THE TREATMENT OF PAUPER CHILDREN. The Poor-law Board has recently given its sanction to two new experiments as to the treatment of pauper children which we (l'h Lancet) conceive &s likely to supersede eventually th present cumbrous, expensive, and nou altogether satisfactory machinery of pauper and district schools. It has given permission and en- couragement to the guardians of the Evelham Union to hoard out their orphans in the cottages of the better j class of labourers at 3s. per week, and with certain allowances for clothes and educaiion. The Poor-law Board is right in insisting n-pon a thorough system of efficient suuervision; and we believe this will be best obtained by inviting the unpaid j interest of educated ladies, who are in fact the only J persons qualified for this difficult, though necessary, work. ) he children should also be regularly visited by the relieving officer, and placed under the care of the district medical officers. With such safeguards, we believe the plan will prove as successful here as it has been already in Scotland and Ireland. The Poor-law Board has also sanctioned payment to i be made from the rates for the emigration of six pauper < female orphans from the Wolverhampton workhouse. We congratulate Miss Rye. whose efforts in behalf of emigration are so well known, upon this official recognition of her labours. The emigration of young females is most legitimate, and will, we predict, s be most important and successful in future times. The children will obtain in Canada what no State < schools can by any possibility supply—a real foster parent. This relationship is only possible between mdi- vidualll; and the kindly Canadian farmer, with his ( simple habits and industrious wife, will giva a welcome j to these poor orphans which will outweigh the advan- i tages of the most expensive education in a district i schooL The future of these young orphans will be the future of the women of Canada. On these accounts we heartily commend the scheme to the consideration of other guardians of the poor.
FATALITY TO A ROOK-SHOOTING < PARTY. I The Carnarvon Herald states that an inquest took place, on Thursday in List week, at St. Asaph, on the i body of Mr. William Green, a native of Norwich, who was accidentally shot dead in Pengwam Wood (part of the domain of the Hon. Price Lloyd), on the 1 previous day. while shooting rooks with a party of ] friends from Liverpool. 1 It appeared that a number of gentlemen from Liver- i pool, friends of Mr. John Jones, of llhuddlan Foundry, weni; over to St. Asaph to enjoy a day's rook shooting f on the Pengwam estate. Amongst them were the ] deceased. William Green, and Messrs. C. Hampson, Moffat Walmsley, Ezra Williamson, and William Wood. The party had been shooting about three hours when Mr. Hampson broke th« nipple of his < gun, and on his remarking that his sport was done for the day, Mr. Williamson handed him Mr. < Waltnsley's gun, the latter having gone to lie down as he felt fatigued. Williamson handed the gun to j Hamilton from behind at full cock, and as tha latter took hold of it and swung it forward, it is supposed that the nipple caught in his shot belt or his coat tail, < for the gun immediately went off, and the charge struck j deceased, who was only three or four yards off, in the side, breaking through one of his lower ribs and tear- ing out part of the intestines. Notwithstanding the horrible nature of his wound the poor fellow lived for forty minutes after receiving it, and died just as two medical gentlemen, who had been sent for, came up. The verdict of the jury was "Death by an accidental discharge of fire-arms, with no blame to any person." The deceased was a fine young fellow, 26 years of age. He had been ten years in the aimy, from which he purchased himself recently, and had come down to Liverpool to see some friends, with whom he went over to Wales on this ill-fated tour of pleasure. To intensify the DftJuwB <.f hia fatf. it; is stated that he was to h .ve been married in a fortnight, the banns having been once published.
A BIRMINGHAM ROMANCE. The following romantic little story is told by the Birming- ham (¡autte Some eighteen months ago two gentlemen — one and the other middle-aged—were to be seen, not. a- our friend G. P. R. James would say, wending their way up the avenue leading to a spacious hall, &c., but quietly taking an evening stroll in the neighbournolld of Temple Bar, where they encountered a urnnsel. 01 the "period," ot course, crying bitterly. The sym- pathies of the younger of the two were at once enlisted, but the eider, whose chivalry bad been quite extin- guished by long knowledge and experience of London dodges," treated the atfair as a hoax, and exhorted his companion to on." Our hero gallantly re- fused. and the two paited company, when the lady iu- formed her knight that she had that diY come to town for the first time in the company of her father, a War- wickshire clergyman; that they h-td repaired to an hotel of which she did not remember the name, and that sauntering out to do some shopping, she had been alJForberl hy some novelty, and ''missed papa," and consequently knew neither what to do nor where to no. The gentleman was placed in rather an embarrassing position. Ot the truth ot the lady's story he entertained no doubt; he soon discovered that she was a lady, and, like a sensible man, he determined to do his utmost to set her right. Ordering a cab, she was conveyed to an hotel and located for the night, her rescuer appointing to m«et her in the morning, convey her to Padding ton, and despatch her back to Warwickshire. He did so, and a few days afterwards the genuineness of thecasf was confirmed by a visit from the clergyman, who, after heartily tnanking his daughter's deliverer for his kind- ness and chivaliy, invited him down to the rectory, whi re the intimacy was renewed, and soon ripened ln^° affection, which was consummated last week by the matrimonial union of deliverer and delivered.
THE OASTLER MONUMENT. A monument to the memory of the late Mr. Richard Oastler, the successful advocate of the "Ten Houre' Bill," was inaugurated at Bradford last Saturday. Every factory district of Yorkshire and Lancashire was largely represented in the crowd of 100,000 well- dressed persons who filled the streets. A procession, composed of 30,000 persons, was formed and marched from the town to Peel Park, about a mile distant. There an address was presented to Lord Shaftesbury, who, as in years past, prominently identified with the labours of Mr. Oastler, had been requested and had undertaken to perform the ceremony of unveiling the monument. It expressed the gratitude the working people of Yorkshire and Lanca.shire felt to his lordship for the disinterested, arduous, and successful labours he had undergone to secure the adoption of the Ten H' Bill, the beneficial results of which they had enjoyed for nearly twenty years, and which are now visible in the marked improvement of the physical and intellectual condition of factory workers. Lord Shaftesbury, in accepting the address, ex- pressed the gratification he felt in having been requested to take part in these proceeding*. The procession was then reformed und returned to the town, a large pro- portion of those composing it gathering in the open Ppace around the site of the statue in front of the Midland Railway station. On arriving at the site Lord Shaftesbury, who was publicly welcomed by the mayor, unveiled the statue. He addressed the crowd, congratulating them as Yorkshiremen on their mind- fulness of old friends, and of one who left his retire- ment to maiLJtain the cause of the worn. out adult and the came of Buffering children, and who brought to the work a force of talent, a vigour of mind, and an earnest- ness of heart that in any profession would have raised him to its highest ranks. Addresses wtfre then delivered hy Mr. Forstfr, M.P.. Mr. W. Ferrand, and Mr. E. Miall, M.P., after which the crowd dispersed. At eight o'clock a public meeting was held in St. George's hall, under the presidency of the Mayor, who was supported by Lord Shaftesbury, Lord F. C. Cavendish, M.P., Mr. W. E. Forster, Mr. E. Miall, Mr. Wheethouse, M.P., Mr. A. Illingworth, M.P., &c. The memorial represents Mr. Oastler in the act of making an appeal on behalf of the factory children, two of whom. a boy and girl, are grouped at his side. The sculptor is Mr J. Birnie Philip, of London. The en' ire cost of the work was £1,500, contributed by the friends of the "short time movement" in Yorkshire and Lancashire.
MR. KICKHAM, THE RELEASED FENIAN. Mr. Charles Kickham, one of the liberated Fenian prisoners, hll. rNunH.d his literary pllruits with unabatell si Irt. He has published A Tale of Tipperary, which was written when in Woldng prion, IInd dediclited to "John Of ear), Portland Convict Establishment, or elsewhere" Ii contains biographical sketches of his fellow politicil pri- soners. He is also publishing ia the Irishman a. series 01 pr.lit.H-al articles de, oted to Ireland's correspon- dent of the Daily Ktvt, who is travelling in Ireland and "t,iking notes," has been on a visit to Mr. Kickham, and thus records it :— But I do not regret having come to this place, for another reason. By the merest accident, I heard that Mr. Charles Kickham, the liberated Fenian con- vict, was residing in Mullinahone, and I resolved to pay him a visit. If you 00," I was told, "you wil have the police on the watch for you." I replied Can- tabit vacnus coram policeman viator." He who hai- neither treason, strataeem, nor wiles in his heart, may even visit a liberated Fehian. My first impression of M ullinahone was that Mr. Kickham made an unwis* exchange for the prison-house, for a more wretched. forlorn, tumble-down sort of place it would be difficult to realize, even in the imagination. I found Mr. Kickham in a email house, looking towards a dis- mantled and ivy-covereu castle, the walls of which were of unusual thickness. After a few words of introduction, he told me that the Engio of Mulli- nahone was the" Mill of St. John;" that the origin of the cattle was lost in thedarkne-s of time; that in 1798 a Croppy's head was hung upon it at, a warning i i) all reheL-, :>ui that the hook from which it was sus- pended was sent to the Ci icago lenian lair two years ago, and sold as a reliC for the benefit of the Fenian war treasury. I told him the object of my cumillg to Ireland. 1 was surprised by his ready answer though he spoke through an interpreter with his fingers, being wholly deaf—" Wherever the FeniàJJs went they d s- couragad individual assassination." "Strange," I said, I have heard a theory within the last few days which ascribed them to the Fenian organisation." "That is not true," he replied, "at least as far as I know. Hand me Davis's Poems." Having got the volume he turned to the Vow of Tipperary," and pointed out the following lines Too long with rash and single arm, The peasant strove to guard his eyrie, Till li-is!i hi od bedewed each gieea, And ii eland wept for lippeiary. But never more we'll lift a hand- We swear by God aud Vlrgiu Mary- Except in war fur native laud. And that's the vow of Tipperary. Mr. Kickham's manner was too genuine, and his im- pulse too quick to admit of any doubt that he, at least, did not sanction those outrages which have alarmed so many from their number and mysteriousness. On the t tble beside him was the first copy of a little work which he has just published, "Sally Cavaiiigh or, Untenanted Graves." Beneath it were several volumes in quarto and folio. He made no allusion to his con- nexion with Fenianism, but he complained, not so much in anger as in bitterness, of the treatment he re- ceived in prison. "It is a disgrace," he said, "to the British Government. I cannot think the officials would have acted as they did if they had not re- ceived orders from their superiors. It is a shame to make political prisoners the companions of the most debased and depraved felons." I could well under- itmd the feeling in Mr. Kickham's case, for I percei ved that I was tal kirlg to a man of very refined mind and of i gentle nature. In different circumstances neither he felon's dock nor the prison's cell would have been Mr. Kickham's plaee. Whatever his political senti- ments, his moral principles, and his gentlemanly lemeanour were unfitted for a gaol life, and, as he ;aid, "If I had not been liberated I would have been lead now."
