CONFESSION OF POISONING A YOUNG LADY. At Newport, Monmouthshire,. last week, a biy named Charles feritt, made an extraordinary staterseit that he poisoned Miss Emily Oilier, the daughter cf Mr. CoUier, oil merchant, Dock-tret, Newport, on East?r Monday last. It appears that Gritt was taken from the Caerleon Industrial Schools by Mr. Collier, and on Easter Monday he offered Miss Collier some wheat, a portion of which she ate. She told her mother the boy had given her some wheat, and said it tasted very nasty. She was told to throw it in the fire, which she did, and it was noticed that it emitted a peculiar flame. In the evening she was taken ill, and next day Dr. Brewer was sent for, but he at once pronounced her case hopeless, as paralysis of the brain had set in, and on the following Thursday she died. Mrs. Collier, it has transpired, had an idea that her daughter did not die a natural death, still not the remotest suspicion ever crossed the minds of the family that she bad been poisoned. Mr. Collier had some fowls in his possession, all of which died in a very strange manner just about the same time. Gritt said that he managed to get some poisoned wheat from the Caerleon schools, which he gave to Miss Collier, and he also admits having poisoned the fowls. There is no doubt that he also attempted to poison the eldest son of Mr. Collier, as he was ill for about a week about the time his sister died. The medical man who attended the deceased has been con- sulted, and he says her symptoms were such as might result from poison. After making the confession, the boy absconded, but has since been apprehended, and on Monday he was brought before the borough magistrates at Newport, charged with the crime. The boy did not deny the charge, and expressed his sorrow for what had happened. He says he gave the young lady some poisoned wheat which he got from the Caerleon schools, and when he gave it to her he only did it to see what effect it would have on a human being. Superintendent Huxtable asked for a remand for a week, in order to obtain evidence and get the body ex- humed. The application was granted.
THE TRIAL OF MRS. LANGFORD. At the Norwich Assizes, on Monday, Mary Ann Langford was indicted for the wilful murder of her infant child, Charlotte Langford. Mr. William Cooper and Ir. Abdy ap- peared for the prosecution; the prisoner was defended by Mr. O'Malley, Q.C., Mr. Metcalfe, and Mr. Ford. The facts of the case were as follow:—The prisoner, who was also charged in another indictment with the murder of her husband, Albert Frederick Langford, had been married for some years prior to this charge, and was the mother of several children. Her husband was a druggist in Norfolk-street, Lynn. He had been an invalid for two years past, and was latterly wholly incapacitated for business. The child whose death was the subject of this inquiry was about four months old. For some time previous to her last confinement the prisoner had been in very low spirits, partly from family reasons and partly on account of the supposed falling off of her husband's business. On the 27th of April she sent for her mother-in-law, Mrs. Susan Langford, who lived not far off, about eight a.m., or a little before that time. Mrs. Langford. sen., obeyed the summons, and on her arrival her daughter-in-law said, in answer to her inquiries about Mr. Langford, Oh dear, Mrs. Langford, be is very ill, and the baby too." Dr. L )we, the family doctor, was immediately sent for, and on his arrival he found Mr. Langford, the husband, in strong tetanic convulsions, and the infant (then in its bed in another room) in convulsions also. In reply to Dr. Lowe's query about the time when the convulsions came on, the prisoner in a loud whisper said, "Doctor, I have poisoned myself." With strychnia ?" said the doctor. Her answer was Yes." "And your husband, too?' said he. Her answer was Yes." Upon that she also was seized with convulsions. Another physician, Dr. Archer, was sent for, and these two gentlemen re- mained in attendance for the day. The child died about six p.m., having been in almost continuous con- vulsions throughout the day. A post-mortem examina- tion was then made, and the viscera were sent to Dr. Letheby for examination, together with a dress worn by the prisoner, and a bottle containing about two ounces of pure strychnia, taken from a drawer in the shop, which drawer was not kept locked. It was proved among other things that the prisoner's husband had been for some time too ill to attend to his business, and that the prisoner used to go into the shop every day to get the money that was taken, and occasionally to sell small things, like tobacco, to the custo- mers. The principal evidence was that given by the medical men, one of whom—Dr. Archer —was too ill to appear in court. The evidence of Urs. Lowe and Archer, by whom the post mortem examination of the child had been made and who also had seen the child before its death, showed that before its death there were twitchings of the muscles of the face and arms that the fingers were rigidly bent and the toes also that the muscles of the abdomen were contracted that it was convulsed at times strongly, five or six times in the day that before and after death there were the general appearances in the b idy which are usually indicative of death by strychnia, and that it was treated for poisoning by strychnia. They also proved that the stomach and its contents were put into a jar, fastened down with a bladder, and sealed by thtm, and afterwards by the Coroner, in order that it might be conveyed intact to Dr. Letheby, by whom it was received at the same time that he received a gown belonging to and worn by the prisoner in the morning of the 27th of April, from the pocket of which a small portion of crystals of strychnia was taken. Dr. Letheby: 1 received from a police-constable a hamper. There were two jars and a wide-mouthed bottle containing a brown paper packet, sealed. The packet contained rather more than five and a half grains of pure strychnia in a crystalline state. A dress was brought to me at the same time. This is it. I cut the pocket out, examined it, and found about a third of a grain of strychnia. I took out of one jar the whole of the viscera of a child, the stomach, and its contents. I found on opening it a fluid ounce of a thick fluid, pap and mi'k. It was analyzed, and I dis- covered very distinct traces of strychnia. I examined the liver, and from a portion of the liver I extracted something which I knew to be strychnia by its bitter t'te and its action on frogs. I have heard the evi- dence given by Drs. Lowe and Archer, and I believe the child's deith to have been caused by strychnia. I found quite enough in the stomach to found the oxidization test. I examined the brain and spinal cord, and found nothing there I have heard Dr. Lowe's evidence with respect to the secretion of strychnia by the mother's milk. It is quite pos- sible that may be so, but the mother must be under the in- fluence of strychnia to have such an effect. The bitterness of the strychnia would affect the milk. The time of action of the strychnia depends on a great number ef circumstances. It may be a few minutes, it may be two hours. Cross-examined by Mr. O'Malley The portion discovered in the stomach is the portion unabsoibed. The absorption from the stomach into the circulation may or may not go on until death is produced. In the case of a child I should ex- pect it would go on very quickly. After it had received a full killing dose I should think half an hour more likely. Six hours would be the extreme limit. There was milk in the child's stomach. After evaporation and application of peroxide of manganese, I obtained the red and the violet colours which are the charac- teristics of strychnia. There is no other substance that would produce that colour by that test. My opinion is that in cases of poisoning by strychnia we should fla(L it in the stomach. My opinion still is that we ought to find it in the stomach. I remember reading the report of a case in the Lancet, by Dr. Harley, that the mother did communicate nt/a; vomica through her milk to her child, by whom symp- toms of poisoning by mtx vomica were shown, and that after the discontinuance of the medicine in which the nux vomica was contained the symptoms ceased. Dr. Taylorl have heard the evidence In this case to- day, and from what I have heard I believe the child died from the effects of strychnia. I can see no other cause for the convulsions. It is quite possible that most poisons may find their way through the milk into a child, but it is very improbable, as they pass away through the urine and the excretions. I have listened to the evidence about the time the child lingered, and I never knew a similar in- stance of an infant living so long after taking strychnia. I can only suppose that the dose was exceedingly small, but I can see no other cause of death. In this particular case I think the poison was not conveyed through the mother's milk. If it had depended only on the milk it would have been so rapidly absorbed that in the course of nine hours there would have been no trace. Cross examined by Mr O'Malley Pure strychnia is a very insoluble substance. It is absolutely necessary that it should be dissolved in the stomach. The liquids of the stomach exercise a solvent power on it very slowly. In his speech for the prisoner Mr. O'Malley con- tended that there was no proof that the prisoner had administered poison to her child wilfully or feloniously, and that no reliance could be placed on the statements made by her to Dr. Lowe, or Dr. Archer to the effect that she had poisoned herself and her husband, as she was not conscious all the time of what she was saying ani doing, and was unable to reply properly to the questions put by the doctors. The jury found the prisoner Not Guilty. No evi- dence was offered on the second indictment.
