Claremont, but is familiar with the French lantrmgs, and discusses the movements of the troopg with the officers as a warrior who knows warlike things from experience." A LION FIGHT !—Mr. Lucas, the lion tamer, had a narrow escape of being eaten by his liona the other day at the Hippodrome, in Paris. He weit into the cage where there were two lions and two lionesses with only a whip in his hand. instead of the heavy cudgel which he generally carries. A lioness, presum- ing upon his being unarmed, sprung at him and seized him by the nape of the neck. A cry of horror arose from the spectators. Many women fainted, and others rushed out of the theatre. The other lions, attracted by blood, rushed upon Lucas, and bit and scratched him severely. In a few moments he would certainly have been killed had not one of his assistants, who was not in the habit of entering the cage, come forward and knocked the lion about the head with an iron bar. It is reported that Lncas said to him, "Go away, leave me to die alone." However that may be, the man dragged Lucas away from the lions. He is now lying at his mother-in-law's house. No. 31, Avenue Montagne, in a most precarious state. The doctors have discovered no less than thirty-one wounds. It is feared that even if he should recover he will be a cripple for life. The heroism of the man by whom he was rescued is the theme of enthusiastic praises. M. Arnaud, the manager of the Hippodrome, had the presence of mind to close the door of the cage when the faithful servant got Mr. Lucas out of it, otherwise the lions might have made a raid upon the audience. A CAB INDICATOR.—A Paris correspondent writes:— Cab Indicators, or machines for indicating distance tra- velled, whkh have been hitherto a sort of plaything of the ingenious in England, has become in Paris a practical fact. New cabs have been started, furnished with a piece of me- chanism which net only records the distance accomplished, but sho*s the traveller the time of day, and the exact sum in which he is indebted to the driver at any moment In the journey. The writer rode for some hours in one of these new vehicles and found no fl iw in the system. The indi- cator is a sort of black box fixed on the seat before the driver, with its dials before the passenger's eyes. At every ten yards one figure or more drops into line, indicating the distar,ce: while at every thousand mOtres, a 0'.rresp>>i,ding change t;ikes place in the money indicated. An element ot uncertainty, however, is introduc by the fact that the diiver when ordered to wait has the right to set his machinery in motion at a certain rate, so that sometimes distances are marked where none have been travelled
^etropitluu DssF. SIT OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT, fThe rsixiai ii ? under this haad are to be regarded as the ei- oression/»r miependent opinion, from the pen of agentlemaE i > 'whom nave the greatest confidence, but for which wa .;i«rv>9rtheles do not hold ourselves responsible.] An important association has been formed mainly by the efforts and under the direction of Mr. Elihu Bnr- ritt, "the literary blacksmith," whose desire for the welfare of the working classes has been shown in many ways, during the last quarter of a century. He has set on foot an International Land and Labour Agency. Pointing out that the whole American continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, is now open to European agri- cu turists, mechanics, and men and women of all occu- pations, the promoters of this association explain that their plans involve a commission agency for the sale and purchase of farms and land, for information and advice as to the route, for the procuring of situations, for the interchange by sale of American and English inventions and products, and for the acclimatisation of English and American song-birds, and for other purposes. If this association act in good faith and with good judg- ment, which there is every reason to hope it will, it may be highly conducive to the welfare of the indus- trial classes of our own country who find it difficult to get a living at home. There is no doubt there is yet ample scope and verge enough for a large number of immigrants into America and Canada, provided only t at it be the right sort of persons who go. The recommendations of the jury in reference to the recent fatal boiler explosion on the Thames ought to have some weight. They suggest that all eDgine- drivers should be examined and certificated that all boilers should be tested by a Government official, cer- tified as to their pressure, and not be permitted to be worked at a higher pressure than the certificate allows. These precautions have frequently been insisted on be- fore, and they are practically the same as those which Mr. Sheridan proposed in his abandoned bill of last session. It is marvellous that in a country where steam machinery ranks higher and is more largely used than in any other country in the world, we have not yet arrived at thia official inspection and certification. The number of so-called accidental deaths in this hard- working country of ours is frightful, and