KCQUITTAL of YOUNG CHALONER for the MURDER of WHITAKER. QUEBEC, May 5. The trial for murder of H. J. Cnalouer, who shot Ensign Whitaker for seducing his sister, terminated ast night. The jury were locked up until this morn- ng, when they returned a verdict of not guilty. An attempt was made by the dense crowd of persons in the Dourt-room to mark their approbation of the result, out the demonstration was quickly suppressed. Dbaloner was loudly chetred outside the Court-house. Commenting on this acquittal, the New York Tribune wks :— How much longer must the advocates of the death penalty ,hus see men discharged wholly unpunished for the taking )f human life, because they insist ou a punishment against vhich the moral sense of the public revolts, and which no iverase jury can be brought to inflict! Men are not ac- piitted for mtirdering the seducers of their wives or sisters lecause the public regard such murder as praiseworthy or imooent, but because they consider the punishment nonstrous.
BISHOP GOSS AT PRESTON. On Sunday afternoon Bishop Goss, of Liverpool, took the occasion of the consecration of a new bell bo address a large congregation at Preston on the Irish Church. He said he had been careful not to wound the susceptibilities of those who differed from ;hem in their faith, but he felt that something was lecessary to justify the attitude many Catholics took ipon that question. He referred to the subject at the isk of being accused of preaching a political sermon. Decause he held it necessary that all Catholics should be instructed upon the great questions of the day, svherever they interfered in any manner either with the faith or the discipline of the Church. He had clearly shown to them on previous occa- sions by Acts of Parliament that the Church esta- blished in this country was the creation of Parliament, md the differences which now existed between the Catholic and Established Churches was the re- mltof Imperial legislation. He was surprised that Mr. Gladstone did not base his act upon the legislation of Parliament, by which course he could have utteilv and entirely changed the character of the Church. What be complained of was tbat Mr. Gladstone had not done full justice to the question, for he ought to have treated it from first to last as a question of State. If he had done that he could not have granted unto them the claims and endowments before the year 1660, tor from that time all gifts and endowments .óven to the Church since that period be al- lowed them wholly and entirely but if he had dealt with the question in its proper manner he would have found the endowments given before 1660 were distinct from the State, and it was his duty to have handed them over to the Catholic Church. Mr. Gladstone had not, therefore, done full justice in that uiatter but he had shown a d-sire and willingness on his part to do something for the Catholic Church. Nevertheless, the Catholics of Ireland had been de- frauded out of their rights, for the endowments it possessed previous to the Reformation ought to have been nettled upon the Catholics of that country, and aUo the \enerat>le buildings which Catholic piety ercotod. Th»y must bear in inind that those endow- ments were not left for the support of the m niatera or Ireland, but on condition that certain masses were said, a thing they all knew was not fulfilled at the present day. He referred to the question because the bill had ju,t passed the House of Commons, and he was anxious that there should be some record of what many would consider an instalment of justice, but at the f-ame time he would be surprised it the Irish nation were really satisfied with what had been given to them by the pre.-eiit Government. There was also another question n inli which they soon would have to stand lace to face with the Government of this country, an i that was tie question of education. He kne-v not h iw it wai that Governments called liberal were generally speaking, illiberal in their way of dealing with those wiio differed from them. The liberality ot this country was not leal; it rejected certain clashes, a.ud deprived all Catholics of their liberty of action. Ur. Gu's denounced in bitter terms the proposition to pass a bill in favour of secular education, and spoke in wor ic of commendation with respect to denominational teaching, f..r by the latter each religious body was enabled to teach their children in the faith they pro- fessed. If the Government should pass a measure for secular education he emphatically impressed upon those present to keep ttieir children at home, and nave them dragged to prison, and themselves also, belore they should yield to such a course and sacritice the rights they had inherited from. God.
WHAT WAR WOULD MEAN. (From the Spectator.) There are thousands of Americans otherwise intelli- gent who cannot bring them-nrlvea to believe that the s ruggle would be an equal one, who, deceived by dis- tance, by the grandeur of their own recent achieve- ments. and oy the permanent English habit of self- depreciation, doubt if England has really the power to struggle effectually for her historic position in the worltl: They could take Canada, they think, and even then, England, weary with a tedious and doubt- ful maritime war, would be ready to make peace at any moment, leaving to them their undisputed world. We have repeatedly endeavoured to show the fal- lacy which pervades American sentiment on this sub- ject the Canadians have been prompt to explain that Canada will not be peacefully annexed and we now desire to offer some coit,ilierations to Americans which may induce ttlem at least to recognize the magnitude of the issues involved, to pause before they imperil the future of the world by precipitating a civil war of the Anglo-Saxon race. They say, or think, that the struggle would be brief because the conditions are so unequal; we say that the combatants would be so equally matched in spirit, in tenacity, and in power, that the only possible result would be the exhaustion of them both, the total para- lysis for good, perhaps even the permanent paralysis, of the whole English-speakingsection of mankind, that is, of the only races whose rule vivifies, and who, if they can but keep from killing each other, are advancing steadily, but irresistibly, towards the peaceful mastery of the world. No power on earth even now, and no combination of Powers, could resist the command of the people who speak English, if united, and in acentury no power will even venture to think of trying. But nevertheless, that immense strength is more equally distributed between the two branches than the American one is willing to allow. A war between them would be a fight, if not for existence, at least for pre-eminence, the whole spirit of both people would be thrown into the struggle, and even on land the result would be very doubtful. The Americans boast with great justice of their immense military force; but have they ever seriously thought out their position if England behaved as they themselves did in 1861, determined to make the war final, devoted to it her whole resources, and resolved to wage it to the bitter end ? We say nothing of the possible adhesion of Napoleon, who is directly threat- ened by every menace levelled at us for acknowledging the billigerency of the South, and confine the argument wholly to ourselves. Why do Americans think us weak? Because we could not defend the Canadian frontier? Possibly not; but we should infallibly try to do it, and Americans, who on this point at least are not unfair, will acknowledge that to destroy a British army of a hundred thousand men, backed by the Canadian popu- lation, and by a fleet sufficient to blockade every port north of the Potomac, would be a task requiring all their resources. That effort would overtax us? We made it in 1857, sending an army five times the dis- tance, and after three years of a war which covered a continent, that army remained in India, with it. strength unbroken or increased, while at home another still greater had gathered in reserve. But we have Ireland ? Has not the Union a South, or do Northern Americans believe that the sentiment of Irishmen towards us is worse than that of the Southeners towards them? England, if forced into this horrible war, would and could stop at nothing, would and could rally in Virginia the men of the "lost c'lue behind a well-appointed European army, sup- ported by a population north and south, in Canada as in Virginia, which would know that in her victory alone could their security be found. The BIbLcks ? Are we an enslaving power, or is the Indian constitu- tion intolerable to coloured men ? Even tuen, when this had been attempted and the Union was assailed on two sides, from North and South, in each direction by four millions of men rallying round that hardest ef kernels, a British army, we should have exerted but one-tifth of the strength we displayed in the revolu- tionary war, when, with Ireland included, we were but fifteen millions. We are twenty now without Ire- land. We had then a million of men on foot, and drove through Spain a soldier who wielded, when the war began, resources iu men even greater than those at the disposal of General Grant. Our finances ? A debt double that of America,— that is, an aduitionf 3uO millions to our debt,—would ) but leave us where the Union id now, for she pays double interest on her loans. In 1815, for every pound an Englishman received he paid 7s. 6d. to the State. He now pays 5s. The difference alone would yield 120 millions a year,—that is, support the war without incurring debt. But then our commerce ? There is no saying what resources thirty millions of Anudo Sjixqns may find in tiieir energy and patriotism but we are Anglo-Saxons also, and at first all naval advantages would be on our side. 'I he Americans are deceived by Parliamentary talk. There is no fleet in existence which could stand three months before our own, our merchant navy outnum- bers that of the world in combination, and earth itself is but a coaling station for Great Britain. From Heligoland to Hong-kong, everywhere we have har- bours, docks, coals, cannon. Our sailors are the same in race, training, in courage as the men who followed Farragut; our officers the same as the men who block- aded the South our vessels the result of a competition to which America has been but a party. Whj should we be defeated any more than our cousins ? It is not, at all events, possible, that after slaughter and ruin such as might make devils wince, we should emerge for the moment masters of the sea, with our commerce as secure as at present, and our maritime prestige higher than ever ? Look at it how we will, war between America and England is mere destruction, mere loss, a civil war in which the only possible gainers are the enemies of both but why in that contest of suicides should we not be at least the last to perish ? Because the Union is so large? Compared with the territories of Queen Vic- toria, it is a speck on the earth's surface. That sen- tence is nonsensical, we acknowledge, but it is true, and is as sensible as the argument it refutes. In war concentration is everything, not dispersion, and we have the population of the entire North concen- trated in a territory less extensive than Pennsylvania and New York. The policy which crushed the South cannot be applied to us, for when we had lost the lives the South has lost, all we should feel would be that our existing emigration had been diverted to an unforeseen purp se. There is something shocking to ourselvts in the mere use of such an argument, but the war against which we use it would be more shocking still,-a. war between equals, between brothers, a tivil war spread over earth, a war in which every incident of slaughter would have the moral effect of massacre, a war in which every victory on either side would be sheer 1 ss, a war without a limit or a conceivable end. We could gain nothing by the war, even if we triumphed, and America nothing, for Canada is not worth a double debt; while if we lose, we lose only Canada, and America, if she loses, loses the unity she h is spent so much of blood and treasure to preserve. There never was such an act of lunacy as such a war would be, yet it is such a war that speeches like that of Mr. Sumntr would force on.