GERMAN HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY. A gentleman writing to the Daily News has sent the fol- lowing information respecting the domestic habits of German ladies, and if English ladies would but emulate so good an example, there would be more comfort and happiness in many homes than there is at present; and it may be added, without being irreverent to the "gentler sex," that there would be fewer old maids:— As a subscriber to your paper, and a person long resident abroad, I hope I may be allowed to make a few remarks on one of your recent articles on social questions. I allude to one in which you point out the economy in German households, from the ladies being in the habit of taking part in the duties performed in England by highly paid servants. There are some very mistaken ideas prevalent in England on these sub- jects, as to the time spent in cooking, as to the manner in which it is spent. In fairness to the English lady, it should be recol- lected that a German kitchen is a much cleaner and more airy place with its tidy stove, even though one room serves for kitchen and scullery, than the English one with its great range. A German pot would have no opportunity of saying to the kettle, as in our old homely proverb, "How smutty thou art," for neither one is sooty and I speak of a coal not of a wood burning country. The cooking in an ordinary German gentleman's house is all over by one or two o'clock, which is the gen- ral dinner hour and the afternoon is an much at the disposal of the ladies for visiting, coffee. parties (exactly the counterparts of our afternoon teas) music or reading, as it is in England. A German professor wishing to marry on what would be a hoptlepsly small income in England, does not "marry a cook," in the sense of a woman who knows nothing but cooking, but a young lady who in the most ordinary cases has had a very sound ground- work of education on which subsequent intellectual culture may be based, according to her mental tastes and powers, far more securely than is generally the case in England. When she left school, however, at about seventeen, she did not drop down into an idle life at home, or take to schools and hospitals to work on her superfluous energies she took her share of the household duties I do not mean she scrubbed floors or cleaned bedrooms, but she went with her mother occasionally to market. She first saw and then took part in the cooking, and was very soon able to do the smaller part herself- cakes, puddings, and help in preserves; experience only can teach the superintendence of roasting, baking, boiling-times and quantities—but it is experience easily gained. Nor is it only cooking the ladies help in—the light work of the housemaid, dusting the ornaments, washing the best china and glass, falls to their part, and thus the upper housemaids' occupation's gone," and when the mistress has duly gained her experience in the kitchen the first-rate cook is not required. There is a housemaid less, and a cook at half the wages only needed, a distinc- and direct economy. Then as to waiting at table the German ladies do help, but not as standing about to wait as our green- grocers and vergers do in cathedral towns, or a half- dozen black-coated gentlemen in London. The servant brings in the dishes and sets them on the table, the party pass them round, and the family often change the plates, and the room is all the quieter for it._ Now, what is to hinder our English ladies doing the like ? For there is no neglect of accomplishments, so called, or needlework caused by it, nor does it any way hinder the German lady from joining in society. There is in some cases le8 out-door work done, but there are many who work for and visit the poor a great deal. May I suggest as a question worthy of consideration whether the judgment of damsels of eighteen, fresh from the isolation of the schoolroom, is quite as ripe and equal to supply social, economical, and religious advice to poor married women with families, as it might be after a few years of household experience at home ? May I also remind the young ladies that if they are competent to manage the house without the expense of first-rate servants, they are likely to be acceptable wives to sensible men.
FEARFUL COLLIERY ACCIDENT IN SAXONY. A Correspondent of The Timet, writing from Dresden, the 5th instant, has sent the following particulars of this dis- tressing calamity:— Early on Monday morning last intelligence was re- ceived here that at a short distance from this city up- wards of 400 men had fallen victims to a terrific colliery accident. At first it was hoped the numbers were considerably exaggerated, but it is now nearly certain that the figures will prove even greater, 420 or more being absent from the roll-call on Tuesday. The following are the details as exact as it is possible to arrive at them during the consternation caused by this sad calamity. On Monday morning, at five a.m., a shock like that of an earthquake alarmed the neigh- bourhood of Potschappel, a pretty little village some- what resembling Matlock, in Derbyshire, situate about five miles from here among the hills beyond Plauen, and it was immediately surmised that an explosion had occurred in one of the great mines belonging to Baron Burg. Two men were blown out of the shaft by the force of the explosion, but in such fragments as to be altogether unrecognisable. The gas ignited the coal, and for some hours the pit was in flames. At one p.m. a man volunteered to descend, notwithstanding several minor shocks had occurred, but when the cage returned to bank he too was gone, nor could he be rescued be- fore three p.m., the following day (Tuesday), when he was found insensible and apparently dead some yards from the bottom of the shaft. He has since recovered, and states that on first descending he distinctly heard cries for help, but this is generally considered very im- probable. Up to Tuesday night only fifteen bodies were recovered. Some were burnt to cinders, others singed black with the explosion, the scene around being past description. The crowds of poor women, some of them having lost three or four of their family, standing in the wildest grief round the pit, hoping against hope that their loved ones might still be rescued alive, the heartbreaking sobs of the children, and the sterner grief of the men, made the scene agonizing in the extreme. On Wednesday morning I went early to the spot and found that altogether fifty bodies had been recovered and were placed in a neighbouring shed for recognition. En route thither I met cart after cart carrying away one or two coffins and two large vans loaded with empty shells for the reception of the bodies as they were brought to bank. I saw altogether thirty corpses, and their state defies description. Here a long shapeless black mass, which the miners told you was one of their comrades, but in which it was difficult to recognise the slightest likeness to humanity-here one had his head blown off, there one his arm, one lay on his bed of leaves with his face split open, another as though much bruised by the coal falling on him. The sad work of recognition was proceeded with with as much di spate L as possible, and the bodies were then p aced in their shells and their names written on the lid in chalk. A shriek in yon corner would tell of a mother recognising her son or a wife her hus- band lying among the long row of unsightly corpses, while the plaintive wail throughout told of a far wider spread grief. I conversed with one of the miners who had just come up, and he said the labour of recovery must be very slow (about one body every three hours), as the sides of the mine had fallen in, and they had to work the coal away. In most cases they found the men lying under the sides of the mine, some buried in ccal, others on whom the coal had fallen, and then burnt up. One was founij near the mouth of the farthest shaft hardly injured at all, and as he lay in the shed he formed a striking contrast to his companions, being extremely white and well dressed. The appear- ance of the few recovered seems to indicate that most of them must have been killed from suffocati,n, being much swollen in the face, and nearly all bleeding considerably at the nose, only a few (at present) being much burnt with the explosion. Two men work at a time at each end, the two* shafts being quite 300 yards separated, but they ceased work at the end nearest the village on Tuesday. Each man as he descends is asked whether he is perfectly willing to go down, and at first Mass was held for those who were to descend, at the top of the pit. The depth is 330 French metres, and the colliery is situated at the top of a considerable elevation, commanding a splendid view cf Dresden and the valley of the Elbe. The trains daily pour hundreds out at the hitherto quiet little station, and the pit and its environs are guarded by a company of soldiers and police agents. The King, it is said, has given 500 thalers (about JE75) towards the relief of the destitute poor. It seems very improvident, but the miners here only use the open lamp, so they are altogether unprotected from the effects of gas, &c. They also descended when searching for the bodies smoking cigars, but I heard the doctors had told them to do so on account of the horrible smell below. A mong the many distreqsing cases one hears of one alone I will mention-that of a poor girl travelling in the same carriage with a friend of mine, who had lost her father, two brothers, and a step-brother, her whole family being swept off in one day. One should be thankful this accident happened when it did, if accident there must needs have been, for the great Fogelwese, the annual feast of the Saxons, held at Dresden night and day for one week, had attracted many others who would otherwise have met the same sad fate as their fellows. There is great difficulty in obtaining details, but this is unavoidable, owing to the rigour with which the soldiers are bound to keep the public back in order not to interfere with the progress of the search. I was fortunate enough to be there early, and the soldiers passed me through, which enabled me to take a minute view of everything but the scene is one so sad, so heartrending, so agonising, with the plain, outspoken anguish of the bereaved around you, that he must be a hardhearted man indeed who can survey the catastrophe unmoved. For me it will be one lifelong remembrance.