three especial causes are now attracting unusual attention—boiler explosions, colliery explosions, and powder-mill ex- plosions. The impression gains ground that many of these fearful calamities might be pre- vented by due caution, and if this caution can be compulsorily secured by legislative enact- ment it will be a great boon to our working classes. It is quite true that there are not wanting proofs of the recklessness of life with which dangerous occupations are undertaken; but it is the duty of the Legislature not to allow men to be reckless of their lives. One of the most eagerly discussed topics of the day is the failure 'of the Albert Life Assurance Company. As its affairs are in a transitive state and sub judice, it is not advisable to comment on them at length, but the undeniable facts which have transpired are startling enough to account for the deep interest that the public take in this disastrous failure. The company has ab- sorbed about 22 other life-assurance companies it has some 30,000 policy-holders and reversionary expec- tants and it fails for between seven and eight mil- lions. Whatever may be the distress that may arise out of this collapse, it is to be hoped at all events that it will lead to one result—that ere long life-assurance companies will be compelled to publish the state of their affairs, periodically certified by independent auditors. Simultaneously appear, through the reports of the London and Paris companies, some interesting facts relative to the omnibus traffic in the two capitals. The number of passengers carried in the London General Omnibus Company's vehicles during the half-year end- ing June 30, was 20,157,926 and the receipts during the same period were The Paris company carried during the year 168 no less than 120,000,000 passengers, and its receipts were about £],080,000. Taking the half of this, for the purposes of comparison, we find 60,000,000 passengers, and £540,000 in receipts 10 that in round numbers we may say that the Paris company carried three times as many passengers and that its receipts were twice as much as those of the London company; from which it incontestably appears that the Paris omnibus service is very much better than our own. That the French vehicles are more commmodious the fares much better, and the whole arrangements more convenient than our own, most people who have had experience will admit; and the contrast just referred to is all the more stiiking when it is borne in mind that the population and the sizo of Paris as compared with Lon- don may be set down as 2 to 3. The great London company, with its average revenue of more than £10,000 a week, has yet to learn the good policy of cheap fares. A leading legal journal, alluding to the new law of evidence and to a case where a young lady who sought to heal the wounds of her heart by a plaister of notes was examined as a witness, and told her story with convincing modesty, of course obtaining substantial consolation, adds that one objection to the new law was and is that pretty plaintiffs will wheedle tender-hearted juries. The wisdom of a common jury is not likely to be proof against it, nor, for that matter, of a special jury either." But, with all due deference to this legal opinion, the public seem generally to think that truth will be more often arrived at by examining parties to actions than by the old plan of legally shutting their mouths. One effect undoubtedly will be, it will make divorce and breach of promise cases more interesting, and we may expect that when such trials take place the courts will be more crowded than before. The doings of the Oxford and Harvard crews, pre- paratory to the great Anglo-American boat-race, are eagerly watched. May the best men win. There are two very gratifying circumstances connected" with the match—that it will be for the pure honour of winning, and that very rigid regulations have been made to prevent the men being incommoded by steamers, as has too frequently been the case when great rowing- matches have taken place. We have a Workmen's Train Association here, and a step which they have taken is of general interest. Through the agency of the society between five and six thousand persons living in the north-western suburbs of London signed a memorial to, and ultimately had an interview with the directors of the Great Western Railway. They state that they are now cut off from railway communication by the high fares, but that they will all travel by the line if they can have weekly tickets at not more than a shilling a week. The directors are taking the matter into consideration, and perhaps will do what some other companies have done. But there is one consideration con nected with cheap trains for workmen, which seems generally to be overlooked. That working men ought to be able to travel to and fro between their homes and their workshops is true enough, but the question is, can the railway companies afford to do so while juries give such enormous damages in case of accident. Take the present ease. We will say that 5,000 people travel twelve times a week for a shilling each. The mere carrying