AN ACTOR ABOUT ACTORS. At the dinner of the Royal General Theatrical Fund, the other evening, lir. Buckstone the eminent comedian, said :— _We (actors and actresses) consider ourselves to be hiiihlv-respectable me. tubers of society, and very good ci iz ns, notwithstanding the Lord Chamberlain's re- cent circular respecting the skirts of the dancing ladies. But, as there was no commit iee of morals to regulate how long or how short such skirts were to be worn, the question appears to have remained in statu quo ante, though I II.USt say that his lordship ought to have re- ferted to those particular places of amusement where the i-kirts ended not far from where they com- menced, and not have tarred us all with the same brush, especially as when that circular was sent to the Hay market Theatre we had neither a ballet nor a short skirt in the house. There is one declaration I wish to make respecting the theatres, that may help to set a certain portion of the public risbt as regards the habits of actors. On Monday, the 15thof March last, ameeting was held at a certain place called Fxeter-hall. The object was to oppose the opening of museums, picture galleries, and other instructive places, on a Sunday, when an eminent lawyer a member of Parliament, thought proper to assert that to allow the opening of museums and galleries on that day would lead to the opening of theatres. Now, I am sure, as regards the Haymarket, there is not one member of that estab- lishment who would consent to act on a Sunday and I am certain I may declare, in the name of every per- former of both of sexes in England, that none would be found to do so. Hundreds of them frequent places of worship on Sunday, and all of them enjoy the day of rest too well to have it interrupted by attending L to their professional duties. For my own part, I know that on Saturday night, after a hard week's work and many anxieties, I have frequently exclaimed, Thank Goct, to-morrow's Sunday."
FENIAN PRISONERS. A sense of justice and fair play compels us (Weekly Register) to make the following statement respecting the present treatment, to which at any rate a portion of the Fenian prisoners now in custody are subjected. And upon what we now say our readers may depend, as it comes from a most undoubted, although not an official, source. Whatever may have been the case elsewhere, the Fenian prisoners at Chatham, consist- ing of O'Donovan Rossa, Halpin, and about ten others of the chief met., amongst them now in England—are not by any means badly treated. The labour they have to perform is light, they are kept quite apart from the prisoners sentenced for crimes against person or property, they get wholesome food, and although clad in prison dress, those who desire it have warm un- derclothing given them. In a word, they are treated as well and as kindly as is possible, consistently with the act of parliament, which made their offence punish- a> ile by penal servitude. It is hardly necessary to say that of such an act of parliament we do not approve, for it is contrary to justice and civilisation that politi- cal prisoners should be condemned as convicts. Still, fair play demands that the whole truth should be told, and that needless obloquy should be removed from the Executive. It is also but just to state that the more humane treatment of the Fenian prisoners commenced under the rigime of Mr. Gathorne Hardy, the late Home Secretary, and has been continued by his suc- cessor, Mr. Bruce. It should, moreover, be known that such of the prisoners as are Catholics have every facility given them of attending to their religious duties. The priest who is chaplain to the prison says morning prayers every day in the chapel, and on Sun- days and holy days he celebrates mass, and hears the confessions of those who choose to avail themselves of the privilege.
BIRDS OF THE GUANO ISLANDS. A writer in the New York Times, who, in a letter of several columns, tells the etorv of Life on a Guano Island," thus speaks of the feathered population in the country of his exile:- Among the chief objects of interest on Baker's I sland to a visitor are the birds, and they are well worthy of r-tudy. During the tirst night of my stay on this forlorn spot it seemed at times as if th« house were besieged by innumerable tom-cats then the tumult resembled the suppressed bleating of goats, and I heard noises as of bats grinding their teeth in rage; again it was the querulous cooing of doves and soon the chorus was strengthened by unearthly screams, as of ghouls and demons in mortal agony. But on going forth into the darkness to learn the cause of this infernal sere- nade, all was apparently calm and serene, and the radiant constellation of the Southern Cross, with the neighbouring clouds of Magellan, looked me peacefully in the fac., while from another quarter of the heavens the Pleiads shed their" sweet influence "over the scene. The most quiet time of night with the birds is about daybreak, when they seem to subside into "catnaps," preparatory to the llbours of the day. By day many of the birds range on tireless wing, over leagues of ocean, in quest of fish. But still the number of those that remain about the island is so great as to defy computation, and as you pass through their haunts, in some places they rise in such clouds as actually to darken the air above you, The eggs of some of the birds are of fine quality, and are much esteemed by the Americans as well as the Hawaiians on the island. Those of a bird called the nu-e ku are the most valued. This name is an imitative word, derived from the cry of this restless creature, and is applied to it by the Hawaiians, who have quick intuitions in onomatopoetic matters. In regard to moral character, the birds of Baker's Island may be divided into two classes- those which make an honest living, and those which are robbers. The gannet stands at the head of the respectable birds, and is a thrifty and honest citizen of the air. The re- presentative of the thievish class is the frigate-pelican, or man of-war hawk (tnehypetes aquilus). This bird has a dense plumage of gioomy black, a light, wiry body, that seems made for fleetuess, and winf's of eyen greater spread than the gannet's. Its tail is deeply forked, its bill is long, sharp, and viciously hooked. Audubon regards the frigate-bird, as superior, perhaps, in power of flight to any other. It never dives into the ocean after fish, but will sometimes catch them while they are leaping out of the water to escape pursuit. It is often content to glut itself with the dead fish that float on the water, but it depends mostly for a subsist- ence upon robbiug other birds. It is interesting to watch them thus occupied. As evening comes on these pirates may be seen lying in wait about the i-lands for the return of the heavily-laden fishing-birds. The smaller ones they easily overtake and compel them to disgor-ge their spoils but to waylay and levy black iiiail upon those powerful galleons, the gaunets, is an achievement requiring strategy and address. As the richly-laden gannet approaches the coast of his island home, he lilts himself to a great height, and steadily oars himself along with his mighty pit,ions, until he -ees his native sands extending in dazzling whiteness below. Nowsloping downward in his flight, he descends with incredible velocity. In a moment more he will be safe with his affectionate mate who is awaiting bis return to the nest. But all this time he is watched by the keen eye of the man-of-war hawk, who has stationed himself so as to intercept the gannet in his swift course. With the quickness of thought the hawk darts upon him, and, not daring to attack boldly in front, he plucks him by the tail and threatens to upset him, or he seizes him at the back of the neck and lashes him with his long wings. When the poor gannet, who cannot man- oeuvre so quickly as his opponent, finds himself pursued, he tries to buy his ransom by surrendering a portion of his fishy cargo, which the hawk, swooping down, catches before it has had time to reach the earth. If there is but one hawk this may be a suffleient toll, but if the unwieldly gannet is set upon by a number of these pirates he utters a cry of real terror and woe, and, rushing through the air with a sound like a rocket, in his rapid descent, he seeks to alight on the nearest point of land, well knowing that when once he has a footing on terra firma not even the man-of-war hawk dare come near him. The man-of-war hawk is provided about its neck and chest with a dilatable sack, of a blood-red colour, which it seems to be able to inflate at pleasure. On calm days, about noon, when the trade wind lulls, giving place to a sea breeze that gently fans the torrid island, these light, feathery birds may some- times be seen at an immense height balancing them- selves for whole hours without apparent motion on their outstretched vans. Whether they are able to in- crease their specific levity by inflating their pouches with a gas lighter than the atmosphere, or whether they are sustained by the uprising column of heated air that comes in on all sides from the ocean, is a ques- tion I am unable to answer. While floating thus, this bird has its pouch puffed out about its neck, giving it the same appearance as though it had its throat muffled in red flanneL
A COUPLE OF CLEVER DOGS! The following exciting incident is narrated in an American novel, entitled Too True." and is another instance in which a faithful dog rendered valuable service to his master:— I remember once I had a large sum of money, in gold, sent to me from Paris, by express, to Baden- Baden. When it arrived, I was notified by the mes- senger, who warned me to be cautious, as he was informed that it had been followed all the way from Paris by two celebrated thieves. I took it quietly to my room in the hotel, saying nothing about the nature of the package, my own servant carrying it, intending on the morrow to pay some debts to a broker there, and take home the remainder of the coin. That night my servant wished to sleep in my apartment; but I said, "No, I was not afraid." I had, however, a small dog, a pet of mine, and one of the most sagacious little fellows that ever belonged to his race. It was in the latter part of the night, and I was fast asleep, forgetful of money or its responsibilities, when I was awakened by the cold nose of my dog, pressed silently against my face. Every faculty was instantly sharpened by a consciousness of peril. It was perfectly dark, my candle having burned out, and I knew not hut that some one was already in my room. I lay quiet, listening. I could just hear the velvet patter of my dog's feet, who seemed to have muffled his toes on purpose, going about the floor and again he came back and laid his nose to my face, still without a sound. Upon finding that I was awake, he went off again. I thought best to follow him and with my pistol in my hand I crept noiselessly out of bed, and walked in the direction of the door. When about six feet from it, I heard a peculiar noise, scarcely audible, but persistent. I knew it at once. Some one was sawing off the bolt All right let him work away! I stationed myself close to the door, in such a position that, when it was opened, I could shoot the intruder my dog stood at my side, pressing against my leg, but making no sound. In fifteen minutes there was a slight rattling, as of something dropping, a cessation of the sawing, a a moment's profound silence, during which, I suppose, the burglar was also listening. Had my dog barked then, or stirred, one of the most noted of Parisian thieves would not have been winged but the brave little fellow knew better. Presently the door was pushed softly, slowly, ajar; then there was the flash of my pistol, the report, an alarm through the house, persons running to the scene, lights.—and upon the floor, bathed in his own blood, the would-be robber. He was seriously, not mortally wounded, and was taken care of by the police. His companion was also arrested in his attempt to escape. For some days my little dog was the lion of Baden-Baden.