THE "HONOURABLE" WAY OF SETTLING A DISPUTE. Referring to the duel which has just been fought in France, by two journalists, The Times has the follow- ing leader and it is to be hoped that the time is not far distant when the legislature of that country will make that foolish way of settling affairs of "honour," a capital crime, and visit it with a severe punishment:— The telegraph infoims us that the great duel of the year- that between M. Paul de Cassagnac and M. Gustave Flourens —came off on Thursday morning. It is an event calculated to supply conversation fora long time to come. Your French man, as a general rule, and your Parisian in particular, is in- ordinately fond of a duel; not loath to be mixed up with it if it can be managed, but, if otherwise, he tries to console himself by at least talking about it. It is not that duels in Paris are events of uncommon occurrence. We hear of no less than four such "affairs," about the imminent issue of which the city is full of pleasurable emotion. The duel is a subject that never palls. An arm in a sling from the merest scratch of a sharpened fencing-foil is some- thing more to show about the Boulevard or the Bois than a whole rainbow of ribands at the button- hole. Crimean and Lombard campaigning may be all very well iu its way, but on the battle-field heroism goes by whole- sale and every bullet has its billet." To try a man's nerve and skill, in a Frenchman's opinion, there is nothing like six square feet of ground and bare steeL The cannon is the King's ultima ratio but the rapier is the only argument of the brave." And it is so true that duelling bravery has nothing in common with martial valour that in the French Army, where the practice is winked at, a duel between officers is a very rare occurrence." Your fire-eaters in France are generally Journalists. The hostile meeting of which the first tidings have just reached us belonss to this last category. It was an encounter between M. Paul de Cassagnae, the successor of M. Granier de Caxiagnae in the management of the ultra-Imperialist ergm, Le Pays, and M. Gustave Flourens, one of the chief editors of the ultra-Democratic paper, Le Rappel. The quarrel arose out of an article bearing M Cassagnac's signa- nature, in which, it seems, he had spoken slightingly of the Republican party." According to other reports, "the truculent M. de Cassagnac had grossly insulted M Flonrens" We are not told what was the nature of the language in the Pays, for it is one of the beèiutielof this duelling minia in France that people go forth to out each other's throats with- out ever enlightening the world as to the real ground of dispute. The pirties were. according to seme accounts, unknown to each other even by name. The offence, if such it must be called, was given as far back as the middle of June, at the time of the general elections. The dispute was carried on for several weeks, curing which the two adversaries had leisure to become aware -of the violent political hatred that ought to exist between them. M- de Cassagnac charged M. Flourens with being "a mad Republican," while he avowed himself "a mad Bonapartist." Of course such conflicting Insanity could not continue to subsist. M. de Cassagnac sent his chal- lenge to M. Flourens at a time in which the latter was a prisoner at St. Pglxgie On his release from durance M. Flourens returned the civility to M. de Cassagnac, who asked for the respite of a few days, or hours, on the plea of illness M. Flouiens indulged some bitter sneers about his adversary's indisposition -an epidemic pre- valent in Paris at this time of the year, and which has its origin in excess of heat, hut which, in some instances, is traced to internal commotions not of a heroic nature. "As U. de Cassagnac was a sufferer from such a complaint," said his challenger, "he would proceed no further, and was will- ing to let the matter drop-en rester la Whereupon the journali<t fired up, and wrote a savage letter, in which he said that "ill as he was, and shivering with fever," he would show M. Flourens he was as wanting in courage as I in good breeding, and that F ourens was much mistaken if he fancied that, after accepting his challenge, Cassagnac would allow Flourens to slip through his fingers on so flimsy a pretext. After this imputation on the man's bravery, M. de Cassagnac proceeds to compliment him on the honoured name he bears in the literary world, on his reputation for a daring b >rdering on foolhardiness, on fcis exploits against the Turks in Crete, on his skill as a ilrst-rate swordsman, &c." and, then, again, going back i-the original charge, he says:—"You have refused ne, Sir, a few hours to master my bodily suffer- ings but I grant you as much time as you may require to recover your heart, which seems to be fainting within you." And he concludes, "It is not ink that I want from you, but blood." And M. de Cassagnac's thirst for blood was, it is to be hoped, fully slaked. The two anta- gonists were brought face to face on the green sward, and M. Flourens left the field bleeding from three wounds, one of which is described as "very serious." We rub our eyes as we read the particulars of this transac- tion, and especially the letter of M de Cassagnac, and ask ourselves whether the feelings and manners of which they are the index can, indeed. still prevail among a people at little more than ten hours' distance from us. You are a mad Republican, I am a mad Bonapartist-an excellent reason why our swords should be crossed in mortal combat." Were all men of extreme parties to come to the same determination, a chance might arise for temperate men and rational opinions At all events, the sword would easily open a short cut, enabling a disputant, if not to confute, at least to silence, his opponent, and blood would, beyond all question, be a more efficient means of drowning political passions than printer's ink. On the one side stands an Imperialist, on the other a Democrat; the latter is carried off with three bleeding wounds; ergo, the cause of the former is the one on whose side Heaven itself haadeclared. Such has been in all ages the rationale of duelling; such it Is still In France in this latter part of the nineteenth cen- tury. What is above all things strange, however, is the ex- treme touchiness of all these preux cltevaliert on the subject of their reputation for courage, and their extreme readiness to question the courage of others. Cassagnac challenges Flourens while the latter is a prisoner. Flourens renews the challenge while Cassagnac is shivering with fever. They are both patterns of valour; yet each of them seems by turns to speculate on the other's cowardice. And, after all, what is bravery, or what cowardice ? They are both proud of their renown as keen swordsmen and crack shots. Each of them re- lies on a proficiency in the use of his weapon which renders him almost invulnerable. No doubt, one of them may find more than his match one of them may fall a victim to his over- weening conceit. But each of them goes forih strong in the consciousness of his superiority. M. de Cassagnac reckons upon his adversary's blood with the confidence of a hunter selling the lion's skin before killing his lion, and M. Flourens is so sure of his advantage that he taunts his opponent with a craven design to balk him of it. With such a certainty of victory who will say that there was a pin to choose, as to gallantry, between the two champions 7 A man should have the courage of his opinions he should be ready to back them with his life when his reasons are of no avail." By all meanl: but between Heurl. Flourens and Cassagnac there was only a question of courage, or rather of skill with their weapons, and the solution of the question was sought with mutual reflections on each other's bravery. Whatever be the issue of tlll. combat, we do not believe that "mad Bonapartism will have gained much ground, or that mad Republicanism" will feel greatly disposed to give up the contest. The really vanquished in this ignoble strife are Reason and Civilisation and France—which runs so widely in advance of other nations In most things, yet tolerates and almost countenances a practice which many of her neighbours consider as no longer in keeping with the ideas of the present age. Even in France, a country which has during these last 80 years gone through so appalling a succession of violent changes, it may be proved that a rage for duelling might always be taken as a symptom of the prostration of the public mind, of a decline in the ascendency of free opinion. If better days are now in store for France, if the Emperor Napoleon is really bent on opening a fair field for political contests, we shall look forward to the gradual and perhaps flual discontinuance of those appeals to the sword, which only escape being ridiculous when they are absolutely atrocious.
THE DUNMOW FLITCH OF BACON. (From the Daily News). The ancient custom of Dunmow falls due on Monday next, and a weekly contemporary learns that there is some excitement in the neighbourhood, in consequence of a rumour that a London theatrical manager is about to take the matter in hand, and dispose the flitch of bacon with great ctremony. There are to be a band, bicycle races, and all the out-door shows which make up all the fun of a fair. The respectable inhabitants of the place, it ii said, strongly object to the proposed festi val. The greasy prize has not been given away since 1855, when Mr. Harrison Ainsworth, who, it may be re- membered, wrote a book on the subject, presented the flitch to a Mr. and Mrs. Barlow. The Dunmow people are right in trying to get rid of this relic of a rude time when low jokes were the order of the day. As for the enterprising manager who contemplates making capital out of the flitch, he might really turn his talent to better account. We should like to know who "the very popular M.P." is who is to be associated with him in the speculation— -or rather who is to be made one of the attractions with the gam- mon and Darby and Joan. Couldn't this M. P. find anything better to do in his holidays than aiding what, to say the least of it, is an indecent disturbance of the peace of a quiet little town ?
[This custom was instituted by Robert de Fitzwalter, in the reign of Henry ill., 1244, by which, "whatever married couple will go to the priory, and kneeling on two sharp- pointed stones, will swear that they have not quarrelled nor repented of their marriage within a year and a day after its celebration, shall receive a flitch of bacon." The earliest recorded claim for the bacon was in 1445, since when to 1855, it had only been claimed five times. The last of the claimants, prior to 1855, were John Shakeshanks and his wife, who es- tablished their right to it, June 20, 1751, on which occasion there were about 5,000 persons present, and to many of whom they sold slices of the flitch, thereby obtaining a hi.ndsome sum. I
A man who has worked for years in the Brooklyn yard as a machinist has learned, in his leisure hours, to ijp iak, read, and write Hebrew, French, German, and Italian, at.d obtained a thorough knowledge of geology and bo any, Out of his savings he has purchased a library ol 1,200 volumes.