will no doubt pay the company, considering that if the men did not travel at this rate they would net travel at all; but look at the risk run by the company, of hav- ing to pay a good round sum in the event of any acci- dent to any one of those 5,000. We ought to look to both eides. The subject will come before the atten- tion of Parliament next session, an hon. member hav- ing given notice of a motion on railway compensation. We perhaps know very little more in this country relative to the internal economy, the manners and customs and the social life of Russia than we do of the Celestial Empire. We may look forward to two important books on the subject. Sir C. W. Dilke is now in Russia, and is particularly examining into the condition of the serfs, with a view to a work on the subject To make a thorough investigation, Sir Charles' intends to return to the country next year. Mr. Hepworth Dixon, till recently editor of the Athenceum, is also about to visit Russia and make a long stay there, with a view to a book on the subject. Works from two such men will naturally be looked for with interest. Heartily sympathising with the Pall Mall, which* laments the probable cutting down of the fine old treee n which but a few years ago the rooks made their nests in the garden of- Chesterfield House, it is pleasing' to see—so to speak—attention thus called to an un- pleasant subject. "We could better spare the rookery of St. Giles," says your contemporaiy, "than that of Chesterfield House, and we should have little reason to regret the destruction of the foul nests that swarm in the neighbourhood of the Seven Dials, and which are, for the most part, unfit for human habitation. We cut down trees and cover green meadows with palaces, but the pigstyes which disgrace the metropolis seem to bear a charmed life, as though fate itself could not bear to touch with its fiuger these loathsome harbours of vice and vermin, pestilence and crime." I can vouch for this not being language one whit too strong. But a few hours ago I was in a viilanons neighbourhood— dark, foul, ill-ventilated and reeking with filth, and where the children plajing about the pavements and down wretched alleys were enough to make one's heart ache to look upon them and this neighbourhood was close to a fine large main thoroughfare with splendid shops. There are many such contrasts in the metropolis. Turn out of a noble street, where carriages roll along grandly, and dandies lounge about the shops, and you shall suddenly come upon filthy 'abodes of wretchedness, I "harbours of vice and vermin, pestilence and crime." It is a sad, sad truth, and with all our writing and lecturing, with all our legislating and organisation, the lowest classes (quite distinct from the working classes) are still too much for us. The improvement of their dwellings is a central reform, from which others would radiate, and at present what has been done in this direc- tion is but a drop in the ocean.
THE SCOTCH FORESTS. The Inverness Courier says There has been sin- gularly little news from the forests, and so far as we have learnt only two stags' heads have come forward for preservation. One'of these was still covered with velvet, but when stripped it was in excellent condition and perfectly harrl. In'Glenennich forest, on Monday, Lord Stamford killed eight stags, some of which were heavy and had very fine heads. Since his Lordship began shooting, a week or two ago, 23 stags have been killed, all in splendid condition. On the 4th, in Glen- more forest, Lord Stamford killed a red deer weighing 12st. 71b., with 6 tines. On the following day his Lord- ship's party'at Rothiemurchus brought down a red deer of 14 stones, with nine tines. On the 6th, Lord Stamford, at Glenmore, killed two,red deer weighing respectively 14 stones and 12 stones, and having six and four tines respectively. On the 9th, his Lordship's party on Rothie- murchus killed two red deer, 14 and 13 stones, and having eight tines respectively. On the same day, on Glenmore, his Lord.hip brought down a red deer of 15 stones, and having 11 tines. On the 10th his Lordship stalked, and a red deer weighing 14 stones, and having four tines, fell to his rifle. On the same day Lord Stamford's party on Rothiemurchus killed two red deer weighing 14 and 12 stones, and having six tines res- pectively. On the 11th, on Glenmore, his Lordship had two red deer weighing 16 and 14 stones, and hav- ing respectively eleven tines and ten tines. From Let- terewe, in the west, we learn that the weather in the beginning of last week was very wet, and the deer came low on the hills. They have bred well, and are in good condition. On Thursday, the weather was fine, ant Mr. Bankes killed one stag and wounded a second. Friday and Saturday were wet and misty. Lord Holms- dale was out in Mar forest on Friday, and brought down a fine ten-pointed stag, being the second stag he has as killed this season.1 On the 11th, the Hon. George Skene Duff, in Altamour forest, brought down a nice stag of 14 stones. Stags, we should say, are generally reported ro -'an m exce en as numerous," anS In excellent condition."