EPITOME OF NEWS, BRITISH AND FOREIGN. B oston is to put up 20 drinking fountains to aid the enforcement of the prohibitory liquor law. A decree against the growth of opium in China appeared in the Pekin Gazette of the 22nd of January. Tamberlik, the well-known tenor, has just set up a large manufactory of flre-arms at Madrid. Paper petticoats are now sold in London at 6d. each! Imitation cretonnes and chintzes for bed ftirnitura are also being made of the same material, as well as shoes The Countess of Albemarle died at Lyons on Sunday. Her ladyship was the daughter of Sir Coutts Trotter, Bart., and she was married to the Earl of Albemarle in 1831. The Royal Agricultural Society of England are to hold their meeting in 1870 at Oxford. Albany has a queer trouble. Two members of a church choir having seceded therefrom have been singing in the congregation lustily, out of tune, to break down the enemy. Arrest and discharge and re-arrest followed, to no purpose, the offenders still sniffing out of tune. General Robert E. Lee, who commanded the forces of the Confederates in the civil war, visited President Grant at his official residence, the V\ hite House, on the let of May. lie was accorded a strictly private audience of an hour's duration. The Pope has forwarded to the Prince of the As- turias an autograph letter of thanks, in reply to the congra- tulations of his Royal Highness on the firtieth anniversary of his lioliness's ordination. The Pope had, a few days be- fore, sent a similar communication to Queen Isabella. The Town Clerk of Hartford, United States, re- ports one death last year from ignorance." The Manx newspapers state that the Queen is likely to visit her subjects in the Isle of Man, some time in August; and add that a baronetage and a knighthood will be conferred on the Lieutenant-Governor and the Speaker of the House of Keys respectively. An ambitious gentleman in Connecticut appeals, over his own signature, Too thee micbannicks and laburinge men of my native town. I will repriziut you in the Stait assemblee irrispectif of pollytics, relijion, or eidicashun." A French lady recently told her husband that if ever he deceived her she would kill herself. "Pray do not, my love," responded the husband, think what a disarrange- ment it would cause in the house Lord Mayo has, at his own expense, sent an elephant to the Dublin Zoological Gardens. On Saturday afternoon Miss Porter, sister-in-law of the Rev. C. J. Bushell, vicar of Barkis'an t, was at the Sowerby railway-station in Yorkshire, intending to proceed home to Southport by a train then about due. In crossing the line the dress of the young lady was caught by an express train which came up at the time. She was knocked down by the engine and killed on the spot. A man tried to shoot his wife in Paris last week, but the bullet entered her chignon, which was sufficient to resist its passage into her skull. The misunderstanding which led to the consecration of the Rev. 11. L. Jenner, as Bishop of Dunedin, has been fol- lowed by unpleasant consequences He wri es :—" The truth is I am ne-u ly wearied out with this business. The isola ion, the humiliation of my position, which culmin .ted last Sunday in my having to Ht under a lay render, have y-ell nigh broken me down. 1 feel inclined to let matters take their chance, Kive myse f no further trouble, and ask my friends to leave me to my fate." The Viceroy of Egypt left Alexandria on Monday, for a tour in Europe, and is expected to arrive in Loudon on the 22nd of next month. He will previously visit Venice, Florence, Vienna, Berlin, and Paris, and return to Egypt, via Constantinople, in September so as to be prepared to receive the Empress Eugenie at the opening of the Suez Canal. That event will take place, according to the Pans Patrie, on the 16th of October, but the canal will be ready for YLSC by the 1st of October. France, England, Austria, Italy, and Turkey will send naval divisions to take part in the ceremony. The ship Blue Jacket, Captain Lyttleton, from New Zealand for London, was burnt at sea on the 9th instant. The captain, first officer, seven of the crew, and all the pas- sengers, were landed at Queenstown. Two lifeboats, in chaige of the second and third officers, with thirty-two men and the fourth officer, are mis-ing. Four thousand sove- reigns have been saved. Four thousand were in each missing boat, and 418,000 were lost in the vessel. A London clergyman advertises that he will "lend his weekly sermons for half-a-crewn apiece, or four for ten shillings, warranted "original, earnest, and evangelical." A Dress Reforming Convention" is sitting in Washington, under a call from various, women anxious to wear the breeches. No less than three Mayors of Southampton have. in chlen times, been deprived of their mayoralties, and in the charter of the corporation the fcrm of deposing the mayor is set forth. A new Low Church periodical is announced, entitled The Latter Rain. The Royal Hospital for Incurables has received a donation of £ 500 from a gentleman who had satisfied himself, liy. ■personal observation and inquiry, of the quality and aih'buntpCthe work done by the institution. There was some tittering the other day at a wedding breakfast in London, when one of the guests wished the bride 41 many returns of the iidppy. occasion." The Davenport Brother's trick-is-being shown by two very expert performers at the Crystal Palace, and creates much amusement. One of the customs of the Ameer of Afghanistan's att. ndants, whenever they want to he very friendly, is to exchange a pull at noses as the highest compliment. "Velocipede lavs three languages under contribu- tion for its composition. The German furnishes viel," much the English hoss," well known in its meaning and the French pied," foot from all of which it appears that velocipede is merely much-hoss afoot." The correct name of the water-velocipede is phodoscape."—[We live and learn.] An American paper says—"A gentleman just returned from Europe has brought heme the Emperor Nero's seal rincr. He says he was offered the fiddle used by that individual, but declined it, on account of the high price. A new daily paper in the Permissive Bill interest is to be started in Newcastle. What very curious things some of your contem- poraries do publish. Behold a specimen: At the last ball at the Tuileries the Empress, out of compliment to the Princess of Wales, wore a Scotch scarf.' You might as well say that Captain Wallis, when he discovered Otaheite, wore a cocked-hat out of compliment to the upper classes of the Society Islands."—Paris Correspondent of Daily Telegraph. The Legislature of Massachusetts have re-enacted the Prohibitory Liquor Law, with the important exemptions of lager beer and cider. It is said that gold has been discovered in the bed of the River Cassley, on the property of Rosehall, belonging to Sir James Matheson, Bart., Lord-Lieutenant of Ross-shire. The opponents of the Church in Spain have bad an unexpected turn of luck. While levelling the ground for a new squire in Madrid, the labourers have turned up the graves of the victims of the Inquisition burned at autos da 16. Calcined bones, charred curls, bits of burned men and women, told their own tale S. Echaragay, speaking against intolerance, made this discovery one of his texts, and the Church has received a greater blow in Madrid than a hundred arguments could inflict. During the present session up to May 8, 5,359 dinners and 2,285 luncheons have been served in the refresh- ment rooms of the House of Commons. A marriage is talked of between Mrs. Abraham Lincoln and Count Schmidtzville, Grand Chamberlain of the Duke of Baden. A native of Delhi, in whose caste it was forbidden to have two wives, went over to Christianity, in order, as he fancied, to be able to contract a second marriage. He did so; but his first wife, to his consternation, foilowed him, and he also discovered tItat bigamy was neither a Christian virtue nor a favourable recommendation to the notice of the law of the country. So to cure the difficulty, he murdered bo h his wives, and now finds himself brought up by an in- human code, for having endeavoured to rectify a mistake."