TWENTY YEARS PENAL SERVITUDE At the Wells Assizes last Saturday, Charles Smith, twenty- three years of age, a blacksmith, a young man of respectable appearance, was indicted for attempting to administer ar- senic to his wife with intent to kill, at Downhead, on the 21st April. The prisoner had been married to the prosecutrix two years, and they had one child. On the 7th of April the prisoner went into the kitchen where the breakfast was laid, and asked Mrs. Gibbs, a lodger in the house, for the teacup that the wife was to use, saying he was going to have some water. He went out at the back door, and being away some little time she took another cup from which she had her break- fast. The next morning the prisoner again took his wife's cup in the same manner, but he returned quicker than on the previous occasion, and put the cup down in his wife's saucer. Shortly afterwards the prose- cutrix poured out the tea, filling the cups of the lodger and her husband first. On pouring the tea into her own cup she observed a white powder rise to the surface. She accused him of putting arsenic in her tea. Some angry words ensued, and she threw the tea under the fire. On the 21st of April the wife had purchased some calves' leg bones for the purpose of making broth. The prisoner assisted her to break them with a hammer, and having washed them in clean water, she placed them in a saucepan which she had previously washed, and, adding some clean water, she placed them upon the fire to stew. The prisoner kept arsenic in a mill adjoining his dwell- ing-house, and he was seen by his wife to go into the mill and to come out again into his smithy. The pro- secutrix went past the workshop and observed her hus- band at work upon a spade. He said to her, "I went into the mill to get a hard chirel." She said, I did not ask you what you went into the mill for." Shortly afterwards he made some excuse to send his wife into the garden; she did not go, but re- mained outside the house. The prisoner went into the kitchen, and the wife distinctly heard the lid of the saucepan lifted. Prosecutrix went into the garden, and the prisoner came to her and asked if she was going to nave the broth that night. She said, I don't know whether I am or not; but I must go and see whether it boils. She went into the kitchen, and on taking off he cover of the saucepan she saw a white powder covering the whole of the surface of the broth. Mrs. Gibbs, the lodger, was there, and she called her atten- tion to it. She afterwards went to her husband, and asked him if he had been putting arsenic in the sauce- pan. He said that he had not, and she added, I hope Charles, that the next dose you put for me you will take it yourself." That led to angry words, and there the matter ended, but acting upon the advice of Mrs. Gibbs she put away the saucepan and its contents, and covered it over. The next morning prisoner got up about six o'clock, and went down-stairs. Both the wife and the lodger heard him take the lid from the saucepan, put it upon the stone floor, then go out of the back door, and return in a short time. On coming down stairs the wife found the saucepan empty, but she scraped some grease from the sides of the saucepan, and this was submitted to analysis, and found to con- tain arsenic. The wife communicated with her mother, and they both searched for the bones which were being boiled, but were unable to find them. Pri- soner being told of this said they might search for seven years and then they wouldn't find them. The wife deposed to this fact. She said that they did not live very happily, but she had never threatened to do for him. Mrs. Gibbs, the lodger, gave corroborative evidence, and being asked by the counsel for the defence whether the wife was not of a morose and suspicious disposition, said she had got her temper like other people, and she did like to speak her mind at times. Mr. W. W. Stoddart, analytical chemist, of Bristol, deposed to having tested the grease and found white arsenic. The jury found the prisoner Guilty, but recommended him to mercy on the ground of his previous good character. His lordship sentenced him to twenty years' penal servitude.
A LUNATIC CHAINED UP FOR SIXTY YEARS! A shocking case of cruelty to a lunatic has just come to light in Leicestershire. In consequence of certain information, a gentleman sent by the Commissioners of Lunacy, accompanied by Mr. Buck, medical officer" of the Leicestershire and Rutland Lunatic Asylum, several magistrates, and a police superintendent, visited a lodge-house in the parish of Sheepshed, near Loughborough, occupied by a small farmer named Black. There a shocking spectacle was revealed to them. A poor demented creature, 74 years old, with his hands fastened in front of him by handcuffs, and his feet encircled by manacles, occupied a small apart- ment, being chained to the wall of the room. From the keeper Black it was elicited that the wretched prisoner's name was Bagley Wild, a relative of the late Mr. Wild, J.P., of Costock, Notts. He had been under Black's care for thirty years, and previously in another man's custody for a like period. During the whole of this time he had been kept chained up in the manner described. Black has been receiving £1 a week for his charge, and it is only fair to state he was found well nourished, healthy, and clean. He was never, it seems, relieved from his chains, asleep or awake. When taking his meals he was fastened to a chair, and when he retired to bed at night he was fastened by the chains to the bed, while the handcuffs encircled his wrists. He has now been removed to the Leicestershire and Rutland Lunatic Asylum.
UlistfHaneons Intelligence, HOME, FOREIGN, AND COLONIAL. SHOCKING OUTRAGE IN LONDON.—A shockirg outraaehas been committed in the neighbourhood of the Old Kent-road, London. At the house, No. 82, Trafalgar-road, there resides a lady named Peake, who is between seventy and eighty years of age. Between three and four o'clock on Monday afternoon two men entered the house, with a view to robbery, undoubtedly, and-whether from being resisted by the old lady or not is not kuown-one of them attacked her brutally with a hammer, with which he almost literally smashed her head. This was seen by a servant girl in an adjoining house, who immediately fainted. Some little time therefore elapsed before an alarm was given, but it is stated that two men are in custody. There is no hope of Mrs. Peake's recovery A SAILOR'S JOKE.One day last week a sailor belonging to the schooner Jestie M'Donald, being slightly under the influence of forty-rod, and wishing to have a high old joke on the Cobourg people, pre- tended to fall into the harbour but instead of going in himself, he threw in a piece of iron ore, accompanied by his old plug hat and a screech of agony (s'l.ys the Toronto Globe of July 21). All was excitement, and rumours of foul play, &c., pervaded this usually quiet town. Drags were made, and the harbour was searched from end to end for days, but without success. As a last resort, the immense cannon sent for the Volunteer Artillery was brought alongside of where it was sup- posed he fell in, and the hat passed around for a collec- tion to buy powder to raise the body. An old artillery man was hired, under the superintendency of Captain Stanton, to fire the gun; and after shaking the town to its foundation for three days, they gave it up as a bad job, supposing that the evolutions of one of the steam fleet had carried the body out into the lake. It since turns out that the sailor, after throwing in the ore and his hat, made off in the direction of Colborne, where he had been spreeing ever since on the strength of his own joke, to the utter disgust of several coroners, who were perched on the dock night and day, waiting for the body to make its appearance. COLLEGE DTKTARY !-The pupils in the college of Douai, France, recently got up a richer novel manifestation, to obtain an improvement in their food. Instead of following the example of the students of Louis-Ie-Grand in Paris, in singing the Marseillaise and breaking their school furniture, they formed a league to abstain from taking anything but soup, bread, and water, until their demands should be com- plied with. They remained firm for forty-eight hours, and the head-master not being able to overcome their resistance, ordered the provisional expulsion of about 100, and telegraphed to their parents to take them home. He was, however, disappointed, for the ma- jority of the latter sent by the same means to inquire what was the matter, and on a second message being forwarded to them, thus worded, Health excellent; disciplinary motive;" they simply left their sons where they were. The master then adopted the only means left him of getting out of the difficulty, and im- proved the fare. NAVAL PhIZE MONEY, ETC.—The distribution of naval prize money, etc., in the financial year 1868- 69, included 224,519 in respect of slave-vessels cap- tured by her Majesty's ships; 22,145 bounty for destruction of pirates and some t-mall sums out of the proceeds of jnnks captured by her Majesty's ships in the Canton River for breach of blockade in 1857, from prize money allotted in the Indian mutiny, and from stores captured at Kerteh and Yenikale in 1855. At the close of the year, on the 31st of March, 1869, there was still in hand, not distributed, E19,079 for slave and tonnage bounty, 27.333 for stores captured at Kertch and Yenikale, 25,937 from the Parliamentary grant of 30 days' additional pay to the naval forces for special service on the China station in 1856-58, k2,892 bounty for destruction of pirates, JEL413 from captures for breach of blockade of the Canton River in 1857. 21,214 for booty captured in China. in 1857, 2925 for booty captured in Pe^u in 1852-53, 2828 for prize money in the Indian mutiny, S800 shares of prize money forfeited by desertion, &e. In the year 1868-69 k6,568 was received from owners of merchant-vessels for salvage services rendered by her Majesty's ships, and 93,210 of the money received for salvage services was distributed. THE FENIANS IN COUNCIL AGAIN.—A public meeting of the Garryowen Circle of the Fenian Brotherhood was held last night at their headquarters, Jefferson Assembly-rooms, for the purpose of inducing Irishmen to join the organisation (says the lvew York Tribune of July 27). Mr. Matthew Tobin presided, and Mr. Joseph Paul, of the counsel of the F. B., Mr. Delaney. and Mr. Anthony Griffin, late Chief Execu- tive, delivered addresses. About 150 persons were present, many recentlv arrived emigrants. The speakers united in advising Irishmen not to be humbugged by the disestablishment of the Irish Church. which, however, they regarded as the first great triumph of the Brotherhood. Mr. Griffin compared" per- fidious Albion to an old oak tree rotten at the core, thirteen of the branches of which had been lopped off by Washington, and the rest were pinned to the trunk, which only awaited the Fenian axe to lay it low. Miss O'Dale sang two Irish songs, which were loudly applauded. Twelve persons joined the Circle. From what was said, it appears the Fenians do not intend hasty or immediate action. When they go to Ireland next, it will be not only with arms, but with men to use them. It was also mentioned that during the lute outbreak in Ireland a Fenian ship lay on the coast for twenty day-i loaded with aims, and afterwards returned to America. An armed Fenian body called the Legion of St. Patrick, which has long had a secret existence, is now organis- ing more publicly. Its members are pledged to go to Ireland arms in hand, and fight for freedom. Those Irishmen who joined the Cuban cause were spoken of in not very comllimentalY terms by Mr. Paul. TRIAL OF A FRENCH SOLDrER. The soldier Dupnz, a drummer of the 93rd of the line, accused of attempted homicide at Caen on the night of July 9, was a few days since brought up for trial before the military tribunal of that town. It appeared in evidence that he quitted the barrack at eleven o'clock at night, and after having committed a robbery in the house of the girl Lechevalier, penetrated into that inhabited by M. Lahougue, substitute of the Procureur-Imperial, where, having pocketed some of the plate, he seized a knife, mounted to the third storey and forced his way into the bed-chamber occupied by a young girl named Ernestine Etasse, who was reading, and whom he pro- ceeded to ill-use. She resisted with great determina- tion and received several wounds, but was at last rescued from her assailant by the appearance of M. Lahougue, attracted by her cries. The Court pro- nounced the prisoner'guilty, and sentenced him to hard labour for life and military degradation. A CONVENTION OF PHILOLOGISTS.—A Conven- tion of American Philologists (says the New YOlk Times,) will be held in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., com- mencing on the 27th inst., and continuing in session for several days. Measures will be taken to complete the organisation of a permanent National Society for the Promotion of Philological Studies and Research in America. Papers upon different branches of philology by distinguished American linguists will be read and discussed. The time that may then remain to the Convention will be devoted to the discussion of the fol- lowing questions ;-1. How much of the time in a col- legiate course of study should be given to the study of language? 2. How much of this time should be de- voted to the study of the modern languages ? 3 Should the study of the French and German precede that of the Latin and Greek languages ? 4. What position should be given to the study of the English language in our colleges and other high schools of learning. 5. What is the most efficient method of instruction in the classical languages? 6. What is the best system of pronouncing Latin and Greek ? 7. Should the written accent be observed in pronouncing classical Greek ? 8. What more efficient measures can be taken to preserve from destruction the languages of the aboriginal In- diana of America. BANK OF ENGLAND NOTES.-At the close of the first half of the present year 1869 there were in circu- lation 1,682,600 95 Bank of England notes. 444,400 210 notes, notes from 220 to 9 100 of the aggregate value of 26.896,000, B200 to E500 notes of the value of 21,807,000, and 1,833 21,000 notes. Thus the total value of the Bank notes held by the public was 223,393.000. The bullion held amounted to £18624.000, the £ 15,000,000 securities making a total of £ 33,624,000 held against the notes issued or in reserve. DEATH IN THE PULPIT.-On Sunday, about half-past twelve o'clock, (says the Scotsman), the Rev. Wm. Jackson, minister of the Free West Church, Airdrie, suddenly dropped down dead in his pulpit while preaching his customary forenoon sermon. He was illustrating the great care the Apostle Paul had of the Laodiceans even while in prison, when his head suddenly sank on the desk, and he fell. Some persons rushed to his assistance, but he never rallied, and breathed his last as he was being lifted out of the pulpit. The scene in the church was of the most heart-rending description. Death had been caused by a shock of paralysis. Mr. Jackson was a hale healthy man about sixty years of age. He wax the oldest minister in the parish, and also the senior member of the Hamilton Free Presbytery, and being jvidely known and highly esteemed in the town his death has cast a gloom over all. HARVEST PROSPECTS.—The Chamber of Agri- culture Journal, reporting on harvest prospects, says harvesting operations have been greatly delayed by constantly recurring showers, which, although of great benefit to the root crops, have had the effect of nearly suspending out-of door labours. Where cutting has been proceeded with to any extent it is generally allowed that the crop is. deficient in quality, and that the yield per acre is decidedly below the average. This, however, will probably be supplied by the greater extent of land under wheat cultivation this year, so that the total available supplies from home sources will be fully equal to the average of years. There is, however, great room for firmness in the trade. The comparatively poor yield and inferior quality of the present growth which will become more apparent when the wheat comes to be threshed—will ensure a good competition for the wheat of last year, and we accordingly anticipate an upward movement in prices, eyeI\, 0U^d replenishing of stocks by the reaping of the harvest cause a fall in the value of new and inferior produce. RKCTANGOLAR STUMPS.-At the recent meet- ing of the British Medical Association, (writes the Pall Mall Gazette.) Mr. T. Pridgin Teale read a paper on Rectangular Stumps," having, it seems, previously exhibited at the infirmary a number of patients operated upon after the method of his late father by various surgeons. Some of these patients ran races on their wooden legs, and all the stumps were of the highest degree of excellence." To cut off a man's leg and then to see your patient with a rectangular stump bounding over a racecourse must be a most interesting sight for a surgeon. Races of this description are scientific triumphs, and are open to none of the objec- tions with too much reason frequently urged against those which take place at Newmarket and Epsom. On this account we should be sorry to see them abused. There should be no betting. Let the patients with rec- tangular or triangular stumps run fairly without fe-u- or favour, and the object being siuiply to find out what shape of stump is most favourable to activity, we feel sure that eminent surgeons, who having entered pa- tients see their own colours first past the winning p at, will set a good example to the younger members of the profession by handing over the stakes to the afflicted winner. SEDITIOUS FINANCE.—A writer in the Heruedes Mondes relates the following- anecdote Foui- years a!o a tanner of Dij. n, who had affirmed li:t, the French Budget represented in tank notes the heiht of the steeple of St. Benigne, was cited before the po ice OIl a charge of seditious language. In court, however, he maintained his assertion with vifoor, and was acquitted. The judges, in fact, evince ^ome shrewd- ness on the occasion, and admi ted impbcitiy th >-t 'he accused was not in error. A thou^ud note* of 1 OOOf. piled up have exactly lOcentimeti es (4 inches) in height. raking the Budget in round numbt-rs a' 2.000 rni'linng, the notes in question superposed would a't,in a. height of 200 metres. But. according to the Amiuoirc da Ji'-rerra dt8 L ngitudes, the spire of St. Bciii^ne is only 92 metres high. THE MooN.-The Earl of Rosse is making a series of experiments (says the Engineer), by means of a thermopile of fnur elements and a 3ft. telescope, to determine, if possible, what proportion of the moon's heat consists of :—1. That coming from the interior of the moon, which will not vary with the phase. 2. That which falls from the sun on the moon's surface, and it is at once reflected regularly and irregularly. 3. That which falling from the sun on the moon's surface is absorbed, raises the temperature of the moon's surface, and is afterwards radiated as heat of lowrefrat giiiility. The chief result arrived at up to the present m' nu nti that (the radiating power of the moon being tak en as equal to lampblack, and the earth's atmosphere sup- posed not to affect the result) a deviation of 90 deg. for full moon appears to indicate an elevation of tempera- ture =500 deg. Fah. The relative amount of sol ;r and lunar radiations was found=89819 :1. A PROFITABLE CALLING !—It is anticipated (says the Daily New8), that the Bishops' Resignation Hill, now pa-sing through Parliament, will affect the tenure of the sees of Winchester and Exeter. The diocese of Winchester comprises the counties of Hants and Surrey, and the Channel Islands, and Dr. Sumner has presided over it for 42 years, having in 1827 been trans- lated from the bishopric of Llandaff, then worth only 21,000 a year. The value of the see of Winches* er has been variously estimated from 210,000 to £ 30.000 a year, but it is officially stated at £ 10,417. The diocese of Exeter is the largest in England. It embraces the whole of the vast district west of the county of Somer- set, and includes the Scilly Islands. The see, which has for a long time been in a state of ecclesiastica chaos, has been held by Dr. Phillpotts for neaily 40 years. The Bishop holds a canonry in Durham Cathedral, and his income is k6,700 a year. Within the term of his episcopate Dr. Sumner has received k438,514, and Dr. Phillpotts £ 268,000. It may be added that on the passage of the Act for the superan- nuation of the Bishops of London and Durham, in 1856, Dr. Phillpotts strongly adhered to the doctrine of once a bishop always a bishop," and opposed the measure at every stage. He is in his 92nd year, and the Bishop of Winchester is 12 years younger. SUPERSTITION IN INDIA.