— Indian Public Opinion. Seven men, all of the lowest character, and several of whom had undergone previous condemnations, have just been tried in Paris for the murder and robbery of a wine shop-keeper at Batignolles, iiamed Malassigne. The crime was aggravated by horrible acts of immorality quite unfit for publication. The chief accused, Hertz filler, was condemned to death; one Bosquet, to 15 years' hard labour; two, Derlon and Ni ainzot, to 10 years; and a fifth, Kauffmann, to seven years of the same punishment the others, named Brun and Deflandre, were acquitted. The Freemasons of Calcutta have endowed an insti- tution for educating the children of indigent Freemasons. His Excellency the Viceroy and his Honour the Lieutenant- Governor of Bengal are among the patrons. There appears to have been 296,660 persons em- ployed in coal mining in England and Wales in 1868, and 50,169 in Scotland. The quantity of coal raised in Great Britain was 104,566.959 tons. There were 860 separate fatal accidents, and 1,011 lives lost, the proportion of persons em- ployed for separate fatal accidents being 403, and 343 em- ployed to every life lost. Every 1,03,429 tons of coal raised appears to have cost a life. These operations were carried ou in 3,262 collieries. There were also 69 lives lost in ironstone mines. The British Medical Journal, in the first of a series of articles on self purifying power of rivers, by which it has been alleged that contamrninated water is rendered whole- some and fit for the supply of towns, shows that this power, though of great utility, is proved by overwhelming evidence to be quite inadequate to ensure, at all times, the requisite purity of such water, and the absence of danger to health arising from its use. Last Sunday, the Heme Bay boatmen were engaged nearly the whole day in bringing in pieces of wrecks of ves- sels-srpposed to be two—one laden with battens, the other with wheat. It is imagined that they must have gone down near the Princes Channel, on the Goodwiu Sands. A yellow buoy, with the name Schaar and Niemeyer, Hamburgh also a seaman's chest, containing books, papers, etc., were brought ashore. At an inquest held at Poplar, respecting thel death of Airs. Christopher, a beershop-keeper, the d)ctor who attended the deceased said that her death was caused by drinking beer which had been drawn from new leaden pipes in the bar of the beershop. The jury returned a verdict of accidental death from lead poisoning. It is estimated that the cost of proceedings connected with the O'Sullivan Disability Bill will fall little shert of 2,500. The Treasury bears the expense. The naval officer who pulled President Jackson's nose in 1832, has jil,t died at Washington, and the despatch announcing his oeath chronicles this incident as his only title to remembrance.—Such is fame The conductor of a concert, given before the Em press Eugenie, at the Tuileries, was recently so excited that he accidentally ran his baton into his eye, nearly putting it out. The velocipede mania, like the crinoline mania, a few years ago, is furnishing a new trade to Sheffield. A suit is set down for trial in a Tennessee court, to test the right of a magistrate solemnising a marriage to kiss the bride. A new Roman Catholic Church, dedicated to St. Ignatius, has been erected at Sunbury-upon-Thanies. It is to be formally opened on Sunday by Archbishop Manning, who will assist pontifically and preach. During a violent storm which broke over Boisschot, Belgium, a few days back, an old couple, who were at work in the fields, took shelter under a tree Both were struck by the electric fluid, and the woman, who was seventy-five years of age, was killed on the spot. The man escaped with a few burns. On the same occasion, the house of Baron de T' Serc'aes, burgomaster of Nordorwyck, was set on are by the lightning, and burnt down. On Saturday, another body was recovered from the Oaks Colliery, and although it had been entombed for nearly two years and a half, it was identified as that of William Boothroyd. Deceased was about twenty years of age, and, it is stated, had not been long working at the Oaks Col- liery before the explosion took place. Mr. Murphy, brewer, of Cork, who wag nominated by the moderate Liberals as the successor to Mr. O'Sullivan, has, for business reasons, declined to accept the mayoralty of that city. At Birmingham, on Saturday, a gentleman pro- ceeded down Key-hill on a bycicle at a moderately quick pace, and at the bottom of the hill a brougham came along Icknield-stieet, in a direction at right angles with that in which the bycicle was travelling. The velocipede and the brougham met, and the velocipede turned completely over, just before the horse's feet Tne wheel of the carriage went over the gentlemaifs shoulder, and inflicted serious injuries. Ramptuhul Sing, a rebel sepoy of the 17th Bengal Infantry, has been condemned to death for the murder of Lieut. C. W. Hutchinson of that regiment in 1857. Consul Cameron has written a long letter, which occupies nearly two columns of The Times, defending him- self against the charges, made in an article in the last number of the Quarterly Review, that he had, by his dis- obedience of orders in reopening negotiations with Theodore, and putting himself in that monarch's power, brought about "the Abyssinian difficulty." Lord Clarence Paget, upon retiring from the com- mand of the Mediterranean fleet, delivered a farewell speech to the crew of the flag-ship Caledonia, on the 2nd inst., at Malta. He spoke in very high terms of the discipline and efficiency of the men, and said that their record book of offences was in remarkable contrast with many others in the navy. He was about to be unemployed for some time, but his heart and soul were in the service, and there was not a man among them whom he would not be glad to see and shake hands with at home. In conclusion he begged them, now they were about to be paid off and dispersed, not to forget their discipline, or the high character they had earned. On Monday four professional velocipedeans had a race on two-wheel bycicles for a sweepstakes of i;10, at Streatham Common, over a mile of ground well adapted for the trial. The competitors were Messrs. Richards, Joyce, Anset, and Freuti. At the start the pace was made by Anset, who maintained the lead for half a mile, when Freuti headed his opponents and increased the speed, and, after a sharp contest, came iu first by four lengths, Anset second the others tied for third place. The last portion of the road was on the descent, and the mile was accomplished in five minutes and a half. A couple of months ago two ladies were taken up in Paris for shop-lifting, and, contrary to law, were released on bail. They have now been tried by default, and sentenced to a short term of imprisonment, which, of course, they will not return to France to undergo.—The reason of bail beir g accepted was that the laaies in question were constant guests at the Tuileries A fishmonger, named Thompson, residing in Londor, who had neglected his business through intemperate habits, and had been compelled by his creditors to give it up to them, went, into a swimming batn in Mile-end New Town, the other evening, and held his head under the water until he was drowned. An inquest was held on the body, when the jury returned a verdict of Suicide while of unsound mind." The Army and Navy Gazette believes that Mr. Card- well has made some small step towards a desirable object- the permanent preservation of the British cemeteries in the Crimea. Application has been made t. Paris to ascertain what the French have done. The Lords' amendments to theSea Birds Preservation Bill have been published. Their lordships propose to extend the operation of the Act to Ireland, and to exempt the island of St Kilda. They also propose the insertion of a clause providing for the exemption of any other parts of the Uuited Kingdom, wherever, on account of the necessities of the inhabitants of the more remote parts of the sea coasts, it may appear desirable. The fasting girl at Ulverston, who, it is said, has abstained from food since last October, has now commenced to both eat and talk. She has, according to rep >rt, been twenty-five weeks without any solid food passing her lips, and sixteen without having her lips even moistened. The Duke of Edinburgh took all Irish hearts by storm on St. Patrick's Day at Sydney. Throughout the day he wore a bunch of shamrocks on the breast of his coat in lieu of the usual bouquet, and this tribute of respect to the "QuId Country will, we are assured, never be forgotten by the delighted Irishmen of the colony. The usual annual procession of Church of England Sunday School children took place on Monday morning, at Manchester. The number of children somewhat exceeded that of last year, which was upwards of 14 000. The weather beiug favourable, the crowds to witness this intere ting pro- cession were very great. There was no new feature in the proceeding*, but some of the schools, in their circulars cal- ling attention to the procession, have adopted the title of The United Church of England and Ireland." Sir Theophilus Biddulph met with a serious accident at Warwick on Saturday. While at drill with the Warwick- shire Yeomanry Cavalry his horse became restive, and he was thrown upon the ground with great force. A doctor was Fummoned, and found the honourable baronet suffering from temporary concussion of the b ain and a severe flesn wound in the face from which he had lost a quantity of blood. He was also greatly shaken. In the course of th day, however, he was much Detter. "The one great fear of French peasants is revolu- tion. Their fathers have told them of all the misery it en- tails, and since that first revolution, which freed them from feudalism, and gave them for little or nothing the lands of the clergy and noblesse, under the name of biens nationa^x, they know they have nothing more to hope from it. It has come to them ready made from Paris now and again, fraught with increased taxation and a heavier conscription, and they bate Paris in consequence. Paris is against the Emperor,' but they will uphold him against Paris, the gmt ernen in black coats, the lawyers, and all theparhainentaiy praters." —Correspondent of Pall Mall Gazette. The last stone of the Landsff € at nedral spire has been erected. The spire is 180 feet high. The Court of Assizes at Hainauthas just condemned to death a woman found guilty of murdentig a liWe child her grandson. No signs of violence were discovered upon a superficial examination, but a iwst mortem dhclosed the presence of two needles in the brain. The municipal cotlncil of Bordeaux bave now unoer consideratio'i a scheme for cutting a great ship canal from the Hay of Biscay to the Mediterranean The proposer M. Staal de Magnoncourt, estimates the cost of the work at 4 >2,000,000f., less than £18,000.000 sterling, and the tune necessary for its completion at six years. At a recent execution in Prince Edward's Island, the disguise of the hangmtn was most inappropriate for the occasion, and better suited for a masquerade or the harle- quin of a play than for the .solemn scene in which he was to be so prominent an actor. His head was enveloped in an enormous tow wig, the ripglets of which were as large as a man's wrist, and his face covered with a light blue •mask. A gamekeeper and hislwif.e consulted tbe doctor of the parish as to the choice of a Bible name' for their son and heir, The doctor suggested 'Nimrod,' and the suggestion was acted upon. Some" while afterwards another son was born. This time the parents chose for themselves, and, as a match for 'Nimrod,' absolutely selected 'Ramrod. Churchman's Magazine. A Royal proclamation has appeared in the London Gazette to the effect that all coppar coins, coined and current by virtue of any proclamation prior to the 17th December, 1860, shall be called in and re-coined. The prodamatlOll also declares hat none of the old coper coinage shall 116 allowed to pass or be current in any payment after the 21st December next. The Queen of Madagascar and her officers of state have been baptized. At Festiniog mine, Merionethshire, the other day, a married man, aged twenty-eight, fell down a shaft 107 yards deep, and was dashed to pieces. It is said that the two sons of Count de Bismarck have embarked at Ostend for Dover, on their way to the University of Oxford. In reply to a meeting of discharged Government workmen wishing to be informed If the facIlItIes of free emI- gration would be afforded to those dockyard operatives who were still anxious to leave England, a communication has heen received from the Admiralty to the effect that her Majesty's steam ship Crocodile, which left with emigrants tor Canada abollt a fortnight since, will, after her return hnme, proceed to New Brunswick, and that she would be allowed to take over a limited party of discharged Govern- ment workmen under the s!ØI1e regulations as formerly. According to the Australian paprs, th Duke of Edinhurgh is as popular as ever in the colonies, but his ease and comfort as a private gentleman are not now interfered with by processi0ns, adresses from public bodies, and o forth. At Syrlneyhe laid the fOUlldatuJD stone of a statuem memory of Captain Cook. The Spectator calls Mr. Goldwin Smith's letter to the Beehive a very silly letter. Mr. Snmner's speech (the Spectator says) does not produce, but only expresses, a lon- standing hostility and as to the emigrants, they would be as safe in war as anybody else. One of the most important reforms announced by the Turkish Government is the establishment of a civil code, which will be binding on all the subjects of the Sultan, with- out distinction of creed. Advices from the South of France relate that an enormous amount of damage has been done by tl1e hail in the department of the Aude, twenty. five communes having been devastated, with a loss of nearly a million and a half of francs. Mr. Spurgeon having been greatly disturbed by per- sons fainting during the services at his tabernacle, he has caused it to be made knowr to tjie ladies who indulge in this habit that in future they will not have the privilege of being arried out, but that water and smelling bottles will be placed in different parts of the building for their use. Mr. Fiske, in his English Photographs, by an Amen can, tells an amusing story of one of his own countrymen, who, on h1s first visit to London, attempted to enter a han- som cab, the doers of which were closed. Amid the cries of 1\ street crowd, he succeeded in climbing over the trout and seating himself inside, very proud of his exploit, but very anxious as to how he was ever to get out again. The tone of tbe American press with reference to the Aùrbama claims and Mr. Sumner's speech is reassuring. It appears that no special importance was attached to th&t senator's speech; that Mr. Motley has received no special instructions on the subject; and that the question will be allowed to rest until both the British Parliament and the American Congress have had an opportunity of further de- bating it. A rather uncommon occurrence happened near Shef- field the other day. A donkey, which was kept iu a stable was let out to drink, when a man standing by c0mmenced teasing it, when the animal rushed at him, seized him by the jaw, and bit his lower lip off. He was imlliediately removed, and medical assistance procured. It is stated tbat the Queen has appropriated £ 2.500 of the profits ariing from the sale of the Leaves from a Journal of our Life in the Highlands to establishing school and college bursaries for the benefit of well-deserving scholars in the district round Balmoral. A wicked attempt was made on Saturday to upset the imil train rlmning between Dublin and Belfast, by placing a Btone, weighing three hundred weight, on the metals. Happily the attempt did 110t succeed. but several passengers were severely shaken. The new steam hip America, of the Pacific mail line, will ail from); ew York on a trip round the world on or about the fir8t of June, and will return to New York hy the middle of November. Fare, 1,230 dols., with the privi- lege of living on board while in port. The burden of the America exceeds 4,000 tons. "Even Frenchwomen are disagree, We to one another sometimes. Can yon credit it ? It is so* Indeed. Only the other day two 'dearest friends' were in conversation. My dear,' said the eldest, do you know that your husband told me last night that my cheeks were like roses ?' Yes, love, I know he did, He spoke of i afterwards, and said it was a pity they were yellow Gorrespoftdent of Daily Telegraph. Mr. Sraee proposes, in a letter which he hM pub- lished, what appears to be a very feasible plan wRereby female labour may he availed of to a great extent in the Post Office without interfering in the least with the employ- ment hitherto given to men. The suggestion is worthy of the consideration of the Post Office authorities, and it is hoped will beat least experimentally acted on. Ludicrous as the idea seems, an application has ben made to one of the London railway companies, that a car- riage should be placed upon the line for the special accom- modation of ladies and their pe dogs.- What next f In a pamphlet on "Our Duty in the Present Crisis," just published in Dublin, and addressed by the Rev. Fletcher Bickerdike, incumbent, of Ardamine, to his brethren, the fol. lowing advice is given:—"Let us not lean on the Conservative party, with Mr. Disraeli as their leader, lest our staff break under us and pierce our own arm. This has happened to us more than once already." "We bear tbat his Highness the Maharajah of Benares has lately been fortunate in destroying a man-eating tiger at Bhugwanpore. T1 is Highness, who is a keen sports- man, having heard of the devastations committed bv the brute, and of the terror in which the villagers in the district were, went to Bhugwanpore with the express purpose of killing the animal, and succeeded. "-Delhi Gazette. A shocking affair took place last Friday on the High Level Crystal Palace Railway, near Nunhead Cemetery. An eldrly man named Clarke, residing at Peckham, and who carried on a respectable business, went upon the line, and deliberately stretched himself with his neck on the rails before an approaching train. Instead, however, of the train passing over him, the guard of the engine struck him in tl1Q back of the neck and drove him out of the way. The blow, however, injured the spine and produced insensibility, from which he was never aroused, and he died OIl Sunday. The mass meeting held last Sunday at Cork was at- tended by abottt 500 of the lower classes. The proceedings ended, as a matter of course, in a fight. Resolutions were adopted blaming Ur. O'Sullivan for resigning the mayoralty, and supporting Mr. Nagle, the proprietor of the Cork Herald, as his successor. According to letters from Jerusalem, the Marquis of • Butt: is edifying the dwellers in that city by his piety and his liberality. He passes long hours in tears and prayer at the various spots where the last scenes of tbe Passion are sup- posed to have been enacted. His lordship's almoner, Mon- signor Capel, has been preaching in English to Urge bodies of pilgrims belonging to numerous English and American creeds, and his remarkable eloquence brings together a large and heterogeneous audience, whenever it is known that he is likely to occupy the pulpit in the chapel of the Ecce Homo. The Lancet learns from Dr. Blanc, who has made persoal inquiries upon the subject on the Continent, that experimenters abroad eem to be convinced of the superiority of the mode of protectlllg the human subject agailJst small- pox by transmitting to him cow-pox direct from the heifer, and that animal vaccination is now generally encouraged in Paris, Brussels, Naples, Marseilles, and other plaes on that account. Dr. Lanoix, of Paris, has already made, with general success, more than 40,000 vaccinations on this plan. One powerful reason adduced in favour of animal vaccination is the possibility of obtaining at any time an ahundant supply of good lymph on emergencies. In a few days the inhabitants of a town could be vaccinated and revaccinated in so short a time, and on such a scale, if necessary, as to admit of the possibihty of mastering an epidemic whičh even threatened to be serious.