-A curiows case was lately tried before the Sessions Judge of Neliore. A woman with a few young children was walking one evening after dark to Nellore, and stopped to rest be- neath a tamarind tree which had the reputation of being haunted. A washerman came along, driving an ass, and seeing the figure beneath the tree caded out demanding to know who was there. The woman re- plied, a Yanad," when the man instantly rushed at her and struck her with a heavy stick. Both the children and the man fled in terror from the pace. The man at once told what he had done, but the woman when found was quite dead. The Judge ad- mitted his plea, as it was apparent that he could have no other motive for assaulting the woman than his opinion that she was something supernatural, but con- victed him of culpable homiciie, as he had not exer- cised due carefulness, passing a sentence of one year's rigorous imprisonment. THK DUKE OF EDINBURGH'S COLONIAL GIFTS. —Prince Alfred has been here twice in the Galatea, and although our loyalty has been sorely tried, it still remains unshaken. We sincerely trdSr, that the English Government will not afflict us with many more visitations of the same kind; for we do not wish to be altogether disillusionised in regard to the attri- butes of royalty. The Australian colonies have spent at least 2150,000 in giving a right loyal wrtet,it,g to the son of our Queen and they feel humiliated and scan- dalised by his application to the HLlu "e 9f Commons to reimburse him for the few paltry presents he gave, not always to meritorious objects, while he was in this part of the world. To shew the light ir which his conduct is viewed here, we have merely to mention that a motion has been tabled in our Legislative As- sembly, exures-ive of the desire of this cohmy to reim- burse the British Government for the proportion of the princely presents given away in Victoria. The repayment of the sum will not distress us. If our repayment of the sum will not distress lie. If our Parliament will not entertain the proposition as too paltry, a farthing subscription wi I suffic-<« pay the amount and leave a surplus. -Melbour,,e Argus. A FIGHT FOR THE STANDARD.—An amusing in- cidtnt, illustrative of the contingencies of actual war- fare, occurred while the troops composing the flying column from Aldershot were manoeuvring in the neigh- bourhood of Chobham Ridgei at the close of the week. During the sham fighting a squadron of theRuyal Horse Guards (Blues) charged and took some guns, but instead of retiring they remained upon the spot, and were in their turn surprised and surrounded by a couple of squadrons of the Innipkillen Dragoons. A sharp encounter ensued, swords were crossed, and theie was a smart contest around the standard-bearer, the Inniskillens making a rush in order to t.ake the standard of the Royal Horse Guards, who gallantly defended their banner, and retired with it in safety. NOT MUCH LIKE A BROTHKRHO<>D — An amusing Fenian suit is now going on in New York. In the heyday of the Brotherhood, in 1865, a rlepositof 20,000 dollars in gold was made with August Belmont and Co., New York bankers, "in trust for the Fenian brotherhood." Now, sundry Fenians want to get pos- session of it, but the bankers refuse to give it up, and the case has got into the courts. The famous Head Centre, John O'Mahony," after many months passed in obscurity, has emerged to the surface, and appears as a claimant, representing himself as his own counsel. He had a receiver, named Barr, appointed by the Superior Court, who gave the necessary sureties, and demanded the funds of Belmont and Co., but they did not interpret "intrust for the Fenian Brotherhood" to mean paying over to the deposed Head Centre," and came into court acknowledging possession of the funds, but refusing to deliver them. Thus the matter stands now. MR. ELLIOTT's FUNERAL. A letter from Grindelwald gives an interesting account of the funeral of the Rev. Mr. Elliott. The pastor of Grindtnwald had kindly prepared a room in his house for the recep- tion of the body, and it was placed there. It had sus- tained little injury, and it was evident that death must have been instantaneous. The funeral took place in the afternoon. Mr. Elliott's companion and his guide were the chief mourners, and the coffin was borne by the guides who had recovered the body. A very large number of visitors and guides attended, and the cere- mony was most solemn and impressive. The Grand Duchess of Baden kindly sent a bouquet of Alpine roses, gathered by herself, to place in-the coffin and the pastor of the village placed his church at the disposal of the English chaplain who performed the service. Before leaving the church the pastor de- livered an address in German to his parishioners, call- ing on them for their sympathy, and showing them the prayer-book found on the body, with so many passages underlined, as a proof of the spirit in which Mr. Elliott had loved and sought their mountains. CAPTURE OF A FORGFR.The New York police have just captured in that city a young man named Clement Harwood (otherwise Charles Hope Chalmers), who had absconded from the service of a firm of merchants in Abchurch-lane, City, Loudon, after stealing a bill of exchange for 21,000, and for whose apprehension the Lord Mayor had issued a war- rant about ten days ago. It is stated that a consider- able sum was found in Harwood's possession, and that he was accompanied by two other persons, named Hatcher, man and wife. After the accused had absconded, on the 23rd of July, and the robbery had been discovered, a reward of 2100 was offered by the prosecutors for his arrest. In consequence of an inti- mation trom the American police authorities an ex- perienced City detective sergeant is about t > proceed to New York with the necessary papers authorising him to receive the prisoner and to bring him before the Lord Mayor on his return. AN UNRBHEARSKD EFFECT.—A little episode occurred at the Museum, a few evenings since, which was not in the bill (says the Chicago Tribune.) The play was The Streets of New York, and as the curtain rolled up for the second act, Miss Josie Booth (Alida Bloodgood) suddenly found herself ascending likewise. Her long trailing dress had by some means become fastened about the roller, and was being rolled up as fast as the curtain. Miss Booth, the actors, and the audience gave the alarm in a must emphatic manner, and fortun itely the man at the wheel took heed in time to avert a serious calamity. The fair Alida waa considerably unnerved by the accident, and nearly fainted. A MELANCHOLY EVENT.-An inquest has been held at the Westminster Hospital, London, on the body of Captain Frederick Bowker, late of the 109th Regiment, who committed suicide on Friday last, at the Charing-cross Hotel. It appeared that the de- ceased gentleman was twenty-nine years of age, and had been captain in the 109ch Regiment, with which he had been stationed in india for some time past. He had suffered from two sun strokes, and was home on leave. His mind was affected thereby, so that he was gloomy at times and morose. He had been s!a> intr at the (xolden-cross Hotel, and went across totheCharing-cross Hotel at four o'clock in the afternoon and inquired the way to the smoking-room. Having been shown there, he lit a cigar and went out into the balcony overlooking the station. Thence he precipitated himself, as if diving, on to a stone pavement opposite the inspector's office, and on being picked up was found to be quite dead. He was taken to the hospital, but death had resulted from fracture of the skull. It transpired that his friends resided at or near Whittlesea, in Cambridge- shire, and it is understood he was well connected. Ample evidence was given showing that he was liable to sudden impulses which culminated momentarily. After a patient inquiry the jury returned a verdict That he destroyed his own life while in a state of temporary insanity." An KNGLISH AUTHOR IN AMERICA.—Mr. Charles Reade (says the New York Nation), writes to the publishers and the public at large a letter in these words, which have been lithographed for the Galaxy and figure as a full-page illustration of the August number of that magazine The publishers of the Galaxy pay me a liberal price for Put Yourself in His Place.' If I were a mechanical inventor instead of a literary inventor, this payment would secure them the sole legal right. In the present iniquitous, par- tial, barbarous, and brainless state of law, it only secures them a clear moral right. But I hope all re- spectable publishers will respect that moral right, will put themselves in their place, and will torbear to reap where they have not sown." Then in the latter part of the magazine we have an equally characteristic ''card," in which Mr. Reade delivers himself as fol- lows In reply to recent applications for his allo- graph, Mr. Charles Reade begs to say that this number of the Galaxy contains a fac-similie of his writing, Mich as it is, and his sentiments into the bargain, liis being printed and on sale f< r ( lie shilling, Mr. Reade will r< vrr •• • "'1 [>11'o]"aiJh for any lady or gen* > the honour to be acquainted. So tuat L Viut i aeiiiiid.
Htftopfllitan Dasip. MT OUR OWN COREE«PO.KDHNT. [The remarks under this head are to be regarded ag the ex- preuiOft ,}i indepemleut opinion, from the pen of a gentleman in whem we have the greatest confidence, but for which WO Wertheleti do not hold ourselves responsible.] The session that is at its last iMp as I write will eertainly be a memorable one, not only for the im- portant measure on the Irish Church, which, after so much laborious discussion and such severe party fight- ing, haa become law, but for the hard earnest work of both branches of the Legislature. The House of Lords at the commencement of the session complained of having teo little to do. Looking back on their unusually frequent and prolonged sittings, the public cannot grumble at the Peers having shirked their duty. As to the Commons they probably never before worked so hard, and although, as usual, a good many bills were abandoned towards the close of the session, the amount of actual legislation will stand comparison with pre- ceding sessions. On the whole the public have reason to congratulate themselves on the progress of legisla- tion, and especially with regard to the Irish Church. Whatever might have been said against the ministerial measure during its progress, now that it has become aw it will pretty generally be agreed that it will con- fer a boon on Ireland, and tend to unite her to our- selves by stronger bonds of friendship than at present exist. It is rather remarkable that both the Premier aad the Chancellor of the Exchequer— so it is said— intend to visit the Emerald Isle during the recess. The conclusion will naturally be drawn that they in- tend to acquire personally some information on the relations of landlord and tenant, preparatory to the measure on the land laws that we may look for next session but it is scarcely likely that the public will worry themselves about this question for some time to come. We are only too happy to have got rd of Irish questions for a time. We have been a great many years talking about the universally admitted anomalies in our weights and measures, but we are apparently as far off of reform as ever. For years a royal commission on standard weights and measures has been sitting, and they have now just issued their second report. Needlessly enough they recommend that no legislation should be undertaken till they have completed their inquiry, and they suggest that whenever legislation does take place it should be merely of a permissive character, so as to give the metric and decimal systems a trial. With all due deference to the commissioners, I think this would be a mistake. Merely permissive legislation never did work