'1'HE MARKETS. MARK-LANE. —MoNPAT. From Essex and Kent the receipts of English wheat were only moderate but the quality was good. As regards prices the market was steady notwithstanding that the demand for both red and white parcels ruled quiet. The market was well supplied with foreign wheat. Transactions were on a limited scale, but prices were well supported. The floating grain cargo trade was quiet in tone. In prices no change took: place. Moderate supplies of barley were 011 sale. All descrip- tions were firmly held, hut the inquiry was not active. Malt sold slowly, on former terms. Oats were in short supply and healthy request, at extreme currencies. Beans were quite as dear, with a limited sale. The show of samples was mode- rate. Peas were purchased quietly, on former terms. Busi- ne s in flour was restricted; nevertheless, the rates were firm. For maize there was a moderate inquiry, at fully late rates. Linseed and rapeseed were steady. Agrioulturalseeds were quiet. Cakes were firm in value. METROPOLITAN CATTLE MARKET.-MONDA.T. The show of beasts in the Metropolitan Market this mora- ins: wall 8.. un average for the time of year, bllt. owing to a falling off in the quality of the stock, the actual weight of meat exhibited. was somewhat less than on Monday last. The scarcity of prime stock, whIch has heen noticed for some weeks past, is doubtless owing to tle fact that the high prices current have been a suffictent inducement to graziers to forward their stock to market III a half. fat con- dition, thereby dIsposing of the same on very remunera- tive terms, and avoldmg the expense of further keep. As regards trade, a want of ammatIon was noticed, and pnces, althollgl1 not quotanly lower, had a drooping tendency. Foreign breeds were difficult to s1511. The best English breeds found buyers, at about last week's quotation, the price for the. best Scots and crosses being 5s. 6 i. to 5s 8d. per 8tb. From Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, aud Cambridgeshire we re- ceied about 900 Scots and crosses from other parts of England, 500 various breeds: from Scotland, 164 Scots and crosss and fr.\1l1 Ireland, 40 oxen. The market was well supplied with sheep, including a good show of foreign. The demand was inactive, åt barely late quotations. The beat Downs and lialf-breds sold at 5". Rd. to 5s. IOd. per Sib. For lambs the trade was dull, at from 6s. to 7s. 4d. per SIb. Calves were quiet, at late prices. Pigs met a slow sale, at prenous currencies. POTATOES. The market was well supplied. Business continues limited, t our 4l1otatinns, The Import 1IIto London last week consisted of 2260 bags, 1371 packHges from Antwerp, 20 bags from Bruges, 230 boxes from Tarragona, 6 boxes from Cadiz 1380 sacks an 17 bags from Dunkirk, 1549 packages 'from Pomerariia, 12;) bags from Boulogne, and tons from Grave- Jine. English Regents, 60s. t3 100s Flukes 60s. to 130s. Scotch Regents, Ws. to 120s. Rocks, 45s. to 55s. and French; 35d. to 55s. per ton. HOPS. The hop aret hu continued quiet. Very littl business has been dom In any description, and the qllottions have a droopmg tendency. The import iuto London last week consisted of 160 bales from Antwerp, 71 from Rotterdam, is from Hamburgh, 50 from C&lais, and lu2 ba1es irom New York. iid and East Kents, £ 2 10s. to £ 7 7s. Weald of Kents, £ 2 to £ 4 10s. Sussex, £ 2 to £ 3 15Q. Farnhams, £ 3 10s. to £ 6; Country, £ 3 10s. to £ 5; Bavarians, £ 2 to £ 3 10s.; Belgians, £ 2 to £ 3 Yearlings, £ 2 to £ 3 10s. and AmerICans, £ 2 ÕS. to £ 310s. per cwt. WOOL. The public sales of colonial wool are progressing without alteration. A want of compstitioll is noticed in the bidumgJI for all descriptions, but no Jurther change has taken 1Jlaee in prices, all qualities, with the exception of Sydney, being td. to 1d. per pound easier. English wool has been quiet on former terms. The import into London last week consisted of 9 92) bales from Sydney, 1,000 Morsel Bay, 3,845 Cape, and 6,984 from New Zealand. Current prices of English wool.-Flece outhdnwn hogeU. Is. 3d. to 16. 4<1. half-bred ditto, 18. 5d^. to Is 6< J Kent lleeces, Is. 4d. to Is 6$d. 4outh-down ewes *•!<• wettiers. Is. 2d. tn Is. d.: ótb, t. 3d. to 111 3' d Sor-s: Clothinf. 1.8. 2d. to lB. 7d.; comb: g. Is to Is. 6ia. lerlb
ATTEMPTED MURDER AND SUICIDE AT GATESHEAD. On Saturday great excitement was occasioned at Giti'^head, near Newcastle, by'he report of an at- tempted murder and filicide. Margaret Tweeily. wife or Jamps "weeny, a dairyman, living in Gateshead, ■was confined about six weeks ago. Ab >ut three weeks ago she i e:l into a low and de-ponding state of mind, and a yo\.ri:„' woman was engaged to attend upon her. The unfortunate woman had formed a. design to kill her eldest cl1:ld, a little girl about four years old. and about noon Mrs. Tweedy, who was in bed, told the young woman to go up stai, sand tell a neighbour, Mrs. White, to come and see her. She unthinkingly left the ro.m to do so. When she returned she saw ier mistress coming away from a drawer which she lad taken something from. The eldest girl was near the d' and the mother, springing at her, seized her by the h»ir, threw her down, and commenced to saw away at her throat with a large carving-knife. Fortunately the chiid turned round and fell upon its face, so that the v' U MIK inflicted were only in the muscular portion of the neck. Tae young woman, Fenwick, with great courage, at once closed with the insane woman, and pulled her away from the child. A struggle for the possession of the knife ensued, and Mrs. Tweedy turned upon the young woman with it, and cut her severely on the hands and wrists. Fenwick then ran out and alarmed the neighbours, several of whom rushed into the house and succeeded in taking the carving-knife from Mrs. Tweedy. While the young woman was out, Mrs. Tweedy had attempted to cut her own throat, but was prevented accomplishing her purpose through the tiraeiy arrival of the neighbours. She is herself badly injured, and the little girl is seriously so.
A NARROW ESCAPE. The Times of India gives a good tiger story from the pen of Mr. Adam White, late of the Bombay Ordnance Depart- ment. Mr. White was in pursuit of a tiger that had killed a cow, and the story as told by the mighty hunter is this:— I had not proceeded far up the valley, and was stand- ing on the brink of the nullah into which he had been seen to retreat, peering about me, when I heard the low, snarling growl peculiar to the tiger when medi- tating a charge; and had barely time to look in the direction from whence the sound came when a magni- ficent tiger rushed at me from under a thick bush, where he had been lying perdu, about twenty paces distant from me. I had not a second to lose, and there- fore let drive myright barrel at the head of the beast; the ball, however, only grazed his skull and passed through the bottom of his left ear, inflicting a deep flesh wound, but doing no further injury. Unchecked by my salute, on he came. and with my left barrel I gave it him right in the centre of his chest at not more than a yard from the muzzle of my rifle although my second bullet delivered at such close quarters did in- stantly fatal execution, still the impetus of his rush was such that his body, carried forward with the last spurt of his vital energies, hurtled against me with tremen- dous force, knocking me clean off my pins, giving me an awkward backfall, from top to bottom of the nullah of some fifteen feet. Of course we both toppled over at the same instant; and on recovering my wit-, for I was momentarily stunned by the fall, I found myself underneath my late antagonist, he stark dead with his head laid across my lett arm, and purpling my old phiz with his life's blood. With an effort I succeeded in getting myself clear of his carcass, but, on attempt- ing to stand, discovered to my chagrin that my left leg was broken. Just then my two assistants, who had, on first bearing and seeing the tiger taken to flight, came up still under theeffecti of thetr latep-mic, and imagining the beast to be still alive fired simul- taneously at him, but with such bad aim that instead of hitting the tiger they very nearly did for me. After an hour's delay a charpay was procured, and I was carried to my wigwam (the tiger in rear slung on a pole), and next day I was brought into J ubbulpore to the Royal Artillery Hospital, where I am very kindly treated. Barring my dislocated leg and a few trivial bruises, I'm not much hurt. So you see my good shooting has once again saved me from a mauling.
A VERY INTERESTING SUBJECT. As the "wedding day" has an associated interest with many of our readers, whilst by others it is anticip "ed with considerable pleasure, the forowin? extracts, from The Wedding Day in all Ages and Countries," will most probably have a fair" number of readers:- THE ORIGIN OF MARRIAGE. The origin of, and the necessity for, marriage seem to be based upon the command given t,) our first parents in Genesis i. 28 Be frui, ful, and multiply, and replenish the eirth." The Jews so understood these words, which they regarded as a solemn precept to, and a strict obligation upon, them. Oat of tins mere duty to procreate grew the necessity for a binding contract, either religious or civil, or both, whereby a particular man should be united to a particular woman for the expettirnt purposes of civilised society. Boling- broke says that marriage was instituted because it was necessary that parents should know certainly their own respective offspring and that as a woman cannot donbt whether she is the mother of the child she bi-ars, so a man shotil 1 have all tiie assurance the ltw can give him that he is thf- father of the child reputed t have lie* n begotten by him. Taking this to be the first reason why marriage as a contract was entered into. it is easy to understand why certain civil and moral lights, duties, And obdgations should fallow as corol- laries to the matrimonial agreement. Monogamy was the original law of marriage but the unity of the bond soon became in paired by poh gamy, which seems to have originated among the Cainites, as we are told in Genesis IV, 19, that Lameoh took unto himself two wives. Polygamy afterwaids prevailed among the Jews; but the principle of monogamy was retained even in the practice of polygamy, by aJiitinction being made between the first wife and the subsequent ones. She was regarded as the chief, and they were little better than concubines. MARRIAGE SETTLEMENTS. Marriage settlements in the modern sense of the term, namely, writWn documents securing property to th.. wife, diil not come into use until the first Baby- lonion period and the only instance we have of one is in Tobit vii. 14, where it is described as an instrument. Marriage settlements and portions given with daughters and sisters appear to have been of great an- tiquity in Arabi i. Long before Mahomed it Was com- mon, when two men were obliged to give great foi tunes with their female relations, to evade payment by making a double marriage, one espousing the daughter or sister of the other, and giving his daughter or sister in return. This practice was condemned by Mahomed in the Koran. THE AGK FOR MARRIAGE. There is no restriction in the Bible as to the age when marriage might lawfully be entered into but early matrimony is iu several places mentioned with approval. The Jews, in common with oth-r Oriental people, married when very young probably because they arrived at the ae of puberty at an early period of life. The Talmudists furl)ade marriage by a male under thirteen years and a day, and by a female under twelve years and a day. The usual age was higher, and generally about eighteen years. MOCK MODESTY. Burckhard says that among the Bedouins of Mount Sinai marriage is a matter of sale and purchase, in which the inclination of the girl is not studied. The young maid comes home in the evening with the cattle. At a. short distance from the camp she is met by the future spouse and a couple of his young friends, and carried on by force to her father's tent. If she enter- tains any suspicion of their designs, she defends herself with stones, and otten inflicts wounds on the young men even though she does not dislike the lover, for, according te custom, the more she struggles, bites, kicks, cries, and shrieks, the mure she is applauded ever after by her own companions." She is then taken to her father's tent, where a man's cloak is thrown over her, and the name of her future husband is for- mally announced. After this she is dressed in suitable apparel, and mounted on a camel, "although con- tinuing to struggle in a most unruly manner, and held by the bridgroom's friends on both sides." She is led in this way to, and three times round, and finally into, the bridegroom's tent, still resisting. Several sheep are killed, and the guests eat the meat and also bread, which is a most important part of the feast. THROWING THE WEDDING SHOE. The brother of a childless man was bound to marry his widow or, at least, he had the refusal of her, and she could not marry again until her late husbandlm brother had formally rejected her. The ceremony by which this rejection was performed took place in public, and is mentioned in Deuteronomy xxv. 5-10. If the brother rtfused her, she was obliged to "loose his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face," or, as some Hebraists translate it, spit before his face." His giving up the shoe was a symbol that he abandoned all dominion over her and her spitting before him was a defiance and an assertion of independence. This prac- tice is still further illustrated by the story of Ruth, whose nearest kinsman refused to marry her and to redeem her inheritance. He was, therefore, publicly called upon to do so by Boaz, and lie publicly refused. The Bible adds, "as it was the custom in Israel con- cerning changing, that a man plucked off his shoe and dtLvered it to his neighbour," the kinsman plucked off his shoe and delivered it to Boaz as a renunciation of Ruth, and of his right of marriage to her. These ceremonies were evidently not unknown to the early Christians, for when the Emperor Wladimir made pro- posals of marriage to the daughter ot Raguald, she refused him, saying that she would not take her shoes off to the son oi a slave. Gregory of 1 ours, writing oi espousals, says, The bridegroom having given a ring to the fiancie, presents her with a shoe." Michelet, in his "Lite of Luther," says that the reformer was at the wedding of J ean Lute and after supper he con- ducted the bride to bed. He then told the bridegroom that, according to common custom, he ought to be master in his own house when his wife was not there; and for a symbol he took off the husband's shoe and put it upon the head of the bed, "afiu qu'il prit ainsi la domination et gouvernement." In some parts of the East it was an early custom to carry a slipper before a newly-married couple as a token of the bride's sub- jection to her husOand. At a Jewish wedding at Rabat the bridegroom struck the bride with his shoe as a sign of his authority and supremacy. It has long been a custom in England, Scotland, and elsewhere to throw an old shoe over or at a bride and bridegroom up, tit their leaving the church or the parental home wedding. Sometipiea it is thrown when + the church, an it occasionally the shoe is taken from the left foot. The usual saying that it is thrown for luck but possibly it iriginally was meant to be a sign of the renunciation of dominion and authority over the bride by her father oi guardian. One author, however, sug- get-ts that the h Irling of a shoe was first intended to he a sham asau ton the person carrying off the woman, and is a relic of. the old custom of opposition to the capture of a brir e. A MARRIAGE AUCTION A HINT FOR "MATCHIFAKERS." Among the ancient Assyrians a,lm-;&triageableyoung girls were assembled in one place, and the public crier put them up to sale one after another. The money which was received for those who were handsome, and consequently sold well, was bestowed as a wedding portion on those who were plain. When the most beautiful had been disposed of, the more ordinary looking were offered for a certain sum, and allotted to those who were willing to take them. Hence an the women were provided with husbands. Tne Baby- lonians, like the Assyrians, held a kind of market of their daughters at certain times every year. They were assembled in a public place, where they were ex- posed to general view, and disposed of tthe best bid- ders by the public crier. The money given for the purchase of the handsome ones was applied to portion out those who were deficient in personal attractions. This custom is said to have originated with Atossa, the daughter of Belochus. WEDDING RINGS. Although, as we have before mentioned, there is no record in the Bible of the use of betrothed finger-rings among the Jews in the patriarchal days, it is certain that tliev were common in later times in some places and, as Selden says, were first fiven in lieu of dowry money. Some authors are of opinion that wedding rings did not exist in the Mosaic days. and no mention is made of them by the Talmudists. Ugolini says that they were used ia his time; and Basnage says that formerly a piece of money was given as a pledge, for which at a later period a ring was substituted. Leo of Modena records that rings were rarely used, and that neither the Italian nor the German Jews habitually used them; some did, but the majority did not. Selden states that the wedding rmsr came into general use by the Jews after they saw that it was everywhere prevalent. Jewish wedding rings are sometimes of large size and elaborate workmanshin, and have generally engraved upon them, in Hebrew characters, a senti- ment conveying an expression of good wishes and very often the p"sy, "Joy be with you," which is thought to be of Syrian origin. It is recorded that the ancient Hebrews considered the planet Jupiter, which they called Mazel Tob, to be a very favourable star for which reason newly- married men gave their wives rings, whereon those words were engraved in Hebrew characters the signification being that the bride might have good fortune under that lucky star. Few, if any Jewish rings now existing are of a da'e earlier than the sixteenth century. A specimen belonging to the late Lord Londesborough was of gold. richly enamelled, and decorated with beautifully- wrought filigree. Attached by a hinge to the collet, in the place of a setting, was a little ridged capsule like the gabled roof of a hou-,el which probtbly-onc contained snme charm or perfume. Within the ring were inscribed two Hebrew words signifying the posy above-named, or good luck. In the South Kensington Museum are two Jewish marriage rings. One is of gold, enriched with filigree-work bosses it has a Hebrew inscription inside, and its diameter is one inch and a quarter. It is of the sixteenth century. The other is also of gold, and enamelled an inscription runs round the broad margin in raised letters of cloisonne enamel; on one side is affixed a turret or louvre, with triangular gables and movable vanes the length of the ring is one inch and three-quarters, and the width one inch. Whatever may be the fact as to the use of marriage rings in the Bible days, monkish legends relate that Joseph and Mary used one and moreover, that it was one of onyx or amethyst. It was said to have been discovered in the year 996, when it was given by a jeweller from Jerusalem to a lapidary of Clusium, who had been sent to Rome by the wife of a Marquis of Etruria, to make purchases for her. The jeweller told the lapidary of the preciuusness of the relic; but he despised it. and kept it for several years among other articles of inferior value. However, a miracle revealed to him is gemrneness and it was placed in a church, ] where it worked many curative wonders. In 1473 it was deposited with some Franciscans at Clusium, from whom it was stolen and ultimately it found its way to Perusia, where a church was built for it, and it still performed miracles; but they were, as Hone says, trifling in comparison with its miraculous powers of multiplying itself. It existed in different churches in Europe at the same time, and each ring being as genuine as the others, it was paid the same honours by the devout. A ring of iron in the time of Pliny was sent to the intended bride as a pledge. According to Swinburne, these iron rings were set with adamants, the hardness and durability of both materials being intended to signify the durance and perpetuity of the contract. Tertullian says a gold ring was used in his time, and adds that the bride gave a supper to the bridegroom and his relations. From Juvenal it appears that during the imperial period a ring was placed on the woman's finger by the man as an earnest of his fidelity aud probably, like all rings at this time, it was worn on the left hand, and on the finger nearest to the smallest one. Isidore says that women either wore no other ring, or never more than two. Some nuptial rings were of brass, and some of copper, and had upon them inscriptions and devices, such as the figure of a key, to signify the wife's domestic authority. The circular pontinuity of thp ring was a type of eternity, and.. it was given as a token of everlasting love, or as a sign that love should circulate continually. The Roman nuptial rings were often inscribed with words suggestive to ttcs Benturent. "May you live lon. is engraved on one published by Cay lus. I bring good fortune to the wearer was another usual inscription. Sometimes a stone was inserted in the ring, upon which was engraved an intaglio representing a hand pulling the lobe of an ear, with the word Remember" above it. Others had the wish, "Live happy," and others, I give this love plefige.1, Some had two right hands joined, a design which is often ob- served on ancient CPIns. and some werf, cut in cameo. The danwels also gave rings to their lovers. Mr. Thomas Gunstori possesses a rare Koman wed- ding ring of iron, which was lately found in Token- house-yaid, London. This article is of neat, plain design and at the top, which is depressed, is a plate, either of gold or brass, inscribed with the motto Vita volo."
DESTRUCTION OF AN AFRICAN TOWN BY FIRE.- On the 8th of April a fire broke out in Town Creek, Bonny, in a fishcurer's house, and extended to other premises, and in a few minutes from 50 to 60 houses were in flames. The supports were cut away from the houses, in the hope that the fall of the roofs would smother the fire, but in vain. In the houses of the chiets was stored gunpowder, which exploded. The conflagration lasted throughout the 8th and during the succeeding night, and was only extinguished hy a heavy fall of lain OIl the morning of the 9th. With the exception of the dwellings of two chiefs, the town was completely destroyed. Fifteen or twenty persons are supposed to have lost their lives. A person in the employ of a chief perished in the flames which de- stroyed his master's house; and when the fire had burnt itself out a number of other slaves drew the roasted body from the embers and commenced to eat a portion of it. The chief was infoimed of the cir- cumstance, and the men were interrogated, when they excused their cannibalism by saying that they thought it was part of the body of a goat. The property of t.he merchants, which stands upon the beach was un- injured, nor was any damage done to the shipping in "'lJ.e liver, the wind, fortunately, blowing the flames in -oisite direction.