well, and is never likely to work well. Give us a decided, definite system which is unmistakably superior to the present, and then, after fair notice and time for preparation, make that system compulsory. After an immense amount of inquiry on the subject, the com- missioners declare in favour of the metric and the decimal systems as very far superior to the present no- system. For the Board of Trade and the Post Office to adopt those systems, as is recommended, leaving the public to do as they like, sounds very judicious perhaps, but it would inevitably create confusion; whereas the metric and decimal plans are so easy and simple that they can be mastered in a few hours. During the slack time between the prorogation of Parliament and the renewal of activity when the holiday season is over, efforts will be made to organise on a large scale a National Education League, the chief object of which will be compulsory, unsecta- rian, and state supported education." It is said that already more than 1,200 persons have joined the League—clergyman, dissenting ministers, members of Parliament, &c. The new organisation therefore bids fair to be a powerful one, and if it go to work well, and have a series of large public meetings this will undoubtedly considerably advance the cause of na. tional education. More and more does it appear to be felt that it is high time that England tcok a decided step in advance in the direction of really national education and the more the subject ia argued the more is it felt that, strong as may be opposing opinions on religious matters, there is a broad ground of union on whiih many, if not all parties, can take their stand. The National Education League has a good bold liberal sound, and the very name of it seems likely to attract support. No more sincere or more hard-working nobleman is to be found than the Marquis Townshend. As Lord fiaynham he was everywhere known as the beggars' enemy, but he was their enemy only as far as they made mendicity a profession rather than they would work for a living he was really the beggars' friend, and be has done an immense amount of good, especially to poor children who have been sent out by their parents to teg, rescuing those unhappy waifs and strays from continued beggary and sending them to asylums and reformatories. And a very good work this is. But I cannot but think that the Marquis has quite enough of such work on hand without directing his attention to another philanthropic work, which is positively appallirg in its magnitude. The benevolent nobleman has presided at a meeting to organise a "society for the assistance of respectable perrons who are failing into distressed circumstances." Can anyone give the guess where such a society will begin or end. And yet it is undoubtedly true that this class requires sympathy and aid far beyond others who may be more clamorous. A great deal of interest is manifested here in the duels that have recently taken place in France, where it would seem, duelling is becoming more than ever in vogue. The duel between M. Paul de Cassagnac and M. Flourens; between M. de la Pouterie (editor of the Paris), and M. Gustave Naquet (editor of the Peuplt), and between the Viscount de la Poeze and Mr. Reginald Russell—these affairs are the talk of the town, and people generally appear to talk very lightly about them, as though they were mere quarrels decided in an interesting and fashionable style. There seems a dan. ger of duels becoming for the upper classes what prize- fights till recently were for the lower classes and a few depraved members of the middle and upper sections of society. The strangest duel that has taken place of late, is that between two nuns at Genoa, which was perfectly harmless but supremely ridiculous. The ladies exchanged pistol shots, but neither was hurt, and the honour of both was, no doubt immediately satisfied. I have heard that no less than three duels with swords have taken place in London during the last year or so. Names are given me and localities are mentioned-a" mews" in one case and a coach house in another—and my informaflt is one who would not willingly mis-state facts, but I can- not believe the statement nevertheless. It is difficult, however, to prove a negative, and the statement may be true. Certain it is that it is only the law being rigidly enforced that prevents duelling being occasion- ally resorted to in England as elsewhere. It is all very well to say that public opinion is against it, and that the law makes it criminal. Very true, and it is well for society that it is so, for were not the law most rigidly enforced, there is quite enough combativeness in the upper ranks of society to make duelling an occasional pastime, even in the England of to-day. An experiment has just been made in London which for its novelty is worth reference. The evil effects of musie-halls in connection with the facilities for ob- taining intoxicating drinks has often been alluded to. There has now been established a place called the Alhambra Temperance Music-hall. The entertain- ments offered are neither better nor worse than many at the ordinary music-halls, the only peculiarity being that intoxicating drinks are not allowed, and the pro. moters apparently desirous of exciting continued in- fluence on the neighbourhood, advertise a temperance meeting every Sunday evening. Such facts show at all events that the advocates of teetotalism are making headway, and that there are other modes of argument besides talking, lecturing, and writing. A very interesting discovery has been made in the city of London. In pullin down a house in Birchin lane a Roman grave has been found, the tomb being of brick-work, and containing a skeleton, at the head of which was a vase: of gold coins, and at the foot being a lamp. Such a discovery possesses great interest in tself, but the surveyor who found this tomb, in writing to The Times about it, makes one of the funniest blunders imaginable. He says, There is a date inside the tomb which can be easily deciphered as B.C. 407. The gentleman is evidently under the impression that this means 407 years before Christ, which would make the tomb 2,276years old a marvellous discovery indeed. The fact iR, however, that the letters B.C. were of necessity employed only after the commencement of the Christian era, in speaking of long preceding events, and even then the letters A. C. (ante Christum) were usually employed. The merest tyro in history will at once see the absurdity of such a. date as this, and the Roman tomb is quite interesting enough with- out it. Here are a couple of laughable advertisements, which nevertheless are put forward in perfect seriousness: artist, willing to paint in oils, on very reasonable terms, in the style of Etty, will oblige by addressing, Ac." When we consider how high Etty ranks among painters, and what very large soma have been paid for his paintings, it is rather cool to ask artists to paint in his style "on very reasonable terms"—so much per square foot perhaps. If the advertiser succeeds in getting a cheap Etty, possibly he may be induced to extend his enterprise. He might, for example, adver- tise for a person who will be willing to paint, on very reasonable terms," in the style of Michael Angelo or Raphael. "The lady vrho held conversation with a gentleman at the West E 'G about May last, and who promised to write to an address then given her, is very earnestly requested to send her name and address in confidence," &c. This is deliciously vague. About May last is a phrase that will well take in a couple of months, and "at the Lci" viii apply to a ter- ritory of some four square miles, and adding to this that a lady holding conversation with a gentleman, and promising to write to an address given in an all-day and every-day occurrence, the probability is that the adver- tiser will be embarrassed by a shower of answers, while it is a thousand to one against the lady ever seeing the advertisement. But to advertise as a venture is the only thing the unhappy gentleman can do. But why has he so long delayed ?
THE "CRICKLEWOOD MYSTERY" EXPLAINED. The unfortunate occurrence which has been so called is at length satisfactorily explained. As long ago as the 28th of June a young woman named Elizabeth Warburton was found in an insensible condition on the Midland Railway at Cricklewood, near Hendon (Lon- don), having, as it was ascertained, either fallen or been pushed from the carriage in which she had been riding. She was taken to St. Mary's Hospital, and for a long time she remaine4 unconscious even since regaining her senses she has not been in a condition to be ques- tioned until Tuesday, when in the presence of her parents and a police officer she made a statement to the following effect :-That on the night in question she took a ticket at Kentish-town station for Mill-hill, and was accompanied to a secmd-class carriage by her sis- ter, to whom one of the railway officials remarked, I'll let you go down because I know you are not going by the train." She states that she walked past several car- riages, and, stoppingatone said, I'llgetinhere, because it is near the guard's van." She did so, and remained in conversation with her sister until the train started. No other person was in the compartment with her. She remembers passing two stations-viz. Haverstock- hill and Finchley-road, and states that at neither of these stations did any other person enter the compart- ment. Shortly after leaving Finohley-road she got up from her seat, leaned both arms on the door, and looked out at the open window. She felt the door shake, she says, and turned giddy. She thought she was falling on to the seat, but fell out of the carriage, beyond which she remembers nothing. In order to test the accuracy of her memory, ques- tions were put regarding the articles she had in her possession at the time of her getting into the carriage, and to these her answers were perfectly satisfactory. All the property, with the exception of a small parcel containing handkerchiefs, stockingB, &c., was found near the spot where she was discovered lying. She states most distinctly that she was not assaulted by any one, and that no one got into the carriage at any part of her journey. With regard to the bruises and other marks upon her body, the medical gentlemen state that all of them might have been caused by a fall from a train going at the rate of from twenty-five to thirty miles an hour. It is stated that the young woman is now so near convalescence that she will be able to be removed in a few days from the hospital. The escape of the young woman was an exceedingly narrow one. She was discovered by a boy, who, before getting assistance, removed her from the up-goods line, upon which she had fallen, to the bank, and almost immediately afterwards a train passed over the spot. Miss Warburton is not a servant at Mill-hill, as has been stated, but a governess.
BREACH of PROMISE.-X2,000 DAMAGES! At the Croydon Assizes, last Friday, the cause of Morony v. Lee was heard, which was an action for breach of promise of marriage. The promise was not denied, nor the breach, and there was no justifi- cation, so that it was only a question of damages. Mr. Serjeant Ballantine and Mr. Philbrick were for the plaintiff; Mr. Serjeant Parry and Mr. Beresford were for the defendant. The defendant, who is a lieutenant in the 18th Light In- fantry, made the acquaintance of the young lady at Gibral- tar, where he was stationed, and where she was on a visit. She was of Irish birth and respectable parentage, and, from the appearance of her sister, who was a witness in the case, and from the language of her own letters, she was (as the counsel for the defendant observed; a girl of education and intellect, and of pure and good feelings. He, on the other hand, was of good birth his uncle being Mr. Lee-Main- waring,, and, as they were both about the same age, be- tween 26 and 27, there was everything to encourage the intimacy which arose between them. lie paid her atten- tions, which were received with pleasure he then paid his addresge3 to her, which were accepted. He was received among her friends as her acknowledged lover. Their engage- ment was avowed and understood? they were conitantly together, and they became apparently much attached to each other. One or two notes which passed between them at this time were read, which breathed the fondest affection. The time arrived, however, when her visit came to a close, and she returned to her family in Ireland. The young officer accompanied her to the vessel and wrote to her mother a letter, which was read, and in which he avowed his attach- ment for her. Now she is gone," he wrote, I feel it very much; I have seen her constantly every day, and have grown to love her more and more." And he rejoiced that he should soon visit her at her mother's house. This he accordingly did in a few weeks, and he passed some six weeks with her there as her affianced lover. All this time (as her sister stated) she became evidently much attached to him, and it afterwards appeared that she had urged him to csmmunicate the engagement to his parents, and to have assumed that he had done so. This, however, he had not done, and his parents appeared to have been ignorant of the engagement. On his return to his father's house she heard no more from him for some weeks. This naturally caused her much anxiety, and, after some interval, her mother, anxious on her account, wrote to an aunt of his, with whom she seemed to have become acquainted, and she wrote to the father upon the matter, enclosing the mother's letter, and this, it appeared, was the first intimation he had of it. At all events, so the defendant stated in his letter, that final let- ter he wrote after leaving her. This he did not write until he had received a very touching letter from her. By this time, as the mother and sister stated, she had become severely affected in health from the bitterness of wounded feeling. She wrote thus :— I had determined upon net writing to you until I heard from you, but I c m no longer forbear from doing so. I have resolved to get up and strive to do so. I pray God not to forsake m. I no crthly rather or brother to care for me. I'o y-m I l'iok. As my trie earthly protector—too much so for my own peace-I coufided ever-thing to you you are ever rearest to my heart. Everything now seetas cold and xnysterioaa to ;iie. -A(iyheartfeels broken. Why have yon not written to me ? If I had not written to yci for seven weeks, would ysu not h-.ve doubted my love t Bring everything home to your own heart. I hope you have honourable feelings. You assured me no one should come between us. Should you have come to my mother's house if such was not your resolution f My mother II ill now write everything to your father. How could I do otherwise than truat you implicitly ? I never felt reserve for you when you called me your wife. You went to arrange your intended marriage and then return to me. No one was to influence you. What do your father and mother know of me r They never saw me, and, though they might not consent now, they would consent ultimately when they came to know me. Let me hear from you. I cannot bear the suspense it is killing me. God forgive you Your own A rma." To this the defendant wrote the following answer:- My dearest Annie,—I do not know how I can write, I am in such a state of mind. My father received yesterday your mother's letter. I must tell you first that I had not told him anything about it till he received the letter from my aunt. I was going to tell him at some time. It was a very unwise thing writing about it. My father is so cross at your mamma having written to him. Yesterday he spoke to me in such a way. It was too much. He could not, he said, conceive of my doing such a thing without having told him anything of it. He told me that if I persisted in such a course, he would never give me anything, and that I must put an end to it for he says you cannot wish to starve. So, farewell, and whatever may be your earthly fate, in which I shall always feel a deep interest, may you be happy 11 To this letter the young lady sent a very touching reply, in these terms "I felt as if I could never open your letter. My mother first read me your father's letter to her. I eannot tell my surprise at the resnlt of all my trust in your love. Had you met some person, and, knowing nothing about her, been en- trapped into a clandestine marriage, there would have been some cause for your father's displeasure. But your engage- ment with me was not beneath you. You have not been candid enough with your father. I cannot tell you my sur- prise when I saw that you had never given him a hint of our engagement. He cannot know how strong the ties are between us. You know, when you asked me to be your wife, I begged you to tell them. You said you preferred seeing them, and disliked writing; and you told me you were con- vinced that your father and mother weuld love me when they knew me. I was so happy in the assurance of your love. I told you we should be quite happy upon JE300 a year, and we agreed that we should have enough even with- out your father raising your allowance, and, besides, my mother would have given us a house, which would be worth £ 1,000. You said your father had married upon less. Per- haps he thought that you were engaged to some foolish, fast girl. When he knew me I am sure he would not have ob- jected. I told you to tell them about it. I said I should have studied to please them both but I see from his letter that you have told him nothing If your father had known me he could not have written such a letter. We had been too long engaged to be separated so easily. You have my heart as fully as when you left me. I shall expect an answer to this. Do not disappoint me. Ever your fond and affectionate "ANNXB." To this letter, however, there was no answer, and the young lady had never heard from the defendant again. Her family, indignant at the treatment she had met with, induced her to bring this action. Mr. Serjeant Ballantine, in opening the case in a very effective speech, remarked that the defendant's earlier letters evinced a sincere attachment for the young lady. He had left her, at all events, with assurances of the most de- voted affection, and yet for some weeks she had scarcely hard from him and it was impossible to doubt that, while the last caresses were as yet warm upon her lips, he had formed the resolution to abandon her. Her last affecting letter was left unanswered. From that time to the present not a word of consolation-not a syllable of excuse or of regret. Except in the utter recklessness and selfishness of some men's nature, it would be impossible to find any ex- planation of such conduct. To talk of damages in such a case might seem like mockery. No money in such a case could be a compensation. No amount of money could repre- sent the price at which a virtuous woman would sell-her heart. He asked not for anything, indeed, at her wish. Willingly would she have shrunk into obscurity and wept away her sorrow in silence, rather than come into a court of justice but it was flttting that the man who had thus in- jured her, and had sent her away pining and unhappy to make her journey through the rest of life, should be made by a jury to pay so much as should let all the world know their opinion of him and their opinion of her. After formal proof had been given of the facts above stated, and the mother and sister had been called as witnesses, Mr. Serjeant Ballantine again addressed the jury on the evidence. The suffering, he remarked, might be that of the young lady, but the loss was the defendant's. It was evident from her letters, he said, that she was a girl of pure mind and good principles, who looked on marriage as a high and holy thing It was also manifest that it was in no way her fault that tie engagement had been broken off. It was nother faultthat hi parents were not made acquainted with the engagement; but there was no ground whatever for its dissolution. There was, indeed, no evidence that they had interfered with it; and the defendant must bear the odium of breaking it. There w AS gurely as much disgrace in breaking faith with a woman as in cheating a man. Have you, gentlemen, daughters? If so, you can realise what your feelings would be if you saw them pining and saddened in consequence of heartless con- duct such as this towards one who could lift up her eyes to iiod and say, I have done no wrong." It seems almost de- basing to speak of money in such a case but damages must De given, and heavy damages. These wrongs muse not be committed-on society. Officers, who are treated like gentle- men and men of honour, and get admission into families in that character, cannot be allowed thus to bring disgrace and sorrow upon a woman without being taught by juries that they cannot do such things with impunity. Mr. Serjeant Parry addrewed the jury in a very judicious speech for the defence. He admitted his client stood de- fenceless in the action, and the only question was as to the amount of damages. As to this he anxiously disclaimed all idea of imputation or reflection upon the character of the yonog lady, who, he said, evidently possessed a good intel- lect and a pure heart, and whose feelings and sentiments as expressed in her letters did her the utmost credit. No doubt she had sulrered deeply it was impossible to listen to her letters without feeling that. He repudiated the idea, how- ever, that the jury were to give vindictive damages. They did not sit there, he said, as censors of the morals of man- kind. Their only function was to assess the amount of compensation for the injury she had sustained. As to this they must remember that the young man was only a lieu- tenant in a marching regiment, and that there was no evi- denee of any property or expectations. Their business was only to assess reasonable compensation,—not to inflict heavy da-napes by way of punisnment, still less such damages as were likely to crush and destroy him. They must remember, also, that he was bound in some degree to consult the feelings t of his father, and they might reasonably take that into con- sideration as a topic of mitigation. The Lord Chief Baron then summed up the case to the jury, observing that it had been conducted on both sides with great propriety. The promise was admitted, and its breach, and for the breach, as it appeared, no reason could be assigned except that suggested by the defendant in his letter. There was no disparity in birth, or age, or in position but there was, all of a sudder, an entire cessation of letters on the part of the defendant, until, when addressed in urgent terms by the yonng lady, he wrote her a letter, in which, at once and abruptly, he put an end to the engagement. The only reason assigned for this was that the father when he first heard (f it dis- approved it. Upon that, the very next day, with hardly one day's consideration, without any attempt on the part of the defendant to alter his father's feelings, without allowing any time for such alteration of opinion, he at once abruptly and finally broke off the engagement. It was for the jury to say whether for this conduct there was—he would not say any justification, but any palliation or excuse. Why had not the defendant urged upon his father that he could not, with any regard for his own honour 9r character, break his en- gagement with this young lady? Nothing of the kind appeared in the letters of the defendant, who, on the con- trary, had to the last kept his engagement secret from his parents, though she had urged him to tell them of it, If he had not done so, and if, when all of a sudden informed of it, his father expressed disapproval of it, and if, then abruptly and at once, he had chosen for ever to break off his engagement with this young lady, he must take the conse- quences. In assessing the damages the jury might well con- sider the anguish and sorrow she had suffered, and might still have to suffer, perhaps through the whole of her future life; and at the same time they would consider what she had lost-though perhaps it was not much-in the way of an establishment. Taking all the circumstances into considera- tion, they would assess the damages at areasonable amount. The jury retired to consider their verdict, and after some time came into court with a verdict for the plain- tiff for R2, 000.